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FUNDAMENTAL NETWORKS 8.0 Introduction 8.1 Explain the principles of networking 1. What are networks? 2.

What are social networking sites? 3. 4. 5. What is a conceptual network? Why are computers networked? What is the simplest network?

Systems that are formed by links Websites that allow individuals to link to each others pages A set of related ideas To share data and resources Two computers connected by a single cable A collection of hosts connected by networking devices Any device that sends and receives information on the network Devices that are connected to hosts Services, storage space on removable devices, applications Copper cabling, fiber-option cabling, wireless connections Lower costs Increased productivity Fewer peripherals needed Increased communication capabilities 5. Avoid file duplication and corruption 6. Centralized administration 7. Conserver resources A server Document tracking software 1. 2. 3. 4.

8.1.1 Define computer networks 6. What is a computer data network? 7. 8. 9. What is a host?

What is a peripheral? What type of resources can be shared on a network? 10. How are network devices linked together? 8.1.2 Explain the benefits of networking 11. What are the benefits of networking computers?

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What manages network resources? What can be used to prevent users from overwriting files or changing files that others are accessing at the same time? Activity: Advantages and Disadvantages of Networking 8.2 Describe Types of Networks 8.2.1 Describe a LAN 14. What is a LAN? A group of interconnected devices that is under the same administrative control 8.2.2 Describe a WAN 15. What is a WAN? A network that connects LANs in geographically separated locations 16. What is the most common The Internet example of a WAN? 17. What interconnects LANs at Telecommunications service different locations? providers

8.2.3 Describe a WLAN 18. In a WLAN, how are access points connected to the network? 19. What is the range for typical WLAN systems? Activity: Network Types 8.2.4 Explain peer-to-peer networks 20. Explain a peer-to-peer network. 21. 22. What is the best environment for peer-to-peer networks? What are the disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks?

With copper cabling 30 m (98.4 ft) indoors to great distances outdoors depending on the technology used Each device has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities 10 or fewer computers 1. No centralized administration 2. No centralized security 3. Network becomes more difficult to manage as number of computers increase 4. No centralized data storage Client requests information or services from a server. Server provides requested information or service to client. Network administrator A collection of workstations and servers on a LAN that are designed to communicate and exchange data with one another A group of computers and electronic devices with a common set of rules and procedures administered as a unit Domain controller

8.2.5 Explain client/server networks 23. Explain a client/server network.

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Who maintains the server in a client/server network? What is a workgroup?


What is a domain?


What is a specialized server that manages all security related aspects of users and network resources called? 8.3 Describe basic networking concepts and technologies 8.3.1 Explain bandwidth and data transmission 28. What is bandwidth? The amount of data that can be transmitted within a fixed time period 29. What is a packet? Small chunks of data sent over a computer network 30. What is a header? Information added to each packet that contains the source and destination of the packet 31. How is bandwidth measured? Bits per second

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What is latency? What is simplex mode? What is half-duplex mode? What is an example of half-duplex transmission? What is full-duplex mode?

The amount of time it takes data to travel from source to destination Single, one-way transmission; unidirectional Data flows in one direction at a time Two-way radios When data flows in both directions at the same time A telephone call Data can be sent and received at the same time A number that is used to identify a device on the network MAC Media Access Control No; unless you replace the NIC IP By the network administrator 32 The binary IP address is converted to its decimal value separated by a decimal point network, host The network portion of an IP address indicates the network in which each unique host address is located A, B, C, D, E E The network portion of an IP address A logical division of a network The MAC address delivers frames

What is an example of full-duplex transmission? 38. How does full-duplex increase network performance? 8.3.2 Describe IP addressing 39. What is an IP address? 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. What is another name for the physical address? Can you change a physical address? What is another name for a logical address? How is the logical address assigned? How many bits are in an IP address? What is meant by dotted-decimal notation? What are the two parts of an IP address? What is meant by hierarchical addressing? What are the five classes of IP addresses? Which IP class is used for experimental testing? What does the subnet mask indicate? What is the default subnet mask for Class A? What is the default subnet mask for Class B? What is the default subnet mask for Class C? What is subnetting? What is the main difference

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between an IP address and a MAC address? What is a frame?


