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Ciclul de via al produsului Ciclul de viata al unui produs include: produsul insusi toate materialele din produsul finit,

, materiile prime folosite, energia utilizata, deseuri produse; procesul de fabricare procesele, instalatiile, echipamentele, si activitatile auxiliare; distributia ambalarea, transportul (tuturor materialelor), facilitati de depozitare. Produsele interactioneaza cu sistemele naturale de la extragerea materiei prime pana la eliminare sau reciclare de la leagan la groapa. Analiza ciclului de viata considera consumurile de energie si materii prime, emisiile de diferite tipuri si alti factori importanti asociati intregului ciclu de viata al produsului. Prin analiza ciclului de viata al unui produs se cauta gasirea solutiilor durabile si reducerea incarcarii mediului inconjurator, pentru a evita diminuarea resurselor si efectele nedorite asupra ecosistemelor.

Tema: Analiza ciclului de viata al unui produs (se va analiza un produs cu numar redus de componente ex. produse de uz casnic, produse de papetarie, componente ale instalatiei electrice, etc). 1. Descriere produs: denumire, functie, caracteristici, ipoteze de utilizare Denumire produs: Filtru de cafea Functie produs: preparare cafea si mentinerea acesteia la o anumita temperatura Caracteristici: alimentare 220 -240 V~/ 50 - 60 Hz, putere 1000 -1200 W. Ipoteze de utilizare: de 2 ori pe zi - timp de 5 ani la jumatate din capacitate pastrarea temperaturii 30 minute.

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2. Descompunerea functionala O analiz a sistemelor tehnice arat c acestea, n esen, dirijeaza sau transforma energie, material sau semnale pentru a obine un rezultat dorit. Energia se manifest n forme diferite, inclusiv, optica, nucleara, mecanica, electrica, etc. Materialele reprezinta materia. Semnale reprezint forma fizic n care informaia este transmisa. De exemplu, datele stocate pe un hard-disk (informaii) vor fi transmise la procesorul calculatorului prin intermediul unui semnal electric. Un sistem tehnic poate fi, prin urmare, iniial, modelat ca o cutie neagra (black -box) cu intrri de energie, material i semnal i ieiri din sistem. La modelarea cutiei negre, energia este reprezentat cu o linie subire, fluxurilor de materiale cu o linie groas, i semnalele cu o linie punctata. Sistemul tehnic presupune, prin urmare, o relaie funcional intre intrri i ieiri.

Problema general reprezentat de cutia neagra poate fi descompusa n sub-probleme mai mici. Descompunerea problemei permite gasirea unor soluii tehnice pentru probleme complexe de proiectare prin luarea n considerare a sub-problemelor mai simple. Proiectarea se poate concentra pe sub-problemele critice, altele fiind amnate. Sub-problemele sunt apoi reprezentate prin sub-funcii. Combinaia sub-funciilor reprezinta o soluie care realizeaz funcia generala dorit. Descompunerile funcionale i modelele cutie neagra sunt generice i nu implica principii de lucru. Modelul cutie neagra al sistemelor existente care urmeaz s fie reproiectate, descompune sistemul existent n sub -sisteme, care apoi sunt transpuse in subfunctii.

Energie Apa Masura Depozit Caldura Transpor t Cafea Depozit Mixare Cafea fierbinte Energie pierduta Energie pierduta

Separare Filtru Depozit

Filtru (deseu)

Zat (deseu)

3. Structura produsului si materiale utilizate Structura

Nr. crt. 1 2

Denumire componenta Carcasa filtru

Nr. buc. 1

Masa/buc [kg] 0,9

Masa [kg] 0,9

. .
Total Materiale utilizate

Nr. crt. 1

Denumire componenta Carcasa filtru

Material aluminiu polipropilena

Masa [kg] 0,1 0,8

Densitate 3 [kg/m ] 2700 1200


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Volum 3 [m ] 37,04x10
-6

666,67x10

-6

Proces de obtinere Deformare plastica Injectie mase plastice

. . .

Total

4. Fluxul de materiale

5. Continutul de energie al materialelor si consumul de apa

Nr. crt. 1 2

Material aluminiu polipropilena

Volum 3 [m ] -6 37,04x10 666,67x10


-6

Energie 3 [MJ/m ] 5 4x10 5 5x10 4 7x10 4 8x10 Vezi grafic

Energie/material [MJ] 15 19 46 53

. . .

Total

Nr. crt. 1 2

Material aluminiu polipropilena

Masa [kg] 0,1 0,8

Consum de apa [l/kg]

Consum de apa/material [l]

. . .

