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Cuprins

1. Schema electric a amplificatorului audio..................................2


2. Proiectarea unui amplificator audio (cu minim 2 tranzistoare i
maxim 10 tranzistoare) relaii de calcul privind proiectarea
precum i date tehnice specifice amplificatorului (tensiune
minim/maxim de intrare, banda de frecvene, tensiune maxim
de ieire, putere de ieire la 1kHz, impedan de intrare, impedan
de ieire, amplificare, gam de temperaturi de funcionare, tensiuni
de alimentare). Elemente............................................................3
3. Program surs n SPICE.....4
4. Analiza n curent continuu a componentelor amplificatorului
proiectat (.DC) determinarea caracteristicii de ieire pentru toate
tranzistoarele din schema amplificatorului (IC=f(UCE)6
5. Analiza n curent alternativ a amplificatorului, determinarea
caracteristicii amplificare-frecven (.AC).................................8
6. Analiza n domeniul timp (.TRAN) rspunsul n domeniul timp
al amplificatorului pentru semnal de intrare sinusoidal cu frecvena
de 1kHz i amplitudinea n limitele acceptate de amplificator
(conform datelor tehnice de la punctul 1).................................11
7. Analiza de zgomot (.NOISE)....................................................13
8. Analiza de sensibilitate (.SENS)...............................................15
9. Funcia de transfer (.TF)...........................................................22
10.Analiza parametric (.PARAM)...............................................22
11.Analiza de temperatur (.TEMP) utilizarea coeficienilor de
temperatur pentru rezistoarele utilizate
n schema
amplificatorului........................................................................23
12.Analiza Fourier (.FOUR) prezentarea datelor att n mod text ct
i n mod graphic......................................................................27
13.Utilizarea subcircuitelor (.SUBCKT) nlocuirea tranzistoarelor
din schema amplificatorului cu modelul acestora cu parametri
hibrizi.......................................................................................29
14.Proiectarea unei surse de curent continuu (minim componentele de
redresare, stabilizare i filtrare) simularea funcionrii sursei de
cc pentru alimentarea de la sursa de 220V i obinerea tensiunilor
prevzute la punctul 1)...........................................................30
15.Concluzii (cel
puin o concluzie pentru fiecare punct al
proiectului)..............................................................................31
1

16.Bibliografie.32

V1=20mV/1kHz
V2= 9V
R1= 100
R2=47k
R3= 390k
R4= 47k
R5= 390k
R6= 27k
R7= 1k
R8= 390k
R9= 22k

C1=1000uF
C2=0.01uF
C3=0.47uF
C4=0.47uF
C5=0.01uF
C6=0.47uF
R10=8

2. Proiectarea unui amplificator audio (cu minim 2


tranzistoare i maxim 10 tranzistoare) relaii de calcul
privind proiectarea precum i date tehnice specifice
amplificatorului (tensiune minim/maxim de intrare,
banda de frecvene, tensiune maxim de ieire, putere de
ieire la 1kHz, impedan de intrare, impedan de ieire,
amplificare, gam de temperaturi de funcionare, tensiuni
de alimentare).

Tensiune minim de intrare: 5mV


Tensiune maxim de intrare:55mV
Banda de frecvene: 5Hz-30.000Hz
Tensiune maxim de ieire:400mV
Putere de ieire la 1kHz: P=5W
Impedan de intrare: Zi=1M
Impedan de ieire: Ze=3.40 M
Amplificare: Au=6
Gama de temperatur de funcionare: -47C150C
Tensiune de alimentare: 9V

