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Limba englez n afaceri

Manual pentru uzul studenilor

Anul II

Monica Cojocaru

Introducere

Manualul de fa se adreseaz studenilor de la Inginerie I.D., n vederea studiului individual i a pregtirii pentru evalurile semestriale la disciplina Limba englez n afaceri. Materialul de studiu cuprins n manual este mprit n 4 capitole, care acoper diferite aspecte ale activitilor din domeniul afacerilor. Sunt abordate principalele probleme gramaticale, cum ar fi folosirea timpurilor n limba englez, gradele de comparaie ale adjectivelor etc., cu exemple din lumea afacerilor. Fiecare capitol cuprinde exerciii care urmresc punerea n practic, mbogirea i verificarea cunotinelor de gramatic i de vocabular. Este indicat rezolvarea cu atenie a acestor exerciii deoarece acestea faciliteaz rezolvarea sarcinilor propuse n temele de cas. Se recomand totodat consultarea dicionarelor menionate n bibliografia pentru temele de cas sau a altor dicionare de proporii mai mari dect dicionarele de buzunar. Textele cuprinse n manual au fost preluate i prelucrate conform cerinelor programei disciplinei. O atenie deosebit este acordat exprimrii n scris n limba englez, cu accent pe redactarea scrisorilor de afaceri. Parcurgerea manualului impune un nivel mediu de cunoatere a limbii engleze. Fiecare capitol este urmat de un test de autoevaluare. Anexele 1 i 2 de la sfritul manualului conin temele de cas propuse pentru rezolvare.

1 THE PLACE OF WORK Allotted time: 4 hours Objectives: to practice the language used when talking about your workplace; to practise words and phrases that express agreement and disagreement; to practise the forms and uses of the past simple, past continuous, present perfect simple, present perfect continuous, and past perfect tenses; to describe an organization chart; to describe a companys activities and history

Keywords: agreeing and disagreeing, referring to the past, organization charts Content Agreeing and disagreeing There are different ways of reacting to other people's opinions, depending on how well you know the person and whether you agree or disagree. We can use the following scale to show the range: agreement partial agreement disagreement.

We can also distinguish between agreeing with someone and agreeing to something.

Agreeing with someone agreement I totally agree with you. I fully/completely agree. I'm in total agreement with you there. I couldn't agree more.

Agreeing to something I totally accept that. I fully/completely agree. I'm all in favour of that That's exactly what I think. That's a good point. I agree entirely.

partial agreement

Up to a point/To a certain extent I'd agree with you, but....

Up to a point/To a certain extent I'd accept that, but...

You may have something there but... You could/may be right, but... I suppose you're right, but... I see your point, but... disagreement (I'm afraid) I can't agree with you. I don't agree. I disagree completely. I think you're wrong.

That may be so, but...

(I'm afraid) I can't accept that. That's not how I see it That's out of the question.

Note Agree and accept: I agree with you. (with someone; not: I am agree with you) I agree with Alan's suggestion. (with something; = I have the same opinion as) I agree with you about/on the need for change. (= to share the same opinion about/on something) I agree to your credit terms. (agree to something = to be willing to accept/allow something) I agree to review your credit position in a few months. (agree to do something; not: accept to do something) I accept your suggestion. (to accept something; not: to agree something)

Exercise 1: Look at these rather extreme positions: All companies should offer their employees free lunches. Smoking should be forbidden in offices. All offices should have flowers in them. Overtime should be obligatory if the day's work is not done.

Provide responses to each topic using the expressions above. For example: 'I can see what you mean, but it would be a difficult thing to introduce.' or 'I agree entirely.'

Exercise 2: Match the phrase on the left with an acceptable continuation from the list on the right. The first has been done as an example.

You may be right up to one point. I can't agree with you. I'm in complete agreement.

There's just one detail I would question. But I can't agree with your conclusion But we need to consider another question, too.

I agree with the first part of what you say. I agree with most of your analysis.

I see it totally differently. As you say, there's clearly no alternative.

Exercise 3: Provide one word in each space to complete the following sentences. 1 I can't _________ that. It's quite untrue. 2 I agree _________ provide more support. 3 I agree _________ to a point. 4 You're mainly right, _________ I'm not sure about the last part of your argument. 5 I' m sorry, I disagree _________ you. It's not quite like that. 6 Okay, I agree _________ your request.

Describing the company organisation A Sample sentences The company is headed by the Managing Director. The sales director is supported by a sales team.

The R & D Department is responsible for new product development. The parent company is based in Brussels, with subsidiaries in Frankfurt and Milan.

B Form and uses We can describe an organisation in terms of: - hierarchy - responsibilities/functions - titles -affiliates -structures

1 Hierarchy The company is headed by the MD. The Sales Director reports to the MD. (not: depends on) The Sales Director is under the MD. The Sales Director is supported by a sales team. The Sales Director is assisted by a Sales Assistant.

2 Responsibilities/functions The Controller is responsible for accounting throughout the company. The Production Department takes care of product manufacturing. The Factory Manager is in charge of plant and equipment.

3 Titles Below are the main managerial titles with common US equivalents in brackets: Chairman/Chairperson (President) Managing Director (Chief Executive Officer/Senior Vice-President)

Finance Director (Vice-President Finance) Sales Manager (Sales Director)

Note: The directors and chairman of a company usually sit on the board of directors (executive board).

4 Affiliates Rossomon International is the parent company. Rossomon France, Rossomon Germany and Rossomon Japan are subsidiaries.

5 Structure Exercise 4: This exercise is concerned with describing corporate organisation. Complete the following paragraph, using the correct form of the words in the box. The DSA Corporation consists of three _______________ , Building Materials, Construction and Civil engineering, DSA _______________ in New York and comprises four _____________ , KAF Inc., Halcon, Conway and RoadCo. Each of these is ______________ a Senior VicePresident who ___________ the ___________ .

subsidiary

division

be based in

parent company

headed by

report to

Exercise 5: This exercise is concerned with describing management hierarchy. Complete the following paragraph, using the correct form of an appropriate word or phrase from the box. KAF Inc. is a building materials manufacturing company in Detroit. KAF ________________ the CEO, _____________ the Board of Directors, which ____________ four people. The staff in each of the four departments are ______________ a Vice-President who is also on the Board. In each department, a managerial team of directors _________ the Vice-President. In the Sales Department, one director _______________ exports, the other ____________ domestic sales.

be responsible for

be in charge of

supported by

support

accountable to

consist of

be headed by

Referring to the past Grammar There are different ways of speaking about past events and actions in English:

Past Simple A Form The past simple tense comprises: one part in the positive, i.e. V2 two parts in the negative and interrogative, i.e. did + V1

1 Positive form

2 Negative form

3 Interrogative form

Last year I/you/he/she/they worked in personnel.

