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Cercetri privind contaminarea cu metale grele a unor produse forestiere nelemnoase de importan sanogen i economic, din jurul oraului

Copa Mic Conductor tiinific, Nume i prenume Prof.Dr.Ing. Ignea Gheorghe Rezumatul tezei Introducere Fenomenul de poluare a aerului, alturi de poluarea solului i a apelor, este o problem de scar internaional care nu cunoate delimitri naionale sau bariere geopolitice. Multe din efectele toxice ale poluanilor sunt dificil de identificat i catalogat pentru c muli poluani atmosferici acioneaz sinergic cu ali factori stresori biotici sau abiotici. Fiind preocupat de modernizarea agriculturii, dezvoltarea accelerat a industriei, urbanizarea i concentrarea populaiei n orae mari, omul a ignorat i a dus la limit capacitile ecosistemelor naturale, inclusiv a ecosistemelor forestiere de a absorbi produsele secundare ale activitilor antropogene. Sursele artificiale majore de poluare a atmosferei sunt: industria, transporturile, instalaiile de nclzire i chimizarea agriculturii. Sursele de poluare urban sunt asociate n general cu procesele de combustie, transport, generare i utilizare a energiei (Padgett i Kee, 2004). Poluanii atmosferici afecteaz i ecosistemele forestiere crora le provoac diferite grade de vtmri. Efectele poluanilor variaz n funcie de tipul activitilor antropogene generatoare i de caracteristicile topoclimatice ale mediului. Ecosistemele forestiere, mai ales cele din Europa Central au fost expuse polurii de zeci chiar sute de ani. Dup Rademacher (2003) primele simptome vizibile care au atras atenia oamenilor de tiin au fost vtmrile foliare la conifere. Padgett i Kee (2004) arat c n ultimele decade multe naiuni au recunoscut efectele dramatice ale polurii aerului asupra ecosistemelor forestiere i au sczut sau eliminat prin legisla ie sau prin modernizarea tehnologiilor emisiile mai multor poluani. Datorit acumulrii metalelor n sol apare riscul contaminrii organismelor vegetale i animale care pot prelua metalele pe cale direct sau indirect i le pot transfera altor organisme prin intermediul relatiilor trofice (Zuhang, 2009 citat de Cojoc, 2011; Bolea i Chira, 2005). Prezenta tez de doctorat abordeaz poluarea cu metale grele a unor produse forestiere nelemnoase cu importan sanogen i economic din jurul oraului Copa Mic. Arealul cercetat are ca reper central S.C. SOMETRA S.A. sursa principal emitoare a poluanilor (n special SOx, NOx, pulberi cu coninut de metale grele). Chiar dac n prezent activitatea societii este temporar i parial Doctorand, Nume i prenume Goji Gyz

oprit din cauza situaiei economice nefavorabile, activitatea timp de 7 decenii a avut o influen negativ pronunat asupra ecosistemelor locale. Stadiul actual al cunotinelor Impactul emisiilor poluante asupra fitocenozelor, zoocenozelor i edafotopurilor locale cu specific forestier a fost cercetat printre alii i de Smejkal (1982), Iordache (2009b), Untaru (2000), Alexa et al (2004), Ianculescu et al (1995), Lctuu (2008), Micu (2001), Zaharia (1999), Stnescu, Gava (1978), Bolea i Chira (2007, 2008). Studiile realizate au fost n direcia cuantificrii impactului noxelor emise asupra pierderilor de mas lemnoas, a reuitei plantrii unor specii n procesul de reconstrucie ecologic din zon, asupra ncrcrii cu metale grele a solurilor, a capacitii de bioacumulare i metabolizare a unor substane chimice din mediu. Scopul cercetrilor Evidenierea impactului polurii cu metale grele a unor produse forestiere nelemnoase cu importan sanogen i economic, respectiv a solurilor din arealul cercetat prin prisma contaminrii lanului trofic. Obiectivele urmrite Scopului general i-au fost subordonate urmtoarele obiective: 1. aprecierea influenei unor variabile independente de mediu asupra procesului de contaminare a speciilor cercetate cu metale potenial toxice; 2. aprecierea gradului de contaminare cu metale grele potenial toxice a produselor forestiere nelemnoase prin compararea cu pragurile de concentraie reglementate pe plan naional sau internaional; 3. determinarea coninutului total maxim de metale grele potenial toxice n unele produse forestiere nelemnoase de importan sanogen i economic; 4. evaluarea comparativ a contaminrii materialului vegetal recoltat din diferite suprafee de prob; 5. urmrirea dinamicii contaminrii produselor de importan sanogen i economic pe parcursul a doi ani consecutivi n condiiile sistrii pariale a activitii agentului poluator principal al zonei; 6. determinarea influenei unor factori de mediu la ncrcarea cu metale grele potenial toxice ale solurilor studiate; 7. evaluarea gradului de contaminare cu cadmiu i plumb a solurilor din zona Copa Mic, prin compararea cu pragurile de concentraie reglementate din ar n vigoare; 8. aprecierea ncrcrii solurilor studiate cu metale grele potenial toxice prin calcularea unor indici relativi; 9. studiul unor caracteristici fizico-chimici ale edafotopurilor locale cu influen asupra mobilitii i disponibilitii unor metale grele din sol; 2

