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Digital Re-print - May | June 2013 Feed focus - POULTRY Grain & Feed Milling
Digital Re-print - May | June 2013 Feed focus - POULTRY Grain & Feed Milling
Digital Re-print - May | June 2013 Feed focus - POULTRY Grain & Feed Milling

Digital Re-print - May | June 2013

Feed focus - POULTRY

Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872

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Feed focus



cheap and nutritious food for poultry

by Hossan MD Salim PhD, Upazila livestock officer, DLS, Bangladesh and University of Manitoba, Canada

T he world grain price is increasing day by day and the industry is facing several challenges to produce good quality

animal products with a reasonable price for consumers. Similarly, the poultry industry in Bangladesh is also fighting with high grain prices to maintain its production with

marginal profit. Small and medium poultry farm owners are mainly affected and losing their capital investment in this sector.

The increased cost and the limited supply of conventional grains have made it necessary to focus research and extend efforts towards the potential utilization of energy and proteins from several grain by-products which are cheaper with high nutritive values. Corn dis- tillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) can

26 | may - June 2013

play a vital role in this high grain price situation to formulate the least cost diets for poultry. DDGS is a co-product of ethanol production plants that use corn for manufacturing. During the yeast fermentation in ethanol plants, corn is ground, mixed with water, cooked and the liquefied starch from this process is hydrolyzed and fermented to produce ethanol and CO2. As a result, the non-fermentable components of this process which are rich in essential nutrients such as protein, fat, fibre, vitamins and minerals are recovered in a highly concentrated form as distillers dried grains with solubles. Although distillers dried grains have been used by the poultry industry for some time, recently a renaissance in the use of DDGS has been observed in the USA and also around the world. This is due to the rapid escalation in its production as well as its improved quality when derived from the new generation ethanol plants. Therefore, in the light of the large production of corn DDGS entering the USA, and other over- seas markets, the aim of this topic is to provide

a compendium of information to the people

involved with the industry regarding nutritional value of corn DDGS for poultry.

Nutrient contents and availability of DDGS for poultry

Corn DDGS contain all the nutrients from grain in a concentrated form except for the

majority of the starch, which has been utilized

in the fermentation process. Therefore, it can

be a rich source of crude protein (CP), amino acids, P and other nutrients in poultry diets. Reliable values for the nutrient content of feed constituents are essential to create more precise diet formulations for poultry.

Metabolizable energy content

Several studies provide estimates of the metabolizable energy (ME) content of DDGS for poultry. Lumpkins et al. (2004) reported that the TMEn content of a single DDGS sample was 2,905 kcal/kg. In a later study, the same group determined the TMEn content of 17 different DDGS samples representing products from six different ethanol plants. They determined that the TMEn contents ranged from 2,490 to 3,190 kcal/kg with a mean value of 2,820 kcal/kg and an associated coefficient of variation of 6.4% (Batal and Dale, 2006). Fastinger et al. (2006) concluded that the TMEn content of DDGS averaged 2,871 kcal/ kg and had considerable variation among the samples. Furthermore, a large variation in TMEn values of DDGS were also reported by Parsons et al. (2006), who determined the mean TMEn value of 20 DDGS at 2,863 kcal/kg ± 224 kcal/kg. It was hypothesized that energy in corn DDGS would not vary if samples were derived from ethanol plants using similar production technolo- gies and corn that is grown in a proximate geo- graphical location. Therefore, nutritionists should be cautious of the fiber content and sources of data for DDGS ME values, as well as energy vari- ability when formulating diets for poultry.

Amino acid content

Dale and Batal (2005) reported that CP content of corn DDGS can vary from 24 percent to 29 percent. In our laboratory we assessed CP content on 395 corn DDGS samples imported to Korea from the USA, and the average CP content was 27.15% (23.87-30.41) with 3.72% coefficient of vari- ation. Batal and Dale (2006) found that CP

