Introduction to Continuum Mechanics
c Romesh C. Batra, 1998, 2000
i
CONTENTS
Chapter 1 Introduction 

1. What is Mechanics? 
11 

2. Continuum Mechanics 
12 

3. An example of an adhoc approach 
13 

Chapter 2 Mathematical Preliminaries 

1. Summation convention, Dummy Indices 
21 

2. Free Indices 
23 

3. Kronecker Delta 
24 

4. Index Notation 
26 

5. Permutation Symbol 
27 

6. Manipulation with the Indicial Notation 
29 

7. Translation and Rotation of Coordinate Axes 
212 

8. Tensors 
219 

Chapter 3 Kinematics 

1. 
Description of Motion of a Continuum 
31 
2. 
Referential and Spatial Descriptions 
33 
3. 
Displacement Vector 
35 
4. 
Restrictions on Continuous Deformation of a Deformable Body 
36 
5. 
Material Derivative 
39 
6. 
Finding Acceleration of a Particle from a given Velocity Field 
311 
7. 
Deformation Gradient 
314 
8. 
Strain Tensors 
321 
9. 
Principal Strains 
324 
10. 
Deformation of Areas and Volumes 
333 
11. 
Mass Density. Equation of Continuity 
335 
12. 
Rate of Deformation 
338 
13. 
Polar Decomposition 
345 
14. 
Inﬁnitesimal Deformations 
350 
ii
Chapter 4
The Stress Tensor
1. Kinetics of a Continuous Media 
41 

2. Boundary Conditions for the Stress Tensor 
410 

3. Nominal Stress Tensor 
413 

4. Transformation of Stress Tensor under Rotation of Axes 
415 

5. Principal Stresses. Maximum Shear Stress 
420 

Chaper 5 
The Linear Elastic Material 

1. Introduction 
51 

2. Linear Elastic Solid. Hookean Material 
51 

3. Equations of the Inﬁnitesimal Theory of Elasticity 
57 

4. Principle of Superposition 
510 

5. A Uniqueness Theorem 
51ll 

6. Compatibility Equations Expressed in terms of the Stress Components for an Isotropic, Homogeneous, Linear, Elastic Solid 
514 

7. Some Examples. 
518 

a) 
Vibration of an Inﬁnite Plate 

b) 
Torsion of a Circular Shaft 
522 
c) 
Torsion of NonCircular Cylinders 
526 
Chaper 6 
The Linear Elastic Material 

