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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013)

Modeling and Control of Grid Connected Photovoltaic SystemA Review


Zameer Ahmad1, S.N. Singh2
1

M.Tech Student, 2Senior Scientific Officer, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee Roorkee, Uttrakhand (India) -247667 The power-electronic technology plays an important role in distributed generation and in integration of renewable energy sources into the electrical grid, and it is widely used and rapidly expanding as these applications become more integrated with the grid-based Systems. During the last few years, power electronics has undergone a fast evolution, which is mainly due to two factors. The first one is the development of fast semiconductor switches that are capable of switching quickly and handling high powers. The second factor is the introduction of real-time computer controllers that can implement advanced and complex control algorithms [2]. Photovoltaic (PV) power supplied to the utility grid is gaining more and more visibility, while the worlds power demand is increasing [3]. Not many PV systems have so far been placed into the grid due to the relatively high cost, compared with more traditional energy sources such as oil, gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, and wind. Solid-state inverters have been shown to be the enabling technology for putting PV systems into the grid [4]. The photovoltaic (PV) field has given rise to a global industry capable of producing many gigawatts (GW) of additional installed capacity per year [5]. In 2010, the photovoltaic industry production more than doubled and reached a world-wide production volume of 23.5 GWp of photovoltaic modules. Yearly growth rates over the last decade were in average more than 40%, which makes photovoltaic one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict that investments in PV technology could double from 35-40 billion in 2010 to over 70 billion in 2015, while prices for consumers are continuously decreasing at the same time [6]. This review paper is organised as follows. In section II, we described Evolution of grid-connected photovoltaic system, in section III, we presented Modeling of photovoltaic module with using of Matlab/simulink, in section IV, discussed control techniques (power conditioning system, MPPT) used in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) generation plants.

Abstract This review-paper focuses on the latest development of modelling and control of grid connected photovoltaic energy conversion system. Modelling of photovoltaic systems include modelling of SPV array, power electronics inverter/converter based on MATLAB/SIMULINK. This present control algorithm of a three-phase and single phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system including the PV array and the electronic power conditioning (PCS) system, based on the MATLAB/Simulink software. It also discussed advances in MPP tracking technologies, the synchronization of the inverter and the connection to the grid. Keywords-- photovoltaic; converter/inverter, MPPT, detailed full modelling; MATLAB/simulink; grid connected PV system.

I. INTRODUCTION The world constraint of fossil fuels reserves and the ever rising environmental pollution have impelled strongly during last decades the development of renewable energy sources (RES). The need of having available sustainable energy systems for replacing gradually conventional ones demands the improvement of structures of energy supply based mostly on clean and renewable resources. At present, photovoltaic (PV) generation is assuming increased importance as a RES application because of distinctive advantages such as simplicity of allocation, high dependability, absence of fuel cost, low maintenance and lack of noise and wear due to the absence of moving parts. Furthermore, the solar energy characterizes a clean, pollution free and inexhaustible energy source. In addition to these factors are the declining cost and prices of solar modules, an increasing efficiency of solar cells, manufacturing technology improvements and economies of scale [1]. The increasing number of renewable energy sources and distributed generators requires new strategies for the operation and management of the electricity grid in order to maintain or even to improve the power-supply reliability and quality. In addition, liberalization of the grids leads to new management structures, in which trading of energy and power is becoming increasingly important.