3. Program Spice:
Proiect
V2 7 0 DC 9
V1 16 0 AC 1 0 SIN(0 28.2843 1 0 0 0)
R3 3 2 390K
R1 1 7 100
R5 5 6 390K
R8 9 12 390K
R9 13 7 2.2K
R7 0 10 1K
R10 17 0 8
R2 2 1 4.7K
R4 6 7 4.7K
R6 8 9 27K
C1 0 1 1m
C7 12 17 470u
C3 16 3 470n
C4 2 5 470n
C2 2 1 10n
C5 6 7 10n
C6 6 8 470n
D1 13 14 D_national_1N914
D2 14 11 D_national_1N4148
Q1 2 3 0 Qn2n3xxx_2N3904
Q2 6 5 0 Qn2n3xxx_2N3904
Q3 11 9 10 Qn2n3xxx_2N3904
Q4 7 13 12 Qn2n3xxx_2N3904
Q5 0 11 12 Qpmisc_2N3906
.MODEL D_national_1N914 D(Is=10f Rs=0 Cjo=0 Vj=1 Tt=0 M=500m
BV=1e+30 N=1
+EG=1.11 XTI=3 KF=0 AF=1 FC=500m IBV=1m TNOM=27)
.MODEL D_national_1N4148 D(Is=10f Rs=0 Cjo=0 Vj=1 Tt=0 M=500m
BV=1e+30 N=1
+EG=1.11 XTI=3 KF=0 AF=1 FC=500m IBV=1m TNOM=27)

.MODEL Qn2n3xxx_2N3904 NPN(Is=7.62e-16 BF=204 BR=4 Rb=2.1


Re=525m Rc=210m
+Cjs=0 Cje=4.85p Cjc=5.28p Vje=750m Vjc=750m Tf=318p Tr=44.6n
mje=333m
+mjc=333m VA=113 ISE=308f IKF=70m Ne=2 NF=1 NR=1 VAR=1e+30
IKR=1e+30 ISC=0
+NC=2 IRB=1e+30 RBM=0 XTF=0 VTF=1e+30 ITF=0 PTF=0 XCJC=1
VJS=750m MJS=0
+XTB=0 EG=1.11 XTI=3 KF=0 AF=1 FC=500m TNOM=27)
.MODEL Qpmisc_2N3906 PNP(Is=1.39f BF=180 BR=5.1 Rb=10 Re=0
Rc=2.8 Cjs=0
+Cje=8.2p Cjc=9.5p Vje=750m Vjc=750m Tf=178.5p Tr=32.3p mje=400m
mjc=543m
+VA=20 ISE=0 IKF=1e+30 Ne=1.5 NF=1 NR=1 VAR=1e+30 IKR=1e+30
ISC=0 NC=2
+IRB=1e+30 RBM=0 XTF=0 VTF=1e+30 ITF=0 PTF=0 XCJC=1
VJS=750m MJS=0 XTB=0
+EG=1.11 XTI=3 KF=0 AF=1 FC=500m TNOM=27)
.END

4. Analiza n curent continuu a componentelor


amplificatorului proiectat (.DC) determinarea
caracteristicii de ieire pentru toate tranzistoarele din
schema amplificatorului (IC=f(UCE)).

.DC - calculeaz punctul static de funcionare al circuitului (n curent


continuu).
.DC V1 0.6 0.05

****

Diode MODEL PARAMETERS

D_national_1N914
T_Measured 27
T_Current 27
IS 10.000000E-15
BV :00.000000E+27
IBV 1.000000E-03

D_national_1N4148
T_Measured 27
T_Current 27
IS 10.000000E-15
BV :00.000000E+27
IBV 1.000000E-03
****

BJT MODEL PARAMETERS

Qn2n3xxx_2N3904 Qpmisc_2N3906
NPN
PNP
T_Measured 27
27
T_Current 27
27
IS 762.000000E-18 1.390000E-15
BF 204
180
NF 1
1
VAF 113
20
IKF .07
:00.000000E+27
ISE 308.000000E-15
NE 2
BR 4
5.1
NR 1
1
VAR :00.000000E+27 :00.000000E+27
IKR :00.000000E+27 :00.000000E+27
RB 2.1
10
IRB :00.000000E+27 :00.000000E+27
RE .525
RC .21
2.8
CJE 4.850000E-12 8.200000E-12
MJE .333
.4
CJC 5.280000E-12 9.500000E-12
MJC .333
.543
TF 318.000000E-12 178.500000E-12
VTF :00.000000E+27 :00.000000E+27
TR 44.600000E-09 32.300000E-12
CN 2.42
2.2
D .87
.52

5. Analiza n curent alternativ a amplificatorului,


determinarea caracteristicii amplificare-frecven (.AC).