At that time I/you/he/she/they didn't know the forecast.

Did I/you/he/she/they fill in the form correctly?

B Uses We use the past simple tense: To indicate an activity at a specific time in the past: I heard about the takeover last week. To ask when an activity happened: When did you retire? Notes 1 Once we have explicitly mentioned a specific time in the past, all the following activities are understood to happen within that time frame, i.e. in the past:

Last year we introduced a new quality control system. After the system came into force, we reduced the number of rejects by 10 per cent. 2 Typical past time markers include: yesterday ago last on + day/date, e.g. on Monday, on 21 January in + month/year, e.g. in July, in 1983 at that time

Past Continuous A Form The past continuous tense comprises two parts: the past tense of to be + V1 ...ing

1 Positive form

2 Negative form

3 Interrogative form

I/He/She was checking the stock. We/you/they were checking...

I/He/She was not/wasn't expecting a delivery. We/you/they were not/weren't expecting...

What was I/he/she doing at this time last year? What were we/you/they doing..?

B Uses We use the past continuous tense to describe: actions in progress at some time in the past: This time last year we were trying to cut fuel costs. actions which began before something else happened: Just as I was leaving the house, the phone rang. parallel actions: While we were seeking a solution, they were doing everything to oppose us.

Present Perfect Simple A Form The present perfect simple tense comprises two parts: has/have + V3 (Past Participle of the verb)

1 Positive form

2 Negative form

3 Interrogative form

I/you/we/they have/'ve finished the project. He/she has/'s finished the project.

I/you/we/they have not/ haven't finished... He/she has not/ hasn't finished...

Have I/we/you/they finished...?

Has he/she finished...?

B Uses The present perfect simple tense is used: To indicate a recent activity: I've just returned from the meeting. He's recently arrived from New York. I've already typed the letter. Have you passed your driving test yet? I haven't passed my driving test yet. To indicate an activity at some non-specific time in the past with an impact or result in the present or future: The government has reduced interests rates. (present result = rates are now lower) but The government reduced interest rates last week. (specific time in the past) We have recruited six new workers. (present result = six new employees) but We recruited six new workers at the beginning of May. (specific time in the past)

To indicate an activity within a period of time which is not yet finished, i.e. unfinished time: Quality has improved this year. (The year is not yet finished.) but Quality improved last year. (Last year is finished.) To indicate an activity which started in the past and continues up to the present: So far/ Up to now we have purchased three companies. (in the period between then and now) She has worked as Purchasing Manager since 1989. (She started in 1989 and she is still Purchasing Manager today.) The company has operated from this site for five years. (It started operations here five years ago and is still operating here today.) Present Perfect Continuous A Form The present perfect continuous tense comprises two parts: the present perfect of to be + V1 ...ing

1 Positive form

2 Negative form

3 Interrogative form

I/you/we/they have/ 've been using the agency. He/she has/'s been using the agency.

I/you/we/they have not/ haven't been using... He/she has not/hasn't been using...

Have I/you/we/they been using...?

Has he/she been using...?

2 Uses The present perfect continuous tense is used: To indicate an activity at some non-specific time in the past with an impact or result in the present or future: We have been reviewing our software development programme. Here, the verb phrase 'have been reviewing' indicates an action over a period of time. but We've just finished reviewing our software development programme.

Here, the verb phrase 'have finished reviewing' indicates an action at a point of time ('to finish' cannot happen over a period of time). To indicate an activity which started in the past and continuous to the present: We have been developing quality toys since 1953. Again, the verb phrase 'have been developing' indicates an action over a period of time; in this case the period of time is specified. Compare the following sentences: Since the beginning of the year we have tested three new applications. We have been testing three new applications since the beginning of the year. In the first sentence we are interested in the fact that the tests are now finished and that we can now come to some conclusions, or move on to a new stage in the development cycle; in the second sentence we are interested in the action itself -the testing- and its duration. Past Perfect Simple A Form The past perfect tense comprises two parts: had + V3 1 Positive form 2 Negative form 3 Interrogative form

I/you/he/she/we/they had/'d finished the project.

I/you/he/she/we/they had not/hadn't finished...

Had I/you/he/she/they finished...?

B Uses We use the past perfect tense with reference to an 'earlier past', i.e. to describe the first of two or more actions: When we installed the new software, it had already become obsolete. (First the software became obsolete. Then they installed it.) Before we appointed the new chairman, our share prices had been very low.

Exercise 6: Complete the following extract by choosing the correct form of the verb in brackets. Use either the past simple or the present perfect simple.

Last year our company ____________ (report) a small increase in profits. This year we _________ (see) continued improvement and our turnover __________ (rise) by 15 percent. This is very good news in a difficult world market. In fact internationally, the market _________ (fall). Naturally, our costs _________ (go up) and so the rise in profits is not so great. It is true that our domestic performance ___________ (be helped) by the collapse of our competitor, Capra & Pecora, which ___________ (go out of business) in January.

Exercise 7: Fill in the gaps with a suitable verb from the list using the correct form of the verb. The first sentence has been done for you.

go start

have stop

open use

post visit

receive work

search send

1. She's been trying to get through to head office all morning. 2. Our company ................... computers in its offices now for a long time. 3. We're very busy today. The phone .............. hardly .................. ringing since I arrived in the office this morning. 4. ................... you................ Madrid before? Yes, I ..................... there last year on business. 5. In 1986 our enterprise ....................... a factory in South America. 6. I .................. working here when I left school. 7. 'Is your secretary still looking for the file?' /Yes, she ......................... for it for the past twenty minutes.' 8. While you ....................... lunch, Mr Casagrande phoned. 9. We ............................. the letter to our parent company a week ago, but we ..................... a reply yet.

10. His firm ........................ him to their New York office and he ............................. there ever since.