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013) The continuously decreasing prices for the PV modules lead to the increasing importance of cost reduction of the specific PV converters, in section V, we have discussed inverters circuit which are being used in grid-connected photovoltaic systems and in section VI, we discussed discussion and conclusion. II. EVOLUTION O F GRID-CONNECTED P HOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM A. The Past: The past technology of grid connected photovoltaic system was based on centralized inverters, which was interfaced to a number of modules. The modules were normally connected in both series, called a string, and parallel in order to reach a high voltage and power level. This results in some limitation; such as the necessity of high voltage DC cables between the modules and the inverter, power losses due to a centralized MPP Tracking (MPPT), mismatch between the modules and at last the string diodes. If one of the modules in a string becomes shadowed, then it will operate as a load with lower power generation as a consequence. On the other hand, if the modules are connected in parallel, the shadowed module is still generating power, but the input voltage to the inverter is inevitable lower due to the parallel connection [13]. A third scheme is given in [7] [11], where each module is interfaced by a Generation Control Circuit (GCC). Hence, an individual MPPT is assured for every single module, which also lower the possibilities of hot spots. According to [12], full shadowing of one PV-cell (in a string of 160 cells) causes a temperature raise, inside the cell, of more than 70 C above the ambient temperature, whereas the non-shadowed cells only reach 22 C above the ambient temperature (for an ambient temperature equal to 12 C). This is of great importance, because an overheated cell rapidly decreases the modules lifetime. B. The Present: The grid integration of RES applications based on photovoltaic systems is becoming today the most important application of PV systems, gaining interest over traditional stand-alone systems. This trend is being increased because of the many benefits of using RES in distributed (aka dispersed, embedded or decentralized) generation (DG) power systems. These advantages include the favorable incentives in many countries that impact straightforwardly on the commercial acceptance of gridconnected PV systems [14], [15]. This condition imposes the necessity of having good quality designing tools and a way to accurately predict the dynamic performance of three-phase grid-connected PV systems under different operating conditions in order to make a sound decision on whether or not to incorporate this technology into the electric utility grid [16]. The present technology, which is a hot research topic in Germany, is the string-inverter [17], [18]. String-inverters use a single string of modules, to obtain a high input voltage to the inverter. However, the high DC voltage requires an examined electrician to perform the interconnections between the modules and the inverter. On the other hand, there are no losses generated by the string diodes and an individual MPPT can be applied for each string. Yet, the risk of a hot-spot inside the string still remains. The AC-Module, where the inverter is an integrated part of the PV-module, is also an interesting solution. It removes the losses due to mismatch between modules and inverter, as well as it supports optimal adjustment between the module and the inverter. Moreover, the hot-spot risk is removed. All this together; a better efficiency may be achieved. It also includes the possibility of an easy enlarging of the system, due to the modular structure. The opportunity to become a plug and play device, which can be used by persons without any education in electrical installations, is also an inherent feature [13].

III. MODELLINGOF P HOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM


A. Modelling Of Photovoltaic Module/Array The photovoltaic module is the result of associating a group of photovoltaic cells in series and parallel, with their protection devices, and it represents the conversion unit in this generation system. The manufacturer supply PV cells in modules, consisting of NPM parallel branches, each with NSM solar cells in series shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Equivalent circuit of a PV array.

Although the mathematical and simulation photovoltaic modules development began time ago, improvements of these models are analyzed and presented continually. One of the objectives of this study is a review of those existing methods and models.

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013) M. G. Molina and P. E. Mercado presented the detailed mathematical model that predicted the power production of the PV generator becomes an algebraically simply model, being the currentvoltage relationship as given in equation (1).
Fig.2. Model of a photovoltaic cell with two diodes

(1)
Where: IA: PV array output current VA: PV array output voltage IPh: Solar cell photocurrent IRS: Solar cell reverse saturation current (aka dark current) q: Electron charge, 1.60217733e19 Cb A: PN junction ideality factor, between 1 and 5 k: Boltzmann's constant, 1.380658e23 J/K TC: Solar cell absolute operating temperature, K RS: Cell intrinsic series resistance RP: Cell intrinsic shunt or parallel resistance

The current generated by the module is given by equations (3)

The photocurrent IPh for any operating conditions of the PV array is assumed to be related to the photocurrent at standard test conditions (STC) as given in equation (2).

(2) The proposed model used theoretical and empirical equations together with data provided by the manufacturer, and meteorological data (solar radiation and cell temperature among others) in order to accurately predict the IV curve. The three-phase grid-connected PV system was simulated, under changing solar radiation conditions while maintaining the cell temperature constant at 25 C in MATLAB/simulink and validated the obtained result experimentally [16]. S. Rustemli, F. Dincer, [19] Presented an accurate photovoltaic module electrical model and demonstrated in Matlab/Simulink for a typical Lorentz LA30-12S photovoltaic panel. Such a generalized PV model was easy to be used for the implementation on Matlab/Simulink modeling and simulation platform. Especially, in the context of the Sim Power System tool. Simulation results showed that a photovoltaic panel output power reduces as module temperature increases. This situation was shown with Matlab/Simulink graphics. There are lots of variety cooling systems for photovoltaic panels. These systems may increase efficiency of panel depend on the weather conditions. F.Bouchafaa et al. [20] presented their work in the model with two diodes as shown in figure 2.