10. determinarea siguranei utilizrii produselor forestiere nelemnoase locale i propunerea unor comportamente ecosanogene cu privire la folosirea lor. Locul cercetrilor n urma deplasrilor n teren au fost identificate, delimitate i georefereniate 17 suprafe e de prob din care au fost recoltate probe vegetale i de sol de pe raza fondului forestier administrat de O.S. Media (din cadrul U.P. I, II, III, VII, VIII), i O.S. Aiud (UP I Veseu ) - care cuprinde suprafa a de prob martor. Cadrul fizico-fito-geografic al teritoriului studiat Din punct de vedere geografic teritoriul care cuprinde dispozitivul experimental n care s-au efectuat investigaiile de teren este situat n Podiul Trnavelor, partea SE a Depresiunii Transilvaniei, fiind raportat la platforma industrial a oraului Copa Mic. Metode de cercetare n vederea realizrii cercetrilor au fost interprinse urmtoarele activiti: - studiul ntemeiat a informaiilor din literatura de specialitate din domeniul polurii; - amplasarea i caracterizarea suprafeelor de prob i realizarea eantionajului vegetal (dup ICPForest 2005), i de sol (ICPA, 1981). - condiionarea probelor vegetale i de sol; - realizarea determinrilor analitice de laborator a unor caracteristici fizico-chimice ale solului (pH, V %, Sh, T, coninutul de humus) dar i asupra nivelului de aprovizionare cu N total, P mobil, K accesibil a solului precum i determinarea gradului de ncrcare cu Pb i Cd a solurilor cercetate; - prelucrarea statistic a variabilelor determinate experimental. Rezultatele cercetrilor Colectivitatea statistic rezultat n urma determinrilor analitice de laborator cuprinde 565 de msurtori asupra coninutului de metale grele din materialul vegetal i 79 valori experimentale ale concentraiei lor n sol. Concluzii i contribuii personale Pe baza rezultatelor cercetrilor proprii prezentate anterior n aceast tez, pot fi formulate i sintetizate urmtoarele concluzii pe care le prezentm n relaie cu obiectivele fixate: 1. Concluzii desprinse din obiectivul: Aprecierea influenei unor variabile independente de mediu asupra procesului de contaminare a speciilor cercetate cu metale potential toxice. - distribuia concentraiilor de metale grele cercetate (Pb, Cd, Zn i Cu) n colectivitatea statistic nu respect legitatea normal fapt ce a necesitat stratificarea datelor n funcie de factorii geograficoecologici ai mediului rezultnd urmtoarele aspecte: 3

