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Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, no.

44, December 2008

Experiena intrauterin i dezvoltarea psiho-neuro-emoional a ftului. Noi orizonturi de cercetare Intrauterine Experience and Psycho-neuro-emotional Development of the Fetus. New Perspectives in Research Lexprience intra-utrine et le dveloppement neuropsychique et motionnel du foetus. Nouveaux horizons de recherche
psiholog clinician principal drd. Alin Cristinel COTIG

Rezumat Procesul apariiei i dezvoltrii unui copil este un proces interactiv i dinamic ce presupune mecanisme foarte complexe care au loc la nivel neuronal, celular i emoional i care sunt n strns legtur cu mediul aa cum este el perceput de mam n cele nou luni de sarcin. Prezentul articol i propune s arate modul cum se structureaz informaia la cele trei nivele, potrivit noilor descoperiri ale tiinei, atrgnd astfel atenia asupra rolului hotrtor pe care l are mediul n acest proces. Cuvinte cheie: psihologie remodelare neuronal, mecanisme informaii moleculare Rsum Le procs de lapparition et du dveloppement dun enfant est un procs interactif et dynamique dont les mcanismes trs complexes ont lieu au niveau neuronal, celullaire et motionnel et sont en relation troite avec le milieu tel qui est peru par la mre pendant les neufs mois de grossesse. Cet article se propose de montrer comment linformation prend une forme, une structure ces trois niveaux, conformment aux nouveaux dcouvertes scientifiques, en atirrant ainsi lattention sur le rle dcissif que le milieu joue dans ce procs. Mots cl: psychologie prnatale, remodelage neuronal, mcanismes pignsiques, informations molculaires prenatal, epigenetice,

Abstract The design of a child is a dynamic and interactive process that engages complex mechanisms on the neuronal, cellular and emotional level, which are directly related with the mothers perception of the environment in the prenatal period. The goal of the present article is to reveal the complex ways in which the information is structured at these three levels, according with the latest research that science has developed, showing the important role that environment has had in this process. Key words: prenatal psychology, neuronal shaping, epigenetic mechanisms, molecular information

Neuronal development of the fetus


Studies conducted by Gerald Hther, neurobiologist, and Inge Krens, psychotherapist with focus on prenatal psychology, emphasize the theory of the intrauterine experiences. Both of them prove that complex structures of apprehension come out from the combination between the human DNA and the intrauterine experience which is common to all human beings, but not necessarily identical (Hther G. and Inge K., 2005). Hther G. and Krens I. say that the old problem of innate vs. acquired is a problem wrongly formulated from the very beginning, because the child at birth is already a combination of what is genetically given and acquired characteristics and skills that were structured along the ninth months of pregnancy. In other words, there appears the problem of prenatality as a foundation of the development of the apprehension ways of the individual experience, as

Dezvoltare neuronal la ft
Cercetrile lui Gerard Hther, neurobiolog, i Krens Inge, psihoterapeut, specialist n psihologie prenatal, avanseaz teoria importanei deosebite a

Revista de Psihoterapie Experienial, nr. 44, decembrie 2008


experienelor intrauterine. Cei doi demonstreaz c structuri complexe de aprehensiune rezult din combinaia dintre ADN-ul uman i experiena intrauterin, care este comun tuturor indivizilor, ns nu neaparat identic (Hther G. i Inge K., 2005). Hther G. i Krens I. afirm c vechea problem a lui nscut versus dobndit este o problem formulat nc de la nceput greit, ntruct la natere copilul este deja o combinaie dintre ceea ce este dat genetic i achiziii de caracteristici i abiliti ce s-au structurat n timpul celor nou luni de sarcin. Cu alte cuvinte, apare astfel problema prenatalitii ca fundament al dezvoltrii de modaliti de aprehensiune a experienei individuale, ntruct majoritatea legturilor neuronale i a conexiunilor sinaptice care se dezvolt atunci sunt legate att de ceea ce este dat genetic, ct i de experienele pe care embrionul, apoi fetusul le traverseaz n dezvoltarea sa. n demonstrarea teoriei lor, autorii studiului s-au bazat pe acele funcii senzorio-perceptive care apar nc de timpuriu i care au un rol esenial n recepionarea experienei i pe evenimente pe care le traversez ftul. n uter el nva s simt pe dou ci distincte: pe de o parte prin intermediul cordonului ombilical i al placentei, prin care recepioneaz ntreg schimbul de substane de la nivelul sangvin al mamei, iar pe de alt parte, printr-o cale mai puin direct, adic prin intermediul simurilor tactil i auditiv, care sunt cele mai dezvoltate n acea perioad. David Chamberlain, cercettor n domeniul psihologiei prenatale, a observat faptul c, chiar din primele luni de sarcin, ftul posed o capacitate senzorial care este legat de instinctul de explorare. El nsui a fost de prere c descoperirea c bebeluii mai degrab ar asculta dect ar mnca a fost o surpriz pentru psihologii care credeau c instinctul alimentar era unul dintre instinctele de baz care definesc comportamentul uman (Chamberlain D., 1998). Dac simul tactil este primul sim care se dezvolt la ft avnd n vedere c acesta este n legtur cu centri subcorticali auzul se dezvolt i el tot n aceast perioad, ftul fiind atent din punct de vedere auditiv la tot ceea ce se ntmpl cu mama i inerent cu el i cu mediul. Tot n acest sens, Hther G. i Inge K. au constatat c dup opt sptmni de sarcin ftul poate exprima simul tactil mai ales la nivelul buzelor, iar dup paisprezece sptmni ftul simte n acele zone care sunt foarte sensibile mai trziu n via, cum ar fi buzele, faa i zonele genitale. Att prezena unui sistem limbic dezvoltat n aceast perioad, a simurilor tactil i auditiv, ct i legtura pe care o are cu mama prin intermediul cordonului ombilical i a placentei sunt elemente obiective care demonstreaz c ftul este receptiv la tot ceea ce se ntmpl cu el. most neural switches and synaptic connections that develop are linked both to what is genetically given and to the experiences that the embryo and fetus experiences during its development. In demonstrating their theory, authors of the study relied on those sensorial perceptive functions which occur early and have an essential role in the reception of the experience and events that the fetus passes through. In the womb, he learns to feel on two distinct ways: on one hand, through the umbilical cord and placenta, through which it receives the exchange of substances from the mothers blood, and on the other hand, by a less direct way, throughout the tactile and the auditory senses, which are the most developed in that period. David Chamberlain, a researcher in the field of prenatal psychology, observed that even in the early months of pregnancy the fetus possesses a sensory capacity which is linked to the instinct of exploration. He himself had the opinion that the discovery that babies should listen rather than eat was a surprise to psychologists who believed that the food instinct was one of the basic instincts that define human behavior (Chamberlain D., 1998). If the sense of touch is the first sense that develops in the fetus given that it is in contact with the sub-cortical centers the auditory sense is growing increasingly during this period, the fetus being attentive from the aural point of view to what happens with the mother and inherently with him and with the environment. In this respect, Hther G. and Inge K. found that after eight weeks of pregnancy the fetus can express the sense of touch especially in the lips and after fourteen weeks the fetus feels in those areas which are very sensitive later in life, like lips, face and genital areas. Not only the presence of a developed limbic system, in this period, the tactile and aural senses, but also the connection it has with his mother through the umbilical cord and the placenta are objective elements showing that the fetus is receptive to everything that happens to him. Therefore, any emotional change of the mother produces hormonal changes which are received by the fetus through the blood. Also, some emotions such as stress produce changes within the attitude accelerating the heart rate, increasing the breathing, availability to move more changes that are also perceived by the fetus by sensory pathways. The two authors show that such stimulations, if they are intense and continuous, drive to develop new neural connections that somehow overlap the old ones as a result of new adaptations. In other words, if the individual learns to feel fear or happiness in connection with certain events that may be repeated while still being in the womb, then it is reasonable to think that they can be associated to the synaptic connections that will later form patterns of representation or perception.

Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, no. 44, December 2008


Prin urmare, orice schimbare emoional a mamei produce modificri hormonale care sunt recepionate de ft prin intermediul sngelui. De asemenea, unele emoii, cum ar fi de pild stresul, produc schimbari n atitudine accelerarea ritmului cardiac, creterea respiraiei, disponibilitatea de a se mica mai mult schimbri care sunt de asemenea percepute de ctre ft pe ci senzoriale. Cei doi autori arat c astfel se stimulri, dac sunt intense i continue, conduc la dezvoltarea unor noi conexiuni neuronale care se suprapun oarecum peste cele vechi ca urmare a unei noi adaptri. Cu alte cuvinte, dac nc din uter individul nva s simt team sau fericire n legtur cu anumite evenimente care se pot repeta, atunci este firesc s ne gndim c acestea se pot asocia unor conexiuni sinaptice care se constituie mai trziu n pattern-uri de reprezentare sau de percepie. Recepionarea pe diferite canale de ctre ft a mesajelor care vin din afar ofer un ntreg set de oportuniti de a nva prin experimentri i confruntri, comparnd pattern-urile neuronale care deja s-au format n creierul su cu noul pattern care a fost creat de stimularile externe, ncercnd s integreze sau s nlocuiasc noul pattern cu cel vechi (Hther G. i Inge K., 2005). Ceea ce se produce este un fel de remodelare neuronal prin care structurile neuronale date deja de ADN-ul ftului sunt depite de noii stimuli, fapt care duce la crearea de noi structuri neuronale ce pot deriva din primele sau pot diferi total de primele, neputnd s fie integrate unui pattern deja existent. n msura n care stimulrile respective au un caracter continuu, atunci creierul dezvolt noi legturi neuronale care sunt considerate normale, dei ele pot fi dezadaptative pentru condiia ftului. Autorii ofer exemplul unei suprastimulri, ntr-o situaie de stres continuu la care este supus mama, care compensativ produce n creier o tergere a unor mesaje neuronale prin folosirea a mai puine legturi sinaptice, tocmai pentru a diminua impactul unei asemenea suprastimulri. ns, n momentul n care stresul nceteaz i nu se mai constituie ca stimul solicitant, creierul, obinuindu-se cu o astfel de stimulare, considernd-o normal, este solicitat pentru o nou adaptare, n sensul unei cutri dup evenimente stimulante. Astfel de pattern-uri, n msura n care se menin o perioad, conduc, spun Hther G. i Inge K., la ceea ce n mod obinuit numim copil hiperactiv. Ei pun comportamentul copilului hiperactiv pe seama experienelor pe care ftul le are n interiorul uterului matern i, mai mult dect att, a modalitilor prin care creierul su nv s se adapteze unei suprasolicitri i apoi unei nesolicitri, fapt care contravine ipotezei care ddea o importan aparte influenei genetice. Prin urmare, conform studiilor efectuate n ultimii ani n legtur cu capacitatea individului de a The receiving on various channels of the messages coming from outside by the fetus provide a steady steam of learning opportunities which the child experiences and confronts by comparing the neuronal patterns already existing in his brain with the new pattern which is created in the brain by the external stimulants, and by trying to integrate the new pattern with the old (Hther G. and Inge K., 2005). What occurs is a kind of neuronal shaping through which neural structures already in the DNA of the fetus are outdated by new stimuli, which lead to the creation of new neural structures that may derive from the first ones, not being integrated in an already existent pattern. Depending on the extent to which incentives have a continuous character, the brain develops new neural connections that are considered normal, although they may be desadaptative for the fetus. The authors offer the example of an overstimulation, in a situation of continuous stress to which the mother is subjected, which produces a deletion of neural messages through the use of fewer synaptic connections within the brain of the fetus, just to reduce the impact of such overstimulation. However, when the stress ceases and no longer represents a stimulus, the brain, being used to such stimulation, which is considered as normal, looks for a new adaptation to this new situation of no stress, in the sense of a search after stimulant events. The extent to which such patterns are maintained, as Hther G. and Inge K. say, lead to what is normally called hyperactive child. They put the behavior of the hyperactive child on the account of the experiences that the fetus has inside the uterus, moreover, to the ways in which his brain learns to adapt to an overstressing and after that to a non stressing situation, which contradicts the assumption that gives importance to the genetic influence. Therefore, according to the studies conducted lately about the ability of the individual to record information in its various aspects, as a result of human beings adapting to the environment and bringing new behaviors or following the old enabled schemes, we believe that the scientific world should take into consideration another model of neural development of the fetus, a model which reconsiders the importance the environment in the prenatal period.