What does DHCP do?

on the LAN, while an IP address transports frames outside the LAN A data packet that, along with address information, is added to the beginning and end of a packet before it is transmitted over the network Automatically assigns IP addresses to hosts? Software keeps track of IP addresses ; automatically configures TCP/IP Windows automatically assigns a private IP address APIPA Automatic Private IP Addressing Five-minute intervals

Worksheet: Identify IP Address Classes 8.3.3 Define DHCP 58. How does DHCP simplify the administration of networks? 59. 60. 61. 62. What happens if a computer cannot communicate with the DHCP server? What is the operating systems feature that automatically assigns a private IP? How often does APIPA request an IP address from a DHCP server? What is NAT (network address translation)?

The process to convert private IP addresses to public IP addresses to allow local clients to communicate over the Internet 8.3.4 Describe Internet protocols and applications 63. What is a protocol? A set of rules 64. What are Internet protocols? Sets of rules governing communication within and between computers on a network 65. What do protocol specifications The format of messages that are define? exchanged 66. What are the main functions of Identifying errors, compressing protocols? data, deciding how data is to be sent, addressing data, deciding how to announce sent and received data 67. What is the communication HTTP protocol that establishes a connection on the Internet? 68. What is the protocol that provides FTP services for file transfer and manipulation? 69. What is the protocol used to SSH securely connect to a remote network device? 70. What is Telnet used for? To connect to a remote network device 71. What are the protocols used to POP 3 IMAP

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download e-mail messages from an email server? What is SMTP? Identify the correct port numbers:


What is TCP/IP?

A protocol used to send mail in a TCP/IP network 80 - HTTP 443 - HTTPS 20/21 - FTP 22 - SSH 23 - Telnet 110 POP3 143 -IMAP 25 TCP A set of public standards that specify how packets of information are exchanged between computers over one or more networks To send control and errors message to computers and servers Ping An ICMP echo request is sent to a destination computer or network device; the receiving device sends back an ICMP echo reply to confirm connectivity To find the IP address of a host The router deletes it

Activity Network Protocols 8.3.5 Define ICMP 75. What is ICMP used for? 76. 77. What is used to test connections between computers? How does Ping work?

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What is another use for ping? What happens if a router does not know where to send a packet? Mod 8 Study Guide Pt 2 8.4 Describe the physical components of a network 80. What are the most common Computers, hubs, switches, routers, devices on a network? wireless access points 81. What are the most common media Twisted pair, fiber optic, radio used on networks? waves 8.4.1 Identify names and purposes and characteristics of network devices 82. What do hubs do? Extend range of a network by receiving data on one port and regenerating the data and sending it out to all other ports 83. What is another name for a hub? concentrator 84. Why are files broken up into To allow for error checking and packets before they are easier retransmission if the packet transmitted over the network? is lost or corrupted 85. What is a bridge? A device used to filter network traffic between LAN segments 86. What is another name for a switch? Multiport bridge 87. What does a switch do when a Compares the address in the frame

frame arrives at a port? 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 8.4.2 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. What do switches connect? What do bridges connect? What do routers use to forward frames? What do wireless access points provide? What do wireless access points use to communicate? What is a multi-purpose device?

to its MAC address table and determines which port to use to forward the frame Segments of a network Entire networks to each other IP addresses Network access to wireless devices Radio waves

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A device that performs more than one function Identify names, purposes, and characteristics of common network cables What do coaxial and twisted-pair Copper cable use to transmit data? What does fiber optic cable use to Glass or plastic transmit data? What is twisted pair cable used Telephone communication and for? Ethernet networks Why is the cable twisted? To prevent crosstalk What is crosstalk? Noise generated by adjacent pairs of wires in the cable What is the cancellation effect? A circuit has two wires, with oppositely charged magnetic fields. When the wires of the circuit are next to each other, the magnetic fields cancel each other out What are the two basic types of UPT & STP twisted-pair cable? What is the most commonly used UTP cable in networks? What is the range of a UTP cable? 100 m (328 ft) Why is STP more expensive? Because of the extra shielding What are the two factors used 1) Number of wires in the cable when deterring the category of 2) Number of twists in the wire cable? What is category 3 cable used for? Telephone & 10 Mbps LANs How is Cat 3 terminated? RJ11 What are the most common Cat 5 & Cat 5e network cables used? How are Cat 5 cables terminated? RJ 45 How many pins are in a RJ11 6 connector? How many pins are in a RJ 45 8 connector? What is coax cable? Copper-covered cable surrounded by a heavy shielding What is the coax cable with a Thicknet or 10Base5

