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ENGM054/Semester 2 2010/4pp

UNIVERSITY OF SURREY

Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences

Postgraduate Programmes in Civil Engineering

Level M Examination

Module ENGM054; 15 Credits

EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

Time allowed: 2 hours

Answer ALL questions

Semester 2 2010

All questions carry equal marks unless otherwise stated; where appropriate the mark carried by an individual part of a question is indicated in brackets [].

Additional materials: Formula Sheet, Eurocode Extracts

Calculator restrictions: Only calculators with no communication functionality are allowed

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ENGM054/Semester 2 2010/4pp

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1. The pulley car shown in Figure 1 is attached to its base through a spring of stiffness k equal to 800 N/m. The dynamic system is assumed to be undamped. The mass of the car

is 10 kg.

A harmonic excitation force is applied on the car, the magnitude of which is given by

the function:

p(t) = p 0 cos(ωt)

where p 0 is the force amplitude, which is equal to 100N, ω is the excitation circular frequency, which is equal to 4 rad/sec, and t is the time.

At zero time, the displacement u and the velocity v of the car are equal to zero.

u and the velocity v of the car are equal to zero. Figure 1 (a) Draw

Figure 1

(a)

Draw the free body diagram of the pulley car, showing all internal and external

forces.

[5]

(b)

Calculate the natural period T n of the dynamic system.

[5]

(c)

Write the equation of motion and derive its solution for the bounded displacement response as a function of time. Calculate the displacement response at time

t = 5.0 seconds.

[10]

(d)

Derive the equation for the deformation response factor. Hence, calculate the

steady-state displacement amplitude.

[5]

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2. A structural engineer, who participates in the design of a school building, came up with the preliminary structural configuration that appears in Figure 2. The structure is a steel moment-resisting frame, of medium ductility class (DCM). The entire structure consists of a number of such frames, spaced at 5 m apart. The engineer now wants to carry out the structural analysis of an internal frame for seismic loading, according to the provisions of the Eurocode. The peak ground acceleration α gR on type A ground is 0.30 g, and the soil profile at the site of the project is stiff clay up to a depth of 30 m.

The imposed loads and depths of the R/C slabs (ρ = 2500 kg/m 3 ) are given in Table 1:

 

1 st Storey

2 nd Storey

Slab Depth

200 mm

200 mm

Imposed Loads

4.0 kN/m 2

2.0 kN/m 2

Table 1.

In your calculations consider the following:

Use Type 1 response spectrum, which applies to stronger earthquakes.

Eurocode 1990 Annex A1 states a value for ψ 2 of 0.6.

At each step make full reference to the appropriate clauses of the Eurocode.

(a)

Calculate the mass associated with the inertial effects, for each of the storeys. To account for the mass of the rest of the structural elements, namely, columns, beams, and masonry, assume that the mass of the slab constitutes only 60% of the

total mass of the structure.

[5]

(b)

Calculate the design base shear and hence determine the distribution of lateral

forces on the two storeys. Sketch a diagram showing the seismic forces acting on each floor. Reduce the seismic forces, as much as possible, by considering the

ductility of the structure.

[10]

(c)

Explain, concisely, under what conditions the above method can be used for the

calculation of the seismic load.

[5]

(d)

If structural analysis shows that the interstorey displacements are larger than the allowable, state three ways to reduce them without moving the existing columns. [5]

than the allowable, state three ways to reduce them without moving the existing columns. [5] Figure

Figure 2.

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3. The frame shown in Figure 3 has rigid beams and lumped mass at its floors, as shown. It is to be analysed as a two-DOF system with u 1 and u 2 as shown. The first two modes of vibration have damping ratio ζ equal to 5%.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Assemble the mass and stiffness matrix.

[5]

Show step-by-step the calculations to derive the spectral matrix 2 and the modal

matrix Φ, which appear below.

[15]

2 EI

=

3

mL

21.1

0

0

122.9

Φ =

1

1.414

1

1.414

Form the damping matrix assuming Rayleigh damping.

Show that the modes satisfy the orthogonality conditions.

[5]

[5]

that the modes satisfy the orthogonality conditions. [5] [5] Figure 3. Internal Examiner: Dr M Matthews

Figure 3.

Internal Examiner:

Dr M Matthews

External Examiner:

Prof J Croll