Cellular memory and genetic rewriting


With the discovery of human genome, the majority of the scientists came to the conclusion that what we are is genetically influenced. Today, a more frequently posed problem is that a good part of what we are is due to the environment, which has the extraordinary quality to influence the genes.

Revista de Psihoterapie Experienial, nr. 44, decembrie 2008


nregistra informaia sub diferitele sale aspecte, consecin a capacitii fiinelor vii de a se adapta mediului i a pune n joc noi comportamente sau a merge pe vechile scheme activate, credem c lumea tiinific ar trebui s ia n considerare un alt model al dezvoltrii neuronale a ftului, un model mult mai complex, cu largi perspective n ceea ce privete importana mediului n perioada prenatal. The fundaments of such ideas are sustained by the latest researches in the field of cell biology, which demonstrated that environmental stimuli control the gene activity. Bruce Lipton, a specialist in cell biology, shows very eloquently the decisional role that the environment has in this approach, saying that the capacity of the human beings for response on the environmental signals as they are perceived by the mother, sustain the optimization process into genetic development of the fetus (Lipton B., 2007). It is what in terms of cell biology bears the name of epigenetic mechanisms. Therefore, if it was believed until now that only the genetic part is important, more recent studies demonstrate the importance of intrauterine environment that triggers numerous mechanisms at the cellular level and leads to changes in the structure of the genome. According to the researches of John Cairns, research carried out at the end of the 80, it was revealed that organisms as primitives as bacteria, rewrite existing genetic programs to accommodate environmentally induced stresses (apud Lipton B., 1998). This confirms the hypothesis according to which the living organisms are dynamic systems capable of reprogramming the genetic behavior and of accommodating to the changes that the environment has the quality to produce. Returning to the intrauterine environment, we have to remember that the human being is in a continuous development, beginning with cell division and ending with the organizing of the main psychological functions and abilities through which it prepares for the postnatal adaptation. The new theory supported by Lipton B. theory that shows the importance of the environment over the genetics has gone from experiments through which it was showed that removing the nucleus from a cell, it can function normally, adapting for up to two months: it breathes, makes exchange of substances, it protects itself from the harmful factors, reacts to them etc. This led to a new challenge in the scientific world which began to ask questions regarding the genome, which was considered the brain of the cell and inherently the one coordinating all activities at the cellular and physiological level. After numerous studies, Lipton B. has showed that not the cell nucleus, but its membrane have a fundamental role in adapting the organism to the environment and in adjusting the dynamics to an intracellular level. He says that the protein from the cell membrane have the quality to perceive the environment, control cell behavior, regulate gene expression and have been implicated in the rewriting of the genetic code (Lipton B., 2001). So, not only the genome influences the growth and the development in a certain way, but also the environment, and if the intrauterine environment is the first environment where the

Memorie celular i rescriere genetic


Odat cu descoperirea genomului uman, marea majoritate a oamenilor de tiin ajunseser la concluzia c tot ceea ce suntem este influenat de genetic. Astzi se pune din ce n ce mai frecvent problema c o bun parte din ceea ce suntem se datoreaz mediului, care are calitatea extraordinar de a influena geneticul. Fundamentele acestei idei sunt susinute i de ultimele cercetri n materie de biologie celular, care au demonstrat faptul c stimulii din mediu controleaz activitatea genelor. Bruce Lipton, specialist n biologie celular, arat foarte elecvent rolul hotrtor pe care-l are mediul n tot acest demers, afirmnd c acea capacitate de rspuns a indivizilor la condiiile de mediu percepute de mamele lor nainte de natere le permite s-i optimizeze dezvoltarea genetic i fiziologic pe msur ce se adapteaz la mediul nconjurtor perceput (Lipton B., 2007). Este ceea ce n termenii biologiei celulare poart acum denumirea de mecanisme epigenetice. Aadar, dac pn acum se credea c doar geneticul primeaz, studii tot mai recente demonstreaz importana mediului intrauterin, care declaneaz numeroase mecanisme la nivel celular i care conduc la modificri n stuctura genomului. Potrivit cercetrilor lui John Cairns, cercetri efectuate la sfritul anilor 80, s-a evideniat faptul c organisme la fel de primitive ca i bacteria, aveau capacitatea s-i rescrie programul genetic existent pentru a se acomoda unui mediu care era indus de stres (apud. Chamberlain D., 1998). Acest lucru confirm ipoteza conform creia organismele vii sunt sisteme dinamice capabile s reprogrameze comportamentul genetic i s se acomodeze schimbrilor pe care mediul are calitatea s le fac. Dac este s revenim la mediul intrauterin, este de reinut c aici fiina uman se afl ntr-o continu dezvoltare, care ncepe cu diviziunea celular i se finalizeaz cu organizarea principalelor funcii psihice i abiliti prin care se pregtete pentru adaptarea extrauterin. Noua teorie susinut de Lipton B. teorie ce arat importana mediului asupra geneticului a plecat de la experimente prin care s-a demonstrat c scond nucleul dintr-o celul, aceasta poate funciona normal, adaptndu-se chiar i pn la

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dou luni: respir, face schimb de substane, se protejeaz de factorii nocivi, reacioneaz la ei etc. Acest fapt a adus o nou provocare n lumea tiinific, care a nceput s-i pun noi ntrebri n ceea ce privete rolul genomului, considerat creierul celulei i inerent cel care coordoneaz toate activitile la nivel celular i fiziologic. Dup numeroase studii, Lipton B. a artat c nu nucleul celulei, ci membrana acesteia are rol fundamental n adaptarea organismului la mediu i n reglarea dinamicii la nivel intracelular. El afirm c proteinele de la nivelul membranei celulare au calitatea de a percepe mediul, controleaz comportamentul celulei, regularizeaz expresia genei i sunt implicate n rescrierea codului genetic (Lipton B., 2001). Aadar, nu doar genomul influeneaz creterea i dezvoltarea ntr-un anumit fel, ci i mediul, iar dac mediul intrauterin este primul mediu n care se dezvolt celula divizat din care se nate embrionul, atunci este clar c el este de maxim importan n dezvoltarea psiho-fiziologic a individului. Mediul perceput de ctre ft este chiar mediul intrauterin care furnizeaz pe lng substane nutritive necesare dezvoltrii i o serie de informaii moleculare n legtur cu creterea i supravieuirea, elemente care sunt transmise prin placent i prin sngele matern. Din moment ce copilul atunci cnd se va nate va tri n acelai mediu perceput de ctre mam, nc din perioada intrauterin mama ajut ntr-un fel ftul s se adapteze condiiilor curente oferite de mediu. Problematica percepiei mediului este fundamental: dac mama percepe mediul ca fiind amenintor, acest lucru va trimite mesaje complet diferite ftului dect dac l va percepe clduros i suportiv. Mai mult dect att, s-a ajuns la concluzia c fiinele vii funcioneaz n conformitate cu dou principii care conduc la dezvoltarea speciei, acelea de cretere i supravieuire. Astfel, genele care exprim comportamente de cretere sunt atrase de acei stimuli din mediu care susin viaa, n timp ce genele care exprim comportamente de protecie resping stimulii care amenin viaa. ns, creterea i protecia ca i principii la nivel celular pot funciona doar antitetic, unul n detrimentul celuilalt. Pe de alt parte, procesele metabolice care cer rspunsuri pentru a susine protecia, acioneaz n detrimentul celor care susin creterea. Prin urmare semnalele de la un mediu suportiv un mediu care genereaz iubire ncurajeaz selecia programelor genetice ce susin creterea, iar cele care percep mediu ca fiind unul ostil declaneaz selecia programelor genetice ce susin protecia n detrimentul creterii. Spre exemplu, s-a putut observa faptul c, atunci cnd hormonii de stres trec prin placent la ft, declaneaz la acesta mecanisme de vasoconstricie la nivelul viscerelor i vasodilataie la nivel periferic, n special la membre, divided cell is developed, where the embryo is born, then it is clear that it is of extreme importance in the development of the individual psycho-physiology. The environment perceived by the fetus is the uterus, which provides nutrients necessary for the development and a series of molecular information related to the growth and protection, items which are transmitted through the placenta and maternal blood. Since the baby will be born he will live in the same environment perceived by the mother, the intrauterine period is one in which mother helps in a way the fetus to adapt to the current conditions offered by the environment. Perception environmental issues are fundamental: if the mother perceives the environment as threatening, this will send complete different bloodborne information than the perceiving of a loving, supportive environment. Moreover, it was concluded that living beings operates according to two principles that lead to the development of species, those of supporting growth and survival. Thus, the genes that express growth behaviors are attracted to those stimuli in the environment which support life, while the genes that express the protection behaviors reject the lifethreatening stimuli. However, growth and protection, as principles at a cellular level, can only work antithetically, one in detriment of other. On the other hand, the metabolic processes that require answers to support protection inhibit those which support growth and vice versa. Therefore the signals from a supportive environment an environment that generates love encourage genetic selection of programs that support growth, and those who perceive the environment as a hostile one, start the selection of the genetic programs supporting protection against growth. For example, it was observed that when stress hormones pass through the placenta to the fetus, they trigger the vasoconstrictor mechanisms at the level of internal organs and peripheral vasodilatation, especially in the hands, enabling those behaviors of fight or run so that the fetus will develop a lot the musculoskeletal system. What actually happens is a microcellular mechanism for which the cell was specialized in billions of years. Therefore, the perception of a new environment leads to the activation of a new group of genes, which in turn are able to create new proteins involved in cell perception, which leads to providing appropriate answers to such stimulus. Once the environmental feature is recognized, it is coupled with an appropriate behavioral response, thus the relation between input (environmental stimulus) and output (behavioral response) will be a program stored on the cellular level. The process itself has been called cellular learning and memory. This perspective, supported by a large number of specialists, expands the role of the

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activnd acele comportamente de lupt sau fugi, astfel nct fetusul i va dezvolta foarte mult sistemul musculo-scheletal. Ceea ce se ntampl de fapt sunt mecanisme microcelulare pentru care celula s-a specializat n miliarde de ani. Aadar, perceperea unui nou mediu conduce la activarea unui nou grup de gene, care la rndul lor sunt capabile s creeze noi proteine implicate n percepia celular, fapt ce conduce la oferirea de rspunsuri adecvate unui astfel de stimul. Odat trsturile noului mediu devenind cunoscute, ele sunt asociate unui rspuns comportamental mult mai adecvat, astfel c legtura dintre input (stimulii de mediu) i output (rspunsul celular), va deveni un program ce va fi nregistrat la nivel celular. Procesul n sine a fost denumit nvare celular i memorie. Aceast perpectiv, susinut de un numr din ce n ce mai mare de specialiti, extinde rolul mamei n dezvoltarea individului, astfel nct atitudinile materne i emoiile pe care le triete mama au un impact fundamental n dezvoltarea ftului (Lipton B., 1998). Informaia este encodat sub diferitele ei forme i cu ajutorul mai multor modaliti, att neuronal, ct i celular, fapt ce schimb hotrtor perspectiva asupra lucrurilor, n sensul n care s-ar explica nu doar existena i memoria prenatal, dar i dezvoltarea unor atitudini predispoziionale nc din uter. mother in the development of the fetus, as the mothers perceptions directly impact the selection of the gene programs that may enhance the survival of her offspring, and ultimately than of the fetus (Lipton B., 1998). Information is encoded in various forms by both neuronal and cellular means, which changes the crucial perspective on things in the sense that they could explain not only the existence and prenatal memory, but also the development of attitudes and predispositions starting from the uterus.