- suprafaa de prob influeneaz acumularea doar a Pb n materialul vegetal eantionat; - distana fa de sursa principal de poluare este un factor hotrtor n acumularea Pb, evideniindu-se o tendin evident de scdere a cantitilor acumulate cu creterea distanei; - altitudinea este factor de influen pentru acumularea Pb i Zn; - influena speciei este semnificativ doar pentru concentrarea Cd n eantioanele vegetale recoltate; - acumularea tuturor celor 4 metale grele cercetate este n funcie de organul eantionat; 2. Concluziile care rezult din obiectivul: Aprecierea gradului de contaminare cu metale grele potenial toxice a produselor forestiere nelemnoase prin compararea cu pragurile de concentraie reglementate din ar sau internaionale. n vederea aprecierii gradului de contaminare a eantioanelor vegetale recoltate cu metale grele potenial toxice am optat pentru compararea valorilor de concentraie medii calculate cu valorile limitelor maxim admisibile (denumite n continuare LMA), n domeniul de utilizare cel mai probabil sau frecvent ale produselor forestiere cercetate, legiferate sau propuse de diveri cercettori din domeniu. 3. Concluziile care rezult din obiectivul: Determinarea coninutului total maxim de metale grele potenial toxice n unele produse forestiere nelemnoase de importan sanogen i economic. Evaluarea concentraiilor de metale grele potenial toxice a fost realizat prin compararea valorilor maxime ale metalelor grele studiate n funcie de organul eantionat dar i de specificitatea etapei de pregtire a probelor supuse determinrilor analitice: - valorile maxime ale Pb din florile speciilor studiate au fost identificate la pducel i salcm. Coninutul maxim de Pb al florilor de mur reprezint jumtate din concentraiile determinate la pducel i salcm; - determinrile analitice ale Pb din frunze arat un maxim de concentraie la mur, valoare care excede cu peste 3 ori maximul de Pb al frunzelor de pducel. Situaie similar a fost determinat i n cazul valorilor maxime de Cu din mur, mai mare dect la pducel dar i a Zn n frunzele de mur i pducel. Factorii identificai ca fiind determinani ai acumulrii acestei cantiti de Pb sunt situarea suprafe ei de prob n imediata vecintate a sursei principale de poluare a zonei cercetate, precum i caracteristicile i particularitile morfo-anatomice ale frunzelor de mur (suprafaa mare a limbului foliar, prezena perilor pe epiderma inferioar), comparativ cu frunzele de pducel. n cazul predominanei depunerilor atmosferice, frunzele de mur rein cu eficien superioar particulele cu coninut de metale grele. Capacitatea de bioacumulare a Pb n fructe, la speciile studiate, descrete n urmtoarea ordine: mur > amorf > pducel> ctin. Concentraiile de Cd plaseaz florile de pducel pe primul loc, secondate, ndeaproape, de florile de mur, florile de salcm prezentnd valori minime. Coninutul minim n cupru se nregistreaz 4

la fructele de ctin. Coninutul maxim de Zn din flori evideniaz pducelul i murul. n fructe ordinea maximelor valorilor de Zn este urmtoarea: mur > pducel > ctin. Clasificarea capacitii de bioacumulare a Pb n fructele speciilor studiate reflectate prin valori maxime arat c cea mai ridicat valoare s-a determinat la mur> pducel> ctin. Cantitile maxime de Cu n flori prezint diferene mici de la o specie la alta: pducel> salcm> mur. 4. Concluziile care rezult din obiectivul: Evaluarea comparativ a contaminrii materialului vegetal recoltat din diferite suprafee de prob. Pentru evaluarea contaminrii materialului vegetal recoltat din diferite suprafee de prob au fost comparate valorile maxime de concentraii ale metalelor grele cercetate din materialul vegetal eantionat. O contaminare de peste dou ori a materialului vegetal cu poluani n sondajul maxim poluat fa de restul eantionului s-a nregistrat n cazul: - Pb, Cd i Zn n fructele de pducel, ctin, frunzele de mur i a Pb n fructele de amorf din SP2; - Pb, Zn i Cu n fructele de pducel, a Pb n florile i frunzele de mur, a Cd n florile de salcm i a tuturor celor 4 metale cercetate n fructele de mur eantionate din SP9; - Pb, Cd i Zn n frunzele de pducel i mur, a Pb, Zn i Cu n fructele de amorf, a Pb n florile de salcm i a tuturor celor 4 metale cercetate n fructele de pducel i mur eantionate din SP14; - Pb, Cd n florile de pducel, Pb n frunzele de pducel i a tuturor celor 4 metale cercetate n fructele de pducel eantionate din SP17; - Pb, Cd i Zn n frunzele de pducel i mur, a Pb i Cd n florile de mur, Pb, Zn i Cu din fructele de amorf, Pb din florile de pducel i salcm i a tuturor celor 4 metale cercetate n fructele de pducel i mur eantionate din SP1. 5. Concluziile care rezult din obiectivul: Urmrirea dinamicii contaminrii produselor de importan sanogen i economic pe parcursul a 2 ani consecutivi n condi iile sistrii par iale a activitii agentului poluator principal al zonei. Din analiza datelor calculate privind frecvena depirii LMA considerate a unor metale grele potenial toxice n produsele forestiere nelemnoase cercetate pe parcursul a 2 ani succesiv de e antionaj (2009-2010) se desprind urmtoarele concluzii: Din analiza comparativ a irurilor de date calculate pentru cei 2 ani consecutivi se poate estima dinamica contaminrii produselor forestiere eantionate. Scderea frecvenei depirilor LMA din anul 2010 fa de 2009 este evident n cazul Pb la frunzele i fructele de pducel i fructele de mur amorf i ctin; la Cd pentru fructele de mur i ctin; pentru Zn la fructele de pducel, mur i ctin; un trend descendent observndu-se pentru Cu doar la frunzele de pducel. 6. Concluziile care rezult din obiectivul: Determinarea influenei unor factori de mediu la ncrcarea cu metale grele potenial toxice ale solurilor studiate. 5