(3) Where V and I represent the output voltage and current of the PV; q is the electronic charge; Iph corresponds to the light-generated current of the solar array. Is1, 2 represent the current saturation of the two diodes; A1, 2 is ideality factor of the junction of D1 and D2, K the Boltzmanns constant, T the cell temperature. Altas, and Sharaf, [21] presented a model as shown in Fig. 3. The solar cell is modelled as a current source. Iph, the photovoltaic current is proportional to the ambient irradiance level and to the temperature of the panel. To allow for losses, a series (Rs) and parallel resistance (Rp) are commonly included in the circuit. In this model, the parallel resistance was neglected in order to simplify the model.

Fig. 3. Model without parallel resistance

Output voltage is given by equation (4)

(4) The curve fitting factor, A, was adjusted so that at rated input values of temperature and irradiance the datasheet values of output were obtained as model outputs. The same approach was taken to obtain the temperature and irradiance correction coefficients. Model had a correct varying input temperature response, but irradiation dependences could not be correctly set.

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013) Huan-Liang Tsai et al. [22] presented a generalized PV model which was representative of the all PV cell, module, and array had been developed with Matlab/Simulink and been verified with a PV cell and a Commercial module shown in Fig.4. The intermediate dc-dc converter is built with an Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) as main power switch Tb in a standard unidirectional boost topology that employs an energy-storage reactor Lb, a rectifier diode Db and a voltage smoothing capacitor C. The converter is linked to the PV system with a filter capacitor CA for reducing the high frequency ripple generated by the transistor switching. The dc-dc converter output is connected to the dc bus of the VSI.For modelling of voltage source inverter they used IGBT. The VSI structure is designed to make use of a three-level pole structure, also called neutral point clamped (NPC), instead of a standard two-level six-pulse inverter structure This three-level inverter topology generates a more sinusoidal output voltage waveform than conventional structures without increasing the switching frequency. The additional flexibility of a level in the output voltage is used to assist in the output waveform construction. F.Bouchafaa et al. [20] the three-level NPC VSI, presented, was one of the most commonly applied multilevel topologies. This type of VSI has several advantages over the standard two-level VSI, such as a greater number of levels in the output voltage waveforms, lower dV/dt, less harmonic distortion and lower switching frequencies. The main draw- back of this type of converter is the voltage imbalance produced in the capacitors of the DC-link when one of the phases is connected to the middle point or Neutral Point (NP). R. Mechouma et al. [23] focused on different technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a three-phase- grid. Some of three-phase topologies are presented, compared according to the type of control (i.e. the PWM method; the bang-bang method or the fuzzy logic method or numerical control); and a comparison with single-phase inverters was given. IV. CONTROL O F GRID -C ONNECTED PV SYSTEM The control structure of the grid-connected PV system is composed of two structures Control: 1. The MPPT Control, which the main property is to extract the maximum power from the PV generator. 2. The inverter control, which have the main goal: - Control the active and regulate the reactive power injected into the grid; - Control the DC bus voltage; - Ensure high quality of the injected power.

Fig. 4. Equivalent circuit models of generalized PV.

The proposed model takes sunlight irradiance and cell temperature as input parameters and outputs the I-V and PV characteristics under various conditions. This model had also been designed in the form of Simulink block libraries. The masked icon makes the block model more userfriendly and a dialog box lets the users easily configure the PV model. Such a generalized PV model is easy to be used for the implementation on Matlab/Simulink modeling and simulation platform. Especially, in the context of the SimPowerSystem tool, there is now a generalized PV model which can be used for the model and analysis in the field of solar PV power conversion system. A model of PV module with moderate complexity which includes the temperature independence of the photocurrent source, the saturation current of the diode, and a series resistance was considered based on the Shockley diode equation. B. Modeling Of Converter/Inverter For grid-connected PV applications, two hardware topologies for MPPT have been mostly studied worldwide, known as one-stage and two-stage PV systems. M. G. Molina, and P. E. Mercado, [16] selected to model the two-stage PV energy conversion system. They including a dc-dc converter (or chopper) between the PV array and the inverter connected to the electric grid various control objectives are possible to pursue concurrently with the PV system operation at the cost of slightly decreasing the global efficiency of the combined system because of the connection of two cascade stages.