.AC- Folosirea instruciunii determin efectuarea analizei de semnal mic n


regim alternativ, relativ la punctul de funcionare calculat, n gama de
frecvene specificata (5Hz-30.000Hz). Pentru ca analiza s fie executat
trebuie ca cel putin o surs independent s aib specificat valoarea n
regim alternativ.
.AC LIN 300 5 1kHz

****

Diode MODEL PARAMETERS

D_national_1N914
T_Measured 27
T_Current 27
IS 10.000000E-15
BV :00.000000E+27
IBV 1.000000E-03
D_national_1N4148
T_Measured 27
T_Current 27
IS 10.000000E-15
BV :00.000000E+27
IBV 1.000000E-03
****

BJT MODEL PARAMETERS

Qn2n3xxx_2N3904 Qpmisc_2N3906
NPN
PNP
T_Measured 27
27
T_Current 27
27
IS 762.000000E-18 1.390000E-15
BF 204
180
NF 1
1
VAF 113
20
IKF .07
:00.000000E+27
ISE 308.000000E-15
NE 2
BR 4
5.1
NR 1
1
VAR :00.000000E+27 :00.000000E+27
IKR :00.000000E+27 :00.000000E+27
RB 2.1
10
IRB :00.000000E+27 :00.000000E+27
RE .525
RC .21
2.8
CJE 4.850000E-12 8.200000E-12
MJE .333
.4
10

CJC 5.280000E-12 9.500000E-12


MJC .333
.543
TF 318.000000E-12 178.500000E-12
VTF :00.000000E+27 :00.000000E+27
TR 44.600000E-09 32.300000E-12
CN 2.42
2.2
D .87
.52
****
SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION
27.000 DEG C
NODE VOLTAGE
NODE VOLTAGE

NODE

VOLTAGE

TEMPERATURE =

NODE

1)

8.8786 (

2)

3.1751 ( 3)

.7271 ( 5)

.7275

6)

3.2109 (

7)

9.0000 ( 8)

2.1909 ( 9)

2.1909

( 10)

1.4588 ( 11)

4.4773 ( 12)

5.1314 ( 13)

( 14)

5.1420 ( 16)

0.0000 ( 17)

0.0000

VOLTAGE

5.8068

VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS


NAME
CURRENT
V2
V1

-4.067E-03
0.000E+00

TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 3.66E-02 WATTS

11

6. Analiza n domeniul timp (.TRAN) rspunsul n


domeniul timp al amplificatorului pentru semnal de
intrare sinusoidal cu frecvena de 1KHz i amplitudinea
n limitele acceptate de amplificator (conform datelor
tehnice de la punctul 1).

.TRAN- Instrucinea este folosit pentru analiza n regim tranzitoriu a


circuitului dat, respectiv pentru determinarea rspunsului acestuia n
domeniul timp.
.TRAN 1US 10MS

12

****
INITIAL TRANSIENT SOLUTION
27.000 DEG C
NODE VOLTAGE
NODE VOLTAGE

NODE

VOLTAGE

TEMPERATURE =

NODE

1)

8.8786 (

2)

3.1751 ( 3)

.7271 ( 5)

.7275

6)

3.2109 (

7)

9.0000 ( 8)

2.1909 ( 9)

2.1909

( 10)

1.4588 ( 11)

4.4773 ( 12)

5.1314 ( 13)

( 14)

5.1420 ( 16)

0.0000 ( 17)

0.0000

VOLTAGE

5.8068

VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS


NAME
CURRENT
V2
V1

-4.067E-03
0.000E+00

TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 3.66E-02 WATTS

13

7. Analiza de zgomot (.NOISE)


.NOISE- Prin intermediul acestei instruciuni se calculeaz zgomotul
echivalent la intrarea i iesirea mentionat. Instructiunea actioneaz doar
dac se specific i efectuarea analizei de semnal mic, n regim alternativ,
printr-o instructiune .AC.
.NOISE V(17,0) V2

14

****
SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION
27.000 DEG C
NODE VOLTAGE
NODE VOLTAGE

NODE

VOLTAGE

TEMPERATURE =
NODE

1)

8.8786 (

2)

3.1751 ( 3)

.7271 ( 5)

.7275

6)

3.2109 (

7)

9.0000 ( 8)

2.1909 ( 9)

2.1909

( 10)

1.4588 ( 11)

4.4773 ( 12)

5.1314 ( 13)

( 14)

5.1420 ( 16)

0.0000 ( 17)

