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CE115 - Civil Engineering Drawing and Spatial Analysis

Civil Engineering Drawing Pt 1:

Plan Reading & Structural Drawings

Christopher M. Monsere, Ph.D., P.E. Assistant Professor Portland State University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering monsere@pdx.edu

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Plan reading

Scale

Terminology

Outline

Structural drawing

Steel

Concrete

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Plan Reading

Types of scales include:

Engineers’

Decimal

10, 50, 20, 40, 30, 60

Architects’

2 scales per edge

Feet-inches

1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 3/4, 3/8, 3, 11/2, Regular, 3/32,

3/16

Metric’

• 2 scales per edge • Feet-inches • 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 3/4, 3/8, 3, 11/2,
• 2 scales per edge • Feet-inches • 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 3/4, 3/8, 3, 11/2,

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Engineer’s Scale

3 miles 300'
3 miles
300'

30'Engineer’s Scale 3 miles 300' 30" 3" 1" The Engineer's Scale expresses measurements as a ratio,

30"Engineer’s Scale 3 miles 300' 30' 3" 1" The Engineer's Scale expresses measurements as a ratio,

3"

1"

The Engineer's Scale expressesScale 3 miles 300' 30' 30" 3" 1" measurements as a ratio, depending on the ratio

measurements as a ratio, depending

on the ratio assigned.

This means 30 gradations in the sale per inch

a ratio, depending on the ratio assigned. This means 30 gradations in the sale per inch

Actual Length

a ratio, depending on the ratio assigned. This means 30 gradations in the sale per inch
a ratio, depending on the ratio assigned. This means 30 gradations in the sale per inch
a ratio, depending on the ratio assigned. This means 30 gradations in the sale per inch
a ratio, depending on the ratio assigned. This means 30 gradations in the sale per inch
a ratio, depending on the ratio assigned. This means 30 gradations in the sale per inch

NTS: Not to scale

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NTS: Not to scale

Engineer’s Scale

660 feet 1" Actual Length 00 00 00
660 feet
1"
Actual Length
00
00
00

There are always 10 gradations between units

00 00 00 There are always 10 gradations between units Given SCALE 1”=300’ …then line that
00 00 00 There are always 10 gradations between units Given SCALE 1”=300’ …then line that
00 00 00 There are always 10 gradations between units Given SCALE 1”=300’ …then line that
00 00 00 There are always 10 gradations between units Given SCALE 1”=300’ …then line that
00 00 00 There are always 10 gradations between units Given SCALE 1”=300’ …then line that
00 00 00 There are always 10 gradations between units Given SCALE 1”=300’ …then line that

Given SCALE 1”=300’

…then line that measures 1 actual inch represents 300 feet on drawing

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NTS: Not to scale Engineer’s Scale 325 feet Given SCALE 1”=300’ 6

NTS: Not to scale

Engineer’s Scale

325 feet

NTS: Not to scale Engineer’s Scale 325 feet Given SCALE 1”=300’ 6
NTS: Not to scale Engineer’s Scale 325 feet Given SCALE 1”=300’ 6
NTS: Not to scale Engineer’s Scale 325 feet Given SCALE 1”=300’ 6

Given SCALE 1”=300’

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Engineer’s Scale

Engineer’s Scale  NTS: Not to scale 7



NTS: Not to scale
NTS: Not to scale

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Don’t confuse 1:30 with 1”=30’

SCALE 1”=30’

Paper Units : Actual Units

PU

AU

=

1”

30’

=

1”

=

360”

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0.0028

1”=30’ SCALE 1”=30’ Paper Units : Actual Units PU AU = 1” 30’ = 1” =

Reduction scale in ACAD

Architectural Scale

Architectural Scale 9 • The scale means how many inches per foot, so a ¾ scale
Architectural Scale 9 • The scale means how many inches per foot, so a ¾ scale

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• The scale means how many inches per foot, so a ¾ scale means that ¾ inch equals one foot

• Each scale read from “0” closest definition

• Each unit represents 12 inches

that ¾ inch equals one foot • Each scale read from “0” closest definition • Each

Architectural Scale

Given SCALE 3/4”=1’ …this is a reduction scale Note this is always divisions of 1
Given SCALE 3/4”=1’
…this is a reduction
scale
Note this is always divisions of 1 foot. So,
since this is sub-divided unit into 24 units.
each 2 units is 1 inch.