n urma aplicrii testelor statistice au rezultat urmtoarele: - concentraia de Pb i Cd din solurile cercetate scade cu creterea distanei fa de agentul poluator principal, tendina discontinu sugernd influena i a altor factori; - altitudinea sczut a reliefului zonei studiate nu prezint influen semnificativ asupra acumulrii de Pb i Cd n solurile din zona studiat; - att Pb ct i Cd sunt semnificativ influenai de expunerea fa de sursa principal poluatoare, expoziia versantului nefiind un factor de influen asupra contaminrii solurilor cu metalele grele cercetate. 7. Concluzii desprinse din obiectivul: Evaluarea gradului de contaminare cu plumb i cadmiu a solurilor din zona Copa Mic, prin compararea cu pragurile de concentraie reglementate din ar n vigoare. - dac se apreciaz gradul de ncrcare a solurilor prin compararea valorilor medii ale concentraiilor totale de Pb i Cd determinate analitic, cu pragurile poluanilor chimici din sol reglementate de O.M. 765/1997 se constat c din totalul de 14 valori ale concentraiei Cd obinute din probele de sol recoltate din suprafeele de prob, 4 valori sunt sub pragul P.a.s. iar 9 peste P.i.s., o valoare fiind ntre pragurile P.i.s i P.a.s. n cazul Pb 3 valori de concentraie sunt sub P.a.s., 5 ntre P.i.s i P.a.s. iar 6 peste P.i.s. 8. Concluzii desprinse din obiectivul: Aprecierea ncrcrii solurilor studiate cu metale grele potenial toxice prin calcularea unor indici relativi. Calcularea indicelui de poluare global multielemental Z a permis ierarhizarea solurilor n funcie de gradul de poluare. Prin compararea valorilor obinute cu indici de abunden maxim admis pentru metalele grele studiate se observ pentru cazurile IA i> IAMAi c impactul polurii cu Cd asupra solurilor cercetate este mai mare dect a Pb. 9. Concluziile care rezult din obiectivul: Studiul unor caracteristici fizico-chimici ale edafotopurilor locale cu influen asupra mobilitii i disponibilitii unor metale grele din sol - determinarea pH-ul solurilor cercetate din zona Copa Mic arat preponderena claselor de reacie slab acide spre moderat alcaline, aspect surprins i de alte cercetri din zon. Acest lucru determin o mobilizare redus a Pb i Cd din sol; - coninutul extrem de mic de N total s-a determinat n suprafeele de prob foarte poluate (apar innd perimetrului Trnvioara); - a fost observat preponderena claselor extrem de mic la foarte mic pentru coninutul de P mediu din solurile cercetate, ct i tendina de scdere a concentraiei cu creterea adncimii de prelevare;

- coninutul de K mobil, biodisponibil variaz de la extrem de mic n adncimea 10-15 cm la extrem de mic spre foarte mic la adncimea 30-35 cm. Ca i coninutul de P mobil i K mobil scade cu adncimea; - coninutul n humus al solurilor cercetate scade odat cu creterea adncimii, valori reduse fiind determinate n suprafeele de prob din cadrul perimetrului Trnvioara. Dintre factorii fizico-chimici determinai analitic doar coninutul de Cd s-a corelat cu coninutul de humus de la adncimea de 0-5 cm. 10. Concluziile care rezult din obiectivul: Determinarea siguranei utilizrii produselor forestiere nelemnoase locale i propunerea unor comportamente ecosanogene cu privire la folosirea lor: Produsele forestiere recoltate din zona Copa Mic care au constituit obiectul cercetrilor prezint concentraii de metale grele potenial toxice care exced de mai multe ori limitele maxime permisibile. Consumul unor produse sub forma preparatelor medicinale dar i ca alimente (fructele de mur i ctin) pot duce la acumularea n timp a Pb i Cd n organismul uman (mai ales la copii) cu risc real asupra sntii. Cu referire la produsele cu aciune terapeutic (flori i frunze de pducel, frunze de mur i flori de salcm) se poate afirma c la folosirea lor sub form de infuzii procente nsemnate de Pb i Cd pot trece n lichid n urma extraciei prezentnd astfel un risc asupra sntii umane. Contribuii personale S-a consultat o vast bibliografie din domeniul polurii (peste 240 de titluri bibliografice, cu titluri din strintate, recente). Au fost delimitate suprafee de prob georefereniate (stereo_70), care pot fi ulterior uor identificate pentru alte cercetri. Distanele au fost raportate la coordonatele stereo_70 ale celui mai nalt co de evacuare, considerat principala surs de mprtiere a emisiilor poluante. A fost semnalat impactul negativ al unor metale grele neeseniale, potenial toxice (Pb i Cd) asupra produselor forestiere cercetate, datele experimentale obinute fiind comparabile cu rezultatele altor cercetri realizate n zona Copa Mic. Au fost cercetate sub aspectul polurii specii variate (amorfa puin studiat). Cercetrile au fost orientate n funcie de utilitatea preponderent a produsului forestier. Valorile de concentraie obinute (att la probele vegetale ct i la sol) au fost comparate cu valori limit legiferate n vigoare. S-a urmrit surprinderea gradului de contaminare a produselor vegetale din perspectiva contaminrii lanului trofic.