Emotional brain
The perspective over the emotional brain has been offered by an Australian neurosurgeon, Richard Bergland, who gave a new definition to the brain, naming it a giant gland, due to the production of hormones and receptors for certain hormones that are produced elsewhere in the body. Thus, it could focus not only on neural connections that are established at this level, but also on the receptors specialized in detecting the hormones from the whole body. This is a special place that is occupied by the neuropeptides, aminoacids compounds of the nervous system with an informative function, produced by nerve cells. These are molecular messages that are virtually spread all over the body through its fluids. The amino-acids compounds seem to fit perfectly in certain areas of cells called receptors, which are located on the surface of all cells in the body, including those of the immune system, endocrine system and the vegetative nervous system. If we think that, in turn, the vegetative nervous system regulates many functions of the body that occur unintentionally pulse, respiration, digestion, blood circulation then we can see how important the work of these messenger molecules is in human development in general and in the development of the fetus in particular. The discovery enabled Candace Pert, a psychoneuroimmunology specialist, to impose in the medical world the thesis that neuropeptides link the three systems: nervous, endocrine and immune. What arises from here is a kind of intelligence network that acts on the whole body. This systemmessenger molecules and receptors for such molecules are in her terms, a psychosomatic network of communication, or better said the connection between mind, body and emotions (Pert C., 1999). But what seems to be the most significant as description when referring to the state of consciousness of the fetus, was the discovery of a large number of clusters of neuropeptides receptors in the brain, which are so many that they led Pert C. to consider brain a part of the limbic system. Chamberlain D. concludes that since the brainstem

Creierul emoional
Perpectiva asupra creierului emoional a oferit-o neurochirurgul australian Richard Bergland, care a dat o nou definire a creierului, numindu-l o gland gigant, datorit produciei de hormoni sau a receptorilor pentru anumii hormoni care sunt produi altundeva n corp. Astfel, s-a putut pune accentul nu doar pe legturile neuronale care se stabilesc la acest nivel, ci i pe receptorii specilizai n detectarea de hormoni de la nivelul ntregului corp. Aici un loc special l ocup neuropeptidele, compui aminoacizi cu funcie informativ, produi de celulele nervoase. Acestea sunt un fel de mesaje moleculare ce duc semnale sau comenzi de la creier spre fiecare celul a corpului, prin fluidele acestuia. Aceti compui amino-acizi par a se potrivi perfect n anumite zone de pe celule numite receptori, ce se gsesc pe suprafaa tuturor celulelor din corp, inclusiv cele ale sistemului imunitar, ale sistemului endocrin i la nivelul sistemului nervos vegetativ. Dac ne gndim c la rndul su sistemul nervos vegetativ regleaz multe funcii ale corpului care au loc involuntar pulsul, respiraia, digestia, circulaia sngelui , atunci putem observa ct de important este activitatea acestor molecule mesager n dezvoltarea uman n general i n dezvoltarea ftului n special.

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Descoperirea a permis lui Candace Pert, specialist n psihoneuroimunulogie, s impun n lumea medical teza conform creia neuropeptidele leag cele trei sisteme: nervos, endocrin i imunitar. Ce se nate de aici este un fel de reea de inteligen care acioneaz la nivelul ntregului organism. Acest sistem de molecule-mesager i receptori pentru astfel de molecule este, dup ea, o reea psihosomatic de comunicaie sau, mai bine spus, legtura dintre minte, corp i emoii (Pert C., 1999). ns ceea ce pare a fi cel mai semnificativ ca i descriere atunci cnd ne referim la starea de contien a ftului a fost descoperirea la nivelul creierului a unor multitudini de clustere de receptori ai neuropeptidelor, att de numeroase nct au determinat-o pe Pert C. s considere nsui creierul o parte a sistemului limbic. Chamberlain D. conchide c din moment ce aceast parte a creierului este cea care se dezvolt cel mai devreme, acest lucru formuleaz o nou perspectiv asupra memoriei la ft n primul trimestru de sarcin (Chamberlain D., 1998). i mai semnificativ este faptul c avem aici nu doar receptori neuropeptidici, ci un ntreg sistem alctuit din subsisteme care au ca i componente celule inteligente, cum ar fi cele produse de sistemul imunitar, celule care la rndul lor produc neuropeptide sau endorfine. Prin aceasta viziunea asupra memoriei i implicit asupra creierului la ft se schimb radical, accentul instituit pe dezvoltarea structurilor neuronale date de ADN fiind astfel o teorie ce necesit corecturi. Se pare c memoria capt valene din ce n ce mai largi, iar descoperirea neuropeptidelor ca substane cu caracter informaional, a mecanismelor epigenetice i a legturilor neuronale complementare arunc o nou lumin asupra problematicii psihice a ftului. Aadar, considerm conceperea unui copil ca fiind un proces dinamic i mai ales interactiv ntre prini i ft. Faptul dac acetia i doresc sau nu copilul, modul n care ei interacioneaz unul cu cellalt, dar i cu ftul, modul n care mama percepe mediul activeaz informaii sub forma unui chimism emoional care influeneaz dezvoltarea fiziologic, neuronal i psihologic a propriului copil nc de la concepie. Psihologia i psihoterapia ar trebui s in cont de aceste date, ntruct prenatalitatea, prin nsi prezena memoriei i a unei contiine fetale, se constituie ca perioad n care, sub influena mediului exterior, aa cum este el perceput de ctre mam, se dezvolt predispoziii, modaliti de aprehensiune a exteriorului sau sunt nregistrate traume cu un impact major asupra vieii psihice a individului. is one of the earliest parts of the brain to growth, this discovery forms a new basis for memory in the first trimester of pregnancy (Chamberlain D., 1998). What is more significant is that we have not only neuropeptide receptors, but an entire system consisting of subsystems that have intelligent cells as components such as those produced by the immune system, cells that in turn produce neuropeptides or endorphin. The vision over memory and over the brain in the fetus is thus changing radically, the emphasis on developing neural structures given by DNA being a theory which requires corrections. It seems that the memory has larger means, and the discovery of the neuropeptides, as substances with an informational character, of the epigenetically mechanisms and complementary neural network, throws light on the issue of the psychology of the fetus. Therefore, we conclude that the design of a child is a dynamic and interactive process between parents and child. Whether they want their child or not, how they interact with each other but also with the fetus, how the mother sees the environment, activates information in the form of an emotional chemistry which influences the physiological, neuronal and psychological development of her own child since his conception. Psychology and psychotherapy should take into consideration such researches, as the prenatal period, through the existence of a fetal memory and a fetal consciousness, represents a period in which predispositions and complex structures of apprehension can be developed, or traumatic events with an important impact for the human psyche can be stored, all under the influence of the external environment, as it is perceived by the mother.

Bibliografie - Bibliography
Chamberlain, D.(1998), The mind of your newborn baby, North Atlantic Books, Berkley Hther, G., Inge, K. (2005), Das Geheimnis der ersten neun Monate. Unsere frhestern Prgungen, Dsseldorf, Walter Verlag Lipton, B. (1998), Nature, nurture and the power of love, Journal of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health, 13 Lipton, B. (2001), Nature, nurture and human development, Journal of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health, 16 Lipton, B. (2007), The bilogy of belief, Santa Rosa, C.A.: Mountain of love, Elite Books Pert, C. (1999), Molecules of emotions: the science behind mind-body medicine, Touchstone, Rockefeller Center, New York

Revista de Psihoterapie Experienial, nr. 44, decembrie 2008

A Few Reflections on the Prophecy of the Different Ones Cteva reflecii asupra Profeiei celor care sunt Altfel Quelques rflexions sur la Prophtie de ceux qui sont Autrement
Michal OMER psychotherapist MA Ph.D., Israel

Abstract In my USE model (Omer, 2006), I have mentioned that once the parent realizes that his/her baby is not OK/ it ceases somehow to constitute a human creature anymore, stopping simultaneously to be seen by him/her and eventually by his surrounding as a male or a female baby being unconsciously labeled as the not OK one. What is much more challenging to realize is the fact that our dealing with what we automatically perceive as not OK, is in fact meant by some superior universal entity to give us the most valuable opportunity and challenge of making some change in our self understood assumptions about ourselves, about the axiomatic values of humans that are OK and those who are not by expanding our own borders and being in touch with the less obvious and likable elements of ourselves and others. Key-words: USE model, autism, child, different ones

Rsum Jai mentionn, dans mon modle USE (Omer, 2006), quune fois le parent se rend compte que son propre enfant nest pas OK, celui-ci arrte, dune certaine manire, dtre un tre humain . En mme temps, le parent et aussi lentourage, cessent de le voir comme un enfant de sex masculin ou fminin et lui mettent inconsciemment ltiquette de celui qui nest pas OK . Ce qui est encore plus provocant rendre conscient est le fait que cette confrontation avec ce que nous percevons automatiquement comme non-OK, est en fait une occasion et une provocation prcieuses, quune entit universelle suprieure, nous offre pour changer nos prsuppositions sur nous-mmes, sur les valeurs axiomatiques des gens qui sont OK et de ceux qui ne le sont pas, en largissant ainsi nos propres frontires et notre contact avec les parties moins videntes et moins plaisantes de nous et des autres. Mots cl: le modle USE, lautisme, lenfant, ceux qui sont autrement

Rezumat Am menionat, n modelul meu USE (Omer, 2006), c, odat ce printele i d seama c propriul copil nu este OK, acesta din urm nceteaz cumva s mai fie o fiin uman, n acelai timp printele, i n cele din urm mediul nconjurtor, ncetnd s l vad ca pe un copil de sex masculin sau feminin, i etichetndu-l incontient drept cel care nu este OK. Ceea ce este i mai provocator de contientizat este faptul c aceast confruntare a noastr cu ceea ce automat percepem ca non-OK este de fapt menit, de ctre o entitate universal superioar, s ne dea ocazia i provocarea cele mai valoroase de a face o schimbare n presupunerile noastre de la sine nelese despre noi nine, despre valorile axiomatice ale oamenilor care sunt OK i ale celor care nu sunt OK, prin lrgirea propriilor noastre granie i contactul cu prile mai puin evidente i mai puin plcute din noi i din alii. Cuvinte cheie: modelul USE, autism, copil, cei altfel

When I first came to realize the big Aha! in the insight statement saying that human beings with disabilities are here in this tough world which we all share for a very good reason, I was perfectly sure that I have a completely new unknown message which I have to share with all my colleagues and students who happen to be so eager for knowledge for the simple sake of acquiring more of it. Just now after some years of contemplating on this discovery, I am still convinced about the unquestionable truth of its content, but I humbly realize the fact that as it happens with all other relevant truths it had been mentioned ages ago before I myself happened even to be born and eventually came to intuitively