0.0000

VOLTAGE

5.8068

VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS


NAME
CURRENT
V2
V1

-4.067E-03
0.000E+00

TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 3.66E-02 WATTS


****
INITIAL TRANSIENT SOLUTION
27.000 DEG C
NODE VOLTAGE
NODE VOLTAGE

NODE

VOLTAGE

TEMPERATURE =
NODE

1)

8.8786 (

2)

3.1751 ( 3)

.7271 ( 5)

.7275

6)

3.2109 (

7)

9.0000 ( 8)

2.1909 ( 9)

2.1909

( 10)

1.4588 ( 11)

4.4773 ( 12)

5.1314 ( 13)

( 14)

5.1420 ( 16)

0.0000 ( 17)

0.0000

VOLTAGE

5.8068

15

VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS


NAME
CURRENT
V2
V1

-4.067E-03
0.000E+00

TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 3.66E-02 WATTS

8. Analiza de sensibilitate (.SENS)


.SENS- Folosirea acestei instruciuni determin calculul sensibilitilor de
semnal mic, n regim continuu, pentru variabila de ieire specificat, n
raport cu fiecare parametru de circuit.
.SENS V(17,0)

16

DC SENSITIVITIES OF OUTPUT V(17)


ELEMENT
NAME
R3
R1
R5
R8
R9
R7
R10
R2
R4
R6
V2
V1

ELEMENT
ELEMENT
NORMALIZED
VALUE
SENSITIVITY SENSITIVITY
(VOLTS/UNIT) (VOLTS/PERCENT)

3.900E+05
1.000E+02
3.900E+05
3.900E+05
2.200E+03
1.000E+03
8.000E+00
4.700E+03
4.700E+03
2.700E+04
9.000E+00
0.000E+00

D1
SERIES RESISTANCE
RS
0.000E+00
INTRINSIC PARAMETERS
IS
1.000E-14
N
1.000E+00
D2
SERIES RESISTANCE
RS
0.000E+00
INTRINSIC PARAMETERS
IS
1.000E-14
N
1.000E+00
Q1
RB
2.100E+00
RC
2.100E-01
RE
5.250E-01
BF
2.040E+02
ISE
3.080E-13
BR
4.000E+00
ISC
0.000E+00
IS
7.620E-16
NE
2.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
17

NC
IKF
IKR
VAF
VAR

2.000E+00
7.000E-02
1.000E+30
1.130E+02
1.000E+30

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

RB
RC
RE
BF
ISE
BR
ISC
IS
NE
NC
IKF
IKR
VAF
VAR

2.100E+00
2.100E-01
5.250E-01
2.040E+02
3.080E-13
4.000E+00
0.000E+00
7.620E-16
2.000E+00
2.000E+00
7.000E-02
1.000E+30
1.130E+02
1.000E+30

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

RB
RC
RE
BF
ISE
BR
ISC
IS
NE
NC
IKF
IKR
VAF
VAR

2.100E+00
2.100E-01
5.250E-01
2.040E+02
3.080E-13
4.000E+00
0.000E+00
7.620E-16
2.000E+00
2.000E+00
7.000E-02
1.000E+30
1.130E+02
1.000E+30

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

2.100E+00
2.100E-01
5.250E-01
2.040E+02

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

Q2

Q3

Q4
RB
RC
RE
BF

18

ISE
BR
ISC
IS
NE
NC
IKF
IKR
VAF
VAR

3.080E-13
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
4.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
7.620E-16
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
2.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
2.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
7.000E-02
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.000E+30
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.130E+02
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.000E+30
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

RB
RC
RE
BF
ISE
BR
ISC
IS
NE
NC
IKF
IKR
VAF
VAR

1.000E+01
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
2.800E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.800E+02
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
5.100E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.390E-15
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.500E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
2.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.000E+30
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.000E+30
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
2.000E+01
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.000E+30
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

Q5

DC SENSITIVITIES OF OUTPUT V(0)


ELEMENT
NAME
R3
R1
R5
R8
R9
R7
R10

ELEMENT
ELEMENT
NORMALIZED
VALUE
SENSITIVITY SENSITIVITY
(VOLTS/UNIT) (VOLTS/PERCENT)