A fost studiat solul ca i component indispensabil a circuitului biogeochimic al metalelor din ecosisteme. A fost determinat ncrcarea total a solurilor studiate cu metale grele toxice. S-a urmrit aprecierea gradului de contaminare a solurilor prin indici relativi. A fost cercetat influena poluanilor asupra unor proprieti fizico-chimice ale solurilor cu rol determinant n mobilitatea i biodisponibilitatea metalelor din sol.

Se recomand: 1. Evitarea consumului i utilizrii produselor forestiere nelemnoase cercetate din zona Copa Mic; 2. Continuarea investigrii speciilor sursa de produse pe parcursul a mai multor ani pentru stabilirea capacitilor de bioacumulare i metabolizare a poluanilor i din alte zone afectate de poluare; 3. Monitorizarea dinamicii acumulrii metalelor grele n specii forestiere nelemnoase de interes sanogen i economic pe parcursul sezonului de vegetaie; 4. Extinderea cercetrilor din jurul localitilor nvecinate cu oraul Copa Mic prin realizarea unei reele permanente de monitorizare a calitii unor produse forestiere nelemnoase; 5. Detalierea hrilor cu privire la ncadrarea suprafeelor n zone de poluare i n funcie de gradul de contaminare cu metale grele speciilor studiate.

RESEARCH REGARDING THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION OF SOME NONWOOD FOREST PRODUCTS WITH HEALTH PROMOTING AND ECONOMICAL IMPORTANCE AROUND COPA MIC

Scientific Coordonator,
Prof.Dr.Ing. Ignea Gheorghe Abstract Preface

PhD Student, Goji Gyz

The phenomenon of air pollution, alongside the soil and water pollution is an international problem that goes beyond national and geopolitical landmarks. Many of the pollutants toxic effects are difficult to identify and label because many atmospheric pollutants that act synergetic with other biotic and abiotic factors. Being preoccupied with the agricultural modernization, urbanization and the concentration of population in cities, man ignored and pushed to the limit the natural ecosystems capacity, this includes the forest ability to absorb the second hand products of the anthropological activities. The major artificial resources of the atmosphere are: the industry, the transport, the heating installations and the chemical treatment in agriculture. The urban pollution sources are generally associated with the combustion processes, transportation, begetting and using of energy (Padgett and Kee, 2004). The atmospheric pollutants gradually damage the forest ecosystems as well. The pollution effects vary according to the generating anthropological activities and the environments topoclimatic features. The forest ecosystems, especially those in Central Europe have been exposed to pollution for decades or even hundreds of years. According to Rademacher (2003) the first visible symptoms that caught scientists attention were the leaves damages in conifers. Padgett and Kee (2004) proves that in the last decades many nations have admitted the dramatic effects of pollution on forest ecosystems and decreased or even eliminated, on a legal basis or through the technological modernization, many pollutants emissions. Due to the accumulation of metals in the soil the risk of animals and plants contamination appears, that can undertake metals directly or indirectly and transfer them to other organism throught the food chain relationships. (Zuhang, 2009 quoted by Cojoc, 2011; Bolea and Chira, 2005). The present doctorate thesis deals with the research regarding the heavy metal contamination of some nonwood forest products with health promoting and economical importance around Copa Mic. The researched area focuses on S.C. SOMETRA S.A. the main pollutant source (especially SOx, NOx, powders with a high level of heavy metals). Even though nowadays the societys activity has 9

