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P Vanchinathan ()

Vector Spaces

P Vanchinathan

February 8, 2012

Vector Spaces

February 8, 2012 1 / 4
February 8, 2012
1 / 4

Linear Dependence A set of vectors is said to be linearly dependent if any one of them is a linear combination of the other vectors. Otherwise we call them linearly independent.

Suppose that v 1 is a linear combination of v

b n, en

2

vectors. Otherwise we call them linearly independent. Suppose that v 1 is a linear combination of

Basis of a Vector Space

A maximal set of linearly independent vectors of a vector a space is called

a basis for that vector space. The number of elements in such a set is called the dimension of the vector space. Clearly R 2 2-dimensional, R 3 is 3-dimensional, and R n is n-dimensional.

For any set of initial vectors form all possible linear combinations, using all scalars. The set obtained will be a vector space. (Because linear combinations of new vectors can again be simplified to a linear combination of origianl initial vectors). This vector space is called the span of the vectors we started with. For linearly independent set of vectors two different linear combinations will result in two different vectors (uniqueness). Find two ways of forming linear combination giving the same result in each

of the following cases:

1 (1, 7, 1), (2, 2, 3), (4, 20, 7

2 (1, 1, 1), (3, 8, 2), (0, 11, 1)

3 (4, 3, 2), (2, 0, 5), (10, 6, 9)

P Vanchinathan ()

Vector Spaces

February 8, 2012 4 / 4
February 8, 2012
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Rank of a Matrix

If we are given three vectors all size 3, then we can make a square matrix of order 3.

Theorem:

if the square matrix obtained from them is singular (i.e. has determinant

Given n vectors in R n , they are linearly dependent if and only

zero).

Example:

(1, 8, 2) T , (0, 4, 5) T , (3, 2, 3) T Then form matrix

Its determinant is 1(12 10) 0 + 2(0 + 12) = +2 so

.

1

8

2

0

4

5

3

2

3

they are linearly independent. When a matrix has determinant zero, the columns are linearly dependent vectors. What is the maximal number of columns that can be linearly independent? That number is called the rank of the matrix. Rank is equal to the order of the largest square submatrix that has non-zero determinant. This is equal to the number of basic variables in the linear system, which is the number of leading 1’s in the echelon form. And the number of free variables is called the nullity of the marix.

P Vanchinathan ()

Vector Spaces

February 8, 2012 5 / 4
February 8, 2012
5 / 4