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Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

c Romesh C. Batra, 1998, 2000

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CONTENTS

 Chapter 1 Introduction 1. What is Mechanics? 1-1 2. Continuum Mechanics 1-2 3. An example of an ad-hoc approach 1-3 Chapter 2 Mathematical Preliminaries 1. Summation convention, Dummy Indices 2-1 2. Free Indices 2-3 3. Kronecker Delta 2-4 4. Index Notation 2-6 5. Permutation Symbol 2-7 6. Manipulation with the Indicial Notation 2-9 7. Translation and Rotation of Coordinate Axes 2-12 8. Tensors 2-19 Chapter 3 Kinematics 1. Description of Motion of a Continuum 3-1 2. Referential and Spatial Descriptions 3-3 3. Displacement Vector 3-5 4. Restrictions on Continuous Deformation of a Deformable Body 3-6 5. Material Derivative 3-9 6. Finding Acceleration of a Particle from a given Velocity Field 3-11 7. Deformation Gradient 3-14 8. Strain Tensors 3-21 9. Principal Strains 3-24 10. Deformation of Areas and Volumes 3-33 11. Mass Density. Equation of Continuity 3-35 12. Rate of Deformation 3-38 13. Polar Decomposition 3-45 14. Inﬁnitesimal Deformations 3-50

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Chapter 4

The Stress Tensor

 1. Kinetics of a Continuous Media 4-1 2. Boundary Conditions for the Stress Tensor 4-10 3. Nominal Stress Tensor 4-13 4. Transformation of Stress Tensor under Rotation of Axes 4-15 5. Principal Stresses. Maximum Shear Stress 4-20 Chaper 5 The Linear Elastic Material 1. Introduction 5-1 2. Linear Elastic Solid. Hookean Material 5-1 3. Equations of the Inﬁnitesimal Theory of Elasticity 5-7 4. Principle of Superposition 5-10 5. A Uniqueness Theorem 5-1ll 6. Compatibility Equations Expressed in terms of the Stress Components for an Isotropic, Homogeneous, Linear, Elastic Solid 51-4 7. Some Examples. 5-18 a) Vibration of an Inﬁnite Plate b) Torsion of a Circular Shaft 5-22 c) Torsion of Non-Circular Cylinders 5-26 Chaper 6 The Linear Elastic Material 1. Constitutive Relation 6-1 2. Formulation of an Initial-Boundary-Varlue Problem 6-3 3. Examples 6-4

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Introduction

The major objective of our study of Mechanics is the formulation and solution of initial-boundary- value problems that model as realistically as possible a physical phenomenon. There are two equally attractive approaches to Mechanics. One is the ad-hoc approach, which takes up speciﬁc problems, and devises problem-dependent methods of solution, introducing simplifying assump- tions as needed. (This approach is used in Strength of Materials where problems of bending, torsion, pressure vessel are individually set up under varying assumptions and then solved.) The other is the general approach, which explores the general features of a concept or a theory and considers speciﬁc applications at a later stage. By and large, the latter is the quicker way to learn about an entire ﬁeld, but the former is more concrete and sometimes more easily understood. We will study the general approach in this course.

1.1 What is Mechanics?

Mechanics is the study of the motion of matter and the forces required to cause its motion. Mechan- ics is based on the concepts of time, space, force, energy, and matter. A knowledge of mechanics is needed for the study of all branches of physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. The consideration of all aspects of mechanics would be too large a task for us. Instead, in this course, we shall study only the classical mechanics of non-polar continua. (A nonpolar continuum is one whose material particles have only three translational degrees of freedom.) We shall concern ourselves with the basic principles common to ﬂuids and solids.