1. Constitutive Relation 
61 

2. Formulation of an InitialBoundaryVarlue Problem 
63 

3. Examples 
64 
iii
1
Introduction
The major objective of our study of Mechanics is the formulation and solution of initialboundary value problems that model as realistically as possible a physical phenomenon. There are two equally attractive approaches to Mechanics. One is the adhoc approach, which takes up speciﬁc problems, and devises problemdependent methods of solution, introducing simplifying assump tions as needed. (This approach is used in Strength of Materials where problems of bending, torsion, pressure vessel are individually set up under varying assumptions and then solved.) The other is the general approach, which explores the general features of a concept or a theory and considers speciﬁc applications at a later stage. By and large, the latter is the quicker way to learn about an entire ﬁeld, but the former is more concrete and sometimes more easily understood. We will study the general approach in this course.
1.1 What is Mechanics?
Mechanics is the study of the motion of matter and the forces required to cause its motion. Mechan ics is based on the concepts of time, space, force, energy, and matter. A knowledge of mechanics is needed for the study of all branches of physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. The consideration of all aspects of mechanics would be too large a task for us. Instead, in this course, we shall study only the classical mechanics of nonpolar continua. (A nonpolar continuum is one whose material particles have only three translational degrees of freedom.) We shall concern ourselves with the basic principles common to ﬂuids and solids.
1.2 Continuum Mechanics
Matter is formed of molecules which in turn consist of atoms and subatomic particles. Thus matter is not continuous. However, there are many aspects of everyday experience regarding the behavior of materials, such as the amount of lengthening of a steel bar under the action of given forces, the rate of discharge of water in a pipe under a given pressure difference or the drag force ex perienced by a body moving in air etc., which can be described and predicted with theories that
1
pay no attention to the molecular structure of materials. The theory which describes relationships between gross phenomena, neglecting the structure of materials on a smaller scale, is known as the continuum theory. The continuum theory regards matter as indeﬁnitely divisible. Thus, within the theory, one accepts the idea of an inﬁnitesimal volume of material referred to as a particle in the continuum, and in every neighborhood of a particle there are always inﬁnitely many particles present. Whether the continuum theory is justiﬁed or not depends upon the given situation. For example, the molecular dimension of water is about ; hence, if we are concerned about the liquid water in a problem in which we never have to consider dimensions less than say cm, we are safe to treat water as a continuum. The mean free path of the molecules of air on the surface of the earth at room temperature is about cm; hence, if we consider the ﬂow of air about an airplane, we may treat air as a continuum. The diameter of a red blood cell in our body is about cm; hence, we can treat our blood as a continuum if we consider the ﬂow in arteries of diameter say 0.5 mm. Thus the concept of a material continuum as a mathematical idealization of the real world is applicable to problems in which the ﬁne structure of the matter can be ignored. When the consideration of ﬁne structure is important, we should use principles of particle physics, statistical mechanics, or a theory of micropolar continuum.
1.3 An example of an adhoc approach.
Consider the problem of the bending of a beam usually studied in the ﬁrst course on Mechanics of Deforms. This is generally based on the following assumptions:
i) The beam is initially straight.
ii) The crosssection is uniform.
iii) The beam is made of a homogeneous and isotropic material which obeys Hooke’s law.
iv) Plane sections remain plane.
v) The beam is subjected to a pure bending moment applied at the ends.
2
Under these assumptions, one can derive the formula
(1.3.1)
in which is the longitudinal bending stress, the distance from the neutral axis which passes through the centroid of the crosssection and I the moment of inertia of the crosssection about the neutral axis. The derivation of (1.3.1) makes no reference to other components of stress acting at a point. Of course, if the beam were initially curved or were one interested in ﬁnding the transverse shear stress at a point, one would start essentially from scratch.
1.4 Continuum Mechanics
In Continuum Mechanics, we ﬁrst establish principles which are applicable to all media, both ﬂuids and solids, under all kinds of loading conditions. We then study constitutive equations which deﬁne classes of idealized materials. Finally speciﬁc problems are analyzed, and results are compared with experimental observations.
2 Mathematical Preliminaries
2.1 Summation Convention, Dummy Indices
Consider the sum
We can write it in a compact form as
(2.1.1)
(2.1.2)
It is obvious that the index or in eqn. (2.1.2) is dummy in the sense that the sum is indepen dent of the letter used. This is analogous to the dummy variable in an integral of a function over a ﬁnite interval.
3
We can further simplify the writing of eqn. (2.1.2) by adopting the following convention, some times known as Einstein’s summation convention. Whenever an index is repeated once in the same term, it implies summation over the speciﬁed range of the index. Using the summation convention, eqn. (2.1.2) shortens to . Note that expressions such as are not deﬁned within this convention. That is, an index should never be repeated more than once in the same term for the summation convention to be used. Therefore, an expression of the form
must retain its summation sign. In the following, unless otherwise speciﬁed, we shall always take to be 3 so that, for example,
The summation convention can obviously be used to express a double sum, a triple sum, etc. For example, we can write
simply as . This expression equals the sum of nine terms:
Similarly, the triple sum
will simply be written as , and it
represents the sum of 27 terms. We emphasize again that expressions such as or are not deﬁned in the summation convention.
4
Exercise: Given
Evaluate (a) , (b) , and (c) .
2.2 Free Indices
Consider the following system of three equations:
These can be shortened to
(2.2.1)
(2.2.2)
An index which appears only once in each term of an equation such as the index in eqn. (2.2.2) is called a “free index”. A free index takes on the integral number 1,2, or 3 one at a time. Thus eqn. (2.2.2) is a short way of writing three equations each having the sum of three terms on its righthand side. Note that the free index appearing in every term of an equation must be the same. Thus
is a meaningless equation. However, the following equations are meaningful.
If there are two free indices appearing in an equation such as
(2.2.3)
then it is a short way of writing 9 equations. For example, eqn. (2.2.3) represents 9 equations; each
5
one has the sum of 3 terms on the righthand side. In fact
Again, equations such as
are meaningless.
2.3 Kronecker Delta.
The Kronecker Delta, denoted by , is deﬁned as
That is,
In other words, the matrix
is the identity matrix
We note the following relations
(a)
(b)
6
Or, in general
Similarly, one can show that
In particular,
2.4 Index Notation
Usually, rectangular Cartesian coordinates of a point are denoted by and the unit vectors along and axes by , and respectively. In this coordinate system, the components of a vector along , and axes are denoted by , and . The vector has the representation
This notation does not lend itself to any abbreviation. Therefore, instead of denoting the coordinate axes by we will denote them by . Also we will denote unit vectors
along and axes by , and respectively. Naturally then components of a vector along and axes will be indicated by , and respectively. Hence we can write
Similarly,
7
(2.4.1)
The dot product can simply be written as