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content of DDGS ranged between 23 per-

concentration of

cent and 32 percent. Spiehs et al. (2002) have evaluated nutrient level of DDGS originating from ten new ethanol plants in Minnesota and South Dakota, and also found that the CP accounted for 30.2%, and lysine and methio- nine for 0.85% and 0.55%, respectively. The high variability among DDGS sources was found mainly for the two limiting amino acids for poultry, lysine and methionine. Reese and Lewis (1989) showed that corn produced in Nebraska in 1988 varied in CP from 7.8 to 10%, and 0.22 to 0.32% in lysine content. Differences in production technology provide almost as much variation within one source of corn as there is between different

carotene and xan- thophylls was 8.58 and 36.72 ppm, respectively. Since the typical corn and soybean-based commercial poultry diet does not sup- ply the necessary amount and type of xanthophylls to produce the deep yellow color in the egg yolk and skin, DDGS can be

plants. Parsons et al. (1983) conducted five trials that aimed to evaluate the protein qual- ity of DDGS and concluded that when DDGS

good source of


these pigments as long as they have



fed to growing chicks as the sole source of

not been over-

dietary protein, tryptophan closely followed by arginine are the second and third limiting amino acids respectively, after lysine. Although DDGS was limiting in tryptophan and arginine

heated during the production process.


was found that the overall protein quality of

Mineral composition


DDGS could be improved greatly by lysine supplementation for growing chicks.

DDGS is not only a good source of energy, amino acids and minerals

A laboratory analysis of corn DDGS from the US showed that DDGS can be a good source of

but also, can be a rich source of water


(0.76 %), Zn (57.26 ppm), K (0.91 ppm), and

other minerals. Phosphorus content in DDGS has been reported at 0.72% and varies widely from 0.48 to 0.91%. Similarly, Spiehs et al. (2002) reported the P variation in DDGS ranged from 0.59 to 0.95 %. This large difference in P content derives partially from its variation in corn grain and amount of starch residue in DDGS. However, the technological process of ethanol production can also significantly con- tribute to its content and variation. It has been suggested that the total P content may be even higher than 0.72% in some sources of DDGS if produced in new ethanol plants. Moreover, the rate of addition of solubles to the wet grains prior to drying affects the P content, because the solubles contain more than three times as much P as do the wet

soluble vitamins and other nutrients that are present in the corn used for the

ethanol produc- tion. D’Ercole et al. (1939) reported that DDGS is a good source of ribo- flavin and thiamine. DDGS also contain some biologically active substances such as nucleotides, mannan oligosach- arides, β-1, 3 or 1, 6 glucan, inositol, glutamine and nucle-



acids, which have

a beneficial effect on immune responses and the health of animals. Therefore, to reduce the feed cost and to make

a balanced diet for

poultry, DDGS would be a viable alternative energy grain source for the feed industry in Bangladesh.

Pigment content

Corn grain contains about 20 ppm of xanthophylls and it is expected that corn DDGS may by a good source of xantho- phylls pigment, due to the concentration of the pigment during the production process. However, the actual xanthophylls content may be lower in DDGS because of heat destruction during drying. Roberson et al. (2005) analysed two DDGS samples and observed 29.75 ppm of xanthophylls in one of the samples, but only 3.48 ppm in another, dark colored sample which was considered to be

heat damaged. By analysing 16 samples of DDGS deriving from US in our laboratory, we showed that the average

This article was originally published on

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may - June 2013 | 27

Amino acid

sparing for efficiency and the environment

by Murray Hyden CBiol, MSB director of biosecurity, Anpario plc, United Kingdom

A nimals do not have a crude protein requirement, they have a require- ment for amino acids and it is

the responsibility of the nutritionist to get the ratios correct. Amino acids from feed are the building blocks of proteins and there are twenty-two of them used in the building of animal protein. Although poultry can synthesise some, there are some serious ‘essential’ amino acids that can become limiting.