Company world Vocabulary Exercise 8: Fill in the gaps with words from the list.

administer merge

commerce phase

corporate prosper take over

involve

launch white-collar

1. How many people are ................... in marketing the new product? 2. The latest model of our electric car will be ......................... on 1 January 2000. 3. When a firm begins to do badly on the stock market, plans are often made to change its ............ structure. 4. The management of the contemporary corporations requires people who know how to .................. . 5. Despite the problems in our sector our company expects to continue to .................. in the next twelve months. 6. Hong Kong has always been a centre of ........................ . 7. Giant companies which have been successful in the past have normally ..................... with their closest rivals. 8. In the course of the history of our company we have gone through several .................... of development. 9. After a brief slump in annual growth they were .................... by a major competition. 10. In order to deal with all the additional paper-work we need to expand the ................ staff by several hundred.

A firm's history Exercise 9: Read the following passage about the history of a company.

"Over the decades, the name of Siemens has become synonymous with progress Since 1847,when Werner Siemens and Johann Georg Halske founded the Siemens & Halske Telegraph Construction Company in Berlin, the history of Siemens has been closely linked with the development of electrical engineering. While still a fledgling firm, Siemens & Halske spearheaded the evolution of the telegraphy with the first pointer telegraph and the construction of an extensive telegraph network. In 1866 Werner Siemens invented the dynamo machine, laying the cornerstone of power engineering. New ideas are an old tradition at Siemens. The company that grew out of the original Siemens & Halske is today a highly innovative leader in the world electrical and electronics market. Composed of Siemens AG and an array of domestic and foreign subsidiaries, the contemporary Siemens organisation continues to set milestones on the road of progress. Siemens maintains its own production facilities in 35 countries and operates a world-wide sales network. With more than 300,000 employees, it is one of the largest companies in the world electrical/electronics industry, having recorded annual sales of DM 54 billion in the 1986\87 fiscal year. Reliable and farsighted management is united with the youthful dynamism and zest for innovation that typify the company." (adapted from Jones, Leo. International Business English. Cambridge University Press, 1991, p. 52) Now complete the information missing in this table: Dates 1847 1849 ..... ..... What happened? ................................................................ ................................................................ invention of the dynamo machine Who did what? ............................. ............................. .............................

recorded annual sales of ......................... .............................

Evaluation Test I. Choose the appropriate tense: 1. I (see) Bill this morning, but I (not see) him since. a. have seen, haven't seen b. saw, haven't seen c. saw, didn't see d. have seen, didn't see e. had seen, haven't seen 2. My father just (finish) primary school when the war (break) out. a. just finished, broke b. has just finished, broke c. just finished, was breaking d. had just finished, broke e. had just finished, was breaking

3. You (type) all morning, but you only (do) three letters! a. have been typing, have only done b. were typing, only did c. typed, only did d. have typed, have only done e. had been typing, have only done 4. It just isn't fair: while I (work) as a waiter last month, my friends (lie) on the beach a. worked, lied b. was working, lied c. have been working, lied d. worked, were lying e. was working, were lying 5. It's very annoying: he always (brag) about his rafting adventure. I (do) the same, twice already, but I don't make such a fuss! a. always brags, have done b. has always bragged, did c. is always bragging, have done d. has always been bragging, did e. was always bragging, have done 6. Oh, that's the CD-player Tim (buy) second-hand. How much (pay) for it? a. bought, did he pay b. bought, has he paid c. has bought, did he pay d. has bought, has he paid e. has bought, does he pay 7. The reason why I (prefer) a yew hedge here because it (provide) a beautiful setting for my herbaceous border plants. a. preferred, provides b. preferred, is providing c. have preferred, provides d. prefer, provided e. preferred, has provided 8. You (know) that he says that he never (lie) in all his entire life? a. Do you know, lied b. Do you know, had never lied c. Do you know, never lies d. Do you know, was never lying e. Do you know, has never lied 9. I (know) Carl since I (be) a little child. a. have known, have been b. have known, was c. knew, have been d. knew, was 10. Helen (work) so hard today that she (have) no time to play her weekly game of tennis. a. worked, had b. worked, has had c. has worked, has had d. has worked, had e. had worked, had Key I 1/b 2/d 3/a 4/d 5/c 6/c 7/a 8/e 9/b 10/c

Summary In business there are many occasions on which you can be expected to talk about the place of work. This may include showing someone around the office or premises. But it may also involve referring to the way in which the company is organised and run. Businesses come in every shape and size. While the great majority of the world's businesses are small, large firms often dominate the economy in some countries. Large businesses differ very much from small ones in a wide variety of ways. In many countries there are both private firms and nationalised firms belonging to the government. A small private firm may have just one owner but a very large firm has thousands of shareholders.

In very large firms the owners have very little to do with the day-to-day running of the firm. This is left to the management. Very large companies may be organised into several large departments, or sometimes even divisions. The organisational structure of some companies is very hierarchical with the board of directors at the top and the various departmental heads reporting to them. Bibliography: Alexander, L.G. Longman English Grammar. Longman, 1996 Brieger, Nick and Simon Sweeney. The Language of Business English. Grammar and Functions. Prentice Hall, 1994. Brooks, Michael and David Horner. Business English. Teora, 1998. Ciuciuc, Olea and Eugenia Tnsescu. English for Business Purposes. Teora, 1998. Engleza pentru marketing i publicitate. Metod Larousse. Teora, 2000. Jones, Leo and Richard Alexander. International Business English. Cambridge University Press, 1990. Alexander, L.G. Longman English Grammar. Longman, 1996 Brieger, Nick and Simon Sweeney. The Language of Business English. Grammar and Functions. Prentice Hall, 1994. Brooks, Michael and David Horner. Business English. Teora, 1998. Jones, Leo and Richard Alexander. International Business English. Cambridge University Press, 1990.

2 IMPORT AND EXPORT Allotted time: 3 hours Objectives: to practice the language used when ordering and supplying goods and services; to make and answer enquiries; to practise the ways of expressing future time

Keywords: import, export, future time, enquiries, sales, delivery Content Take a look at these expressions: If you require some information you can say:

Could you tell me if/when/how much/why.? I wonder if you could tell me? Id like to know Id like some information about...

Or you can write: We require the following information... Please let us know whether/when/how much... When someone gives you information, you can reply:

Oh, I see. Thats interesting. Really? Thanks for letting me know.