(2.4.2) 

Since are mutually orthogonal unit vectors, therefore, 






These equations can be summarized as 


(2.4.3) 
Exercise. Using the index notation, write expressions for
(1) the magnitude of a vector ,
(2) being the angle between vectors and .
As another illustration of the use of the index notation, consider a line element with components
. The square of the length, , of the line element is given by
Finally, we note that the differential of a function can be written as
2.5 Permutation Symbol
The permutation symbol, denoted by , is deﬁned by
if form
8
an even
an odd
not a
permutation of
(2.5.1)
That is, 







We note that 
If form a righthanded triad, then
which can be written as
Now, if
, then
(2.5.2)
(2.5.3)
Exercise. Using the index notation write an expression for ; being the angle between vectors and . Exercise. Show that
The following useful identity, which can be veriﬁed by longhand calculations should be mem orized.
9
(2.5.4)
Now by using this identity let us prove the vector identity
Proof: Let . Then , and
Exercise. Show that
use
use
(a)
(b)
If , then ,
, and
(c)
if
, then
.
We now write in the index notation.
10
Example. Show that .
2.6 
Manipulations with the Indicial Notations 
(a) 
Substitution 
If 



and 


(2.6.1)
(2.6.2)
then, in order to substitute for ’s from (2.6.2) into (2.6.1) we ﬁrst change the dummy index from to some other letter, say and then the free index in (2.6.2) from to , so that
Now (2.6.1) and (2.6.3) give
(2.6.3)
(2.6.4)
Note that (2.6.4) represents three equations each having the sum of nine terms on its righthand side.
(b) 
Multiplication 
If 

and 

then 
11
(2.6.5)
(2.6.6)
(2.6.7)
It is important to note that . In fact the righthand side of this expression is not even deﬁned in the summation convention and further it is obvious that
(c) 
Factoring 
If 
then, using the Kronecker delta, we can write
so that (2.6.8) becomes
Thus
(2.6.8)
(2.6.9)
(d) Contraction The operation of identifying two indices and so summing on them is known as contraction. For
example, is the contraction of ,
and is a contraction of ,
If 




then 







12
Exercise. Given that ,
, show that
2.7 Translation and Rotation of Coordinate Axes
Consider two sets of rectangular Cartesian frames of reference and in a plane.
If the frame of reference
is obtained from by a shift of the origin without a
change in orientation, then, the transformation is a translation.
If a point has coordinates and
with respect to and respec
tively and are the coordinates of with respect to , then