Vezi grafic

Total

6. Amprenta CO2 Amprenta CO2 [kg/kg]

Nr. crt. 1 2

Material aluminiu polipropilena

Masa [kg] 0,1 0,8

Amprenta CO2 [kg]

. . .

Vezi tabel

Total

Amprenta CO2

Amprenta CO2

7. Ciclul de viata al produsului

8. Diagrama unui proces (din ciclul de viata) Exemplu 1

Exemplu 2

9. Eco-indicator Productie (materiale, tratamente, transport si extra energie) Nr. crt. 1 2 3 Material sau proces aluminiu polipropilena injectie Valoare 0,1 kg 1 kg 1 kg Indicator 780 330 21 Vezi anexa Rezultat 78 330 21

. . .

Total [mPt] Utilizare (transport, energie si posibile materiale auxiliare) Nr. crt. 1 2 Proces electricitate hartie Valoare 375 kwh 7,3 kg Indicator 37 96 Vezi anexa Rezultat 13875 701

. . .

Total [mPt] Eliminare (procese de eliminare pentru fiecare tip de materiale) Nr. crt. 1 2 3 Material sau tip de procesare Deseuri polipropilena Deseuri feroase Deseuri hartie Valoare 1 kg 0,4 kg 7,3 kg Indicator -0,13 -5,9 0,71 Vezi anexa Rezultat -0,13 -2,4 5,2

. . .

Total [mPt]

10. Solutii Reducerea consumului de hartie si a celui de electricitate

Annexe to the Eco-indicator 99, Manual for Designers

Version 2; 17 April 2000

Production of ferro metals (in milipoints p e r kg)


Cast iron Converter steel Electro steel Steel Steel high alloy Steel low alloy Indicator 240 94 24 86 910 110 Description Casting iron with > 2% carbon compound Block material containing only primary steel Block material containing only secondary scrap Block material containing 80% primary iron, 20% scrap Block material containing 71% primary iron, 16% Cr, 13% Ni Block material containing 93% primary iron, 5% scrap, 1% alloy metals 1 1 1 1 1 1

Production of non ferro metals (in milipoints p e rk g )


Aluminium 100% Rec. Aluminium 0% Rec. Chromium Copper Lead Nickel enriched Palladium enriched Platinum Rhodium enriched Zinc Indicator 60 780 970 1400 640 5200 4600000 7000000 12000000 3200 Description Block containing only secondary material Block containing only primary material Block, containing only primary material Block, containing only primary material Block, containing 50% secondary lead Block, containing only primary material Block, containing only primary material Block, containing only primary material Block, containing only primary material Block, containing only primary material (plating quality) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Processing of metals (in millipoints)


Bending - aluminium Bending - steel Bending - RVS Brazing Cold roll into sheet Electrolytic Chromium plating Electrolytic galvanising Extrusion - aluminium Milling, turning, drilling Pressing Spot welding - aluminium Shearing/stamping -aluminium Shearing/stamping - steel Shearing/stamping - RVS Sheet production Band zinc coating Hot galvanising Zinc coating (conversion um) Indicator 0.000047 0.00008 0.00011 4000 18 1100 130 72 800 23 2.7 0.000036 0.00006 0.000086 30 4300 3300 49 Description one sheet of 1mm over width of 1 metre; bending 90o one sheet of 1mm over width of 1 metre; bending 90o one sheet of 1mm over width of 1 metre; bending 90o per kg brazing, including brazing material (45% silver, 27% copper, 25% tin) per thickness reduction of 1 mm of 1 m2 plate per m2, 1 ^m thick, double sided; data fairly unreliable per m2, 2.5 ^m thick, double sided; data fairly unreliable per kg per dm3 removed material, without production of lost material per kg deformed metal. Do not include non-deformed parts! per weld of 7 mm diameter, sheet thickness 2 mm per mm2 cutting surface per mm2 cutting surface per mm2 cutting surface per kg production of sheet out of block material (Sendzimir zink coating) per m2, 20-45 ^m thick, including zinc per m2, 100 ^m thick, including zinc per m2, 1 extra ^m thickness, including zinc
4 4 4 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1

Annexe to the Eco-indicator 99, Manual for Designers

Version 2; 17 April 2000

Production of plastic granulate (in milipoints p e rk g )