If you want to give someone some information you can say:

Id like you to know that I think you should know that Did you know that?

Or you can write: We should like to inform you that... Here is the information you required... If someone hasn't given you enough information you can say:

Could you tell me some more about? Id like some more information about Id also like to know When/How much/W hy exactly ? Theres something else Id like to know: Can you give me some more details about?

Exercise 1: Using the expressions above, ask questions to find out information about : - a company where someone works - someone's home town - someone's career - someone's family

Sales and delivery Vocabulary

Exercise 2 : Fill the gaps with suitable words from the list below.

backlog

bill of lading

bulky grade margin

cash on delivery hold-up premium retail

cash with order crates inventory control (US)/stock control (GB) special delivery wholesale surcharge

value added tax

volume

1. The profits made on a product vary according to the ........................ of sales and there is not normally a fixed profit .................... on the unit price. 2. The ........................ price of this product (the price the consumer pays) is $ 8.99 incl. VAT(.................................) -about 60% more than the ......................... price. 3. As we have been carrying out a(n) ....................... , there is a ..................... in processing orders. We apologise for any inconvenience caused by this ...................... . 4. As part of the consignment is very urgent, we'll be making a ...................... of two of the twenty ..................... you have ordered. 5. We only supply .................... one products of ..................... quality. Very ...................... consignments are shipped by sea. There is no ................... for small orders. 6. If you buy something by mail order it's normal to pay C.W.O. (.......................................), rather than C.O.D. (.....................................). 7. A B/L (.............................) is a list of goods being transported, especially by ship, together with the conditions that apply to their transportation.

Making enquiries Exercise 3: Draft a short letter of enquiry explaining your needs, to be sent by airmail or fax to a battery company.

Your letter should be written in a formal style and include this information: Introduce your firm and its products to the reader: We are... State the purpose of your letter: We are seeking a supplier of... Give an exact description or specification of goods you require -size, weight, material, quantity, delivery, special features: This is the specification of the goods we require... Explain what you want the reader to do: Please quote to us your best delivered price and shipping date. Before placing an order we would need to examine samples of the product. State the terms, methods of payment, discounts you expect: We usually pay by confirmed 60-day irrevocable letter of credit. End requesting an early reply: We look forward to receiving an early reply. Expressing future time Grammar

Different ways of talking or writing about future events in English have different meanings: Tense Meaning/circumstance Example

Present Simple

an official plan or arrangement according to a schedule in conditional and temporal clauses

The shareholders' meeting starts at 8 o'clock tomorrow. This agreement will be signed if/when the merged companies' management meets. I am flying to London in order to attend the matches of the national football team. Next year our company will issue a new series of shares. We'll be discussing this issue at the

Present Continuous Future Simple (will/'ll + V1) Future Continuous

a future event which is planned by the speaker/subject (the decision is all his) a neutral future event; a prediction about future an action in progress at a future given time

(the future simple of to be + V...ing) Future Perfect Simple (will/'ll have + V3) a future action completed before a future moment (+ by/before/until)

10 o'clock meeting next Monday. They will have taken the decision by next week. It's Tuesday. Until lunch time our experts will have been debating on the next year's budgeting. We were said that the price of food would decrease sooner than it had expected. The shareholders' meeting is going to take place next month. He is about to be elected chairman of the merged company.

Future Perfect a future action in progress up to (and including) a certain future Continuous (will/'ll time have been + V...ing) Future in the Past (would + V1) BE GOING TO BE ABOUT TO the future of a subordinate clause whose main clause contains one of the past tenses an intention regarding the future in reference to the immediate/imminent future

Exercise 4: Fill the gaps in these sentences, using the correct form of the verbs below. The first is done for you as an example.

arrive see

ask sneeze

fly work

leave write

phone

put

1. Will you be able to find out when the first plane to Paris leaves? 2. Tomorrow, I ............................ the boss for a rise and that's definite! 3. By the time I retire, I ............................... here for 10,000 working days. 4. She ..................... to Spain on Tuesday to meet our clients in Seville. 5. I......................... the documents in the post to you first thing tomorrow. 6. Please don't disturb me for the next half hour, I................. Tokyo. 7. Excuse me Mr Grey, when................... you ..................... to our Norwegian clients?

8. While you ...................... in Stockholm, ...................... you .................. Mr Olsson? 9. Stand back, everyone, it looks as if he .....................! 10. Don't worry, I/m sure the spare parts ......................... soon.

Exercise 5: Write sentences indicating: - an action in progress at a given future time; - an action that is going to happen very soon; - a future event planned by the speaker; - a neutral event in the future; - an intention regarding the future.

Evaluation Test I. Choose the correct word: 1. Where goods are produced. a) Head Office b) the Accounts department c) the canteen d) the factory 2. Where finished goods are kept. a) Head Office b) the warehouse c) the canteen d) the factory 3. Where the workers have lunch. a) the canteen b) Head Office c) the Accounts department d) the factory 4. Where the directors meet. a) the Accounts department b) the warehouse c) the canteen d) the boardroom 5. Where the accountants work. a) the Accounts department b) the warehouse c) the boardroom d) the factory 6. Where the computer people work. a) Data Processing b) the warehouse c) the boardroom d) the factory

Key I 1/d 2/b 3/a 4/d 5/a 6/a

Bibliography Alexander, L.G. Longman English Grammar. Longman, 1996 Brieger, Nick and Simon Sweeney. The Language of Business English. Grammar and Functions. Prentice Hall, 1994. Brooks, Michael and David Horner. Business English. Teora, 1998. Jones, Leo and Richard Alexander. International Business English. Cambridge University Press, 1990.

3 MARKETING AND SALES Allotted time: 3 hours Objectives: to practise the language of comparing and contrasting; to identify and practise the vocabulary of market research and promotion; to practise the comparative and superlative of adjectives; to express permission, possibility, probability and certainty

Keywords: comparing, contrasting, adjectives, market research, promoting products, permission, possibility, probability, certainty

Content Local products Think of eight products (goods and services) that are produced or provided in your city or region and answer the questions below:

1. a brand of beer or a soft drink 2. a grocery product (breakfast cereal, health food, etc) 3. an industrial product (machines, consumer goods, vehicles, etc) 4. a service (e.g. cleaning) 5. a place of entertainment (theatre, cinema, etc) 6. a public service (telephones, mail, transport, etc) 7. an educational service 8. a financial service (bank, insurance company, etc) 9. another well-known local product: ......................