or brieﬂy
(2.7.1)
If the origin remains ﬁxed, and the new axes
are obtained by rotating and
through an angle in the counterclockwise direction, then
13
the transformation of axes is a rotation. Let the point have coordinates and
relative to and
respectively. Then,
We can write
in terms of as
(2.7.2)
Using the index notation, the set of eqns. (2.7.2) can be written as
(2.7.3)
where are elements of the matrix ;
Before we generalize (2.7.1) and (2.7.2) to three dimensions we give below an alternate method
of arriving at (2.7.2). Let along and axes. Then
denote unit vectors along and axes and unit vectors
Also
14
Therefore,
This latter approach can more easily be adopted to the 3dimensional case. If the primed axes
are obtained from the unprimed axes just by a translation, then the coordinates
of a point with respect to the two sets of axes are related by (2.7.1) wherein the index ranges from
to . Now let us assume that the primed axes are obtained from the unprimed axes by a rotation only. Let us denote unit vectors along by , and respectively and those along
by
and respectively. If
cosine of the angle between
and
then and are the direction cosines of with respect to the unprimed axes. We can write
Similarly,
Or
Note that the matrix is . Since
15
(2.7.4)
(2.7.5)
therefore,
(2.7.6)
Equations (2.7.6) are equivalent to the following six equations.
(2.7.7)
The ﬁrst three equations are equivalent to the statement that
three equations are equivalent to the statement that we can write ’s in terms of ’s. Since
and are unit vectors; the last
are mutually orthogonal. Of course,
therefore,
cosine of the angle between and
or
(2.7.8)
From the point of view of the solution of a set of simultaneous linear equations, the matrix in (2.7.8) must be identiﬁed as the inverse of the matrix :
(2.7.9)
Here is the transpose of the matrix . A matrix , which satisﬁes eqn. (2.7.9) is called an orthogonal matrix. That is, the transpose of an orthogonal matrix equals its inverse. A transfor mation is said to be orthogonal if the associated matrix is orthogonal. The matrix in (2.7.4) deﬁning a rotation of coordinate axes is orthogonal.
16
For an orthogonal matrix we have
Therefore
and thus
or
or
An orthogonal matrix whose determinant equals is called proper orthogonal and the one whose determinant equals is called improper orthogonal. A proper orthogonal matrix transforms a
righthanded triad of axes into a righthanded set of axes whereas an improper orthogonal matrix transforms a righthanded set of axes into a lefthanded set of axes or viceversa.
and . By setting the volume
Exercise: Consider a cube formed by the orthonormal vectors
of this cube equal to 1, show that . Consider a vector emanating from the origin and ending at a point . With respect to the primed and unprimed axes,
Similarly,
17
Example: The components of a vector with respect to unprimed axes are . Con sider a set of primed coordinate axes obtained by rotating the unprimed axes through an angle of about the axis (see Fig. ). What are the components, , of this vector with respect to the primed set of axes?
Solution:
Therefore
Now
can be written as
Hence
18
Summarizing our discussion of the transformation of coordinate axes, we note that a general transformation from unprimed to primed axes combines both a translation and a rotation of the axes. This can be written as
(2.7.10)
where is an orthogonal matrix and is a constant. Under this transformation, the components of a vector in the two sets of axes are related as
2.8
Tensors
2.8.1 A Linear Transformation
(2.7.11)
Let be a transformation from a vector space into the same vector space. That is, for any vector , is also a vector of the same dimensions as . Then is linear if and only if
for every real and
(2.8.1.1)
[NOTE: is a linear function of if and only if where is a real number. For example is not a linear function of even though it is often referred to as such.] A linear transformation from a vector space into another vector space is also called a secondorder tensor.
2.8.2 Tensor Product Between Two Vectors
The tensor product (or the dyadic product) between two vectors and is deﬁned as
for every vector
(2.8.2.1)
Thus transforms a vector into a vector parallel to . Since it transforms a vector into a vector and obeys (2.8.1.1), it is a linear transformation. Note that
19
(2.8.2.2)
2.8.3
Components of a SecondOrder Tensor
Let
vectors). For any vector ,
be a set of orthonormal basis vectors (i.e.
Let . Then
are mutually orthogonal unit
(2.8.3.1)
(2.8.3.2)
or
Taking the inner product of both sides of this eqn. with , we obtain
where
is called the component of with respect to the basis
. For computation purposes, eqn. (2.8.3.4) is written as
(2.8.3.3)
(2.8.3.4)
(2.8.3.5)
(2.8.3.6)
Analogous to the representation (2.8.3.1) for vector , we have the following representation for secondorder tensor .
(2.8.3.7)
Because of (2.8.2.2), need not equal . In order to see that (2.8.3.7) is equivalent to (2.8.3.5),
20
we evaluate .
(2.8.3.8)
which is equivalent to or (2.8.3.4). It is clear from (2.8.3.7) that the components of depend upon the choice of basis . Let
(2.8.3.9)
where is an orthogonal matrix (i.e. ). Then
Hence
and in matrix notation,
and since is orthogonal,
Mult mai mult decât documente.
Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.
Anulați oricând.