maximum length of 500 m? 113. What is the coax cable with a Thinnet or 10Base2 maximum length of 185 m? 114. What is the most commonly used RG59 cable for television? 115. What coax cable has the most RG6 bandwidth and less susceptibility to interference? 116. Why is fiber-optic not affected by It is made of glass EMI or RFI? 117. What are the two types of fiberMulti-mode and single-mode optic cable? Packet Tracer Activity 8.5 Describe LAN topologies and architectures 118. What are the two types of LAN Physical and logical topologies? 119. What is a physical topology? The physical layout of the components on the network 120. What is a logical topology? Determines how the hosts communicate across a medium 121. What is a LAN architecture? All the components that make up the structure of a communications system 8.5.1 Describe LAN topologies 122. What does the type of topology The capabilities of the network determine? 123. Identify the following physical Bus topologies Ring Star mesh

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Why do you need a terminator in a bus topology? How does a ring topology work?

To keep the signal from bouncing back and causing network errors. A token travels around the ring, stopping at each host. If the host wants to transmit data, it adds data and destination address to frame. Frame continues around ring until it reaches destination address Easy to troubleshoot Every device is connected to every other device Broadcast and token passing Each host addresses either data to a particular host or all host

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What is the advantage of a star topology? What is a benefit of a mesh topology? What are the two most common types of logical topologies? How does broadcast topology work?

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How can a host send data on a taken passing network? Describe LAN architecture What are the three most common LAN architectures? What is the standard for Ethernet? What is CSMA/CD? What kind of topology does Ethernet use? What topology was originally developed by IBM? What is the token ring referred to and why?

connected on a network Only if they have the token Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI 802.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Logical bus & bus or star physical Token ring Star-wired ring because outer appearance of network design is a star Multi-station access unit Primary ring 500 per ring Regenerates a signal 100 km (62 miles) Basis for developing technology CCITT (ITU) Developing standards for the computer and electronics industry To promote international cooperation on all questions related to electrotechnologies

What is a MSAU? What is the outer ring of an FDDI network called? 139. How many computers can be supported in an FDDI dual ring network? 140. What does a repeater do? 141. What is the total distance of each length of FDDI cable ring? 8.3 Identify Standards Organizations 142. What do manufacturers use standards for? 143. What organization defines international communication standards? 144. What is IEEE best known for? 145. What is the mission of the IEC?

Study Guide 8 Part 3 8.7 Identify Ethernet Standards 8.7.1 Explain Cabled Ethernet Standards 146. What is the standard for Ethernet architecture? 147. What is a backoff algorithm? 148. 149. 150. In CSMA/CD, who transmits first? What is 10BaseT technology? What are the advantages of using 10BaseT?

802.3 A random amount of time in which an end station will start to try network transmission again. First-come, first-served 10 mbps, baseband transmission, twisted-pair cabling Inexpensive installation Easier to install

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What is the maximum length of a 10BaseT segment? What is the difference between 10BaseT and 100Base T? What is another name for 1000BaseT? Why do people use gigabit Ethernet?

Easy to upgrade 100 m (328 ft) Transfer rates are 10 times faster Gigabit Ethernet It is faster which makes it possible to implement bandwidth intensive applications (such as video) 802.11 802.11a

8.7.2 Explain wireless Ethernet standards 155. What is the standard for wireless networks? 156. Which wireless standard operates in the 5 GHz radio frequency range with a maximum range of 45.7 m (150 ft)? 157. Which wireless standard operates in the 2.4 GHz radio frequency range with a maximum range of 91 m (300 ft)? 158. Which wireless standard has the longest range? 8.8 Explain OSI and TCP/IP data models 159. What is an architectural model?


802.11n A common frame of reference for explaining Internet communications and developing communication protocols Us Department of Defense Application, Transport, Internet, Network Access 7 Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, Physical Application layer Web browsers and email Telnet

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Who created the TCP/IP model? What are the four layers of the TCP/IP model? How many layers are in the OSI model? What are the layers of the OSI model?