-What competition does each product face? (This may not be another brand, but another type of product.) - What is the image of each product? - What is the image of the company that produces it? - How strongly or weakly is each product marketed? - Where is each product advertised?

What is marketing?

Vocabulary

Exercise 1: Fill the gaps in these sentences, using the words from the list.

creative process hire purchase outlets

design image place

distribution labels

end-users need

first opportunities product range rival

mail order posters price

patterns

production-oriented satisfy strengths

profitably threats

promotion

weaknesses

1. What is marketing? Marketing is the .................... of satisfying customer needs ..................... . 2. What is 'the marketing mix'? It consists of 'the four P's': providing the customer with the right P ............. at the right P.............., presented in the most attractive way (...................) and available in the easiest way (P..................). 3. What is a 'product'? A product is not just an assembled set of components: it is something customers buy to ............. a .................. they feel they have. The ................. and the ............... of the product are as important as its specification. 4. What is 'price'? The product must be priced so that it competes effectively with ................. products in the same market. 5. What is 'promotion'? The product is presented to customers through advertising (TV commercials, .............., etc.), packaging (design, ................., etc.), publicity, P.R. and personal selling.

6. What is 'place'? Your product must be available to customers through the most cost-effective channels of ................... . A consumer product must be offered to .................. in suitable retail .............., or available on .............. or by ............. . 7. What is meant by 'S.W.O.T.'? A firm should be aware of its S............ and W............. and the O............ and T........... it faces in the market place. 8. Why are the firms becoming more customer-oriented and less .................... ? Because new products must be created to meet the changing .................. of customers' needs -a firm can't rely on the success of its existing ................. of products. The customer and his or her needs must come .......!

Promotion Vocabulary

Exercise 2: There are many ways of attracting customers to your product and of keeping your name in the public eye. Fill the gaps with suitable words from the list. brochures catalogues contribute direct mail display effective extent hands-on image impact key accounts leaflets packaging point of sale press conference press releases public relations publicity recommend representatives reputation showrooms specific stand toll-free trade fairs and exhibitions trademark word of mouth

1. Sales literature -..................., ................... and .................... can describe your product in more detail and give more information than an advertisement. Potential customers can be sent .................. literature by post. 2. ........................ advertising -displays in retail outlets (supermarkets, chain store, etc.) can attract the attention of potential customers. 3. ............. -labels and presentation increase the ................ of your product. 4. Sponsorship -you can ............. to the cost of a sporting or artistic event, where the brand name or .................... of your product is displayed prominently.

5. .................. -potential customers can come to your premises and see a ............... or a demonstration of your products and get ................. experience. 6. .................. -your company takes a .............. or mounts an exhibit to enable customers in the same trade to see your products and talk to your ................... . 7. ..................... -the public are informed of a new development through newspaper articles. You can inform the press by issuing ................. or by holding a .................., so that reporters can question your spokesperson. 8. ................... -PR can ensure that your firm keeps a high profile, and that people are aware of your good .............. and attractive .................... . 9. ........................ -existing customers tell their friends or colleagues about your product and hopefully .................... it to them, so that they want to buy it. 10. Telephone selling -your staff can call customers, or customers can call a ........... to request sales literature or to ask for .................. information. 11. Personal selling -your rep can visit customers: this is the most .............. method of promotion, but also the most expensive. Travelling to meet a prospect may not always pay off. Your ............. would be visited frequently. 12. If you are marketing a service it must be 'visible' -your prospective customers must be fully aware of the .................... of your services and its benefits.

Exercise 3: Consider these products. Which methods are used to promote them? Which methods would probably not be suitable? new houses an airline an exhibition coal a magazine cigarettes computers rail travel a circus cheese bicycles medicines

Comparing and contrasting Grammar Look at these rules: ONE SYLLABLE Adjectives with one syllable form their comparatives and superlatives like this:

cheap - cheaper - the cheapest large - larger - the largest bright - brighter - the brightest TWO OR MORE SYLLABLES

big - bigger - the biggest low -lower - the lowest

Adjectives with two syllables ending in -y, -ow, and -le form their comparatives and superlatives like this: easy - easier - the easiest narrow - narrower - the narrowest simple - simpler - the simplest Other two-syllable adjectives and longer adjectives form their comparatives and superlatives like this: expensive - more expensive - the most expensive reliable - more reliable - the most reliable IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES good - better - the best bad - worse - the worst much/many - more - the most little - less - the least far - farther/further - the farthest/furthest

Exercise 4: What are the comparative and superlative forms of these adjectives? correct, accurate, precise, reliable convenient, economical, flexible optimistic, happy, cheerful funny, amusing, lively, witty new, modern, up-to-date warm, friendly, kind pessimistic, unhappy, gloomy possible, likely, probable, certain

Exercise 5: Complete the following table with the correct forms of the adjectives:

slow ____________ modern ____________ capable ____________ quick ____________ far ____________ a little ____________

_______________ more difficult _______________ _______________ _______________ drier _______________ _______________ _______________ more _______________ _______________

______________ ______________ ______________ the easiest ______________ ______________ ______________ the worst ______________ ______________ ______________ the most advanced

Read the following sentences describing UK car sales by colour: White is the most popular colour for cars in Britain. Red is the second most popular colour for cars in Britain. White is a (much/far) more popular colour than blue. or Blue is a (much/far) less popular colour than white. or Blue isn't as popular a colour as white. Gold cars are not (quite) as popular as yellow ones. or Yellow cars are a bit/little more popular than gold ones. Yellow cars are (just) as popular as brown ones. Green seems to be the least popular colour for cars in Britain. or Green is the most unpopular colour for cars in Britain.

About twice as many brown cars are sold as black cars in Britain. or Half as many black cars are sold as brown cars. More/far more red cars are sold than green cars. or Fewer/far fewer green cars are sold than red ones. or Not as many green cars are sold as red ones. Most British people would never dream of buying a green car.