been partially closed because of the unpropitious economical situation, its seven decades activity has had a deep negative influence on local ecosystems. The current state of knowledge The effect of pollutants emissions on the forestry phytocenosis, zoocenosis and edaphotops has been researched by Smejkal (1982), Iordache (2009b), Untaru (2000), Alexa et al (2004), Ianculescu et al (1995), Lctuu (2008), Micu (2001), Zaharia (1999), Stnescu, Gava (1978), Bolea and Chira (2007, 2008). The studies have been directed at the quantification of the emitted noxes impact on the loss of wood mass, on the success of planting of some species in the process of ecological reconstruction in the area. Moreover the studies point to the soils load with heavy metals, to the bioaccumulation and metabolizing capacity of some chemical substances in the environment. The purpose of the research The emphasizing of the impact of the heavy metal pollution of some nonwood forest products with health promoting and economical importance, respectively of the soils in the researched area in view of the contamination of the food chain. The aims of the research To the general aim the following objectives have been added: 1. the appreciation of some independent environmental variables on the contamination process of the researched species with potentially toxic metals; 2. the appreciation of the degree of potentially toxic heavy metals contamination of the nonwood forest products by comparison with the regular concentration threshold in a national and international context; 3. the determination of the total maximum content of potentially toxic heavy metals in some nonwood forest products with health promoting and economical importance; 4. the comparative evaluation of vegetable samples collected from different sample areas 5. the follow-up of the contamination dynamics of the health promoting and economical importance products in two successive years under the condition of the standstill order of the activity of the main polluting agent in the area; 6. the determination of the influence of some environmental factors in the loading with toxic heavy metals of the studied soils; 7. the evaluation of the degree of soil contamination with cadmium and lead of the soils in the Copa Mic area in comparison with the with the regular concentration threshold in our country;

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8. the appreciation of the loading of the studied soils with potentially toxic heavy metals by calculating some relative parameters; 9. the study of some physic-chemical in local edaphotops features with influence on the mobility and disposition of some heavy metals in the soil; 10. the determination of the safeness of using the local nonwood forest products and the suggestion of some health promoting components and see to their usage; The location of the research Following the fieldwork 17 test areas have been identified, delimited and geo-referenced aout of which vegetal and soil tests have been gathered in the forestry stock in the Media Forest District (in U.P. I, II, III, VII, VIII) and the Aiud Forest District (UP I Veseu) that covers the witness area. The physical-phytogeographical framework of the investigation territory From a geographical point of view the area that comprises the experimental device in which the field investigations have been carried out is in the Trnave Highland, in the S-E of the Transylvanian Lowlands, reported to the industrial platform in Copa Mic. The N-NV limit of the area is represented by a higher area, distinctively emphasized by the Baznei and Fgetului Hills that separate the hydrographical basin of both Trnava Rivers. The southern part of the area is marked by a alignment oriented in the direction of eica Mic, Agrbiciu,Valea Viilor, that contain the inferior flows of Visa and Valea Viilor. The North of the studied area is bordered by the Transylvanian Lowlands, the Blaj Lowlands, in the West the Secaelor and Amna Lowlands, the Southern limit being represented by the Vurprului si Hrtibaciului Lowlands. The research method To accomplish the research the following activities were carried on: the through study of information in the specialized literature of the pollution domain; the identification and characterization of the test surfaces and the test specimen implementation (according to ICP-Forest, 2005); the vegetal and soil tests consolidation; the deduction of the laboratory analytical determinations of some physical-chemical features of the soil (pH, V%, Sh, T, the humus content) and of the soil supply level with N, P, K. Moreover the determination of the of the Lead and Cadmium burden of the researched soils. the statistical analyze of the experimentally determined variables; The researchs results The global level of contamination of the vegetal products in the researchs area The statistic collectivity, resulted from laboratory analytical determinations, has 565 measurements on the metal content in the vegetal material and 79 experimental values of their soil concentration. 11