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feel, just in the Jewish Gomorrah scripts (leaf 12, page 2), in the form of the statement which decides fully and says that after the ruining of the first temple: the prophecy had been given to the numb and the weak ones. Actually, their mere present existence which is not al all self understood especially in our highly technologically well-equipped world, is a clear ironic memo to the Darwinist approach of how fragile and imperfect we all still are compared to the universal wisdom which gets obviously ahead of us. Therefore, from then until now, every single day, I am very thankful and obliged to my precious clients, who have each been teaching me his /her own valuable piece of this truth along my therapeutic journey which fortunately still continues, praise the Lord. In the last 15 years, my true and ultimate teachers have been mostly children and young persons diagnosed with Autism. Each of them, I realized again and again, is first of all a whole and complete human being with a very special constitution, unique needs and personal ways of meeting our normal world. To meet them each one of these very special creatures in our shared complicated world , we the undoubted representatives of its normality with all its significant implications, are supposed to make some adaptive well planned steps though implying the vivid spontaneity and the needed inner creativity, to make the phenomena of this meeting which cannot happen otherwise possible for them but no less for our own sake; in other words we must strive hard to enable this almost impossible meeting come true I strongly maintain that must is the accurate word here, although it is not a therapeutically acceptable one in other contexts! In fact, this mutual effort is well paying, or a win-win transaction for both parties, since most of us, the normal / persons without disabilities are somehow blinded by our personal Geohari windows finding it rather hard to realize that it is so. Nevertheless, paradoxically, we cannot help coming, in the long run, to the conclusion that by helping these unusual precious human beings to join us in a respectful considerate manner, we are doing ourselves more than them a huge favor the favor of growing up, growing into more modest and sensitive human beings. By this special encounter, we have been enabled to turn into persons who are willing to live in an interdependent universe whose wholeness we are responsible for (just because we all share it and because we also have the luck to be on the bright side of it, at least from the disability perspective, at least for the time being). share After these heartfelt words I would like to with you some reflections about the phenomena of autism followed by a few wishful thinking which I strongly hope to accomplish here in Romania, in my new therapeutic setting in Bacau. Although the phenomena of autism, which had recently become a widespread one (1 out of 166 according to the most current estimates), is intensively being studied and dealt with in various clinical settings and some sound data has been accumulated, it has not completely been solved and the challenging journey toward its solution is still on its way, yet rather far away from us. What we certainly have come to know and are compelled to use in the process of our approaching to human beings with autism is that what we use to consider as symptoms are just surface secondary expressions of their core challenges which can be attributed to more than one definite reason and can stem also from other reasons beside proper autism related ones such as reasons that have to do with sensory reactivity or unique patterns of sensory and emotional procession which might be related to autism but do not necessarily have to. We also do know for sure that persons with autism and related communicative/ relational disorders can develop and turn into loving competent human beings, given the adequate support based on authentic emotional relationship in adequate well adapted settings, in other words if we manage to identify their real needs and unique patterns of processing the word we can make their connection to the word into a real and functional possibility, that is their initial diagnosis no matter how severe it might have been at the beginning of the therapeutic process does not have to remain that stable and can be changed. But putting into practice these recent significant findings is not a matter of fact. We professionals, parents and all those in the disability domain are still trapped somehow in the old pragmatic pathological models, finding it hard to outgrow them, in spite of the new outstanding data. Pure new facts do not help to change our stable attitudes toward the different ones. In my USE model (Omer, 2006), I have mentioned that once the parent realizes that his/her baby is not OK/ it ceases somehow to constitute a human creature anymore, stopping simultaneously to be seen by him/her and eventually by his surrounding as a male or a female baby being unconsciously labeled as the not OK one. What is much more challenging to realize is the fact that our dealing with what we automatically perceive as not OK, is in fact meant by some superior universal entity to give us the most valuable opportunity and challenge of making some change in our self understood assumptions about ourselves, about the axiomatic values of humans that are OK and those

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who are not by expanding our own borders and being in touch with the less obvious and likable elements of ourselves and others. By enlarging our perspective to make it able to include those elements which had until recently been perceived as unquestionably not OK, and accepting them as legitimate options of our close environment and eventually of ourselves, we are enhancing our personal development, moving qualitatively upward by agreeing to cope with the difference of the former not OK ones, we are paradoxically approaching o the grain of our divine self accepting to be human. In fact keeping in mind as a leading motto the very message of the prophecy of the weak ones we enable ourselves to try changing their stable pessimistic prognosis into a more reality based one which can renew the hope for their improvement, but beside assuming this demanding and responsible task, by daring to make our own risky jump into shifting our solid stereotyped attitudes according to their prognosis, we need simultaneously to assume the most challenging risk of watching ourselves more often in our inner mirrors and deal with our own imperfectness, accepting to be the ones we really are, imperfect human beings who hopefully just do our best to improve. Actually, provided that we accept to actively involve in the process of enabling the real accomplishing of these persons growth we may eventually come to realize that in fact they are Gods precious presents to us, for the sake of accomplishing our own growth. Lets give it a try!

Bibliographical list
Grandin, T. (1995), Thinking in Pictures, My Life with Autism, Vintage Books Omer, M. (2007), The USE Paradigm, Journal of Experiential Psychology, No. 40, Ed. SPER, Bucharest Powell, A. (2002), Taking Responsibility, London: The National Autistic Society Sellin, B. (1993), Ich Will Kein Inmich Mehr Sein, Verlag Kiepenheuer&Witsch, Koln Weider, S., &. Greenspan (2006), Engaging Autism: Helping children to Relate Communicate and Think, with the DIR Floortime Approach S., Copyrighted Material Williams, D. (1994), Somebody, Somewhere, Corgy Books www.floortime.org www.icdl.com

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Diagnosticul imaginii de sine la copiii cu tulburri disruptive de comportament The diagnosis of self-image in children with disruptive disorder La diagnose de l'image de soi aux enfants avec des troubles de comportement disruptif
Grantul CNCSIS Eficiena psihoterapiei experieniale expresive la copiii cu tulburri disruptive de comportament", cod 1169

prof. univ. dr. Geanina CUCU-CIUHAN lector univ. dr. Ileana Loredana VITALIA lector univ drd. Nicoleta RABAN MOTOUNU asist. univ. drd. Alina VASILE Universitatea din Piteti

Rezumat Acest articol prezint construcia i validarea unui instrument de cercetare a procesului terapeutic pentru diagnosticul evoluiei imaginii de sine n psihoterapia experienial a copiilor cu tulburri disruptive de comportament. Construcia i validarea acestui instrument este o etap a unui proiect de cercetare n derulare, care propune o strategie de cercetare combinat privind eficiena psihoterapiei experieniale expresive n tratamentul tulburrilor disruptive la copii: studiul clinic controlat este completat de analiza calitativ a procesului terapeutic. Planul terapeutic const n implicarea copiilor ntr-o serie de exerciii provocative specifice psihoterapiei experieniale, bazate pe tehnici art-terapeutice (desen, sculptur, modelaj, dans-terapie, muzico-terapie), tehnici psihodramatice (dram, joc de rol, joc cu ppui) i tehnici metaforice, care faciliteaz identificarea pattern-urilor de comportament disruptiv, cauzele i efectele lor. Cunoaterea tuturor acestor aspecte crete rspunsul copilului la psihoterapie i faciliteaz schimbarea. Cnd copilul descoper noi modaliti de interaciune se obine o transformare rapid de sine i o mbuntire a imaginii de sine. Acest articol include descrierea instrumentului de cercetare calitativ i elementele statistice ale validrii sale. Cuvinte cheie: psihoterapie experienial, psihodiagnostic experienial, metode calitative, tulburri disruptive, imagine de sine Abstract The paper presents the construction and validation of an instrument which researches the therapeutic process, for the diagnosis of self image improvement in experiential psychotherapy of children with disruptive behavior disorders.

The construction and validation of this instrument is part of a larger ongoing research project that proposes a combined research strategy regarding the efficiency of expressive experiential psychotherapy in treating disruptive conduct disorders in children: controlled clinical study is completed with the qualitative analysis of the therapeutic process. The therapeutic plan consists in involving children in a series of provocative exercises specific to experiential psychotherapy, based on art-therapeutic techniques (drawing, sculpture, modeling, dance-therapy, musictherapy), psycho-dramatic techniques (drama, role-playing, playing with puppets) and metaphoric techniques which facilitate identification of disruptive behavior patterns, their causes and effects. Acknowledging all these increases childrens compliance to therapy and facilitates change. When a child discovers new alternative modes of interaction, a rapid self-transformation and improvement of self-image is guaranteed. The paper includes the description of the qualitative research instrument and statistical data of its validation. Key-words: experiential psychotherapy; experiential diagnosis; qualitative methods; disruptive disorder; self-image Rsum Cet article prsente la construction et la validation dun instrument de recherche du processus thrapeutique pour la diagnose de lamlioration de limage de soi dans la psychothrapie exprientielle des enfants avec des troubles de comportement disruptif. La construction et la validation de cet instrument constitue une partie dun projet de recherche en cours, qui propose une stratgie combine concernant lefficacit de la

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psychothrapie exprientielle expressive dans le traitement des troubles de comportement disruptif des enfants: ltude clinique contrle est complte par une analyse qualitative du processus thrapeutique. Le plan thrapeutique consiste entraner les enfants dans une srie dexercices provocants, spcifiques la thrapie exprientielle, bass sur des techniques artistiques thrapeutiques (dessin, sculpture, modelage, thrapie par danse, thrapie par musique), des techniques psychodramatiques (thtre, jeu de rles, jeu avec les poupes), et des techniques mtaphoriques facilitant lidentification des coordonnes du comportement disruptif, ses causes et ses effets. Tout cela contribue stimuler la rponse des enfants au traitement et leur changement. Lorsquun enfant dcouvre de nouvelles manires alternatives dinteragir, une transformation de soi et une amlioration de limage de soi sont garanties. Louvrage inclut la description de linstrument de recherche qualitative et les donnes statistiques de sa validation. Mots cl: psychothrapie exprientielle, diagnose exprientielle, mthodes qualitatives, troubles disruptifs, image de soi

Identifying efficient treatments for children with conduct and emotional disorders is a presentday problem in clinical psychology and psychotherapy research. The Green-paper edited by The European Commission in 2005: Improving the mental health of the population: toward a strategy on mental health for the European Union shows that 27% of the European Union population suffers from mental disorders (European Commission, 2005). Among these, a large proportion is represented by conduct disorders, 3-5% of the population suffering from ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) and 8-12% of the population suffering from Conduct Disorders (CD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). For these reasons, the European Commission demands the member and candidate states to actively participate in a productive dialogue about mental health and to elaborate a common European platform in this field. In this context, conducting in Romania a research about conduct disorders in childhood becomes a necessity, these disorders having a significant prevalence in the scholar population. Conduct disorders in childhood, due to their high prevalence in population, have an important social and economic impact not only on children, but also on their families, their teachers and colleagues. This is because of the externalized character of conduct disorders, capable of disturbing the activity of all the actors in childrens environment. Thus, making the treatment of childhood conduct disorders more efficient will have important social effects, effects linked to a better life-quality of these childrens families, teachers and colleagues.

The problem of the efficiency of child psychotherapy is a very actual one at international level. In a paper published by H.G. Hair in the Journal of Child and Family Studies (ISI) he refers to a study made by Hoagwood in 2003 about all evidence-based controlled studies published regarding the results of psychotherapy. The author arrived at the fabulous number of over 1500 clinical controlled studies regarding the efficiency of child and adolescent psychotherapy and 12 important revisions of the studies between 1998 and 2002. These controlled studies had the purpose to demonstrate the efficiency of the therapeutic interventions, meaning the possibility that a therapy will produce good effects in ideal conditions (see Hair, 2005). In a very recent paper published by Bratton, Ray, Rhine and Jones at the end of the year 2005 in the review Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, official ISI publication of the American Psychological Association, the authors make a review of all the meta-analytical studies made in the last three decades witch had the purpose identification of child psychotherapy efficiency. From theses, the authors choose six important reviews of the scientific literature (see Bratton, Ray, Rhine and Jones, 2005):
Metaanalysis Bratton, Ray, Rhine, & Jones (2005) LeBlanc & Ritchie (2001) Weisz et al. (1995) Kazdin et al. (1990) Weisz et al. (1987) Casey & Berman (1985) Number of studies 93 Mean ago of children 7 Effect size .80 p <.001

42 150 105 105 75

7.9 10.5 10.2 10.2 8.9

.66 .71 .84 .79 .71

<.001 <.0001 <.0001 <.05

All these reviews and meta-analysis show the extremely large interest of the international scientific community for the study of the efficiency of the psychotherapy to children. This research is on this trend, wishing to be the first study witch will be done in Romania regarding the efficiency of child psychotherapy by a combined strategy: the clinical controlled study is completed by the qualitative analysis of the therapeutic alliance. The problem of research design in psychotherapy is an actual one on the international level. Fifty-four years ago Eysenck (1952) investigated for the first time the efficiency of psychotherapy and proposed

