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CE115 - Civil Engineering Drawing and Spatial Analysis

Civil Engineering Drawing Pt 1:

Christopher M. Monsere, Ph.D., P.E. Assistant Professor Portland State University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering monsere@pdx.edu

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Scale

Terminology

Outline

Structural drawing

Steel

Concrete

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Types of scales include:

Engineers’

Decimal

10, 50, 20, 40, 30, 60

Architects’

2 scales per edge

Feet-inches

1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 3/4, 3/8, 3, 11/2, Regular, 3/32,

3/16

Metric’

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Engineer’s Scale

3 miles
300'

30'

30"

3"

1"

The Engineer's Scale expresses

measurements as a ratio, depending

on the ratio assigned.

This means 30 gradations in the sale per inch

Actual Length

NTS: Not to scale

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NTS: Not to scale

Engineer’s Scale

660 feet
1"
Actual Length
00
00
00

There are always 10 gradations between units

Given SCALE 1”=300’

…then line that measures 1 actual inch represents 300 feet on drawing

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NTS: Not to scale

Engineer’s Scale

325 feet

Given SCALE 1”=300’

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Engineer’s Scale



NTS: Not to scale

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Don’t confuse 1:30 with 1”=30’

SCALE 1”=30’

Paper Units : Actual Units

PU

AU

=

1”

30’

=

1”

=

360”

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0.0028

Architectural Scale

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• The scale means how many inches per foot, so a ¾ scale means that ¾ inch equals one foot

• Each scale read from “0” closest definition

• Each unit represents 12 inches

Architectural Scale

Given SCALE 3/4”=1’
…this is a reduction
scale
Note this is always divisions of 1 foot. So,
since this is sub-divided unit into 24 units.
each 2 units is 1 inch.

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This means ¾” = 1”

Architectural Scale

Note that the sub-divided unit is divided into
12 units. Therefore, each unit is 1 inches.
It measures approx 14’-5”
Given SCALE 1/4”=1’
…then line that measures 1 paper inch represents 4 actual
feet

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In-class Exercise

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Plan View (Top View)

Shows the horizontal alignment

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Stationing

Given as:

STA + FT (or m)

Typically:

stations in 100 ft or 100 m

So the distance from STA 1+55 to 2+33

(assuming 100 foot stations)

(100-55) + (33) = 78 feet

OR

233-155 = 78 feet

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1
2
3

Profile View (Front View)

Shows the vertical alignment

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Plan and Profile

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Slopes

Angles sometimes given as V:H, read as “X on X” slope (RISE:RUN).

1V

1:5
5H

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Percent Slopes

Angles sometime given as % slope.A 2% means for every 100 unit horizontal, there is a 2 unit change in the vertical.

2’

2’

-2%
100’
100’
+2%

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Elevations

A building elevation is typically labeled in relation to the compass direction it faces; the direction from which a person views it.

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Elevations

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Cross Section

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Centerlines (CL) indicate center of alignment of structure

Cross Section of Deck and Hangers

Source: Dorman Long (1932) Sydney Harbour Brige. Dorman Long & Co. Ltd., p35, http://sydney-harbour-bridge.bos.nsw.edu.au/engineering- studies/engineering-graphics.php

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Section View

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In-class Exercise

What if I don’t know the scale or the drawing looks to have copied/zoomed, how could use a scale (ruler) to determine an object?

Task: Make your own scale to measure the distance between DH- 3-97 and DH-1-97

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Approximating scale

Find a dimension on the plan sheet, measure it

Create your conversion based on PU:AU

 PU 3.78” = AU (m) = AU 76 m

76 m

3.78 in

PU (in)

So if I measure 3.15” on paper….

AU (m) =

76 m

3.78 in

AU (m) = 63.33

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3.15 (in)

Structural Drawings

Structural drawings include:

Foundation plans

Wall sections and framing details

Structural steel framing and details

Beam and column drawings and details

Materials

Wood

Steel

Concrete

Masonary

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Approach

Nearly all of the drawing principles that you have learned apply to structural drawing

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Structural Steel

Two things to design/draw

Structure

Beams and columns

Size, orientation, shape, length, placement

Connections

Bolted, welded, or riveted (not really used)

Beam

Column

Column

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Engineering design drawings

Show the overall dimensions of the structure including:

Locations of columns, beams, angles and other shapes

Sizes of structural members

Detail in the form of cross sections, special connections required, and notes

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Structural Steel Shapes

 • Structural steel is available in many standard shapes • Most CAD programs have structural shapes symbol libraries available

Nominally, depth and mass/unit, so shape is 14” tall

53#/ft

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Manual of Steel Construction

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Structural Steel

Dimensions in feet and inches, no ” symbol

Plan View of One Floor

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Shop drawings

Consist of detail drawings of all parts of the entire structure showing exactly how the parts are to be made

These drawings show all dimensions necessary for fabrication, usually calculated to the nearest 1/16”

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Piece Marks

A system is used to mark each piece that is separately handled

This mark is called a piece mark and should be shown wherever the member appears on the drawings

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Connections

Main members are joined together in the field to build a structure and most joints are welded connections to the main members

Riveting is seldom used as a connection but you may find reference to riveted joints in original plans

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Welding

Welding is a common method for connecting steel members of buildings and bridges

The principal methods of welding are:

Gas welding

Arc welding

Resistance welding

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Types of Welded Joints

Butt joint

Corner joint T-joint

Lap joint

Edge joint

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Types of Basic Welds & Symbols

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Complete Welding Symbol

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Fillet Welds

The arrow points to the joint where the weld is to be made. If weld symbol is below line, weld is made on leader arrow side. If above, opposite arrow. If both above and below, then both sides of joint.

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Welding templates can simplify drawing welding symbols by hand

They have all the forms needed for drawing the arrow, weld symbols, and supplementary symbols

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Simple Beam Connection

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In-class Exercise

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Has Design Been Constructed?

1. On sheet GW-34, mark

locations of welds.

2. Review the WSDOT

plans for the bridge. Based on the photos shown here, find as many clues that answer this question

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Concrete

Concrete is made by mixing sand, gravel, or other aggregates with Portland cement and water

Concrete is very good in compression, but weak in tension

To solve this, embedded steel reinforcing bars are added to concrete

“Reinforced concrete”

Prestressed concrete,

steel is pretensioned before the superimposed load is applied

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Reinforced Concrete Drawings

Size of and shape of members

Concrete material pattern shown in section

Placement of reinforcing steel in section and plan views

Steel reinforcing shown as solid lines or filled circles depending on view or section

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Reinforced Concrete Drawings

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Spiral Column Reinforcing

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