3.900E+05
1.000E+02
3.900E+05
3.900E+05
2.200E+03
1.000E+03
8.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
19

R2
R4
R6
V2
V1

4.700E+03
4.700E+03
2.700E+04
9.000E+00
0.000E+00

D1
SERIES RESISTANCE
RS
0.000E+00
INTRINSIC PARAMETERS
IS
1.000E-14
N
1.000E+00
D2
SERIES RESISTANCE
RS
0.000E+00
INTRINSIC PARAMETERS
IS
1.000E-14
N
1.000E+00
Q1
RB
2.100E+00
RC
2.100E-01
RE
5.250E-01
BF
2.040E+02
ISE
3.080E-13
BR
4.000E+00
ISC
0.000E+00
IS
7.620E-16
NE
2.000E+00
NC
2.000E+00
IKF
7.000E-02
IKR
1.000E+30
VAF
1.130E+02
VAR
1.000E+30
Q2
RB
2.100E+00
RC
2.100E-01
RE
5.250E-01
BF
2.040E+02
ISE
3.080E-13
BR
4.000E+00
ISC
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
20

IS
NE
NC
IKF
IKR
VAF
VAR

7.620E-16
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
2.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
2.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
7.000E-02
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.000E+30
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.130E+02
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.000E+30
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

RB
RC
RE
BF
ISE
BR
ISC
IS
NE
NC
IKF
IKR
VAF
VAR

2.100E+00
2.100E-01
5.250E-01
2.040E+02
3.080E-13
4.000E+00
0.000E+00
7.620E-16
2.000E+00
2.000E+00
7.000E-02
1.000E+30
1.130E+02
1.000E+30

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

RB
RC
RE
BF
ISE
BR
ISC
IS
NE
NC
IKF
IKR
VAF
VAR

2.100E+00
2.100E-01
5.250E-01
2.040E+02
3.080E-13
4.000E+00
0.000E+00
7.620E-16
2.000E+00
2.000E+00
7.000E-02
1.000E+30
1.130E+02
1.000E+30

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

1.000E+01
2.800E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00

0.000E+00
0.000E+00

Q3

Q4

Q5
RB
RC

21

RE
BF
ISE
BR
ISC
IS
NE
NC
IKF
IKR
VAF
VAR

0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.800E+02
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
5.100E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.390E-15
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.500E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
2.000E+00
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.000E+30
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.000E+30
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
2.000E+01
0.000E+00
0.000E+00
1.000E+30
0.000E+00
0.000E+00

****
INITIAL TRANSIENT SOLUTION
27.000 DEG C
NODE VOLTAGE
NODE VOLTAGE

NODE

VOLTAGE

TEMPERATURE =
NODE

1)

8.8786 (

2)

3.1751 ( 3)

.7271 ( 5)

.7275

6)

3.2109 (

7)

9.0000 ( 8)

2.1909 ( 9)

2.1909

( 10)

1.4588 ( 11)

4.4773 ( 12)

5.1314 ( 13)

( 14)

5.1420 ( 16)

0.0000 ( 17)

0.0000

VOLTAGE

5.8068

VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS


NAME
CURRENT
V2
V1

-4.067E-03
0.000E+00

TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 3.66E-02 WATTS

22

9. Funcia de transfer (.TF)


.TF- Includerea acestei instruciuni determin calculul valorii funciei de
transfer, la semnal mic, n punctele statice de funcionare (variabila de
ieire/variabila de intrare), rezistenta de intrare si cea de ieire, n raport cu
nodurile specificate, fa de mas.

.TF V(R10) V1
****

SMALL-SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS

V(R10)/V1 = 5.133E-18
INPUT RESISTANCE AT V1 = 3.900E+05
OUTPUT RESISTANCE AT V(R10) = 5.504E+00

10.Analiza parametric (.PARAM)


.PARAM- < <name>=<value> >* <<name>={expr}>*
<name>=<value> - parametrului <name> i se atribuie
valoarea<value>.
<name>={expr} - parametrului <name> i se atribuie expresia {expr}.
Referirea la valoarea unui parametru global se face utiliznd
acoladele { }
.Param R10=6