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013) A. MPPT Control: The maximum power that can be delivered by a PV panel depends greatly on the insulation level and the operating temperature. Therefore, it is necessary to track the maximum power point all the time. Many researchers have been focused on various MPP control algorithm to lead the operating point of the PV panel to optimum point [24]. F.Bouchafaa et al. [20] propose an intelligent control method for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a photovoltaic system under variable temperature and insulation conditions. This method uses a fuzzy logic controller. It can be deduced that the fuzzy controller is fast controller in the transitional state and presents also a much smoother signal with less fluctuations in steady state. It was able to find the point of maximum power in a shorter time runs. [16] proposed a The proposed multi-level control scheme for the three phase grid-connected photovoltaic system consisting of external, middle and internal level, is based on concepts of instantaneous power on the synchronous-rotating dq reference frame. They used perturb and observe, for MPP F. Huang et al. [25] a microcontroller based automatic sun Tracker was designed and implemented. The automatic sun tracker is implemented with a dc motor and a dc motor controller. The novelty of this unit is that the switching device of the chopper is not only used for power conversion but also for Maximum Power Point (MPP) detection. MPP is determined by simple embedded software with a current sweep approach. Amrouche, et al. [26] proposed artificial neural network, (ANN) based modified P&O method to predict the power value during the next perturbation cycle so that the value of perturbation step can be adjusted for next perturbation cycle. Zhang. L, et al. [27] built a Genetic Algorithm trained Radial Basis Function Neural Network (GA-RBFNN) model to predict the reference DC bus voltage of the control system to maximize the output power. Veerachary. M, et al. [28] implemented a feed-forward MPPT scheme for coupled inductor interleaved boost converter fed PV system by using fuzzy logic controller, while ANN is trained offline to estimate the voltage reference. Joe-Air Jiang, et al. [29] designed a three-point weight comparison method to avoid rapidly moving of the operating points of PV when it is under varying atmosphere conditions which could overcome the drawback of P&O method. References [30, 31] proposed neural fuzzy network for MPPT control scheme. The neural network used to train sets of data off-line for inputs of fuzzy logic controller, while the fuzzy logic controller used to control the duty cycle effectively and hence the MPP can be tracked effectively. B. The Inverter Control: Inverter interfacing PV module(s) with the grid involves two major tasks. One is to ensure that the PV module(s) is operated at the maximum power point (MPP). The other is to inject sinusoidal current into the grid. In grid-connected PV system, different inverter topologies and controllers are usually used for interfacing the PVG and the utility grid [32]-[33]. Two inverter configurations and three inverter topologies can be identified in such applications, namely: central inverter, string inverter and integrated inverter for configuration; and topologies with or without transformer [34]. These interfaces use various PWM single-phase inverters configurations and topologies, governed with different suitable control strategies to transfer powers and to shape the utility line current, making it follow a reference sinusoidal waveform. M. G. Molina et al. [16] proposed multi-level control scheme for the three phase grid-connected photovoltaic system consisting of external, middle and internal level, is based on concepts of instantaneous power on the synchronous-rotating dq reference frame as given in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Multi-level control scheme for the three-phase grid-connected PV system.

Ismail et al. [35] presented the development of single phase sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) microcontroller-based inverter. The attractiveness of this configuration is the use of a microcontroller to generate sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) pulses. The power circuit topology chosen is full bridge inverter. Fig. 6. Shows the full bridge inverter topology. It consists of DC voltage source or photovoltaic module, four switching elements (MOSFETs), LC filter, transformer and load.