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the term instant recovery. In fact, this direction had already been anticipated by Landis and even earlier Rosenzweig (1936) had commented upon the common factors in psychotherapy. Research in psychotherapy became an important research field only after the famous meta-analysis published by Smith and Glass in 1977 and completed with the metaphor dodo bird verdict: they have all won and they all deserve awards. The authors conclusion was that psychotherapy is generally efficient, but that there are not major differences between various schools of psychotherapy (Smith, Glass, 1977). The movement of the American Psychologists Association developed toward the middle of the90s and focused on the empirically validated psychotherapies. The National Institute for Menthal Health NIMH (in the United States) played an essential role in the development and growth of research in psychotherapy. The goal of the process of empirical validation of psychotherapy is to identify, based on controlled clinical studies, specific psychological treatments that prove efficient for various mental disorders. This movement represents an endeavor to propose detailed and validated clinical protocols, protocols for particular disorders and particular patients. Nowadays, the problem of investigating the efficiency of the psychotherapeutic process on an international level focuses upon the controversies between the movement of empirically validated therapies and the common factors model. The most recent tendency in research in psychotherapy is to identify primarily the empirically validated therapeutic relationships (and not the empirically validated treatments) and to merge the two types of research strategies regarding the efficiency of the therapeutic process. This direction is fully presented in a major paper published by the American Psychologistss Association in 2002 and entitled Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients (see Norcross, 2002). The strategy of empirical validation of psychotherapeutic treatments is a quantitative one and starts with the idea that the diagnostic of this disorder is also a predominantly quantitative one. The diagnosis of childhood disruptive behavior disorders is based mainly on the case history, obtained from the patient, parents, professors and other significant persons that relate to the patient. Information is derived especially using questionnaires or behavioral anchored rating scales, supplemented by interviewing the patient and the parents. These diagnostic methods, although some are qualitative methods, comprise information by referring to DSM-IV criteria and to numerical scores. But the experiential psychotherapeutic intervention acts at a much deeper level that of building childs personal identity. That is why an efficient psychotherapeutic intervention must be based on a diagnosis that goes beyond absolute and relative frequency of symptoms and offers a nuanced picture of childs self-image and the faults in contact functions. From this reason, an efficient psychotherapeutic intervention must rely on an experiential diagnosis, meaning a diagnosis which will go behind the number and the frequency of symptoms, which will present the childs self image and the problems in contact functions. Starting from this point, researching the efficiency of experiential psychotherapy must comprise the quantitative results analysis and the qualitative analysis of the therapeutic process. This research aimes at merging the two types of research strategies (qualitative and quantitative) and at comparing their results regarding the efficiency of expressive experiential psychotherapy in treating disruptive conduct disorders in children. More precisely, the project proposes a combined research strategy regarding the efficiency of expressive experiential psychotherapy in treating disruptive conduct disorders in children: controled clinical study is completed with the qualitative analysis of the therapeutic alliance, thus continuing the most recent tendencies regarding the psychotherapeutic research design (see Norcross, 2002). The objective of the study was to create and validate some experiential diagnostic techniques of the self-image in disruptive disorder children. There were two phases involved: the creation of the experiential diagnostic techniques and the development and validation of The video records check list for the self-image. A. The creation of the experiential diagnostic techniques The starting point of this phase were the classic projective techniques (Draw a person test and the tree test) that facilitate obtaining the information about the self-image. These methods were transformed in dynamic exercises considered to be more appropriate for the natural childrens way of action. They facilitate the observation of some quantitative behaviors which increases the objectivity of the diagnosis and the identification of the therapeutic goals. We came up to two dynamic exercises: The tree garden and Our World. The experimentation of these exercises involved 10 children, five of them diagnosed with a disruptive disorder (experimental group) and five normal ones (control group). We structured two experiential psychodiagnostic sessions for each of the two groups. These experiential psychodiagnostic sessions were led by two experiential psychotherapists. Each session was video recorded. B. The video records check list for the self-image. The video records check list for the selfimage was developed using the group of experts method. The development of this instrument had three phases: 1. six experiential psychotherapists created items representing relevant observable behaviors for the self-image (as it is conceived in the experiential approach);

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2. another group of ten experts, experiential psychotherapists, generated five possible answers for each item consisting either of a Lickert scale or discrete behaviors; 3. another 33 independent psychologists viewed the video-tapes with the experiential diagnostic sessions and rated the childrens behaviors using the check list. The validation of The video records check list for the self-image consisted in the evaluation of its psychometric properties. The sample used for the analysis of the psychometric properties of The video records check list for the self-image was made of ten children (five normal ones and five in the disruptive behavior disorders group) aged 7-8 years. The normal ones were three girls and two boys, and the experimental group was boys only. They were second grade students in one of the schools in Pitesti. The types of reliability calculated for The video records check list for the self-image were: interrater reliability and internal consistency. 1. Interrater reliability: the value of the Spearman Rho correlation coefficient indicated a medium to strong correlation (Spearman Rho=0,5, =0,000) between the raters evaluations. This was interpreted as a medium to strong agreement between independent raters when using The video records check list for the self-image. A separate analysis using the type of group and the type of exercise revealed a variation of the value of the Spearman Rho correlation coefficient between .54 (the disruptive behavior disorders group, the exercise Our World) and .65 (the control group, exercise The tree garden). The only situation with no statistic significant value of the coefficient was for the control group, the exercise Our World (Spearman rho=.13, Sig.=.152). 2. Internal consistency: the value of the Alpha Cronbach coefficient indicated a strong internal consistency (.914). These results indicated that the instrument had a good reliability. The types of the validity analyzed for The video records check list for the self-image were: the content validity and the discriminating validity. The content validity was ensured involving the experts in the development of the exercises, the items and the answers. To evaluate the discriminating validity we used the independent samples T test. The T test reveled a signifficant difference between the disruptive behavior disorders group and the control group for the total score of The video records check list for the self-image (t=2,294, sig=0,029). The video records check list for the self-image has a good discriminating validity and can be used for diagnosting the disruptive behavior disorders.

BIBLIOGRAFIE BIBLIOGRAPHY
American Psychiatric Association (1994), Diagnostic and th Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4 edition), Washington, D.C. Author Bratton, S.C., Ray, D., Rhine, T. and Jones, L. (2005), The Efficacy of Play Therapy With Children: A Meta-Analytic Review of Treatment Outcomes, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Vol. 36, No. 4, p. 376390 (ISI) Cucu-Ciuhan, G. (2001), Psihoterapia copilului hiperactiv: o abordare experienial (The Psychotherapy of the Hyperactive Child: an Experiential Approach), Ed. SYLVI, Bucureti Cucu-Ciuhan, G. (2005), Cercetarea calitativ n psihologie (Qualitative Research in Psychology), Ed. SYLVI, Bucureti European Comission (2005), Green Paper: Improving the mental health of the population: toward a strategy on mental health for the European Union, in Health and Consumer Protection, Directorate-Genaral, Brussels, 14.10.2005, COM (2005) 484, http://europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/health_consumer/index_en.htm Eysenck. H.G. (1978), An Exercise in Mega-Silliness, American Psychologist, may 1978, p. 517 (ISI) Frank, Jerome D. (1989), Therapeutic components shared by all psychotherapies, in Harvey, John H. (Ed); Parks, Marjorie M. (Ed). (1982, 1989). Psychotherapy research and behavior change, Master lecture series, Vol. 1. (p. 937), American Psychological Association, 193 p. Hair, H.G. (2005), Outcomes for Children and Adolescents After Residential Treatment: A Review of Research from 1993 to 2003, Journal of Child and Family Studies, Vol. 14, No. 4, December, p. 551575 (ISI) Horvath, A.O., Greenberg, L.S. (1989), Development and Validation of the Working Alliance Inventory, Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 36, No. 2, p. 223-233 (ISI) Kazdin, A. (1991), Effectiveness of Psychotherapy With Children and Adolescents, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 59, No. 6, p. 785-798 (ISI) Kazdin, A., Marciano, P., Whitley, M. (2005), The Therapeutic Alliance in CognitiveBehavioral Treatment of Children Referred for Oppositional, Aggressive, and Antisocial Behavior, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 73, No. 4, p. 726730 (ISI) Lis, A., Zennaro, A., Mazzeschi, C. (2001), Child and Adolescent Empirical Psychotherapy: Research A Review Focused on Cognitive-Behavioral and Psychodynamiclnformed Psychotherapy, European Psychologist, Vol. 6, No. 1, March, p. 36-64, Hogrefe & Huber Publishers (ISI) Mills, C.G., Crowley, J.R. (1986), Therapeutic Metaphors for Children and the Child Within, Bruner/Mazel Publishers, N.Y. Mitrofan, I., Vladislav, E., Cucu-Ciuhan, G. (2001), Psihopatologia, psihoterapia i consilierea copilului (The Psychopathology, Psychotherapy and Counseling of Children), Ed. SPER, Bucureti.

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Norcross, J.C. (2002), Psychotherapy Relationships that Work: Therapist Contributions and Responsiveness to Patients, American Psychological Association Rosner, R. I. (1992), Psychotherapy research and the National Institute of Mental Health, 1948-1980, in Freedheim, Donald K. (Ed); Freudenberger, Herbert J. (Ed); Kessler, Jane W. (Ed); Messer, Stanley B. (Ed); Peterson, Donald R. (Ed); et al. (1992), History of psychotherapy: A century of change, p. 113-150, American Psychological Association, xxxiii, 930 p. Shirk, S., Karver, M. (2003), Prediction of Treatment Outcome From Relationship Variables in Child and Adolescent Therapy: A Meta-Analytic Review, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 71, No. 3, p. 452464 (ISI) Smith, M.L., Glass, G. (1977), Meta-Analysis of Psychotherapy Outcome Studies, American Psychologist, September, p. 752-760 (ISI) Strupp, Hans H., Howard, Kenneth I. (1992), A brief history of psychotherapy research, in Freedheim, Donald K. (Ed); Freudenberger, Herbert J. (Ed); Kessler, Jane W. (Ed); Messer, Stanley B. (Ed); Peterson, Donald R. (Ed); et al. (1992), History of psychotherapy: A century of change, p. 309-334, American Psychological Association, xxxiii, 930 p. Weinberger, Joel (2002), Short Paper, Large Impact: Rosenzweigs Influence on the Common Factors Movement, Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, Vol. 12, No. 1, p. 6776 (ISI) Weiss, B., Catron, T., Harris, V., Phung, T. (1999), The Effectiveness of Traditional Child Psychotherapy, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 67, No. 1, p. 82-94 (ISI)

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Revista de Psihoterapie Experienial, nr. 44, decembrie 2008

Grupul experienial de optimizarea personal centrat pe dezvoltarea abilitilor emoionale ale studenilor de la psihologie Experiential Group of Personal Optimization focused on the Development of Emotional Abilities of Psychology Students Le groupe exprientiel doptimisation personnelle centr sur le dveloppement des habilets motionnelles des tudiants en psychologie
psychotherapist, lect. univ. dr. Elena ANGHEL Faculty of Socio-human Sciences, Department of Psychology, Piteti University psychotherapist, lect. univ. drd. Laura Elena NSTAS Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Department of Psychology, Transilvania University in Braov

Rezumat Lucrarea de fa a pornit de la urmtoarea ipotez general: metodele i tehnicile experieniale utilizate n cadrul grupului de optimizare personal conduc la dezvoltarea abilitilor emoionale ale studenilor de la psihologie. A fost implicat un grup experienial de optimizare personal format din 16 studeni la psihologie (cu o frecven de 15 ore / week-end la 2 luni timp de 2 semestre) i unul format din 14 studeni la psihologie (cu o frecven de 3-4 ore la 2 sptmni timp de 2 semestre). Rezultatele preliminarii indic faptul c n cadrul grupului experienial de optimizare personal studenii de la psihologie i dezvolt contiina de sine, empatia, motivaia, abilitile sociale, autoreglarea, ca i componente ale inteligenei emoionale. Dezvoltarea abilitilor emoionale a acestora influeneaz optimizarea propriului lor comportament didactic i succesul profesional. Cuvinte cheie: inteligen emoional, contiin de sine, empatie, motivaie, abiliti sociale, autoreglare Rsum Louvrage prsent surgit de lhypothse gnrale suivante: les mthodes et les techniques exprientielles utilises dans le groupe doptimisation personnelle conduisent au dveloppement des habilets motionnelles des tudiants en psychologie. Le travail sest droul avec un groupe exprientiel doptimisation personnelle form de 16 tudiants en psychologie (la frquence a t de 15 heures / week-end un mois sur deux pendant 2 semestres) et avec un deuxime groupe de 14 tudiants en psychologie