1.2 Continuum Mechanics

Matter is formed of molecules which in turn consist of atoms and subatomic particles. Thus matter is not continuous. However, there are many aspects of everyday experience regarding the behavior of materials, such as the amount of lengthening of a steel bar under the action of given forces, the rate of discharge of water in a pipe under a given pressure difference or the drag force ex- perienced by a body moving in air etc., which can be described and predicted with theories that

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pay no attention to the molecular structure of materials. The theory which describes relationships between gross phenomena, neglecting the structure of materials on a smaller scale, is known as the continuum theory. The continuum theory regards matter as indeﬁnitely divisible. Thus, within the theory, one accepts the idea of an inﬁnitesimal volume of material referred to as a particle in the continuum, and in every neighborhood of a particle there are always inﬁnitely many particles present. Whether the continuum theory is justiﬁed or not depends upon the given situation. For example, the molecular dimension of water is about ; hence, if we are concerned about the liquid water in a problem in which we never have to consider dimensions less than say cm, we are safe to treat water as a continuum. The mean free path of the molecules of air on the surface of the earth at room temperature is about cm; hence, if we consider the ﬂow of air about an airplane, we may treat air as a continuum. The diameter of a red blood cell in our body is about cm; hence, we can treat our blood as a continuum if we consider the ﬂow in arteries of diameter say 0.5 mm. Thus the concept of a material continuum as a mathematical idealization of the real world is applicable to problems in which the ﬁne structure of the matter can be ignored. When the consideration of ﬁne structure is important, we should use principles of particle physics, statistical mechanics, or a theory of micropolar continuum.

1.3 An example of an ad-hoc approach.

Consider the problem of the bending of a beam usually studied in the ﬁrst course on Mechanics of Deforms. This is generally based on the following assumptions:

i) The beam is initially straight.

ii) The cross-section is uniform.

iii) The beam is made of a homogeneous and isotropic material which obeys Hooke’s law.

iv) Plane sections remain plane.

v) The beam is subjected to a pure bending moment applied at the ends.

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Under these assumptions, one can derive the formula

(1.3.1)

in which is the longitudinal bending stress, the distance from the neutral axis which passes through the centroid of the cross-section and I the moment of inertia of the cross-section about the neutral axis. The derivation of (1.3.1) makes no reference to other components of stress acting at a point. Of course, if the beam were initially curved or were one interested in ﬁnding the transverse shear stress at a point, one would start essentially from scratch.

1.4 Continuum Mechanics

In Continuum Mechanics, we ﬁrst establish principles which are applicable to all media, both ﬂuids and solids, under all kinds of loading conditions. We then study constitutive equations which deﬁne classes of idealized materials. Finally speciﬁc problems are analyzed, and results are compared with experimental observations.

2 Mathematical Preliminaries

2.1 Summation Convention, Dummy Indices

Consider the sum

We can write it in a compact form as

(2.1.1)

(2.1.2)

It is obvious that the index or in eqn. (2.1.2) is dummy in the sense that the sum is indepen- dent of the letter used. This is analogous to the dummy variable in an integral of a function over a ﬁnite interval.

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We can further simplify the writing of eqn. (2.1.2) by adopting the following convention, some- times known as Einstein’s summation convention. Whenever an index is repeated once in the same term, it implies summation over the speciﬁed range of the index. Using the summation convention, eqn. (2.1.2) shortens to . Note that expressions such as are not deﬁned within this convention. That is, an index should never be repeated more than once in the same term for the summation convention to be used. Therefore, an expression of the form

must retain its summation sign. In the following, unless otherwise speciﬁed, we shall always take to be 3 so that, for example,

The summation convention can obviously be used to express a double sum, a triple sum, etc. For example, we can write

simply as . This expression equals the sum of nine terms:

Similarly, the triple sum

will simply be written as , and it

represents the sum of 27 terms. We emphasize again that expressions such as or are not deﬁned in the summation convention.

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Exercise: Given

Evaluate (a) , (b) , and (c) .

2.2 Free Indices

Consider the following system of three equations:

These can be shortened to

(2.2.1)

(2.2.2)

An index which appears only once in each term of an equation such as the index in eqn. (2.2.2) is called a “free index”. A free index takes on the integral number 1,2, or 3 one at a time. Thus eqn. (2.2.2) is a short way of writing three equations each having the sum of three terms on its right-hand side. Note that the free index appearing in every term of an equation must be the same. Thus

is a meaningless equation. However, the following equations are meaningful.

If there are two free indices appearing in an equation such as

(2.2.3)

then it is a short way of writing 9 equations. For example, eqn. (2.2.3) represents 9 equations; each

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one has the sum of 3 terms on the right-hand side. In fact

Again, equations such as

are meaningless.