ABS HDPE LDPE PA 6.6 PC PET PET bottle grade PP PS (GPPS) PS (HIPS) PS (EPS) PUR energy absorbing PUR flexible block foam PUR hardfoam PUR semi rigid foam PVC high impact PVC (rigid) PVC (flexible) PVDC Indicator 400 330 360 630 510 380 390 330 370 360 360 490 480 420 480 280 270 240 440 Description
3 1 1 3 1 3

used for bottles general purposes high impact expandable for furniture, bedding, clothing used in white goods, insulation, construction material

3 3 3 1 3 3 3 1 3

Without metal stabilizer (Pb or Ba) and without plasticizer (see under Chemicals) 1 rigid PVC with 10% plasticizers (crude estimate) 1* Flexible PVC with 50% plasticizers (crude estimate) 1* for thin coatings 3

Processing of plastics (in millipoints)


Blow foil extrusion PE Calandering PVC foil Injection moulding - 1 Injection moulding - 2 Milling,turning,drilling Pressure forming React.Inj.Moulding-PUR Ultrasonic welding Vacuum-forming Indicator 2.1 3.7 21 44 6.4 6.4 12 0.098 9.1 Description per kg PE granulate, but without production of PE. Foil to be used for bags per kg PVC granulate, but without production of PVC per kg PE, PP, PS, ABS, without production of material per kg PVC, PC, without production of material per dm3 machined material, without production of lost material per kg per kg, without production of PUR and possible other components per m welded length per kg material, but without production of material
2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Production of rubbers (in milipoints p e rk g )


EPDM rubber Indicator 360 Description Vulcanised with 44% carbon, including moulding
1

Production of packaging materials (in milipoints p e rk g )


Packaging carton Paper Glass (brown) Glass(green) Glass (white) Indicator 69 96 50 51 58 Description CO2 absorption in growth stage disregarded Containing 65% waste paper, CO2 absorption in growth stage disregarded Packaging glass containing 61% recycled glass Packaging glass containing 99% recycled glass Packaging glass containing 55% recycled glass
1 1 2 2 2

Annexe to the Eco-indicator 99, Manual for Designers

Version 2; 17 April 2000

Production of chemicals and others (in milipoints p e rk g )


Ammonia Argon Bentonite Carbon black Chemicals inorganic Chemicals organic Chlorine Dimethyl p-phthalate Ethylene oxide/glycol Fuel oil Fuel petrol unleaded Fuel diesel H2 H 2 SO 4 HCl HF N2 NaCl NaOH Nitric acid O2 Phosphoric acid Propylene glycol R134a (coolant) R22 (coolant) Silicate (waterglass) Soda Ureum Water decarbonized Water demineralized Zeolite Indicator 160 7.8 13 180 53 99 38 190 330 180 210 180 830 22 39 140 12 6.6 38 55 12 99 200 150 240 60 45 130 0.0026 0.026 160 Description NH3 Inert gas, used in light bulbs, welding of reactive metals like aluminium Used in cat litter, porcelain etc. Used for colouring and as filler Average value for production of inorganic chemicals Average value for production of organic chemicals Cl2. Produced with diaphragm production process (modern technology) Used as plasticizer for softening PVC Used as industrial solvent and cleaning agent Production of fuel only. Combustion excluded! Production of fuel only. Combustion excluded! Production of fuel only. Combustion excluded! Hydrogen gas. Used for reduction processes Sulphuric acid. Used for cleaning and staining Hydrochloric acid, used for processing of metals and cleaning Fluoric acid Nitrogen gas. Used as an inert atmosphere Sodium chloride Caustic soda HNO3. Used for staining metals Oxygen gas. H3PO4. Used in preparation of fertiliser Used as an anti-freeze, and as solvent Production of R134a only! Emission of 1 kg R134a to air gives 7300 mPt Production of R22 only! Emission of 1 kg R22 to air gives 8400 mPt Used in the manufacture of silica gel, detergent manufacture and metal cleaning Na2CO3. Used in detergents Used in fertilisers Processing only; effects on groundwater table (if any) disregarded Processing only; effects on groundwater table (if any) disregarded Used for absorption processes and in detergents
1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Production of building material (in milipoints p e rk g )