‘essential’ amino acids that can become limiting. Supplementation with these ‘essential’ amino acids is

Supplementation with these ‘essential’ amino acids is now common place and incorrect supplementation will result in either a shortfall of one, or a surplus of sev- eral. This problem has become more acute since the reduction of animal protein in diets and a reliance on soya and other vegetable protein sources with a poorer match to animal amino acid requirements. While soya is a good source of protein when combined with corn, this combina- tion is limiting in the essential amino acids such as lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan. However, there is often a lack of data on the precise amino acid composition of the raw materials being used. It is unrealistic to analyse every batch of

raw material. Yet raw material amino acid content is a big issue this year, especially with wheat and soya, due to variations in weather, location, variety and fertiliser use. We can only use the algorithms we have and try to ensure that the amino acid profiles of complete feeds are optimised. Indeed, it is often better to reduce protein levels and increase fibre levels if in doubt. Dr Peter Scott, senior research fellow at the University of Melbourne, Australia, calls for more attention on nutrition and gut health, such as fibre levels in feed. “It’s there in black and white: If you maintain adequate fibre levels in your feed, you’ll achieve better coccidiosis control and by default, better necrotic enteritis control,” he argues. If a correct balance of amino acids is not

Adding one tonne of lysine allows a reduction in soya and slightly increase in maize

Adding one tonne of lysine allows a reduction in soya and slightly increase in maize without affecting the nutritional balance.

achieved there will be performance implica- tions. Simply adding more supplementary amino acids can lead to other problems, as surplus amino acids in the gut are a threat to health and the environment.

Non-nutritional problems associated with amino acids

Surplus amino acids can result in two different problems:

1. When energy levels are limiting, bacterial growth in the hindgut by commensal microflora will stop allowing proteolitic pathogens such as Clostridium to flourish. Clostridia exist in all chickens. The growth of Clostridia is however only a problem following coccidial or bacterial infection where blood and damaged tissue prevail in the intestine. The faster growth rates in modern poultry may exaccerbate the problem further because the rate of proteolyis in the stomach may be insufficient to release all the amino acids from the proteins resulting in more protein in the hindgut. 2. If proteins are not deaminated in the gut then they are excreted and will contribute to the ‘greenhouse gas’ load associated with livestock production. The problem of hindgut deamination is the release of ammonia or nitrous oxide (N 2 O) in the faeces with the the FAO stating that atmospheric emissions of ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) associated with animal waste are a worldwide problem and may contribute to a detrimental impact on the environment. High

28 | may - June 2013

Grain & feed millinG technoloGy


than adults. Males utilise amino acids more efficiently than females and extraneous die- tary factors

than adults. Males utilise amino acids more efficiently than females and extraneous die- tary factors such as fibre and phytase induce digestive stress, hampering protein utilisation.

The effect of weather

When all these points are taken into consideration there are other factors that impact on performance. Adverse weather

conditions both pre and post-harvest result


higher than normal levels of mycotoxins. Mould activity during storage depletes

amino acids in both raw materials and

finished feeds. In artificially moistened feeds between 1-3 percent lysine and 19-26 per- cent methionine could be lost to fungal activ-



alone (Dr Olayinka Akine 2012). Indeed,

Kiotechagil Mycostat can effectively stop mould growth in raw materials and feeds. In storage, moulds like Aspergillus pro- duce mycotoxins that alter amino acid uti- lisation at the intestinal and cellular level,

ammonia levels in poultry housing also directly impacts performance.

Other protein sources are also being used such as rapeseed and rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and more exotic ingredients such as palm kernel meal and copra meal. Each of these protein sources has a different amino acid profile, different digestibility and would require dif- ferent supplementation. Amino acids such as methionine, lysine and threonine are among the most expen- sive nutrients in the feed ration and wasting them has economic costs and biological consequences. Also remember that young animals metabolise amino acids at higher efficiency

Saving the environment

Both these problems could be resolved by careful adjustment of the amino acid balance. Such attention to detail would have consider- able cost benefits by reducing land usage requirements. Ajinomoto, the Japanese food and chemical corporation, has determined that correct supplementation of lysine to maize/soya based rations could mean that for every tonne of lysine used there could be a saving of 12 hectares of land that could be rechanneled to alternative production.

especially the sulphur containing amino acids. Birds fed 2-4 ppm Aflatoxin or Ochratoxin


had a 51-133 percent reduction in pro-

tein efficiency but when both toxins were present at 1-4 ppm, protein efficiency was depressed by 79-127 percent. These effects are due to suppression of enzymatic activity,

disruption to intestinal transport, attenuation


cellular protein synthesis and modification


gut functionalities. Amino acids, including tryptophan and

arginine, are required to feed into the

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may - June 2013 | 29


Effect of pH on the specific growth rate of B. fibrisolvens Ce51 at 38.5°C with

Effect of pH on the specific growth rate of B. fibrisolvens Ce51 at 38.5°C with glucose as the substrate. (O) chemostat culture. (●) batch culture