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013) The full bridge topology is chosen with considerations that it must be capable of delivering high current at low voltage. This property is important if the inverter is designed for photovoltaic applications. In terms of topologies, a large interest has been shown by the scientific community in multilevel inverters [43], [44], [45], [46], [47], and [48]. At the megawatt range, the two-level voltage source converter, if compared with multilevel converters, is not be able to ensure the power quality required by the standards, the maximum allowed switching frequency, the higher voltage operation and the reduction in filter size. The multilevel converters are useful in achieving an interconnection of the photovoltaic strings in a better way to reach higher voltages that are closer to that one at the point of common coupling. The cascaded half bridge solution is based on the series connection of the H-bridge, so that a natural voltage increase is obtained and the adoption of a boost stage or step-up transformer is not needed. Resonant harmonic compensators [49] allow performing selective harmonic compensation in grid-connected photovoltaic inverters in order to guarantee high performances in terms of frequency content of the current injected into the grid. Such a technique is based on the use of a bank of generalized integrators, namely second-order band pass filters tuned to resonate at a predefined frequency. The control of reactive power has been proposed in Cagnano et al. [50]: in this paper a decentralized controller that is able to minimize grid losses by actively managing the reactive power supplied by PV inverters is proposed. It allows reducing the burden due to the centralization of the controller. In J. Vasquez et al. [51] a converter, controlled by means of the droop control technique, which is able to provide active power to local loads and to inject reactive power into the grid providing voltage support at fundamental frequency. Soeren Baekhoej et al. [4] presented a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system with direct coupled power quality controller (PQC), which uses an inner current control loop (polarized ramp time (PRT)) and outer feedback control loops to improve grid power quality and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of PV arrays. To reduce the complexity, cost and number of power conversions, which results in higher efficiency, a single stage CCVSI is used. The system operation has been divided into two modes (sunny and night). In night mode, the current controlled inverter (CCVSI) operates to compensate the reactive power demanded by nonlinear or variation in loads. In sunny mode, the proposed system performs PQC to reduce harmonic current and improve power factor as well as MPPT to supply active power from the PV arrays simultaneously.

Fig. 6. Full bridge inverter topology.

All commercial inverters in this review (Soladin120 [36], OK4 [37], OK5 [37] and Sunmaster 130 [36] (a three stage inverter)) are based on the resonant principle. In the case of the OK4 inverter the DC-DC converter are used to amplify the voltage but also to modulate the rectified sinusoidal current, which is unfolded in the secondary stage. The next inverter [38] is based on the series resonant DCDC converter and a modified full bridge grid-connected inverter, cf. Fig. 7. The inverter is modified in such a way that it cannot operate as a rectifier; hence problems with standby losses are solved. Two additional diodes do this. The DC-DC converter is, as stated before, based on the series resonant converter, where the leakage inductance in the transformer together with the capacitor inserted in the main path forms a resonant-tank. The resonant tank together with the output capacitances of the switches makes the inverter zero-voltage switching. The DC-DC converter is operated at 100 kHz with a duty-cycle slightly smaller than 50% in order to avoid shoot-through.

Fig. 7. The inverter proposed in [36, 42]. The series resonant DC-DC converter amplifies the voltage from the PV-Module and the grid connected inverter generates the sinusoidal grid-current.

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013) V. T HREE-P HASE GRID CONNECTED INVERTER FOR P HOTOVOLTAIC S YSTEMS The inverters are categorized into some classifications: the number of power processing stages; the use of decoupling capacitors and their locations; the use or no of the transformers; the type of three phase inverter; whether they are preceded by a DC/DC converter or not .Some of three-phase topologies are presented. Fig.8. shows typical circuit diagram of a MOS-equipped VSI with BoostConverter for a PV module generation system. This inverter is a viable alternative to a VSI+BC due to its voltage step-up characteristic [2], [3]. The CSI directly connected to the PV module features a single stage power conversion system for feed-in and MPPT

Fig.10. Circuit diagram of a 3-phase BJT equipped inverter topology [53]

The topology shown in fig.11. is a three phase four-wire BJT-equipped inverter with split DC-link. It was a simple topology and the advantage is that a three-phase split-link inverter essentially becomes three single-phase half-bridge inverters and permits each of the three legs to be controlled independently, making its current tracking control simpler than the four-leg inverter.

Fig.8. Typical circuit diagram of a MOS-equipped With BoostConverter for a PV module generation System

The inverter shown in Fig. 9. is a viable alternative to a VSI+BC due to its voltage step-up characteristic [2], [3]. The CSI directly connected to the PV module features a single stage power conversion system for feed-in and MPPT.

