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Maxime-power-point-urmrire ncrctor de baterie solara

surse durabile electrice cum ar fi panourile solare fotovoltaice sunt din ce n ce mai important ca alternative ecologice la combustibilii fosili. But, while they're nice for the environment, sustainable sources aren't always easy to apply. Dar, n timp ce acestea sunt frumos pentru mediu, surse durabile nu sunt ntotdeauna uor de aplicat. These sources are characterized by both stringent peak-power limitations and use it or lose it availability. Aceste surse sunt caracterizate de ctre ambele limitri stricte de vrf de putere i "s-l utilizai sau pierzi" disponibilitate. Successful application of sustainable energy sources therefore depends on strict attention to efficiency in both power conversion and energy storage. aplicarea cu succes a surselor de energie durabile, prin urmare, depinde de o atenie strict a eficienei de conversie a energiei, ct i de stocare a energiei. For small systems, workable energy-management schemes usually include a rechargeable battery and battery charger. Pentru sistemele mici, sisteme de energie viabil de gestionare includ de obicei o baterie rencrcabil i ncrctor de baterie. A shortcoming of this solution is that ordinary battery chargers, even efficient ones, do an imperfect job of squeezing the last milli-watt from sustainable sources over realistic combinations of ambient and battery conditions. O lacun a acestei soluii este c bateria ncrctoare ordinar, chiar i cele eficiente, fac o treaba imperfect a strnge ultima mili-watt din surse durabile peste combinaii realist a mediului ambiant i condiiile de baterie. The circuit shown addresses this problem in small solar power systems ( Fig. 1 ). Circuitul artat abordeaz aceast problem n sisteme solare de mic putere ( figura 1. ). It works by continuously optimizing the interface between the solar array and battery. Acesta acioneaz prin optimizarea continu a interfaa dintre matrice solare i bateria. The principle in play, sometimes called Maximum Power Point Tracking, is illustrated in the I/V and P/V curves for a typical photovoltaic array ( Fig. 2 ) exposed to standard sunlight intensity (insolation) of 1 kW/m 2 . Principiul n joc, uneori numit maxim Power Point Tracking, este ilustrat n I / V si P / V curbe pentru o matrice fotovoltaic tipic ( Fig. 2 ) expus la "intensitatea luminii solare standard (expunere la soare) de 1 kW / m 2 . To accommodate a useful range of insolation and battery voltage variation, designers of solar panels make the number of cells large enough so that a useful level of charging current is provided even when the light level is low and the battery voltage is high. Pentru a face o serie util de expunere la soare i variaia tensiunii bateriei, designeri de panouri solare a face numrul de celule suficient de mare astfel nct un nivel util de curentul de ncrcare este prevzut chiar i atunci cnd nivelul de lumin este sczut i tensiunea bateriei este mare. Consequently, when lighting conditions happen to be more favorable, these panels can produce up to 50% more voltage and 30% more power than the battery wants. n consecin, atunci cnd condiiile de iluminare se ntmpl s fie mai

favorabile, aceste panouri pot produce pn la 50% mai mult tensiunea i 30% mai mult putere dect bateria vrea. Simple direct connection of panel to battery will therefore cause inefficient operation at point A, with the excess power lost as heat in the solar panel. simpla conectare direct a panoului de la baterie va determina, prin urmare, funcionarea ineficient la punctul "A", cu exces de putere a pierdut sub form de cldur n panou solar. Figure 1 does better than that by combining a high-efficiency (95%) SMPS circuit (LTC1149) with an analog power-conversion optimization loop. Figura 1 nu mai bun dect prin combinarea unui randament ridicat (~ 95%) SMPS circuit (LTC1149), cu o bucl de analogic optimizare putere de conversie. To understand how it works, assume battery B1 is in a state of discharge. Pentru a intelege cum functioneaza, bateria i asume B1 este ntr-o stare de descrcare de gestiune. In this condition, E1 will accept all of the current the SMPS can supply (subject to the 2.5-A current limit set by R SENSE ) at a voltage around 12 V. If U1 drives Q1 to a 100% duty factor, inefficient operation at the direct-connect point A will result. n aceast condiie, E1 va accepta toate actuale SMPS pot furniza (n funcie de ~ 2.5-o limita de curent stabilit de R sens) la o tensiune de aproximativ 12 V. n cazul n U1 conduce Q1 unui drept factor de 100%, ineficiente funcionarea la punctul de conectare direct "A" va avea ca rezultat. However, the optimization circuit doesn't let that happen. Cu toate acestea, circuitul de optimizare nu lsa s se ntmple. Instead, 50-Hz multivibrator S1/S2 causes A2 to continuously dither Q1's duty factor by about 10%. n schimb, 50 Hz S1/S2 multivibrator cauze A2 la oscila continuu factorul Q1 datoria de circa 10%. The result is a dither of approximately 1 V in V IN . Rezultatul este o oscila de aproximativ 1 V n V IN. There's also a corresponding 50-Hz modulation of the average power extracted from the solar panel as reflected in the return current through R SENSE . Exista de asemenea un 50-Hz modularea corespunztoare din putere medie de extrase din panouri solare reflectate n revenirea curentului prin R sens. The 50-Hz ac waveform across R SENSE is filtered by R1C1 and synchronously demodulated by S3. Hz AC und peste 50 R sens este filtrat prin R1C1 i sincron demodulate de S3. This dc error signal, whose polarity indicates the slope of the solar panel I/V curve wherever V IN happens to be sitting, is integrated by A1 to close a feedback loop around A2. Acest semnal de eroare DC, a crei polaritate indic panta panou solar de I / V curba V In oriunde se ntmpl s fie edinei, este integrat cu A1 pentru a nchide o bucl de feedback-ul din jurul A2. For example, if the SMPS happens to be operating at a V IN below the maximum power point (V IN < V MPPT ), then there will be a positive correlation between V IN and I SENSE , and A1 will ramp toward lower average duty factors and higher V IN . De exemplu, dac se ntmpl s fie SMPS care funcioneaz la un V IN sub punctul de putere maxim (V n <MPPT V), atunci va exista o corelaie pozitiv ntre V si am sens, i A1, va impulsiona spre medie factori de taxe mai mici i mai mare V IN. By contrast, operation at V IN > V MPPT reverses the dither phase relationship and A1 ramps toward higher duty factors and lower V IN . Prin contrast, funcionarea la V la> V MPPT inverseaza relatia faza oscila i A1 rampele spre factorii de taxe mai mari i mai mici V IN. Either way we get convergence toward V MPPT and

maximum charging current for B1. Oricum am lua de convergen spre V MPPT i curentul de ncrcare maxim pentru B1. This mode of operation continues as B1 charges and its voltage rises to the 14.1-V terminal-voltage setpoint determined by the R6-R7-R8-RT network. Acest mod de funcionare continu ca B1 taxele i tensiunea sa se ridic la setare ~ 14.1 V-terminal de tensiune determinate de reeaua R6-R7-R8-RT. Once reached, A2 saturates with zero output and normal LTC1149 constant-voltage regulation takes over. Odat ajuns, acizi grai saturai A2 cu producie zero i constant tensiune regulament LTC1149 normale preia. RT provides temperature compensation appropriate for typical lead-acid battery chemistry. RT ofer despgubiri de temperatur corespunztoare pentru chimie tipice baterie plumb-acid. R2 allows for A1 offset nulling, which is particularly important at low panel output levels. R2 permite nulling A1 offset, care este deosebit de important la un nivel redus de ieire panou. The circuit makes no provision for preventing reverse current from being drawn from the battery under no-light conditions, but since the drain even in total darknessis less than 3 mA (comparable to typical battery self-discharge rates), adding a blocking diode would actually reduce overall efficiency. Circuitul nu face nici o dispoziie pentru prevenirea inversa actuale de a fi trase de la baterie sub nici o lumin condiii, dar din moment de scurgere, chiar si in intuneric total, este mai mic de 3 mA (comparabile cu ratele de baterie tipic de auto-descrcare), adugnd o blocare dioda ar reduce de fapt eficiena economic general. The MPPT technique has much wider application than just photovoltaics alone. Tehnica MPPT are aplicabilitate mult mai larg dect doar fotovoltaice singur. That's because conceptually similar functionality of power output versus loading can be seen in the I/V curves of other sustainable energy sources. Asta pentru ca conceptual funcionaliti similare de putere fa de ncrcare poate fi vzut n I / curbele V din alte surse de energie durabil. Such sources are small water turbines (eg the Peltonwheel impulse turbine of Figure 3 ) and fixed-pitch-rotor