Exercise 6: Rewrite each of these sentences, using the words given. The first is done for you as an example. 1. Our product is the cheapest on the market. No other product on the market is as cheap as ours. 2. Our product is the least expensive on the market. All the other ................................................................ . 3. There are fewer competing brands on the market nowadays than ten years ago. There aren't as many ...................................................... . 4. Our product costs slightly less than theirs does. Their product costs a little ............................................... . 5. Their product is not as reliable as ours. Our product is ....................................... . 6. One third of consumers prefer their product to ours. Three times ................................................................ .

Expressing permission, possibility, probability and certainty Grammar Permission is expressed by: can: Only employees with protective clothing can enter the building site.

(Present permission: only employees with protective clothing are permitted to enter.) could: When I worked there, only the site manager could authorise outside visits. (Past permission: only the site manager was permitted) may/might: May/might I just interrupt here? (Request of permission: Is it permitted for me to interrupt here?) Yes, of course you may/might. (It is permitted for you to interrupt)

Notes: 1 May/might are used to express formal permission. 2 In the negative, these modal verbs express prohibition: e.g. It's a company rule -personnel can't take more than half an hour for lunch. (Present prohibition: personnel are not permitted to take more than half an hour for lunch.) When I worked there, personnel couldn't take more than half an hour for lunch. (Past prohibition: personnel couldn't take more than half an hour for lunch.) Confidential documents may not be photocopied without prior approval. (Confidential documents are not permitted to be photocopied without prior approval.)

Possibility/impossibility is expressed by: can/could (can expresses stronger possibility than could): A large range of options can/could be identified for this company's future. (Present possibility: it is possible to identify a large range of options.) So, we have no idea what can/could happen to our positions next week. (Future possibility) You can't be serious. (Present impossibility) The meeting has been going on for two hours, so they could have decided by now. (Present possibility in relation to earlier action: it is possible that they have decided.)

may/might (may expresses stronger possibility than might): I think the meeting may/might be over now. (Present possibility: It is possible that the meeting is over now.) Next year we may/might use that supplier. (Future possibility: It is possible that we will use that supplier.)

Probability/certainty are expressed by: should (or ought to): The meeting should/ought to be over now. (Present probability: it is probable that the meeting is over now.) The relocation should/ought to take place at the beginning of the next month. (Future probability: it is probable that the relocation will take place.) They sent the payment yesterday; so it should/ought to have arrived by now. (Present probability in relation to an earlier action: it is probable that it has arrived by now.) will: People will always say the things you want to hear. (certainty)

Exercise 8: Write sentences expressing: - present possibility; - past prohibition; - request for permission; - certainty; - future probability; - present impossibility; - past permission.

Evaluation Test I. Choose the correct form of the adjectives:

1. My father is as .. as his father. a. strong b. stronger c. strongest

2. She is . than her sister. a. pretty b. prettier c. prettiest

3. You are not as as your brother. a. tall b. taller c. tallest

4. That pond is the. in this area. a. shallow b. shallower c. shallowest

5. That has to be the . film I have seen. a. interesting b. more interesting c. most interesting

6. Which university offers ..degree courses? a. the good b. the better c. the best

7. He is by far the player in the team. a. bad b. worse c. worst

8. The second half of the play was . interesting. a. little b. less c. the least

9. What is ..distance you have ever run? a. far b. farther c. the farthest

Key I 1/a 2/b 3/a 4/c 5/c 6/c 7/c 8/b 9/c

Bibliography Brieger, Nick and Simon Sweeney. The Language of Business English. Grammar and Functions. Prentice Hall, 1994. Brooks, Michael and David Horner. Business English. Teora, 1998. Engleza pentru marketing i publicitate. Metod Larousse. Teora, 2000. Jones, Leo and Richard Alexander. International Business English. Cambridge University Press, 1990.

4 A NEW JOB Allotted time: 3 hours Objectives: to read job advertisements; to draw up a letter of application and a curriculum vitae; to practise the types and uses of relative pronouns and clauses

Keywords: job advertisements, letter of application, CV, relative clauses

Content Letters of application The following is a letter of application written by someone who read a job advertisement in the newspaper and decided to apply for it.

26 Falcon St., London WCID 5TG 18th February, 2011 Mr Lyle Emerson Personnel Director 18 Baker Street London W1J 9PQ

Dear Sir, With reference to your advertisement in the Sunday Times of July 16th, I would like to apply for the post of graduate trainee in Pensions Management. I am 21 years old and have recently graduated from Pleasantville College with an honours degree in Economics.

I would be grateful if you could send me further details and arrange an appointment in order to discuss my qualifications and the role I might play in this function. Yours faithfully, SHaver Susan Haver Exercise 1: Read the following job advertisement and write a letter of application for the position it advertises.

JOIN OUR PR TEAM -TOP SALARY

We need someone to join our team who can manage to do ten things at once, while remaining cool and calm in a crisis! We are a leading PR Company [Public Relations Company] and we can offer you a fulfilling and challenging role with out Director of Travel. You will need to be hard-working, flexible, well-organised and energetic. You'll be attending presentations, arranging meetings, travel and lunches, and liaising with executives of major international companies. This is an excellent opportunity for the right kind of person and we'll pay you a top salary with bonuses. Call or write today and tell us about yourself! Jim Brown, Anglo-European PR, 99A Old St, London, W7K 7GF tel. 01 684 5201

A Curriculum Vitae A job advertisement will usually ask you to send in a CV. Conventions as to how to write one have been changing. Read the following fragment of an interview with a British personnel manager giving advice about writing a CV.