8.8.1 Define the TCP/IP model 164. Where does a message begin in the TCP/IP model? 165. What network services are provided to the user at the application layer? 166. What application layer protocol accesses, control, and troubleshoots remote computers and remote devices? 167. What application layer protocol translates domain names to IP addresses?


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What do the transport layer protocols provide? What two protocols are transport layer? Which transport layer protocol provides for the reliable delivery of data? Which protocol provides source and destination addressing? Which protocol is used for network testing and troubleshooting? How does RIP choose routes? What is ARP used for?

End-to-end management of the data TCP, UDP TCP IP ICMP Based on the smallest number of routers through with the packet must travel to reach the destination To obtain the MAC address of a node of a network when its IP address is known The standards that hosts use to access the physical media 7 A system that implements protocol behavior consisting of a series of these layers Hardware, software, or both Application Data is broken down into manageable segments for orderly transport across the network Network layer Logical addressing Physical address and error correction information All People Seem To Need Data Processing Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away

What do network access layer protocols describe? 8.8.2 Define the OSI model 176. How many layers are in the OSI model? 177. What is a protocol stack? 178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 183. 184. Where are protocol stacks implemented? Which layer is responsible for providing network access to applications? What happens at the transport layer? At which layer does the segment become a packet? What information is contained in a packet? What information does a frame contain? What are the two mnemonics for the OSI Model?

8.8.3 Compare OSI and TCP/IP OSI Model Activity Study Guide 8 Part 4 8.9 Describe how to configure a NIC and a modem 185. What is required to connect to the NIC Internet?


Where can you find a driver for a NIC? 8.9.1 Install or update a NIC driver 187. What is a best practice when running driver updates? 188. 189. What button do you press to expand a category? How do you uninstall a NIC driver?

Manufacturers website Close all applications that are running so they are not using any files associated with the drive update + Double click adapter in Device Manager > Adapter Properties Window > Driver tab > Roll Back Driver Faulty cable, faulty hub, or faulty NIC Automatically from a local DHCP server No By the manufacturer Ping ipconfig Allows a host to communicate outside of your network A protocol that provides remote access to servers and networking devices No

Worksheet: Internet Search for NIC drivers 8.9.2 Attach Computer to Existing Network 190. What is indicated if there are no link lights on a NIC? 191. How do most computers get an IP address? 192. Can two machines have the same IP address? 193. How is the MAC address assigned? 194. What command is used to test connectivity? 195. What command is used to find out what your IP address is? 196. What does a default gateway do? 197. 198. What is telnet? Does telnet support the transport of encrypted data?

Lab Packet Tracer 8.9.3 Describe the installation of a modem 199. What is a modem? An electronic device that transfers data between one computer and another using analog signals over a telephone line 200. What is the process of converting Modulation/demodulation analog signals to digital and back again called? 201. What is DUN? Dial-up Networking 202. What is the handshaking A series of short communications sequence? that occur between two systems 203. What is the Hayes Command set A group of instructions that always based on? begin with a set of attention characters

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What are AT commands? Modem control commands What is the AT command to ATA answer the phone immediately? 206. What AT command signifies pulse P dialing? 8.10 Identify names, purposes, and characteristics of other technologies used to establish connectivity 207. What was the Internet used for in Data transmission the 1990s? 208. What is POTS? Plain Old Telephone System 8.10.1 Describe telephone technologies 209. What technology uses standard Analog telephone telephone lines? 210. What are the two major 1. Telephone line cannot be disadvantages of analog telephone used for voice calls when technology? modem in in use 2. Limited bandwidth (56 Kpbs) 211. What is the maximum bandwidth 56 kpbs using an analog modem? 212. What is ISDN (Integrated Services Standard for sending voice, video, Digital Network)? and data over normal telephone lines 213. What are the three services BRI Basic Rate Interface provided by ISDN digital PRI Primary Rate Interface connections? BISDN Broadband ISDN 214. What type of information is carried Data, voice, or video on the B channel? 215. What is the D channel used for? Controlling and signaling 216. Which ISN type uses two 64 Kbps B BRI channels and one 16 Kpbs D channel? 217. Which ISDN type is used mostly in BISDN network backbones? 218. What is meant by always on There is no need to dial up each technology? time to connect to the Internet 219. What is DSL? Digital Subscriber Line 220. What are the two major 1. Distance limitations considerations when selecting 2. Voice and data carried by DSL? DSL must be separated at customer site 221. What is the most commonly used Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line DSL technology? (ASDL) 222. What is downstream? Transferring data from server to end user 223. In ASDL is the upstream or Downstream downstream faster? 8.10.2 224. What is Power Line Using power distribution wires to Communication? send and receive data