Abstract The present paper started from the following general hypothesis: the experiential methods and techniques which are being used within the personal optimization group lead to the development of emotional abilities in Psychology students. An experiential group for personal optimization of 16 Psychology students was involved (with a frequency of 15 h/weekend every 2 months for 2 semesters) and a group of 14 Psychology students (with a frequency of 3-4 h every 2 weeks for 2 semesters). The preliminary results show that Psychology students improve their self awareness, empathy, motivation, social abilities, and self-regulation, as components of emotional intelligence, during the experiential group for personal optimization. Their development of emotional abilities has an influence on the improvement of their own didactic behaviour and professional success. Key-words: emotional intelligence, self awareness, empathy, motivation, social abilities, selfregulation

1. The experiential group of personal optimization


According to I. Mitrofan, the experiential group of personal optimization is symbolically invested by participants with the value of primary

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(frquence de 3-4 heures toutes les deux semaines pendant deux semestres). Les rsultats prliminaires indiquent le fait que, dans le groupe exprientiel doptimisation personnelle, les tudiants en psychologie dveloppent leur conscience de soi, lempathie, la motivation, les habilets sociales, lautorglage toutes des composantes de lintelligence motionnelle. Le dveloppement des habilets motionnelles de ceux-ci influence loptimisation de leur propre comportement didactique et le succs professionnel. Mots cl: intelligence motionnelle, conscience de soi, empathie, motivation, habilets sociales, autorglage

1. Grupul experienial de optimizare personal


n opinia I. Mitrofan, grupul de optimizare personal este investit simbolic de ctre participani cu calitatea de matrice social primar uter colectiv. El funcioneaz asemenea unui creuzet alchimic care faciliteaz, creeaz i confirm sau valideaz restructurarea i transformarea psihologic a participanilor, n cadrul unui proces terapeutic experienial de tip unificator. Acest proces zmislete bazele realiste ale unei re-individuri creative i ale unei maturizri spirituale a fiecrui participant, n ritmul su propriu i specific. (Mitrofan, 2004, p. 85-86). Grupul experienial de optimizare este centrat pe dezvoltarea personal a fiecrui participant, oferindu-i ocazia de a se cunoate mai bine pe sine, de a-i descoperi resursele personale i de a le valorifica n i prin ntlnirea cu cellalt. Membrii grupului comunic spontan i, n acest fel: descoper sentimentul apartenenei la grup coeziunea; nva din succesele i greelile celorlali nvarea interpersonal; descoper c i alii pot avea dificulti similare universalitatea; rectig sperana prin faptul c este preuit de ctre ceilali i prin propria dorin de a oferi ajutor altruism; nva din reaciile celorlali participani fa de propriul comportament social, ca i din copierea altor comportamente imitaia, empatia, modelarea; exprim emoii puternice, eliberatoare catharsis; adopt atitudini de ncredere i sprijin mutual (Bloch, Crouch, 1985, apud Mitrofan, Ene, 2005, p. 35). n viziunea lui L. Mitrofan trainingul experienial de dezvoltare personal n grup faciliteaz: dinamicile interpersonale flexibile, adaptative, diminuarea i autocontrolul agresivitii, ostilitii, intoleranei la frustrare, rigiditii mentale

social matrix collective uterus. It functions as an alchemical vessel that facilitates, creates and confirms or validates the participants psychological restructuring and transformation, within a unifying type of therapeutic experiential process. This process gives birth to the realistic basis for a creative reindividuation and spiritual maturation for each participant, according to his own specific rhythm (Mitrofan, 2004, p. 85-86). The experiential group of personal optimization is focused on the personal development of each participant, giving them the opportunity to get to know themselves better, to discover their personal resources and to use them in interacting with others. Group members communicate spontaneously and thus: - they discover the feeling of belonging to the group cohesion; - they learn from others successes and mistakes interpersonal learning; - they discover that others can have similar difficulties universality; - they regain hope by being cherished by others and by his own desire to offer help altruism; - they learn from the reactions others have towards their own social behaviour, as well as from copying other behaviours imitation, empathy, modelling; - they express powerful, liberating feelings catharsis; - they take on attitudes of confidence and mutual support (Bloch, Crouch, 1985, apud Mitrofan, Ene, 2005, p. 35). As L. Mitrofan envisions it, the experiential training of personal development enables: flexible, adapted interpersonal dynamics, the lowering of aggression, hostility, intolerance to frustration, mental rigidity and various discriminations and their control; the improving of ones self image and assertiveness by means of rising the level of selfconfidence and self-acceptance and psychoemotional maturation (Mitrofan, 2007, p. 18). The experiential group offers to its members in an authentic and spontaneous way the possibility to live here and now the experience of meeting the Other in each member and ones own image as seen through the eyes of the others. Thus, each member becomes for the other a window offering another perspective on reality, a privileged space where each member of the group can meet oneself in another stance (Badea, 1999, p. 16).

2. The abilities

development

of

emotional

Unlike cognitive intelligence, which tends to achieve a high level in adolescence, then remain constant during adulthood and begin to drop at an

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Revista de Psihoterapie Experienial, nr. 44, decembrie 2008


i a diverselor discriminri; optimizarea imaginii de sine i a asertivitii prin creterea autoncrederii i autoacceptrii i maturizarea psihoemoional (Mitrofan, 2007, p. 18). Grupul experienial ofer ntr-un mod autentic i spontan membrilor si posibilitatea de a tri aici i acum experiena ntlnirii cu cellalt din fiecare i cu propria-i imagine din ochii celorlali. Astfel, fiecare devine pentru cellalt o fereastr ce ofer o alt perspectiv asupra realitii, un spaiu privilegiat n care orice membru al grupului se poate ntlni cu sine ntr-o alt ipostaz (Badea, 1999, p. 16). older age, emotional intelligence develops with ones age and lives experiences. A study on 4000 subjects from Canada and the U.S. showed that the level of emotional intelligence is gradually growing (figure 2.1). John Mayer and Peter Salovey pinpointed four levels of emotional intelligence formation, each of them having several stages, as follows: 1. Sensorial evaluation and expression of emotion refers to the accuracy with which one can identify not only ones own, but also others emotions and emotional content, and to the accuracy of emotional expressions and manifestations. This implies: a. identifying the emotion in ones thoughts, feelings and physical states; b. identifying the emotions of others through works of art, language or behaviour c. expressing emotions and needs connected to emotions as precisely as possible; d. discriminating between the clear or confuse, honest or false expression of feelings. 2. Emotional facilitation of thinking implies becoming aware of the fact that: a. emotions dive priority to thinking by focusing the attention on the important information; b. emotions are sufficiently clear and accessible to be generated as judgment and memory support regarding feelings; c. the oscillation of emotional states changes ones perspective from optimism to pessimism, supporting ones taking into account of several points of view; d. emotional states encourage different aspects of approaching solutions to a certain problem, as for example happiness facilitating creativity. 3. The understanding and analysis of emotions. Using emotional knowledge. a. understanding emotions as well as using words about emotions; b. acknowledging the resemblances and differences between certain emotional states the difference between liking and loving; c. knowing the meaning of emotional states depending on the situations and complex relations in which they appear sadness often following loss; d. recognising complex emotions and/or contradictory ones feelings of love and hatred for a person at the same time; e. recognising combinations of emotions being indignant is a combination of revolt and surprise or hope is a combination between trust and optimism; f. knowing the way in which emotions evolve and transform depending on the situations from being upset to being satisfied or from being upset to being embarrassed; g. interpreting the meaning of emotions in relations such as sadness coming after a loss;

2. Dezvoltarea abilitilor emoionale


Spre deosebire de inteligena cognitiv, care tinde s ajung la un nivel ridicat la adolescen, rmne constant la vrsta adult i ncepe s scad la vrsta a treia, inteligena emoional se dezvolt odat cu naintarea n vrst i cu experienele trite. Un studiu efectuat pe 4000 de subieci din Canada i S.U.A. a artat c nivelul inteligenei emoionale crete treptat (figura 2.1.). John Mayer i Peter Salovey au pus n eviden patru niveluri ale formrii inteligenei emoionale, fiecare dintre acestea avnd mai multe trepte; astfel: 1. Evaluarea perceptiv i exprimarea emoiei se refer la acurateea cu care o persoan poate identifica emoiile i coninutul emoional, att cele proprii, ct i ale celorlali, la acurateea exprimrii i manifestrii emoiilor. Ea presupune: a. identificarea emoiei n propriile gnduri, sentimente i stri fizice; b. identificarea emoiilor altor persoane din opere de art, design prin limbaj sau comportament; c. exprimarea emoiilor ct mai precis i a nevoilor legate de anumite sentimente; d. distingerea ntre exprimarea sentimentelor: clar sau confuz i sincer sau fals. 2. Facilitarea emoional a gndirii presupune contientizarea faptului c: a. emoiile dau prioritate gndirii prin direcionarea ateniei asupra informaiei importante; b. emoiile sunt suficient de clare i accesibile nct pot fi generate ca suport pentru judecat i memorie n privina sentimentelor; c. oscilaia strilor emoionale schimb perspectiva unei persoane de la optimism la pesimism, ncurajnd luarea n considerare a mai multor puncte de vedere; d. strile emoionale ncurajeaz diferitele aspecte ale abordrilor soluiilor unei anumite probleme ca de exemplu fericirea, care faciliteaz creativitatea.

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3. nelegerea i analizarea emoiilor. Folosirea cunotinelor emoionale. a. nelegerea emoiilor, precum i folosirea cuvintelor despre emoii; b. recunoaterea asemnrilor i diferenelor dintre diversele stri emoionale diferena ntre a plcea i a iubi; c. cunoaterea semnificaiei strilor emoionale n funcie de situaiile i relaiile complexe n care se produc tristeea care nsoete deseori o pierdere; d. recunoaterea emoiilor complexe i / sau contradictorii - sentimente simultane de dragoste i ur pentru aceeai persoan; e. recunoaterea combinaiilor de emoii indignarea este o combinaie ntre revolt i surpriz sau sperana care este o combinaie ntre ncredere i optimism; f. cunoaterea modului de evoluie i de transformare a emoiilor n funcie de situaii tranziia de la suprare la satisfacie sau de la suprare la jen; g. interpretarea sensului emoiilor n relaii, cum ar fi tristeea care se instaleaz n urma unor pierderi; h. recunoaterea tranzitului posibil de la o emoie la alta trecerea de la furie la satisfacie sau de la furie la ruine. 4. Reglarea emoiilor calea spre dezvoltarea emoional i intelectual. a. deschiderea i acceptarea att a sentimentele plcute, ct i a celor neplcute; b. implicarea sau detaarea contient ntr-o/ de o emoie, n funcie de utilitatea sau importana ei; c. monitorizarea reflexiv a emoiilor n raport cu sine sau cu ceilali; d. controlarea propriilor emoii sau ale celor din jur prin moderarea celor negative i ncurajarea celor pozitive, fr a reprima sau exagera anumite informaii (Mayer, Salovey, 1997, apud Roco, 2004, p. 143-145). 2.1. Inteligena emoional n educaia copiilor i a adolescenilor M.J. Elias, S.E. Tobias i B.S. Friedlander au publicat n 1999 o lucrare cu titlul Emotionally Intelligent Parenting. How to Raise a Self-disciplined, Responsible, Socially Skilled Child. Scopul acesteia este de a-i ajuta pe cei care intervin n educaia copiilor (prini, cadre didactice i diveri specialiti) s foloseasc principiile inteligenei emoionale cu rbdare i perseveren. n opinia acestor cercettori, nelegerea i managementul emoiilor cuplate cu abilitile sociale de a relaiona efectiv cu ceilali, de a negocia, de a rezolva creativ problemele sociale, de a h. recognizing the possible change from one emotion to another passing from fury to satisfaction or from fury to shame. 4. Regulating emotions the path to emotional and intellectual development. a. expressing and accepting both pleasant and unpleasant emotions; b. involving in /or detaching oneself from a feeling in a conscious manner depending on its importance or utility; c. the reflexive monitoring to emotions regarding oneself or the others; d. controlling ones emotions or the emotions of those around by tempering the negative ones and encouraging the positive ones, without repressing or exaggerating some information (Mayer, Salovey, 1997, apud Roco, 2004, p. 143-145). 2.1. Emotional intelligence in the education of children and adolescents In 1999, M.J. Elias, S.E. Tobias and B.S. Friedlander published a paper entitled Emotionally Intelligent Parenting. How to Raise a Selfdisciplined, Responsible, Socially Skilled Child. Its aim is to help those who shape the education of children (parents, teachers and several specialists) use the principles of emotional intelligence with patience and perseverance. According to these specialists, understanding and managing emotions, coupled with social abilities to efficiently relate to others, to negotiate, creatively solve social problems, to be leaders or co-workers, to be assertive and responsible are all social and emotional competences. They can be learned and developed at any age, but it is better to start the emotional literacy at the youngest age possible, and it is better for the parents as well as educators, school teachers and teachers to apply it. They would certainly imply an appropriate level of emotional intelligence development in adults as well, yet they are often under the influence of negative messages which they received during their childhood from their family and from society. Therefore, there is a necessity for programmes that form parents and teachers, with a double aim: that to help them become aware of their own emotions and the importance of enhancing emotional intelligence in children, as well as equipping them with simple efficient methods and tools to have a positive action upon children. Emotional intelligence education uses simple, specific, but important techniques, which represent the outcome of studies made by authors in collaboration with D. Goleman, in which numerous parents, educators and teachers were involved. The power of the method lies in that parents and/or