"...A good CV these days should begin by saying what it is: a CV. So the person's name should be prominent. Then there should be a brief section on personal details: address, telephone number, nationality and marital status. And when you are applying for a post with a company in another country, or for a job that requires travel or use of one or more foreign languages, you should add here your proficiency in those languages: "fluent", if you speak a language well; "intermediate" if it's OK, and "basic" if you can just about get by. Incidentally, if you have nationally or internationally recognised examination demonstrating your proficiency, it's a good idea to mention that here, too -you know, for English: the Cambridge First Certificate or the London Chamber of Commerce level 2 or 3, etc. This should be followed by a section on qualifications and training, beginning with the most recent and moving back, so that I can see what you've been up to since your initial training. One of the most difficult things for us in personnel when evaluating applications from abroad is the problem of equivalencies. It is of no help to put down diploma which only exist in your country, unless you also put in brackets afterwards an approximate British equivalent I can relate to. Another bad habit I've noticed is to put down the name of what it is, presumably, some highly prestigious establishment within their own country, on the assumption that everybody in the world knows about it. A related difficulty is candidates who just put the English equivalent. I had this problem recently with a young man who claimed that he had an MBA. At interview, however, we discovered he had simply translated Studii Aprofundate de Management (literally, a masters degree in management science), so the excellent level of English we were expecting from someone who had studied in the UK or the States didn't materialise. This brings me to another point: it is important to state when and where you got the qualification. The next section -and the most important- is the one on work experience. Again, this should be in order of most recent first, so that I can see what you are doing at present and have been doing recently. For those who are applying for their first job, it is useful to mention any periods of occupational training you may have undertaken in a company or companies, or any relevant summer jobs you may have had. In this section, too, just briefly, in almost note form, main responsibilities and successes, and so on. Finally, we in Britain like to know something about a candidate's life outside work, so a short final section on outside interests is always useful. Again, for those applying for a first job, this can sometimes be a crucial section. If you have been secretary of your local tennis club or something, it may be the only opportunity you have had to demonstrate that you are fit for positions of responsibility..." (adapted from Brooks, Michael and David Horner. Business English. Teora. 1998. pp.192-3)

Exercise 2: Now look at the following CV and decide whether the person who wrote it has followed the personnel manager's advice. CURRICULUM VITAE

NAME: PRESENT ADDRESS:

George Michaelides 45 Richmond Road, Colchester, Essex CO4 2JK

TELEPHONE NUMBER: DATE OF BIRTH: NATIONALITY: MARITAL STATUS:

0453 25982 (home) 0453 87967 (daytime) 7th April 1970 British Married, 2 children

EDUCATION AND QUALIFICATIONS: 1990 - 94 1981 - 90 University of London BSc Mechanical Engineering Northgate Grammar School, Ipswich, GCE 8 '0' levels; 4 'A' levels (French, Maths, Chemistry, Physics)

EXPERIENCE: 2004 - to date: Neptune Engineering Ltd, Quay Road, Poole (manufacturers of marine engines and equipment) Export Sales Manager responsible to Managing Director for sales of engines to over 40 countries in Europe and overseas. Also responsible for budgeting, recruitment and training of staff. 1997 - 2004: Poseidon Shipping S.A., Piraeus, Greece (manufacturers and repairers of cargo vessels) Sales Manager responsible to owners for contracts with shipowners in all countries outside Greece. Researched and established new markets in Britain, Japan and over 20 other countries.

1994 - 97: Trident Engines, Manchester Road, Salford (manufacturers of heavy-duty diesel engines and transmissions) Trainee sales engineer/Assistant Export Sales Manager responsible to Sales Manager for sales to France, Germany and Greece. OTHER INFORMATION: 2005 - to date: Presentations at trade exhibitions in EEC countries Technical articles in journals and conference papers Fluent French and Greek (both spoken and written); good spoken German; reasonable spoken Italian and Spanish Relative clauses Grammar

Relative clauses are subordinate clauses which provide information about a noun or noun phrase. There are two types of relative clause in English: - defining relative clauses - non-defining relative clauses We can distinguish them by punctuation. Non-defining clauses are enclosed by commas; defining clauses are not. e.g. The machine which produced this printout has been withdrawn. (defining: no commas) Pat Smith, who leads the Administration Department, will meet you on your next visit. (nondefining: commas)

Defining and non-defining Personal subjective objective genitive locative temporal who who(m) whose Non-personal which which of which/whose where when

Defining only Personal and non-personal that that, zero (no pronoun)

Defining relative clauses provide essential information which restricts or clarifies the meaning of the preceding noun or noun phrase by specifying its meaning more clearly. e.g. The only person who can give you this information is out of the office at the moment. The clause 'who ca give you this information' identifies the person; without this essential information, the sentence has a very different meaning.

Non-defining relative clauses provide additional, non-essential information. e.g. The INJ300, which produced reasonable copy quality, has been replaced by the INJ400. The clause 'which produced reasonable copy quality' provides additional, non-essential information; without this information the basic meaning of the sentence remains the same. Exercise 3: Fill the gaps in these sentences with a suitable relative pronoun. Adds any commas that are missing. The first has been done for you as an example. 1. The person who impressed me most was Mr Wright. (no commas) 2. Mr Wright ................. application form we received yesterday is a very promising candidate. 3. His CV ................ you showed me yesterday is most impressive. 4. He has excellent references from his present employers .............. are ACME Engineering. 5. He was working in Norwich ............. they have their headquarters. 6. His qualifications .............. you commented on are excellent. 7. The personnel officer ........... interviewed him says that he's available at once.

8. The thing ..................impressed her most is his personality.

Exercise 4: Make each of the following sentences into a single sentence, using a relative pronoun. The first is done for you as an example. 1. He told us about his experiences in India. This was interesting. He told us about his experiences in India, which was interesting. 2. I heard about the vacancy from a friend. This friend works in Personnel. ................................................................................................................. .

3. He gave me some information. This information was supposed to be confidential. .................................................................................................................. . 4. I heard about this from a colleague. This colleague assured me it was true. ................................................................................................................... . 5. You gave a person's name as a reference. This person is unwilling to comment on you. .................................................................................................................. . 6. I applied for a job. I saw this job advertised in the newspaper. ................................................................................................ . 7. Apparently, we sent the forms to an address. This address was wrong. ...............................................................................................