Where can power line communications be used? 8.10.3 Define Broadband 226. What is broadband? 227. 228. 229. 230. What is Bluetooth? What is the standard used for Bluetooth? What are the three classifications for Bluetooth devices? What is adaptive frequency hopping (AFH)?

Anywhere there is an electrical outlet Communication method that transmits two or more signals at the same time. Wireless technology that enables devices to communicate over short distances 802.15.1 Class 1, Class 2, Class 3 Allows signal to hop around using different frequencies within the Bluetooth range thereby reducing the change of interference when multiple Bluetooth devices are present The transfer of voice, video and data 5 GSM Global System for Mobile Communications Allows a cellular phone to operate on all four GSM frequencies 850 MHz 900 MHz 1800 MHz 1900 MHz SMS Short Message Service EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution EV-DO Evolution Data Optimized G3 G3.5 Using the same coax cable that connects your cable TV People who live in rural areas where no other broadband connection is available

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What does cellular technology enable? How many generations of cellular technology are there? What is the standard used by the worldwide cellular network? What is Quad band technology? What are the four GSM frequencies? What is the data service used to send and receive text messages? What provides increased data rates and improved data reliability? What provides fast download rates? Which generation of cellular technologies allows streaming music and 3D gaming? Which generation of cellular technologies allows Voice over IP How does a cable modem connect your computer to the cable company? Who normally using broadband satellite?

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How many phone calls can a single cooper pair carry? 244. Why would you use fiber broadband? Worksheet: Answer Broadband Questions 8.10.4 Define VOIP 245. What is VOIP? 246. 247. What is PSTN? What is a disadvantage of COIP?

6 Faster connection speeds and bandwidth A method to carry telephone calls over the data network and Internet Public Switched Telephone Network If you have a service interruption, the user cannot make phone calls

8.10.5 Define VPN 248. What is a VPN?

Private network that uses a public network to connect remote sites or users together 249. What is a VPN tunnel? VPN connections from the companys private network to the remote access user 8.11 Identify and apply common preventive maintenance techniques used for networks 250. What is one of the biggest heat problems with network device in server rooms? 251. What is involved in prevention Checking the various components maintenance? of a network for wear 252. What is a counterfeit device? Products that do not originate from an authorized manufacturer or are produced without the approval of a trademark owner 253. How can you minimize the risk of Purchase from manufacturers purchasing counterfeit products? authorized partners or directly from the manufacturer 8.12 Troubleshoot a network 254. What should you do to assess how Determine how many computers on complicated a problem is? the network are experiencing the problem 255. What are the six steps of the 1. Identify the problem troubleshooting process? 2. Establish a theory or probable cause 3. Determine an exact cause 4. Implement a solution 5. Verify solution and full system functionality 6. Document findings 8.12.1 Review the troubleshooting process 256. What are some common causes of Loose cable connections, network problems? improperly installed NIC, ISP is down, Invalid IP address, low wireless signal strength

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What command is used to display IP addressing information for all network adapters? What command is used to check network connectivity? What command will return a list of hosts in a domain? What command will show you the route taken by packets when they travel across the network? What command will display a list of computers in a workgroup? 8.12.2 Identify common network problems What is the probable cause if a user cannot telnet into a remote device? What is the probable cause if the computer has an IP address of 169.254.x.x? What is the probable cause if one user can log in to the local network but cannot access the Internet? Worksheet: Diagnose a Network Problem

Ipconfig/all Ping NSLookup Tracert NetView and solutions Firewall is blocking port 23 Remote device is not configured for telnet access Network cable is unplugged Router is powered off NIC is bad Gateway address is incorrect