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This means ¾” = 1”

Architectural Scale

Note that the sub-divided unit is divided into 12 units. Therefore, each unit is 1
Note that the sub-divided unit is divided into
12 units. Therefore, each unit is 1 inches.
It measures approx 14’-5”
Given SCALE 1/4”=1’
…then line that measures 1 paper inch represents 4 actual
feet

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In-class Exercise

In-class Exercise 12

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Plan View (Top View)

Shows the horizontal alignment
Shows the horizontal alignment

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Stationing

Given as:

STA + FT (or m)

Typically:

stations in 100 ft or 100 m

So the distance from STA 1+55 to 2+33

(assuming 100 foot stations)

(100-55) + (33) = 78 feet

OR

233-155 = 78 feet

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1 2 3
1
2
3

Profile View (Front View)

Profile View (Front View) Shows the vertical alignment 15
Shows the vertical alignment
Shows the vertical alignment

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Plan and Profile

Plan and Profile 16

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Slopes

Angles sometimes given as V:H, read as “X on X” slope (RISE:RUN).

1V

1:5 5H
1:5
5H

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Percent Slopes

Angles sometime given as % slope.A 2% means for every 100 unit horizontal, there is a 2 unit change in the vertical.

2’

2’

-2% 100’
-2%
100’
100’ +2%
100’
+2%

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Elevations

A building elevation is typically labeled in relation to the compass direction it faces; the direction from which a person views it.

is typically labeled in relation to the compass direction it faces; the direction from which a

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Elevations

Elevations 20

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Cross Section

Cross Section 21 Centerlines (CL) indicate center of alignment of structure

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Centerlines (CL) indicate center of alignment of structure

link Cross Section of Deck and Hangers Source: Dorman Long (1932) Sydney Harbour Brige. Dorman

Cross Section of Deck and Hangers

Source: Dorman Long (1932) Sydney Harbour Brige. Dorman Long & Co. Ltd., p35, http://sydney-harbour-bridge.bos.nsw.edu.au/engineering- studies/engineering-graphics.php

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Section View

Section View 23

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In-class Exercise

In-class Exercise • What if I don’t know the scale or the drawing looks to have

What if I don’t know the scale or the drawing looks to have copied/zoomed, how could use a scale (ruler) to determine an object?

Task: Make your own scale to measure the distance between DH- 3-97 and DH-1-97

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Approximating scale

Find a dimension on the plan sheet, measure it

Create your conversion based on PU:AU

PU

3.78”

 

=

AU (m) =

AU

76 m

76 m

3.78 in

PU (in)

So if I measure 3.15” on paper….

AU (m) =

76 m

3.78 in

AU (m) = 63.33

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3.15 (in)

Structural Drawings

Structural drawings include:

Foundation plans

Wall sections and framing details

Structural steel framing and details

Beam and column drawings and details

Materials

Wood

Steel

Concrete

Masonary

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Approach

Nearly all of the drawing principles that you have learned apply to structural drawing

AutoCAD has “tools” built-in to help you draw elements faster

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Structural Steel

Two things to design/draw

Structure

Beams and columns

Size, orientation, shape, length, placement

Connections

Bolted, welded, or riveted (not really used)

shape, length, placement – Connections • Bolted, welded, or riveted (not really used) Beam Column Column

Beam

Column

Column

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Engineering design drawings

Show the overall dimensions of the structure including:

Locations of columns, beams, angles and other shapes

Sizes of structural members

Detail in the form of cross sections, special connections required, and notes

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Structural Steel Shapes

Structural Steel Shapes • S t r u c t u r a l s t

Structural steel is available in many standard shapes

Most CAD programs have structural shapes symbol libraries available

have structural shapes symbol libraries available Video Link Nominally, depth and mass/unit, so shape is 14”