2.3 Kronecker Delta.

The Kronecker Delta, denoted by , is deﬁned as

That is,

In other words, the matrix

is the identity matrix

We note the following relations

(a)

(b)

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Or, in general

Similarly, one can show that

In particular,

2.4 Index Notation

Usually, rectangular Cartesian coordinates of a point are denoted by and the unit vectors along and -axes by , and respectively. In this coordinate system, the components of a vector along , and axes are denoted by , and . The vector has the representation

This notation does not lend itself to any abbreviation. Therefore, instead of denoting the coordinate axes by we will denote them by . Also we will denote unit vectors along and axes by , and respectively. Naturally then components of a vector along and axes will be indicated by , and respectively. Hence we can write

Similarly,

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(2.4.1)

The dot product can simply be written as

 (2.4.2) Since are mutually orthogonal unit vectors, therefore, These equations can be summarized as (2.4.3)

Exercise. Using the index notation, write expressions for

(1) the magnitude of a vector ,

(2) being the angle between vectors and .

As another illustration of the use of the index notation, consider a line element with components

. The square of the length, , of the line element is given by

Finally, we note that the differential of a function can be written as

2.5 Permutation Symbol

The permutation symbol, denoted by , is deﬁned by

if form

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an even

an odd

not a

permutation of

(2.5.1)

 That is, We note that

If form a right-handed triad, then

which can be written as

Now, if

, then

(2.5.2)

(2.5.3)

Exercise. Using the index notation write an expression for ; being the angle between vectors and . Exercise. Show that

The following useful identity, which can be veriﬁed by long-hand calculations should be mem- orized.

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(2.5.4)

Now by using this identity let us prove the vector identity

Proof: Let . Then , and

Exercise. Show that

use

use

(a)

(b)

If , then ,

, and

(c)

if

, then

.

We now write in the index notation.

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Example. Show that .

 2.6 Manipulations with the Indicial Notations (a) Substitution If and

(2.6.1)

(2.6.2)

then, in order to substitute for ’s from (2.6.2) into (2.6.1) we ﬁrst change the dummy index from to some other letter, say and then the free index in (2.6.2) from to , so that

Now (2.6.1) and (2.6.3) give

(2.6.3)

(2.6.4)

Note that (2.6.4) represents three equations each having the sum of nine terms on its right-hand side.

 (b) Multiplication If and then

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(2.6.5)

(2.6.6)

(2.6.7)

It is important to note that . In fact the right-hand side of this expression is not even deﬁned in the summation convention and further it is obvious that

 (c) Factoring If

then, using the Kronecker delta, we can write

so that (2.6.8) becomes

Thus

(2.6.8)

(2.6.9)

(d) Contraction The operation of identifying two indices and so summing on them is known as contraction. For

example, is the contraction of ,

and is a contraction of ,

 If then

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Exercise. Given that ,

, show that

2.7 Translation and Rotation of Coordinate Axes

Consider two sets of rectangular Cartesian frames of reference and in a plane.

If the frame of reference

is obtained from by a shift of the origin without a

change in orientation, then, the transformation is a translation. If a point has coordinates and

with respect to and respec-

tively and are the coordinates of with respect to , then

or brieﬂy

(2.7.1)

If the origin remains ﬁxed, and the new axes

are obtained by rotating and

through an angle in the counter-clockwise direction, then 13

the transformation of axes is a rotation. Let the point have coordinates and

relative to and

respectively. Then,

We can write

in terms of as

(2.7.2)

Using the index notation, the set of eqns. (2.7.2) can be written as

(2.7.3)

where are elements of the matrix ;

Before we generalize (2.7.1) and (2.7.2) to three dimensions we give below an alternate method

of arriving at (2.7.2). Let along and -axes. Then

denote unit vectors along and -axes and unit vectors

Also

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Therefore,

This latter approach can more easily be adopted to the 3-dimensional case. If the primed axes

are obtained from the unprimed axes just by a translation, then the coordinates

of a point with respect to the two sets of axes are related by (2.7.1) wherein the index ranges from

to . Now let us assume that the primed axes are obtained from the unprimed axes by a rotation only. Let us denote unit vectors along by , and respectively and those along

by

and respectively. If

cosine of the angle between

and

then and are the direction cosines of with respect to the unprimed axes. We can write

Similarly,

Or

Note that the matrix is . Since

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(2.7.4)

(2.7.5)

therefore,

(2.7.6)

Equations (2.7.6) are equivalent to the following six equations.