Alkyd varnish Cement Ceramics Concrete not reinforced Float glass coated Float glass uncoated Gypsum Gravel Lime (burnt) Lime (hydrated) Mineral wool Massive building Metal construction building Sand Wood board Wood massive Land-use Indicator 520 20 28 3.8 51 49 9.9 0.84 28 21 61 1500 4300 0.82 39 6.6 45 Description Production + emissions during use of varnish, containing 55% solvents Portland cement Bricks etc. Concrete with a density of2200 kg/m3 Used for windows, Tin, Silver and Nickel coating (77 g/m2) Used for windows Selenite. Used as filler. Extraction and transport CaO. Used for production of cement and concrete. Can also be used as strong base Ca(OH)2. Used for production of mortar Used for insulation Rough estimate of a (concrete) building per m 3 volume (capital goods) Rough estimate of a building per m3 volume (capital goods) Extraction and transport European wood (FSC criteria); CO2 absorption in growth stage disregarded European wood (FSC criteria); CO2 absorption in growth stage disregarded Occupation as urban land per m2 yr 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Annexe to the Eco-indicator 99, Manual for Designers

Version 2; 17 April 2000

H e a t

(in millipoints per MJ)


Indicator Description Including fuel production Combustion of coal in a 5-15 kW furnace Combustion of coal in a industrial furnace (1-10MW) Combustion of lignite in a 5-15kW furnace Combustion of gas in an atmospheric boiler (<100kW) with low NOx Combustion of gas in an industrial furnace (> 100kW) with low NOx Combustion of oil in a 10kW furnace Combustion of oil in an industrial furnace Combustion of wood; CO2 absorption and emission disregarded

Heat Heat Heat Heat Heat Heat Heat Heat

coal briquette (stove) coal (industrial furnace) lignite briquet gas (boiler) gas (industrial furnace) oil (boiler) oil (industrial furnace) wood

4.6 4.2 B.2 5.4 53 5.6 11 1.6

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Solar energy
Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity facade m-Si facade p-Si roof m-Si roof p-Si

(in millipoints per kWh)


Description Small installation Small installation Small installation Small installation (3kWp) with monocrystaline cells, used on building facade (3kWp) with polycrystaline cells, used on building facade (3kWp) with monocrystaline cells, used on building roof (3kWp) with polycrystaline cells, used on building roof 1 1 1 1

Indicator 9.7 14 7.2 10

Electricity
Electr. HV Europe (UCPTE) Electr. MV Europe (UCPTE) Electr. LV Europe (UCPTE) Electricity LV Austria Electricity LV Belgium Electricity LV Switzerland Electricity LV Great Britain Electricity LV France Electricity LV Greece Electricity LV Italy Electricity LV the Netherlands Electricity LV Portugal

(in millipoints per kWh)


Indicator 22 22 26 18 22 8.4 BB 8.9 61 47 B7 46 Description Including fuel production High voltage (> 24 kVolt) Medium voltage (1 kV - 24 kVolt) Low voltage (< 1000Volt) Low voltage (< 1000Volt) Low voltage (< 1000Volt) Low voltage (< 1000Volt) Low voltage (< 1000Volt) Low voltage (< 1000Volt) Low voltage (< 1000Volt) Low voltage (< 1000Volt) Low voltage (< 1000Volt) Low voltage (< 1000Volt)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Annexe to the Eco-indicator 99, Manual for Designers

Version 2; 17 April 2000

T r a n s p o r t

(in millipoints per tkm)


Indicator Description Including fuel production Road transport with 30% load, 33% petrol unleaded, 38% petrol leaded, 29% diesel (38% without catalyst) (European average including return) Road transport with 40% load (European average including return) Road transport with 40% load (European average including return) Road transport per m3km. Use when volume in stead of load is limiting factor Road transport with 50% load (European average including return) Road transport per km Rail transport, 20% diesel and 80% electric trains Water transport with 65% load (European average including return) Water transport with 54% load (European average including return) Water transport with 70% load (European average including return) Water transport with 70% load (European average including return) Air transport with 78% load (Average of all flights) Air transport in a Boeing 737 with 62% load (Average of all flights) Air transport in a Boeing 747 with 78% load (Average of all flights) Air transport in a Boeing 767 or MD 11 with 71% load (Average of all flights)
1

Delivery van <3.5t Truck 16t Truck 28t Truck 28t (volume) Truck 40t Passenger car W-Europe Rail transport Tanker inland Tanker oceanic Freighter inland Freighter oceanic Average air transport Continental air transport Intercontinental air transport Intercontinental air transport 140 34 22 8 15 29 3.9 5 0.8 5.1 1.1 78 120 80 72

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
6 6 6 6

Recycling of waste (in milipoints p e rk g )


Total Indicator Process Avoided product -330 -300 -330 -250 -33 -50 -66 -780 -94 Description Environmental load of the recycling process and the avoided product differs from case to case. The values are an example for recycling of primary material. if not mixed with other plastics if not mixed with other plastics if not mixed with other plastics if not mixed with other plastics Recycling avoids virgin paper production Recycling avoids virgin cardboard production Recycling avoids virgin glass production Recycling avoids primary aluminium. Recycling avoids primary steel production