23

11.
Analiza de temperatur (.TEMP) utilizarea
coeficienilor de temperatur pentru rezistoarele utilizate
n schema amplificatorului.
.TEMP- Instruciunea menioneaz temperaturile la care se simuleaz
funcionarea circuitului. Temperaturile se dau n grade Celsius, fiind
ignorate cele mai mici dect -223 C.
.TEMP -40 75
**** TEMPERATURE-ADJUSTED VALUES
-40.000 DEG C

TEMPERATURE =

**** DIODE MODEL PARAMETERS


NAME
IS
VJ
CJO
RS
IKF
D_national_1N914 (T_Current -40 T_Measured 27)
2.064E-20 1.057E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
0.000E+00 :.000E+29
D_national_1N4148 (T_Current -40 T_Measured 27)
2.064E-20 1.057E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
0.000E+00 :.000E+29

BV

**** BJT MODEL PARAMETERS


NAME
BF
ISE
VJE
CJE
RE
RB
BR
ISC
VJC
CJC
RC
RBM
IS
ISS
VJS
CJS
GAMMA
RCO
VO
Qn2n3xxx_2N3904 (T_Current -40 T_Measured 27)
2.040E+02 4.425E-16 8.632E-01 4.563E-12 5.250E-01
2.100E+00
4.000E+00 0.000E+00 8.632E-01 4.968E-12 2.100E-01
2.100E+00
1.573E-21 0.000E+00 8.632E-01 0.000E+00 1.000E-11
0.000E+00
1.000E+01
Qpmisc_2N3906 (T_Current -40 T_Measured 27)
24

1.800E+02 0.000E+00 8.632E-01 7.617E-12 0.000E+00


1.000E+01
5.100E+00 0.000E+00 8.632E-01 8.583E-12 2.800E+00
1.000E+01
2.870E-21 0.000E+00 8.632E-01 0.000E+00 1.000E-11
0.000E+00
1.000E+01
**** SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION
-40.000 DEG C

NODE VOLTAGE
NODE VOLTAGE

NODE VOLTAGE

TEMPERATURE =

NODE VOLTAGE

1) 90.02E-06 ( 2) 90.25E-06 ( 3) 2.314E-12 (

5) 90.48E-06

6)

1.6763

9.0000 (

7)

9.0000 ( 8)

( 10)

.8388 ( 11)

.8514 ( 12)

( 14)

1.6119 ( 16)

0.0000 ( 17)

9.0000 ( 9)
1.3317 ( 13)

2.3725

1.3301

VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS


NAME
CURRENT
V2
V1

-2.571E-01
2.314E-10

TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 2.31E+00 WATTS

25

**** TEMPERATURE-ADJUSTED VALUES


100.000 DEG C
**** DIODE MODEL PARAMETERS
NAME
IS
VJ
CJO
RS
IKF
D_national_1N914 (T_Current 100 T_Measured 27)
8.509E-11 9.299E-01 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
0.000E+00 :.000E+29
D_national_1N4148 (T_Current 100 T_Measured 27)
8.509E-11 9.299E-01 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
0.000E+00 :.000E+29

TEMPERATURE =

BV

**** BJT MODEL PARAMETERS


NAME
BF
ISE
VJE
CJE
RE
RB
BR
ISC
VJC
CJC
RC
RBM
IS
ISS
VJS
CJS
GAMMA
RCO
VO
Qn2n3xxx_2N3904 (T_Current 100 T_Measured 27)
2.040E+02 2.841E-11 6.191E-01 5.179E-12 5.250E-01
2.100E+00
4.000E+00 0.000E+00 6.191E-01 5.638E-12 2.100E-01
2.100E+00
6.484E-12 0.000E+00 6.191E-01 0.000E+00 1.000E-11
0.000E+00
1.000E+01
Qpmisc_2N3906 (T_Current 100 T_Measured 27)
1.800E+02 0.000E+00 6.191E-01 8.868E-12 0.000E+00
1.000E+01
5.100E+00 0.000E+00 6.191E-01 1.055E-11 2.800E+00
1.000E+01
1.183E-11 0.000E+00 6.191E-01 0.000E+00 1.000E-11
0.000E+00
1.000E+01
**** SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION
100.000 DEG C

TEMPERATURE =

26

NODE VOLTAGE
NODE VOLTAGE

NODE VOLTAGE

NODE VOLTAGE

1) 90.02E-06 ( 2) 90.25E-06 ( 3) 2.314E-12 (

5) 90.48E-06

6)