wind-power turbines, when either is combined with constant field alternators. Astfel de surse de ap sunt turbine mici (de exemplu, "Peltonwheel" turbin de impuls figura 3 ) i-pitch-rotoare eoliene de putere turbine fixe, fie atunci cnd este combinat cu alternatoare domeniul constant. The voltage, current, and power produced by any of these sources is highly variable in response to ambient conditions (insolation, hydrostatic head, or windspeed) and dramatically dependent on the electrical impedance of the imposed load (V vs. I). Tensiune, curent, i puterea produs de oricare dintre aceste surse este extrem de variabil, n rspuns la condiiile de mediu (expunere la soare, presiunea hidrostatic, sau vntului) i dramatic depinde de impedana electric a sarcinii impuse (V vs I). Under any combination of ambient conditions, each of these sources is characterized by exactly one ideal load impedance, which will result in operation at V MPPT and maximum power transfer. n orice combinaie de condiiile de mediu, fiecare dintre aceste surse se caracterizeaz printr-o exact impedan de sarcin ideal, care vor rezulta n funciune V MPPT i transfer de putere maxim. Also of benefit is the simplifying absence of confusing local maxima in the power versus voltage curves. De asemenea, un beneficiu este lipsa de simplificarea maxime locale confuze n puterea fa de curbele de tensiune.

Of course, the actual physics behind the I/V curves for the various sources are very different. Desigur, fizica reale din spatele I / curbele V pentru diverse surse sunt foarte diferite. In the case of photovoltaics, the primary energy-producing process is recombination of photoelectric charge carriers and how the rate of such recombination varies with output voltage, temperature, and insolation. n cazul fotovoltaice, procesul de energie primar productoare de recombinare a purttorilor de sarcin fotoelectrice i modul n care rata de recombinare astfel variaz n funcie de tensiunea de ieire, temperatura i insolaie. For wind-power generators, the dominant parameter is the interaction of Tip Speed Ratio (defined as turbine peripheral velocity divided by wind speed) with the aerodynamic design of the turbine. Pentru generatoare eoliene de putere, parametrul dominant este interaciunea dintre "Speed Ratio Sfat" (definit ca viteza periferice turbine mprit la viteza vntului), cu design aerodinamic al turbinei. For small hydroelectric generators, it's the fluid dynamics of the turbine or runner as they relate to the pressure and volume of the available water source. Pentru generatoarele de mici hidroelectrice, este dinamica fluidelor a turbinei sau "runner", aa cum acestea se refer la presiunea i volumul de sursa de ap disponibile. But the MPPT charger really doesn't care about these details. Dar MPPT ncrctorul ntr-adevr nu-i pas despre aceste detalii. It just blindly climbs the I/V curve to the V MPPT summit. Este doar urc orbete I / curba V la summit-ul MPPT V. Figure 1's circuit can therefore be easily adapted to any of these systems. Figura 1 circuit, prin urmare, poate fi adaptat cu uurin la oricare dintre aceste sisteme. The only modification necessary is a bigger C2 (0.1 F to 1F) to slow the dither rate to 5-Hz to 0.5-Hz frequencies compatible with the inertial time constant of mechanical power sources. Singura modificare necesar este un C2 mai mare (0,1 F la 1F) s reduc rata oscila la 5 Hz la frecvene de 0,5 Hz, compatibile cu timpul ineriale constant a surselor de energie mecanic. In addition, wind-power applications will benefit from an overspeed preventer. n plus, cererile de vnt-putere va beneficia de o preventer depirii vitezei. This V IN -limiting circuit is basically just a big Zener diode connected across the input terminals that dumps excess power in conditions of high wind speeds and low battery demand. Acest V IN-limitarea circuit este de fapt doar o mare diod Zener conectate la bornele de intrare care gropile de exces de putere n condiii de viteze de vnt puternic i a cererii bateriei este sczut. Consequently, it prevents overrevving of the turbine and alternator. n consecin, aceasta previne overrevving a turbinei i alternatorul. For higher power applications (25 W and up) or other output voltage ranges, consult Linear Technology LTC1149 application literature. Pentru aplicaii de putere mai mare (25 W i n sus) sau tensiunea de ieire alte intervale, Linear Technology consulte literatura de specialitate LTC1149 cerere.