Conclusions and personal contributions Based on the researchs results presented prior in this thesis, the following synthetic conclusions can be formulated related to the fixed objectives: 1.Conclusions following the aim: The appreciation of some independent environmental variables on the contamination process of the researched species with potentially toxic metals: - the distribution of the researched heavy metals (Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper) in the statistic collectivity do not respect normal legitimacy which determined the stratification of data accordingly to the environmental geographical- ecological factors. This lead to the following aspects: - the altitude influenced the accumulation of Lead and Zinc. - the species influence is significant for the Cadmium concentration in the harvested vegetal samples. - the accumulation of the four researched heavy metals in the sampled organ: 2. The conclusions the results from the objective: The appreciation of the degree of potentially toxic heavy metals contamination of the nonwood forest products by comparison with the regular concentration threshold in a national and international context To monitories the degree of contamination of the harvested vegetal samples with potentially toxic heavy metals we opted for the comparison of the values of the medium calculated concentration with the maximum admitted values limits (named MAL) in the applied area of the researched wood products, legalized or proposed by different researchers. 3. The conclusions the results from the objective: The determination of the total maximum content of potentially toxic heavy metals in some nonwood forest products with health promoting and economical importance; Evaluating, potentially toxic, heavy metals concentrations was done by comparing studied heavy metals maximum values according to sampled organs, and also by analytically determining of samples in their specified stage of preparation. The classification of the Leads maximum values in the studied species of flowers is in accordance with the following inequality: hawthorn>black locust>blackberry. Analytical determinations of Lead made in leaves show a maximum of concentration in blackberry, value which exceeds by over three times the maximum of lead in hawthorn leaves. A similar situation was determined in the case of the maximum values of Copper in blackberry, much larger than in those of hawthorn, but also in Zinc, similar values of the maximum concentration in both blackberry leaves as hawthorn leaves. The factors identified as being determining for the accumulation of such quantities of Lead are: closeness of the sampling area to the main pollution source, also the morpho-analytic characteristics and particularities of the blackberry leaves (large surface of the foliage 12

limb, the presence of hair on the inferior epidermis), in comparison with hawthorn leaves. In the case of predominance of atmospheric deposits, blackberry leaves retain with high efficiency particles containing heavy metals. The classification of the capacity of lead bioaccumulation in the fruits of the studied species reflected in the maximum values, shows that the highest value is in blackberry>hawthorn>sea buckthorn. The maximum value of Cadmium concentration shows that hawthorn flowers contain the largest quantity of Cadmium, being followed by the blackberry flowers (with the concentration of Cadmium determined in hawthorn flowers being very close), and black locust flowers having the lowest maximum. Comparing maximum values of Cadmium in leaves and fruits with those of Copper in fruits shows close values in blackberry and hawthorn, the lowest value being in sea buckthorn fruits. Regarding the maximum content of Zinc in flowers, we must mention very close values determined in hawthorn and blackberry, as in the case of black locust, the maximum concentration being lower than 100 ppm. In fruits, the order of maximum values is the following: blackberry>hawthorn>sea buckthorn. Maximum values of Copper determined in flowers show low differences and they have the following order: hawthorn>black locust>blackberry. 4. The conclusions resulting from the objective: The comparative evaluation of vegetable samples collected from different areas are: The highest levels of concentration of heavy metals examined in the collected vegetable material were compared in order to evaluate the contamination of vegetable material collected from different sample areas. Comparative to the rest of the samples, a contamination with pollutants two times higher in the maximal polluted sample area was registered in the case of: - Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in the hawthorn fruit, sea-buckthorn, blackberry leaves and Lead in amorpha fruit, from SP2; - Lead, Zinc and Copper in hawthorn fruit, Lead in the blackberry leaves and flowers, Cadmium in acacia flowers and in the case of all the four metals studied in the blackberry fruit collected from SP9; - Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in hawthorn and blackberry leaves, Lead, Zinc and Copper in amorpha fruit, Lead in acacia flowers and in the case of all the four metals studied in the hawthorn and blackberry fruit collected from SP14; - Lead, Cadmium in hawthorn flowers, Lead in hawthorn leaves and in the case of all the four metals analysed in the hawthorn fruit collected from SP17;

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- Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in hawthorn and blackberry leaves, Lead and Cadmium in blackberry flowers, Lead, Zinc and Copper in amorpha fruit, Lead in hawthorn and acacia flowers and in the case of all the four metals studied in hawthorn and blackberry fruit collected from SP1. 5. Conclusions following the aim: The follow-up of the contamination dynamics of the health promoting and economical importance products in two successive years under the condition of the standstill order of the activity of the main polluting agent in the area: From the analysis of the calculated data regarding the frequency of the MAL (maximum admisible limit) overdraft considered of some potentially toxic heavy metals in the nonwood forest products studied over a two years period sampling (2009-2010) we draw the following conclusions: From the comparison analysis of the line of calculated data in the two successive years we can estimate the dynamics of the sampled wood products contamination. The decrees of frequency of MAL overdraft in 2010 compared to 2009 it is obvious that as for the Lead in the hawthorn leaves and fruits and blackberry, bastard indigo and sea buckthorn fruits; for Cadmium at blackberry and sea buckthorn fruits; for Zinc at blackberry, bastard indigo and sea buckthorn fruits, a descending trend being noticeable in hawthorn leaves. 6. Conclusions following the aim: The determination of the influence of some environmental factors in the loading with toxic heavy metals of the studied soils. Following the implementation of the statistical tests the following resulted: - the Lead and Cadmium concentration in the tested soils decreases with the increase of distance from the agent: - the altitude of relief of the tested area does not affect the accumulation of Lead and Zinc in the studied soils; - not only Lead but also Cadmium are significantly influenced by the exposure to the main polluting source, the edges disposition not being an important factor of the soil contamination with the researched metals; 7. Conclusions following the aim: The evaluation of the degree of soil contamination with cadmium and lead of the soils in the Copa Mic area in comparison with the with the regular concentration threshold in our country: If the degree of soil loading is to be appreciated by comparison the of the total concentration of the Lead and Cadmium analytically determined medium values, with the chemical pollutants limits established by O.M. 765/1997 we notice that of the 14 Cadmium accepted values in the samples , 4 are at the P.a.s limit, and 9 over P.i.s., a value being in the middle. As for Lead 3 concetration value are below P.a.s limit, 5 over P.i.s. and P.a.s limit and 6 over P.i.s. 14