Fig.11 Topology of the three phase four-wire inverter with split dclink [52]

In order to maximize the success of the PV systems a high reliability, a reasonable cost, and a user-friendly design must be achieved in the inverter topology. Fig.12 depicts the multi-string topology is commonly used in PV applications. It permits the integration of PV strings of different technologies and orientations (north, south, east and west) [54].

Fig.9. Circuit diagram of a MOS-equipped CSI for a PV module generation system.

The topology (depicted in fig.10) is less interesting for a low-voltage distribution network which is typically a fourwire system. Using the three phase three-wire topology, only two parameters can be controlled, which is disadvantageous in case active power filtering functions are desired.
Fig.12 Topology of the three phase four-wire Multi-string inverter [54]

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013) Fig.13 depicts a three-phase inverter with stabilizer and transformer [55]. This topology is very influenced by variations in the load. When the Load is getting bigger the variation follows up and the sinusoidal characteristics are becoming worse off. Thus, simplified models are suitable for system studies that try to identify the impacts of PV systems on the electric network. In the past few years, developing new topologies for power conditioning units and applying new control techniques were the focus of many studies, almost saturating this field of research. Also, the application of new maximum power point tracking algorithms received a lot of attention. However, most of these algorithms fail to operate properly in the case of partial shadings, which is the case where parts of the PV array are shaded by clouds or nearby buildings. The conventional MPPT algorithms are not capable of solving the problems of multiple peaks that established in the P-V characteristic curves of the PV systems due to partial shaded conditions. Therefore, further research should be done to extract maximum power effectively from the PV systems under non-uniform insolation. The use of storage devices with PV systems is currently receiving a lot of attention. These devices can be used to bridge fluctuations in the output power of PV systems, shift the peak generation of the system to match the load peaks, and provide reactive power support. One of the main challenges that still face the use of storage devices is the high cost associated with their installation. Thus, studying the economical aspect of installing these devices is of great importance. Grid-connected PV systems can provide a number of benefits to electric utilities, such as power loss reduction, improvement in the voltage profile, and reduction in the maintenance and operational costs of the electric network. However, improper choice of the location and size of the PV systems and unsuitability of the output power profile of the PV system to the profile of the electric network can impose operational problems on the network. Moreover, the fluctuations in the output power of these systems add to the complexity of the problem. Large, centralized PV systems, installed in distribution networks, require more attention at the time being. Partial shading of PV arrays is considered one of the main challenges that face MPPT techniques. In this case, there might exist multiple local maxima, but only one global maximum power point. The task of the PCU is to identify and operate at the global MPP. The research in this field is active. Multilevel inverters posses the advantage of generating output voltages with extremely low distortion, generating smaller common-mode voltage and drawing current with very low distortion but a complex topology, a large number of components and a complicated control strategy have to be overcome.

Fig.13 Topology of three-phase inverter with stabilizer and Transformer [55]

VI. D ISCUSSION AND C ONCLUSION The accuracy of any of these models is usually dependant on the location where the PV system is being installed, thus, it is important to choose a suitable model for the case under consideration. One of the main activities in this area is the development of irradiance models suitable for specific locations. The fluctuations in irradiance due to passage of clouds also received a lot of attention from researchers, where most of the work done in this field relied on the frequency domain analysis. One field that still requires more attention is the prediction of irradiance, which is a complicated task as compared to the prediction of wind speed. This is mainly because of the variety of factors that affect the accuracy of prediction including the wind speed and direction and type, height and thickness of clouds. Modeling of the PV cells is one of the mature areas in the field. There are a variety of models available in the literature and can be divided into two main categories; detailed and simplified models. Detailed models attempt to represent the physics of the PV cell and are usually suitable for studies that require the detailed cell information such as implementation of maximum power techniques and analysis of the effect of change in irradiance and temperature on the performance of the PV cell. On the other hand, simplified models usually provide a direct estimate of the maximum power generated from the PV cell at certain operating conditions.

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013) Nevertheless, the multilevel inverter will play an important role in the future. Advanced inverter, controller, and interconnection technology development must produce hardware that allows PV to operate safely with the utility and act as a grid resource that provides benefits to both the grid and the owner. Advanced PV system technologies include inverters, controllers, related balance-of-system, and energy management hardware that are necessary to ensure safe and optimized integrations, beginning with todays unidirectional grid and progressing to the smart grid of the future. REFERENCES
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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013)
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