Nominally, depth and mass/unit, so shape is 14” tall

53#/ft

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Manual of Steel Construction

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Structural Steel

Dimensions in feet and inches, no ” symbol

Structural Steel Dimensions in feet and inches, no ” symbol Plan View of One Floor 32
Structural Steel Dimensions in feet and inches, no ” symbol Plan View of One Floor 32

Plan View of One Floor

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Shop drawings

Consist of detail drawings of all parts of the entire structure showing exactly how the parts are to be made

These drawings show all dimensions necessary for fabrication, usually calculated to the nearest 1/16”

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Piece Marks

A system is used to mark each piece that is separately handled

This mark is called a piece mark and should be shown wherever the member appears on the drawings

handled • This mark is called a piece mark and should be shown wherever the member

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Connections

Main members are joined together in the field to build a structure and most joints are welded connections to the main members

Riveting is seldom used as a connection but you may find reference to riveted joints in original plans

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Welding

Welding is a common method for connecting steel members of buildings and bridges

The principal methods of welding are:

Gas welding

Arc welding

Resistance welding

and bridges • The principal methods of welding are: – Gas welding – Arc welding –

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Types of Welded Joints

Butt joint

Corner joint T-joint

Corner joint T-joint

Lap joint

Edge joint

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Welded Joints Butt joint • Corner joint T-joint • • Lap joint • • Edge joint

Types of Basic Welds & Symbols

Types of Basic Welds & Symbols 38

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Complete Welding Symbol

Complete Welding Symbol 39

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Fillet Welds

Fillet Welds The arrow points to the joint where the weld is to be made. If
Fillet Welds The arrow points to the joint where the weld is to be made. If

The arrow points to the joint where the weld is to be made. If weld symbol is below line, weld is made on leader arrow side. If above, opposite arrow. If both above and below, then both sides of joint.

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CAD Welding Templates

Welding templates can simplify drawing welding symbols by hand

They have all the forms needed for drawing the arrow, weld symbols, and supplementary symbols

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Simple Beam Connection

Simple Beam Connection 42

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In-class Exercise

In-class Exercise 43
In-class Exercise 43

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Has Design Been Constructed?

Has Design Been Constructed? 1. On sheet GW-34, mark locations of welds. 2. Review the WSDOT

1. On sheet GW-34, mark

locations of welds.

2. Review the WSDOT

plans for the bridge. Based on the photos shown here, find as many clues that answer this question

2. Review the WSDOT plans for the bridge. Based on the photos shown here, find as

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Concrete

Concrete • Concrete is made by mixing sand, gravel, or other aggregates with Portland cement and

Concrete is made by mixing sand, gravel, or other aggregates with Portland cement and water

Concrete is very good in compression, but weak in tension

To solve this, embedded steel reinforcing bars are added to concrete

“Reinforced concrete”

Prestressed concrete,

steel is pretensioned before the superimposed load is applied

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Reinforced Concrete Drawings

Size of and shape of members

Concrete material pattern shown in section

Placement of reinforcing steel in section and plan views

Steel reinforcing shown as solid lines or filled circles depending on view or section

AR-CONC HATCH pattern in ACAD

as solid lines or filled circles depending on view or section AR-CONC HATCH pattern in ACAD
as solid lines or filled circles depending on view or section AR-CONC HATCH pattern in ACAD

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as solid lines or filled circles depending on view or section AR-CONC HATCH pattern in ACAD

SOLID HATCH pattern in ACAD

Reinforced Concrete Drawings

Reinforced Concrete Drawings 47
Reinforced Concrete Drawings 47

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Spiral Column Reinforcing

Spiral Column Reinforcing 48

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50
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Jackson School Road O’xing

Jackson School Road O’xing 52

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Jackson School Road O’xing

Bent 2
Bent 2

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Rebar Reinforcing Details

Rebar Reinforcing Details 54

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