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fi lideri i/sau colaboratori, de a fi asertivi i responsabili sunt competene sociale i emoionale. Acestea pot fi nvate i dezvoltate la orice vrst, dar alfabetizarea emoional a copiilor este bine s fie nceput de la o vrsta ct mai mic i s fie realizat att de prini, ct i de educatori, nvtori i profesori. Desigur, aceasta ar presupune un nivel adecvat de dezvoltare al inteligenei emoionale i la aduli, ns de multe ori acetia sunt sub influena mesajelor negative primite n copilrie din familie i societate. Ca urmare, sunt necesare programe de formare a prinilor i a cadrelor didactice cu dublu scop: de a ajuta la contientizarea propriilor emoii i a importanei dezvoltrii inteligenei emoionale a copiilor, dar i de a-i echipa cu metode i instrumente simple i eficiente pentru a aciona n mod pozitiv asupra copiilor. Educaia bazat pe inteligen emoional folosete tehnici specifice, simple, dar importante, i reprezint rezultatul unor cercetri realizate de autori n colaborare cu D. Goleman i n care au implicat numeroi prini, educatori i profesori. Fora metodei const n practicarea de ctre prini i/sau cadre didactice a unor schimbri mrunte, repetate zi de zi, n relaiile cu proprii copii/ elevi. Cele cinci principii promovate de autorii anterior menionai sunt: 1. contientizarea propriilor sentimente i ale celorlali; 2. empatia i nelegerea punctelor de vedere ale celorlali; 3. echilibrul i stpnirea propriilor impulsuri emoionale i comportamentale; 4. adoptarea unor atitudini sociale pozitive n relaiile cu ceilali; 5. construirea unor scopuri i planuri pozitive (Elias, Tobias, Friedlander, 2002, p. 48). Un an mai trziu, M.J. Elias, S.E. Tobias i B.S. Friedlander au publicat o a doua lucrare, intitulat Raising Emotionally Intelligent Teenagers. Parenting with Love, Laughter and Limits. Intenia acestora este de a ajuta prinii s-i asume rolurile necesare n educarea adolescenilor printele nu este doar un bun confident, un bun asculttor al adolescentului, ci i instana care impune regulile i limitele necesare. Este important ca aceste roluri s fie nsoite de afeciune, nelegere i umor (Elias, Tobias, Friedlander, 2003, p. 26-27). 2.2. Inteligena emoional i educaia raionalemotiv i comportamental Programele de educaie raional-emotiv i comportamental sunt cele mai cunoscute i eficiente strategii de alfabetizare emoional (Oprea, David, 2004, p. vii). Dr. Ann Vernon (1989) prezint n lucrarea sa Thinking, Feeling, Behaving. An Education Curriculum for Children un astfel de program, organizat n funcie de coninutul tematic i nivelul teachers apply some small changes, day by day, in their relations to their own children/ students. The five principles mentioned by the authors above are: 1. becoming aware of ones feelings and the feelings of others; 2. empathy and understanding others points of view; 3. balance and control over ones emotional and behavioural impulses; 4. taking on positive social values in their relationships; 5. building some positive aims and plans (Elias, Tobias, Friedlander, 2002, p. 48). One year later, M.J. Elias, S.E. Tobias and B.S. Friedlander published a second book named Raising Emotionally Intelligent Teenagers. Parenting with Love, Laughter and Limits. Their intention is to help parents take responsibility for the necessary roles in educating teenagers the parent is not only a good confident, a good listener of the teenager, but also the one who puts the necessary rules and limits. It is important that these roles be associated with affection, understanding and humour (Elias, Tobias, Friedlander, 2003, p. 26-27). 2.2. Emotional intelligence and emotional and behavioural education rational-

The most well-known and efficient strategies for emotional literacy are the rational-emotional and behavioural programs (Oprea, David, 2004, p. vii). Dr. Ann Vernon (1989) presents such a program in the paper Thinking, Feeling, Behaving. An Education Curriculum for Children, which is organized according to the thematic content and the level of mental development of the students, across three volumes that correspond to the pre-university education cycles (primary, gymnasium and highschool). Each volume contains 60 activities which have been tested in practice, clustered in the following subject classes: self-acceptance, feelings, beliefs and behaviours, problem solving and decision-taking, interpersonal relationships. In the authors opinion, this program is very suitable for emotional education due to its characteristics presented below: 1. The lessons are sequential, they are designed according to the students level of mental development and they form an integrated program for students in the grades I XII; 2. Each activity has got a specific objective, which offers a point of reference regarding the relevant information that are to be emphasized, and the expected outcomes. They include: questions about the content, which check the acquisition and use of concepts; questions that ask for a personal

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dezvoltrii mentale a elevilor n trei volume ce corespund ciclurilor nvmntului preuniversitar (primar, gimnazial i liceal). Fiecare volum conine 60 de activiti, testate n practic i grupate n urmtoarele categorii de subiecte: acceptarea de sine, emoii, credine i comportamente, rezolvarea problemelor i luarea deciziilor, relaii interpersonale. n opinia autoarei acest program este foarte potrivit pentru educaia emoional, datorit urmtoarelor caracteristici: 1. leciile sunt de natur secvenial, sunt proiectate n funcie de nivelul dezvoltrii mentale a elevilor i formeaz un program integrat pentru elevii din clasele I XII; 2. fiecare activitate are un obiectiv specific care ofer un reper privind informaiile relevante pe care s se pun accent i rezultatele ateptate. Acestea conin: ntrebri despre coninut, care verific achiziionarea i utilizarea conceptelor; ntrebri de personalizare, care ncurajeaz elevii s aplice n practic conceptele nvate. 3. activitile sunt proiectate astfel nct s provoace elevii s se implice n mod activ i s formuleze concluzii; 4. coninutul are la baz principiile teoretice ale Terapiei Raional-Emotive i Comportamentale REBT (Vernon, 2004, p. 1-2). 2.3. Cultivarea inteligenei emoionale n opinia autoarei J. Segal, cultivarea inteligenei emoionale este esenial pentru viaa i sntatea persoanei i a propriei familii, ajut la stabilirea i meninerea relaiilor interpersonale trainice i armonioase i garanteaz succesul n via. n anul 1997 autoarea prezint rezultatele cercetrilor desfurate pe o perioad de 30 de ani n psihologia clinic experimental, inspirate din teoriile i studiile lui A. Maslow, R. May i C. Rogers. Participnd n cadrul Universitii Los Angeles la un program de cercetare privind rolul jucat de emoii n vindecarea pacienilor bolnavi de cancer, J. Segal a observat c majoritatea pacienilor care au supravieuit erau contieni de propriile emoii sau de cele ale altora i nu s-au temut de ele, chiar dac erau foarte puternice. Astfel, ea a sesizat c aceti pacieni aveau trei caracteristici comune: capacitatea de a contientiza ceea ce simeau, capacitatea de a-i accepta sentimentele indiferent de intensitatea lor i capacitatea de a cultiva informaiile emoionale. Autoarea propune metode practice privind dezvoltarea inteligenei emoionale parcurgnd patru pai, asociai de aceasta cu etapele colare: Pasul 1: Contientizarea emoiilor (coala primar) presupune trirea autentic a propriilor emoii prin exerciii specifice de contientizare a senzaiilor corporale. answer, encouraging students to apply the concepts they learn. 3. Activities are projected so that they challenge students to actively involve and formulate conclusions; 4. The content is based on Rational-Emotional and Behavioural Therapy theoretical principles REBT (Vernon, 2004, p. 1-2). 2.3. Improving emotional intelligence According to the author J. Segal, improving ones emotional intelligence is essential to ones life and health, to ones family, and it helps establish and maintain long lasting and harmonious interpersonal relations, guaranteeing ones success in life. In 1997, the author presents the results of the studies made across 30 years of experimental clinical psychology, being inspired by the theories of A. Maslow, R. May and C. Rogers. Taking part in a research program within the Los Angeles University, regarding the role of emotions in curing patients with cancer, J. Segal noticed that most patients who survived were aware of their own emotions, or of the emotions of others, and that they were not afraid of them even if they were very intense. Thus, she noticed that these patients had three common traits: the ability to become aware of their feelings, the ability to accept their feelings despite their intensity, and the ability to cultivate emotional information. The author proposes some practical methods regarding the development of emotional intelligence by following four steps which are also associated with school levels: Step 1: Becoming aware of feelings (primary school) implies the authentic experience of ones own emotions through specific exercises of bodily sensations awareness. Step 2: Accepting emotions (high-school) refers to taking responsibility for ones emotions. Step 3: Actively becoming aware of ones feelings (faculty) implies the manifestation of feelings and becoming aware of them, of their causes, of the contextual reality, and the existence of an inner balance. Step 4: Empathy (graduating) implies living ones own emotional experience, referring to the others feelings and needs. It refers to understanding the other, being present in the others emotional problems without getting involved to solve them (Segal, 1997, p. 7-8). 2.4. Emotional alchemy Developing emotional intelligence implies, among others, becoming aware of ones own emotional reactions. T. Bennett-Goleman (2000) offers in his book Emotional Alchemy. How the Mind Can