Lactic acid bacteria colonising the acidified silica platform in Kiotechagil Salkil

Lactic acid bacteria colonising the acidified silica platform in Kiotechagil Salkil

immune system and mycotoxins will disturb their metabolism where they help generate cytokines. An increase in cytokine production can unbalance amino acids levels in the gut. The use of an effective and broad spec- trum toxin binder like Kiotechagil Neutox to absorb mycotoxins without hindering gut performance is essential. Mineral binders with high cation exchange capacities (CEC) will trap cations and disrupt mineral nutri- tion, or reduce phytase activity in formulated feeds. Selection of the correct toxin binder will benefit amino acid utilisation.

Unbalanced rations

Surplus amino acids in the hind gut, espe- cially in an energy limited diet, can result in a Clostridial infection because this proteolytic organism, unlike the commensal microflora, is capable of obtaining energy from deamina- tion of amino acids, peptides and proteins. The use of highly buffered feed or stress conditions can lead to a reduced produc- tion of acid in the proventriculus. Reduced

acid production will result in less pepsin activity, lead- ing to protein escape to the hind gut. Clostridia can utilise unused protein in the hind gut in the absence of fermentable carbohydrate by deamination leading to necrotic enteritis.

40 kg/t.

- Molecular weight of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) = 100.09

- 1 mole = 100.09 g so 40 kg = 399.64 moles.

- If we then use formic acid to neutralise this

- Molecular weight of formic acid (HCOOH) = 46.03

- 1 mole = 46.03 g therefore to supply

Balancing the gut


moles you would need:

microflora can help

- x 46.03 = 18395 g or 18.395


There are several aspects of digestive function to con- sider that can help resolve the effects of dysbiosis but it is obvious that a multifunc- tional approach is essential. Direct incorporation of acids in the ration and into the foregut will help over- come the effects of highly buffered feeds, but that is not enough. This will be especially important when the feed is highly buffered, typically with something like calcium carbonate as used in poultry breeder and layer diets. The added cal- cium carbonate neutralises stomach acid, increasing the risk of pathogens passing through proventriculus. By reducing free acid in the proventriculus the con- version of pepsinogen to pepsin will be reduced. This will result in reduced pro- tein digestion in the stom- ach and a greater reliance of the proteolytic trypsin found in the duodenum and the peptidases. However pepsin works best at the

N-terminal of aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine and tyro- sine. It will not cleave at bonds containing valine, alanine or glycine. Pepsin digests 10 - 15% of dietary protein before it is inacti- vated in the small intestine. Whilst trypsin predominantly cleaves peptide chains at the carboxyl side of the amino acids lysine and arginine, except when either is followed by proline. Therefore the loss of activity of pepsin cannot be fully compensated for by other proteolytic enzymes further down the gut. By adding an acidified carrier matrix it is possible to overcome some of the buffering power of the feed, however this will require free acid and not a salt such as the calcium and sodium salts of organic acids, as they have no net acid contribution. Even with pure acids it is not possible to provide sufficient acid to directly alter feed pH and you can work this out easily because we know that 1 mole calcium carbonate will require 1 mole of acid to neutralise it. - Add calcium carbonate (limestone) at

kg/t of 100% formic acid It is clear that we must rely on a com- bination of natural acid secretions in the stomach and a fully supportive feed acidifier, like Kiotechagil Salkil, to boost the bacterial contribution from carbohydrate fermenta- tion in the gut.