(2.7.7)

The ﬁrst three equations are equivalent to the statement that

three equations are equivalent to the statement that we can write ’s in terms of ’s. Since

and are unit vectors; the last

are mutually orthogonal. Of course,

therefore,

cosine of the angle between and

or

(2.7.8)

From the point of view of the solution of a set of simultaneous linear equations, the matrix in (2.7.8) must be identiﬁed as the inverse of the matrix :

(2.7.9)

Here is the transpose of the matrix . A matrix , which satisﬁes eqn. (2.7.9) is called an orthogonal matrix. That is, the transpose of an orthogonal matrix equals its inverse. A transfor- mation is said to be orthogonal if the associated matrix is orthogonal. The matrix in (2.7.4) deﬁning a rotation of coordinate axes is orthogonal.

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For an orthogonal matrix we have

Therefore

and thus

or

or

An orthogonal matrix whose determinant equals is called proper orthogonal and the one whose determinant equals is called improper orthogonal. A proper orthogonal matrix transforms a

right-handed triad of axes into a right-handed set of axes whereas an improper orthogonal matrix transforms a right-handed set of axes into a left-handed set of axes or vice-versa.

and . By setting the volume

Exercise: Consider a cube formed by the orthonormal vectors

of this cube equal to 1, show that . Consider a vector emanating from the origin and ending at a point . With respect to the primed and unprimed axes,

Similarly,

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Example: The components of a vector with respect to unprimed axes are . Con- sider a set of primed coordinate axes obtained by rotating the unprimed axes through an angle of about the -axis (see Fig. ). What are the components, , of this vector with respect to the primed set of axes?

Solution:

Therefore

Now

can be written as

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Summarizing our discussion of the transformation of coordinate axes, we note that a general transformation from unprimed to primed axes combines both a translation and a rotation of the axes. This can be written as

(2.7.10)

where is an orthogonal matrix and is a constant. Under this transformation, the components of a vector in the two sets of axes are related as

2.8

Tensors

2.8.1 A Linear Transformation

(2.7.11)

Let be a transformation from a vector space into the same vector space. That is, for any vector , is also a vector of the same dimensions as . Then is linear if and only if

for every real and

(2.8.1.1)

[NOTE: is a linear function of if and only if where is a real number. For example is not a linear function of even though it is often referred to as such.] A linear transformation from a vector space into another vector space is also called a second-order tensor.

2.8.2 Tensor Product Between Two Vectors

The tensor product (or the dyadic product) between two vectors and is deﬁned as

for every vector

(2.8.2.1)

Thus transforms a vector into a vector parallel to . Since it transforms a vector into a vector and obeys (2.8.1.1), it is a linear transformation. Note that

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(2.8.2.2)

2.8.3

Components of a Second-Order Tensor

Let

vectors). For any vector ,

be a set of orthonormal basis vectors (i.e.

Let . Then

are mutually orthogonal unit

(2.8.3.1)

(2.8.3.2)

or

Taking the inner product of both sides of this eqn. with , we obtain

where

is called the component of with respect to the basis

. For computation purposes, eqn. (2.8.3.4) is written as

(2.8.3.3)

(2.8.3.4)

(2.8.3.5)

(2.8.3.6)

Analogous to the representation (2.8.3.1) for vector , we have the following representation for second-order tensor .

(2.8.3.7)

Because of (2.8.2.2), need not equal . In order to see that (2.8.3.7) is equivalent to (2.8.3.5),

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we evaluate .

(2.8.3.8)

which is equivalent to or (2.8.3.4). It is clear from (2.8.3.7) that the components of depend upon the choice of basis . Let

(2.8.3.9)

where is an orthogonal matrix (i.e. ). Then

Hence

and in matrix notation,

and since is orthogonal,