Recycling Recycling Recycling Recycling Recycling Recycling Recycling Recycling Recycling

PE PP PS PVC Paper Cardboard Glass Aluminium Ferro metals

-240 -210 -240 -170 -1,2 -8,3 -15 -720 -70

86 86 86 86 32 41 51 60 24

7* 7* 7* 7* 2* 2* 2* 1* 1*

Annexe to the Eco-indicator 99, Manual for Designers

Version 2; 17 April 2000

Waste treatment (in milipoints p e rk g )


Indicator Incineration Incineration Incineration Incineration Incineration Incineration Incineration Incineration Incineration Incineration Incineration Incineration Incineration Incineration PE PP PUR PET PS Nylon PVC PVDC Paper Cardboard Steel Aluminium Glass -i9 -iS 2,8 Description Incineration in a waste incineration plant in Europe. Average scenario for energy recovery. 22% of municipal waste in Europe is incinerated Indicator can be used for both HDPE and LDPE Indicator can be used for all types of PUR Relatively low energy yield, can also be used for ABS, HIPS, GPPS, EPS Relatively low energy yield Relatively low energy yield Relatively low energy yield High energy yield CO2 emission disregarded High energy yield CO2 emission disregarded 40% magnetic separation for recycling, avoiding crude iron (European average) 15% magnetic separation for recycling, avoiding primary aluminium Almost inert material, indicator can be used for other inert materials Controlled landfill site. 78% of municipal waste in Europe is landfilled S,9 S,5 S,i 4,1 7,4 9,7 4 S,6 2,8 2,2 4 4,2 1,4 1,4 1,4 140
2 2 2 2* 2* 2* 2* 2* 2* 2* 2* 2* 2* 2* 2* 2

I,I S7 66 -12 -12 -S2 -110 5,1

Landfill Landfill PE Landfill PP Landfill PET Landfill PS Landfill EPS foam Landfill foam 20kg/m 3 Landfill foam 100kg/m3 Landfill Nylon Landfill PVC Landfill PVDC Landfill Paper Landfill Cardboard Landfill Glass Landfill Steel Landfill Aluminium Landfill of 1 m 3 volume Municipal waste Municipal Municipal Municipal Municipal Municipal Municipal Municipal Municipal Municipal Municipal Municipal Municipal waste waste waste waste waste waste waste waste waste waste waste waste PE PP PET PS Nylon PVC PVDC Paper Cardboard ECCS steel Aluminium Glass

Indicator can also be used for landfill of ABS PS foam, 40 kg/m3, large volume Landfill of foam like PUR with 20kg/m3 Landfill of foam like PUR with 100kg/m3 Excluding leaching of metal stabilizer CO2 and methane emission disregarded CO2 and methane emission disregarded Almost inert material, indicator can also be used for other inert materials Almost inert material on landfill, indicator can be used for ferro metals Almost inert material on landfill, indicator is valid for primary and recycled alu. Landfill of volume per m3, use for voluminous waste, like foam and products In Europe, 22% of municipal waste is incinerated, 78% is landfilled. Indicator is not valid for voluminous waste and secondary materials

2 2* 2* 2* 2* 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

-1,1 -0,1S 1 2 S,i 10 16 0,71 0,64 -5,9 -2S 2,2

2* 2* 2*

Not valid for foam products

2* 2* 2* 2* 2* 2*

Valid for primary steel only! Valid for primary aluminium only!

2* 2* 2*

Household waste Paper Cardboard Glass

-0,1S -6,9

Separation by consumers of waste for recycling (average European scenario) 44% separation by consumers 44% separation by consumers 52% separation by consumers

2* 2* 2*

Annexe to the Eco-indicator 99, Manual for Designers


Product or component Date Notes and conclusions Project Author Product or component Date Notes and conclusions

Version 2; 17 April 2000


Project Author

Production
Materials, processing, transport anc extra energy
material or process amount indicator result

Production
Materials, processing, transport and extra energy
material or process amount indicator result

Total

Total

Use
Transport, energy and any auxiliary materials
process amount indicator result

Use
Transport, energy and any auxiliary materials
process amount indicator result

Total

Total

Disposal
Disposal processes per ty]pe of material
material and type of processing amount indicator result

Disposal
Disposal processes per ty pe of material
material and type of processing amount indicator result

Total

Total

TOTAL

(all phases)

TOTAL

(all phases)