Natural fermentation in the intestine is vital

Gastric bacterial fermentation contributes significantly to maintaining a low gastric pH. This can be supported by the use Salkil to provide suitable ‘platforms’ for bacterial colonisation allowing acidophilic species to predominate in the gut. In older animals lactic acid represents only 50 percent of the total organic acid content in the gut. The remaining acids will be produced by cellulolytic species such

as Butyrivibrio and Roseburia that ferment

cellulose to acetic and butyric acids provided the environment remains acidic. Butyric acid is a vital component of the hindgut. It is a colonocyte nutrient that will assist in villus development in young animals and will help regrowth after disease. This is especially important after coccidia

or enteric pathogens such as Salmonella or Escherichia that damage the gut lining, erode

villi and result in bleeding from the intestinal wall. Blood in the intestine from pathogen attack is the perfect nutrient for proteolytic species like Clostridia. For the gut to recover faster it requires

readily available energy source, butyric acid, produced by cellulose digestion in the hindgut. Butyric acid has been reported to increase the density and length of villi, enlarging the adsorption surface of the intes- tine (Galfi and Bokori 1990). The bacteria responsible for butyric acid production in the gut, Butyrivibrio and Roseburia for example, have narrow ranges of pH tolerance and if their activity decreases, so does the butyric acid production in the gut. Adding a protected butyric acid source is



effective means of helping villus structure


recover, whilst supporting the acidophilic

microflora such as the cellulose digesters and members of the Lactobacillaceae family (Galfi 1990).

Feeding the commensals

Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), such as inulin, have a direct effect on the gut microflora. Inulin is a complex sugar. Most

30 | may - June 2013

Grain & feed millinG technoloGy

gut bacteria preferentially metabolise simple sugars allowing the inulin to reach the hind- gut. Inulin in the hind gut allows bacteria,

typically fibre digesters like Butyrivibrio and Roseburia, as well as the bacteriocin pro- ducing Bifidobacteria, to grow and exclude Clostridia. The inclusion of a FOS in a ration formulation will therefore have a direct effect on the microbial colonisation of the hind gut. By restricting Clostridial activity with butyric acid and by providing the commensal microflora with a valuable energy source that is unavailable to Clostridia, any surplus amino acids can be incorporated into the microbial biomass in the gut rather wasteful deamination. Products like Kiotechagil Prefect are designed to optimise gut performance to help prevent the effects of amino acid imbal- ance. Prefect supplies:

1. Organic acids to maintain acidity in the proventriculus thereby maximising protein utilisation in the foregut.

2. Fructo-oligosaccharides (inulin) to inhibit clostridia and other enteropathogens whilst promoting a strong cellulolytic gut microflora to maintain healthy butyric acid levels.

3. Additional butyric acid to provide an instant energy source for villi mucosa to help overcome irritation and necrosis resulting from Clostridial or coccidial attack.

4. A unique carrier that promotes colonisation by lactic acid bacteria to establish the necessary healthy gut microflora to achieve genetic potential.


The XXIII Worlds Poultry Congress offered new insights for managing necrotic enteritis and coccidiosis. www. Ammonia Emissions from Animal Waste FAO 2012 Lysine and other amino acids for feed: production and contribution to protein utilisation in animal feeding – Yasuhiko Toride in Protein Sources for the animal feed industry FAO document repository. Dr Olayinka Akine All About Feed. net Vol 20 No7 2012 p18 - 20 Galfi P and Bokori J Acta Vet Hung 1990: 38(1-


More inforMation:



M ore i nforMation : Website: POULTRY About the author Murray Hyden trained at Imperial

About the author

Murray Hyden trained at Imperial College London in Food and Dairy Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology. He worked for ICI Plc, Agricultural Division as a Research Microbiologist for 16 years spe- cialising in ruminant nutrition and poultry health. During his time there he worked on the interac- tions of intestinal microflora in

relation to the diet specification. In 1985 he joined Agil Ltd, a privately owned British com- pany manufacturing and distributing feed additive products to several European countries. Murray has been involved in all stages of product development and has overseen the launch of the entire range of feed additives since 1987. His microbiological approach to find alternatives to antibiotics in animal feeding has lead to the launch of a unique range of products that are now used around the world. In 2004 Murray was promoted to managing director of Agil and then Kiotechagil after an acquisition. He has presented his work at international conferences in countries such as Sweden, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, France, Philippines, Thailand, Japan, China and Australia. He has helped in the development of biosecurity control programmes for poultry and pig breeding companies around the world. Following more recent acquisitions by the company, Murray has returned to his primary interest and is now director of biosecurity for Anpario Group.

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