8. Conclusions following the aim: The appreciation of the loading of the studied soils with potentially toxic heavy metals by calculating some relative parameters. The calculation of the Z multielemetary global pollution index permited the soil classification according to the degree of pollution. By comparison the maximum abundance index admitted in the studied heavy metals it can be observed that in the IAi> IAMAi cases that the impact of Cadmium pollution of soil is bigger than the Leads. 9. Conclusions following the aim: The study of some physic-chemical in local edaphotops features with influence on the mobility and disposition of some heavy metals in the soil. - the determination of pH in the tested soils in Copa Mic show majorly the reaction of weakly alkaline acids to moderate alkaline, determined aspect in others research in the area; - the extremely low N content was determined in the extremely polluted tested area (in the Trnvioara perimeter) - there could be observed the predominance of the lower and extremely lower classes of medium P in the tested soils, but also de decrease tendency of the concentration with the increase of the test portion depth; - the content of mobile biodisponible K varies from extremely low at a 10-15 cm depth to extremely low to low at 30-35 cm. The mobile K and P decrese with depth: - the tested soils humus content decreases with the increase of the depth, the low tested values being determined in the Trnavioara perimeter. Among the physical-chemical factors analytically determined only the Cadmium content was correlated to the humus content at a 0-5 cm depth; 10. Conclusions following the aim: The determination of the safeness of using the local nonwood forest products and the suggestion of some health promoting components and see to their usage. The harvested wood products in Copa Mic that were the subject of the current research showed the potentially toxic heavy metals that exceed the maximum permitted limits. The consumption of medicines but also food products (blackberry and sea buckthorn fruits) can lead in the time to heavy accumulation of Lead and Cadmium in the human body (especially in children) with a real health risk. As to therapeutic products the hawthorn leaves and fruits and blackberry leaves and locust tree flowers) we can state that drinking infusions on a regular basis with significant traces of Lead and Cadmium can transfer in the liquid being a health danger subsequently; Personal contributions A vast bibliography has been consulted (over 240 titles, majority foreign, recent); Georeferential surfaces have been established (stereo_70), that can be identified in other researches;

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The distances were reported to the stereo_70 coordinates to the highest evacuation level, the main source of devising the pollutant emissions; The negative impact of a nonessential heavy metals has been pointed out, potentially toxic (Lead and Cadmium) on the tested wood products, the experimental data being compared to the results of other research in Copa Mic;

Various species have been researched (rarely studied- the bastard indigo); The researches have been oriented according to the preponderant unity of the forest product; The resulted values (vegetal and soil) were compared to the effectual legal limits; The degree of contamination of the vegetal products has been followed in direct connection to the food chain contamination; The soil has been studied as an essential component of the biochemical circuit in the ecosystems; The total load of the studied soils with heavy metals was determined; The appreciation of the degree of soil contamination has been followed through relative indexes; It was researched the pollutants influence on some soil physical-chemical properties with an essential part in the mobility and biodisponibility of the metals in the soil;

It is recommended: 1. The avoidance of the researched nonwood forest products in Copa Mic; 2. The carrying out of the investigation of the products source over the years to establish the capacity of bioaccumulation and metabolizing capacity of pollutants in other polluted areas; 3. Monitoring the dynamics of heavy metals accumulation in non-timber forest species of health promoting and economic interest, during the growing season; 4. The widening of the research over neighbouring towns with Copa Mic by constructing permanent networks of monitoring the quality of the nonwood forest products; 5. The detailing of maps regarding the making of the pollution areas according to the degree of heavy metal contamination of the tested species.

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