1.7387

9.0000 (

7)

9.0000 ( 8)

9.0000 ( 9)

( 10)

1.1066 ( 11)

1.1313 ( 12)

1.2751 ( 13)

( 14)

1.6491 ( 16)

0.0000 ( 17)

1.2735

2.1669

VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS


NAME
CURRENT
V2
V1

-2.503E-01
2.314E-10

TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 2.25E+00 WATTS

27

12.
Analiza Fourier (.FOUR) prezentarea datelor att
n mod text ct i n mod grafic.
.FOUR- realizeaz o analiz Fourier, ca parte a analizei n regim tranzitoriu,
la o frecven fundamental, pentru variabilele de ieire specificate. Sunt
calculate primele nou componente precum i componenta de curent
continuu.
. FOUR 1kHz V(R10)

28

****
FOURIER ANALYSIS
DEG C

TEMPERATURE = 27.000

FOURIER COMPONENTS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE V(R10)


DC COMPONENT = -2.558544E-01
HARMONIC FREQUENCY FOURIER NORMALIZED
NORMALIZED
NO
(HZ) COMPONENT COMPONENT (DEG)
(DEG)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

1.000E+03
2.000E+03
3.000E+03
4.000E+03
5.000E+03
6.000E+03
7.000E+03
8.000E+03
9.000E+03

1.008E+00
4.025E-01
1.193E-01
2.686E-01
1.001E-01
1.078E-01
1.421E-01
2.235E-02
9.153E-02

PHASE
PHASE

1.000E+00 1.767E+02 0.000E+00


3.993E-01 -1.006E+02 -4.539E+02
1.183E-01 1.677E+02 -3.623E+02
2.665E-01 -1.098E+02 -8.164E+02
9.931E-02 -2.384E+01 -9.072E+02
1.070E-01 -1.216E+02 -1.182E+03
1.410E-01 -3.390E+01 -1.271E+03
2.218E-02 7.155E+01 -1.342E+03
9.080E-02 -4.716E+01 -1.637E+03

TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION = 5.425675E+01 PERCENT

29

13.
Utilizarea subcircuitelor (.SUBCKT) nlocuirea
tranzistoarelor din schema amplificatorului cu modelul
acestora cu parametri hibrizi.
.SUBCKT- Definete un subcircuit n SPICE, care ulterior poate fi apelat
ntr-un mod similar cu cel al elementelor de circuit.
.SUBCKT HIBRID b e c
H11 b 1 8
H12 1 e 4.1
H21 e c 100
H22 c e 20
.ENDS HIBRID

30

14.
Proiectarea unei surse de curent continuu (minim
componentele de redresare, stabilizare i filtrare)
simularea funcionrii sursei de cc pentru alimentarea de
la sursa de 220V i obinerea tensiunilor prevzute la
punctul 1).

Se utilizeaz un transformator pentru reducerea tensiunii reelei de


alimentare la o valoare convenabil.
Redresorul utilizat pentru transformarea tensiunii alternative generate
de transformator ntr-o tensiune continuu este unul clasic de tip "punte".
Condensatorul conectat la ieirea redresorului are rolul de a "netezii"
tensiunea obinut din redresor.
Stabilizatorul de tensiune are rolul de a asigura o valoare constant a
tensiunii furnizate de surs indiferent de variaiile tensiunii reelei de
alimentare sau ale consumului.

31

15. Concluzii
1. Analiza n curent continuu prezint variaia curentului colector al
unui tranzistor.
2. Analiza n curent alternativ afieaz n fiierul .PROBE tensiunea
de ieire n funcie de frecven.
3. n cazul analizelor n curent continuu, SENS, TF condensatoarele
au fost nlocuite cu rezistene de valori foarte mari, pentru c n
curent continuu condensatoarele sunt ntreruperi. nlocuirea
acestora cu rezistene de valori mari permite realizarea analizei.
4. Analiza de temperatur asigur faptul c amplificatorul
funcioneaz aproximativ la fel, avnd n vedere valorile
tensiunilor din noduri.

32

16. Bibliografie

http://alldatasheet.com
http://myweb.msoe.edu/~meier/tutorials/spicedecks.html

33