Evaluation Test Choose the correct word: 1 The woman ... is sitting in front of you now, is a former girlfriend of mine. a. whom b. who c. which 2 The letter ... you sent to our customers last week contained three spelling errors. a. / b. who c. whom 3 The car ... I fancy most is an Audi. a. whom b. whose c. / 4 I am looking for a plant ... flowers in February. a. that b. which c. who 5 I have just finished a book about a piano player ... sole ambition in life was to

perform for the pope. a. whose b. which c. whom 6 I have been invited by a colleague ... has moved to Canada. a. / b. who c. whose 7 The person ... Anne is most keen on is me. a. whom b. / c. which 8 Where can I find a shop ... sells cigarettes? a. that b. who c. whose Key 1/b 2/a 3/c 4/b 5/a 6/b 7/a 8/a

Bibliography Alexander, L.G. Longman English Grammar. Longman, 1996 Brieger, Nick and Simon Sweeney. The Language of Business English. Grammar and Functions. Prentice Hall, 1994. Brooks, Michael and David Horner. Business English. Teora, 1998. Ciuciuc, Olea and Eugenia Tnsescu. English for Business Purposes. Teora, 1998. Jones, Leo and Richard Alexander. International Business English. Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Anexa 1 Teme de cas pentru semestrul I: (Refer to Chapters 1 and 2) 1. Describe the structure of the following organisation chart:
CHAIRMAN & MANAGING DIRECTOR PERSONNEL MANAGER ADMINISTRATION TRAINING PRODUCTION MANAGER TRANSPORT PURCHASING SALES MANAGER ADVERTISING EXPORT SALES MARKETING

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: The day (begin) terribly. My alarm (not go off) and I (leave) the house with only 1 hour to spare before the plane (be) due to take off. Luckily there (be) very little traffic and I (arrive) at the airport with 30 minutes to spare. I (check) in at the gate and (go) for a coffee. Just as I (sit) down, the announcer (call) my flight. I (drink) my coffee quickly, too quickly in fact as I (spill) some on my shirt. I (follow) the sign to the departure gate and (go) through passport control. I (sit) down in the departure lounge. It (be) full of teenagers, obviously a school trip. And then I (hear) that terrible announcement, the one you don't want to hear. There (be) a problem with the engine. I (look) around for a place to get another coffee. I (see) a drinks machine so I (go) over to get some. I (put) in my money and (press) the button for black coffee. When I (pick) up the cup, it (contain) only water. At that moment, the hostess (announce) that the plane (be) delayed because of bad weather. 3. Write a paragraph about the sort of work that you do. Refer to working hours, traditional or modern companies, nature of work, and type of job. 4. Translate into Romanian: "A sole proprietorship is a one-man business in which one person is alone responsible for decision-making and the raising of capital, though there may be several other people working in the firm. It is in this type of business that the entrepreneur, the organiser of the production, can be most easily identified as it is here that the functions of the entrepreneur are united in one person those of innovation, risk-taking and profit-earning. Not all sole proprietors are innovators, many take over established business, but they all risk their own capital. Though the sole proprietor

enjoys the unity of purpose and flexibility of a small organisation, the price of failure can be very high." (adapted from Ciuciuc, Olea and Eugenia Tnsescu. English for Business Purposes. Teora, 1998, p. 80) 5. Translate into English, paying attention to the use of tenses: Lucrez la aceast firm de patru ani, dar nu am mai ntlnit niciodat o asemenea situaie. Am studiat cu atenie concluziile departamentului de marketing i cred c nu putem lansa nc noul nostru produs. Din analizele financiare rezult c aceast firm a cheltuit luna trecut mai mult dect i putea permite. Firma lui a dat faliment i el nu i-a gsit nc un alt post de contabil. Suntem pe punctul de a lua o msur deosebit de important referitoare la strategia de dezvoltare a departamentului de marketing. Vom consulta baza de date pentru a obine aceste informaii. Pn lunea viitoare vom gsi varianta optim pentru rezolvarea acestei probleme.

Anexa 2 Teme de cas pentru semestrul al II-lea: (Refer to Chapters 3 and 4) 1. Read the following job advertisement and write a CV and a letter of application for the position it advertises. Romanian branch of WHIRLPOOL Corporation USA invites applications for positions of:

AREA SALES MANAGER The ideal candidate will have: - University degree - accurate and organised working style - good computer skills - English knowledge - specific experience in sales - negotiation and customer-oriented skills - driving licence. The main responsibilities are: - negotiating sales with trade partners - organising and controlling sales - travelling and supervising our trade partners in 17 counties We offer: - opportunity to join a strong team - high level training in Romania and abroad - a solid career opportunity - an attractive salary and compensation package

- personal development program inside company. Those interested in the position should send a detailed CV and application letter in English to: 20 Costache Sibiceanu St., 1 Bucharest -78227- Romania, no later than 01.06.2012. 2. Compare a product you know well with two other similar products from different manufacturers. Write at least 10 sentences. 3. Translate into Romanian: "Marketing has been very much in vogue since the sixties. But it is not a fashion, it is a basic need. Indeed, since the fifties, we have evolved from the economy of production that prevailed until then to the market economy that has become worldwide. In a producer's economy, if one wants to sell a product, one manufactures it one's way and offers it for sale as such: it will normally sell, since it is "good". In a market economy, this no longer works. One must first ascertain what the buyers want, expect, desire, before manufacturing the relevant product, and then advertise it to prompt them to buy. This is the marketing approach, which can be said to be 'a series of techniques organised into a method and implemented with a view to meeting natural or generated needs, under the best psychological conditions for the customers, and the best financial ones for producer and distributor'. To have the proper marketing attitude is to always seek, analyse, question, never to take things for granted, to be aware of the constant renewal of the social and business environment, and thus to be permanently on the alert to adjust to changes and, even better, to anticipate them if possible." (adapted from Engleza pentru marketing i publicitate. Teora, 2000, pp. 6-8) 4. Translate into English, paying attention to the ways of expressing permission, possibility, probability and certainty: N-am putut niciodat nelege ce i fcea s resping acest proiect. S-ar fi putut asocia cu cine ar fi vrut. S-ar putea s nu fiu prea ndemnatic, dar mcar tiu ce vreau. Pot s m uit puin prin documentele ce urmeaz s fie analizate n edina de mine? M gndesc c s-ar fi putut s-i spun ceva despre registrele companiei. Ne-ai fcut un mare serviciu. tiam c ne putem ncrede n tine. 5. Comment on the following statement (25-30 lines): "Marketing is the creation and delivery of a standard of living to the society."

Bibliography: Alexander, L.G. Longman English Grammar. Longman, 1996 Brieger, Nick and Simon Sweeney. The Language of Business English. Grammar and Functions. Prentice Hall, 1994. Brooks, Michael and David Horner. Business English. Teora, 1998. Ciuciuc, Olea and Eugenia Tnsescu. English for Business Purposes. Teora, 1998. Engleza pentru marketing i publicitate. Metod Larousse. Teora, 2000. Jones, Leo and Richard Alexander. International Business English. Cambridge University Press, 1990.