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Pasul 2: Acceptarea emoiilor (liceul) vizeaz asumarea responsabilitii propriilor triri afective. Pasul 3: Contientizarea activ a strilor afective (facultatea) const n exteriorizarea emoiilor i contientizarea strilor afective, a cauzelor acestora, a realitii contextuale i existena unui echilibru interior al persoanei. Pasul 4: Empatia (absolvirea) presupune trirea propriei experiene emoionale, dar raportat la sentimentele i la nevoile celorlali. Ea vizeaz nelegerea celuilalt, participarea la problemele sale emoionale, fr implicarea n rezolvarea acestora (Segal, 1997, p. 7-8). 2.4. Alchimia emoional Dezvoltarea inteligenei emoionale presupune, printre altele, contientizarea propriilor reacii emoionale. n lucrarea cu titlul Emotional Alchemy. How the Mind Can Heal the Heart, T. Bennett-Goleman (2000) ofer o metod de calmare a minii i de eliberare a spiritului de emoiile perturbatoare (Dalai Lama, 2000, apud T. Bennett-Goleman, 2002, p. 8). Pornind de la experiena personal, autoarea a asociat cunotine i metode din psihologia cognitiv, psihoterapia cognitiv i neurologie cu cele din psihologia budist i tehnica meditaiei contemplative. Astfel, ea prezint dou metode eficiente n depistarea i transformarea tiparelor emoionale distructive: meditaia contemplativ i terapia schemei, care este o adaptare a terapiei cognitive ce urmrete corectarea tiparelor emoionale de inadaptare. Dintre tiparele emoionale de inadaptare, cele mai des ntlnite sunt: abandonul, privaiunea, subjugarea, nencrederea i imposibilitatea de a fi iubit (Bennett-Goleman, 2002, p. 19). Pentru a contientiza mai bine aceste scheme emoionale de inadaptare sunt necesare urmtoarele etape: contientizarea a ceea ce se petrece, fr a neglija sau a trece cu vederea niciun detaliu; acceptarea propriilor sentimente legate de evenimentul n cauz, contientiznd cu claritate nuanele acestora; observarea atent a propriilor gnduri; contientizarea existenei unor similitudini cu alte situaii din trecut; identificarea schemei caracteristice (Bennett-Goleman, 2002, p. 102-116). Aceste scheme mpiedic persoana s i manifeste flexibilitatea, creativitatea, bucuria i compasiunea, care sunt caliti umane fireti, ngrdindu-i viaa i stabilind n mod arbitrar n ce fel trebuie s gndeasc, s simt i s acioneze. Alchimia emoional presupune o cunoatere a schemelor, cu alte cuvinte, ofer o cale de autocunoatere. nelegerea aprofundat a schemelor este primul pas ctre eliberarea din aceste nchisori ale minii (Bennett-Goleman, 2002, p. 138). Heal the Heart, a method to calm the mind and free the spirit of disturbing emotions (Dalai Lama, 2000, apud T. Bennett-Goleman, 2002, p. 8). Staring from her personal experience, the author associated data and methods from Cognitive Psychology, cognitive psychotherapy and neurology, with data and methods from Buddhist Psychology and the technique of contemplative meditation. Thus, she presents us with two efficient methods of tracing and transforming destructive emotional patterns: contemplative meditation and the therapy of the scheme, which is an adaptation of cognitive therapy aiming to correct emotional patterns of maladjustment. Among the most common maladjustment emotional patterns are: abandonment, deprivation, subduing, lack of trust and the impossibility to be loved (Bennett-Goleman, 2002, p. 19). In order to better become aware of these emotional patterns of maladjustment, the following stages are necessary: becoming aware of what is going on, without neglecting or overseeing any detail; accepting ones feelings about the event, being clearly aware of their shades; careful observation of ones own thoughts; becoming aware of the similarities with other past situations; identification of the characteristic patterns (Bennett-Goleman, 2002, p. 102-116). These patterns prevent the person from manifesting his flexibility, creativity, joy and compassion, which are natural human qualities, limiting his life and arbitrarily deciding how he is supposed to think, feel and act. Emotional alchemy implies a knowing of the patterns, in oder words, it offers a path to knowing oneself. The deep understanding of the patterns is the first step towards liberating oneself from these prisons of the mind (Bennett-Goleman, 2002, p. 138).

3. Research Methodology
3.1. Objectives We started from the following objectives: 1. developing emotional intelligence in the Psychology students, within the experiential group of personal optimization; 2. developing emotional competences (selfawareness, empathy, motivation, social abilities and self-regulation) by activation personal resources of Psychology students, as an effect of becoming aware of and taking responsibility for ones own life. 3.2. Hypothesis The following hypotheses were made based on the objectives of the research:

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Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, no. 44, December 2008 3. Metodologia cercetrii


3.1. Obiective S-a pornit de la urmtoarele obiective: 1. dezvoltarea inteligenei emoionale a studenilor de la psihologie n cadrul grupului experienial de optimizare personal; 2. dezvoltarea competenelor emoionale (contiina de sine, empatia, motivaia, abilitile sociale i autoreglarea), prin activarea resurselor personale ale studenilor de la psihologie, ca urmare a contientizrii i asumrii responsabilitii propriei vieii. 3.2. Ipoteze Pe baza obiectivelor cercetrii s-au formulat urmtoarele ipoteze: Ipoteza general Metodele i tehnicile experieniale utilizate n cadrul grupului de optimizare personal conduc la dezvoltarea abilitilor emoionale a studenilor de la psihologie. Ipoteze specifice 1. Contiina de sine, ca i component a inteligenei emoionale, poate fi dezvoltat n cadrul grupului experienial de optimizare personal. 2. Empatia, ca i component a inteligenei emoionale, poate fi dezvoltat n cadrul grupului experienial de optimizare personal. 3. Motivaia, ca i component a inteligenei emoionale, poate fi dezvoltat n cadrul grupului experienial de optimizare personal. 4. Abilitile sociale, ca i componente ale inteligenei emoionale, pot fi dezvoltate n cadrul grupului experienial de optimizare personal. 5. Autoreglarea, ca i component a inteligenei emoionale, poate fi dezvoltat n cadrul grupului experienial de optimizare personal. 3.3. Descrierea lotului a. Lotul experimental un grup experienial de optimizare personal format din 16 studeni la psihologie (timp de 2 semestre, cu o frecven de 15 ore / week-end la 2 luni); un grup experienial de optimizare personal format din 14 studeni la psihologie (timp de 2 semestre, cu o frecven de 3-4 ore la 2 sptmni). b. Lotul martor / de control comparabil din punct de vedere statistic (vrst, sex, nivel de dezvoltare a inteligenei emoionale); acetia vor fi intervievai despre evenimentele importante din viaa lor (iubirea, cstoria, naterea, pierderea / decesul unei persoane semnificative, succese personale i profesionale etc.) ce ar putea influena n mod natural dezvoltarea inteligenei emoionale. General Hypothesis The methods and techniques used in the group of personal optimization lead to the development of emotional abilities of Psychology students. Specific Hypotheses 1. Self-awareness, as part of emotional intelligence, can be developed within the experiential group of personal optimization. 2. Empathy, as part of emotional intelligence, can be developed within the experiential group of personal optimization. 3. Motivation, as part of emotional intelligence, can be developed within the experiential group of personal optimization. 4. Social skills, as parts of emotional intelligence, can be developed within the experiential group of personal optimization. 5. Self-regulation, as part of emotional intelligence, can be developed within the experiential group of personal optimization. 3.3. Group description a. Experimental group an experiential group of personal optimization, formed by 16 students in Psychology (for 2 semesters, 15 h/ weekend every 2 months); an experiential group of personal optimization, formed by 14 students in Psychology (for 2 semesters, 3-4 h/ every 2 weeks). b. Control groupl statistically equivalent, (age, sex, level of emotional intelligence); they will be interviewed about major events in their lives (love, marriage, birth, bereavement/death of a significant person, personal and professional successes etc), that could naturally influence the development of emotional intelligence. 3.4. Methods We have used art therapeutic and psycho dramatic techniques in the experiential group of personal optimization, in order to help the here and now experimentation of certain life situations that help students in Psychology develop their emotional abilities. We offer, as an example one of the challenging exercises we used within the emotional intelligence development group. THE STORY OF THE HANDS THAT COME TO LIFE Objectives: to practice the abilities to connect to ones own needs and feelings developing self awareness (as component of emotional intelligence);

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Revista de Psihoterapie Experienial, nr. 44, decembrie 2008


3.4. Metode utilizate n cadrul grupului experienial de optimizare personal am utilizat tehnici artterapeutice i psihodramatice pentru a facilita experimentarea aici i acum a unor situaii de via care s-i ajute pe studenii de la psihologie s-i dezvolte abilitile emoionale. Oferim spre exemplificare unul dintre exerciiile provocative utilizate n cadrul grupului de dezvoltare a inteligenei emoionale POVESTEA MINILOR CARE PRIND VIA Obiective exersarea capacitilor de conectare la propriile nevoi i stri emoionale dezvoltarea contiinei de sine (ca i component a inteligenei emoionale); aprofundarea autocunoaterii i intercunoaterii; exersarea unor deprinderi de ascultare activ dezvoltarea empatiei (ca i component a inteligenei emoionale); identificarea unor pattern-uri de relaionare constructive dezvoltarea abilitilor sociale (ca i component a inteligenei emoionale). Resurse coli de hrtie format A3 i A4, creioane colorate, ace de gmlie, CD-player, CD-uri cu muzic ambiental. Instructaj Participanii la grup sunt aezai n form de cerc i au n fa o coal de hrtie format A4 i un creion colorat. V invitm s ascultai muzica i s v lsai corpul s gseasc cea mai confortabil poziie pentru el. i dac v este bine acolo unde stai, v rugm s realizai pe coala de hrtie din faa voastr conturul minii voastre nondominante, mna stng la cei mai muli dintre voi. (Se las timp participanilor pentru a trasa conturul minii pe foaia de hrtie.) Lsai-v acum din nou cuprini de muzic, acoperii cu mna voastr conturul realizat, nchidei ochii i ndreptai-v atenia asupra ultimelor evenimente ce au avut loc n viaa voastr i care ntr-un fel sau altul i-au pus amprenta asupra a ceea ce suntei voi astzi. Poate c au fost evenimente plcute care v-au fcut s v simii fericii, mulumii, mplinii sau poate au fost o serie de evenimente mai puin plcute, care v-au fcut s trii o stare de tristee profund, suprare, nemulumire etc. Fii contieni de toate aceste evenimente i triri, ca i de modul n care ele i-au adus contribuia la ceea ce v definete pe voi astzi, la ceea ce v caracterizeaz. i odat ce avei foarte clar n minte to go deeper into ones self-knowledge and knowing of others; to practice some skills of active listening developing empathy (as component of emotional intelligence); to identify certain patterns of constructively relating to others developing social abilities (as component of emotional intelligence). Resources: sheets of paper A3 and A4, coloured pencils, pins, CD-player, CD-s with ambient music. Instructions: Participants are placed in a circle and have a sheet of A4 paper and a coloured pencil in front of them. You are invited to listen to the music and let your body find its most comfortable position for it. And if you are well where you are standing, well ask you to draw the outline of your non-dominant hand, the left one for most of you, on the sheet of paper before you. (The participants are given enough time to draw the outline of the hand on the sheet of paper.) Now let yourselves again enjoy the music, cover the drawn outline with your hands, close your eyes and focus your attention on the latest events in your lives, that have somehow left a trace on what you are today. There might have been pleasant events that made you feel happy, content, fulfilled, or maybe there was a series of less pleasant events, that made you feel deeply sad, upset, discontent, etc. Be aware of all these events and states, and of the way in which they contributed to what defines you, what characterises you today. And once you have all that clear in your minds, visualize the way they pour down from your mind and heart through your arm, in your left hand, where they will place themselves on paper according to your wish. Let all the memories and feelings associated with them rest there in the palm of your hand, on paper, and when each of them has found its place, slowly open your eyes and, using the coloured pencils, try to shape them on paper, inside the outline you drew. Stay connected to your thoughts and feelings and try to reproduce, in silence, an image as accurate as possible of what you have seen a minute earlier. (Participants are given enough time to end their drawings.). As your creation is about to end, try to be aware of what emotions it triggers in you: joy, sadness, tension, anger, love, hatred, revolt, upset or anything else... (When all participants have finished their drawings, they are given a clip to put the drawn hands to their chests, in order to better identify with its components.)

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toate acestea, vizualizai cum rnd pe rnd ele alunec din mintea i inima voastr prin braul i antebraul stng, pn n palma stng, unde se vor aeza aa cum voi dorii pe foaia de hrtie. Lsai toate amintirile i strile asociate lor s se depoziteze acolo n palma voastr, pe foaia de hrtie, iar n momentul n care fiecare i-a gsit locul, deschidei ncet ochii i, cu ajutorul creioanelor colorate, ncercai s le reliefai pe foaia de hrtie, n interiorul conturului realizat de voi. Rmnei conectai la gndurile i tririle voastre i, n tcere, ncercai s redai o imagine ct mai fidel celor vizualizate de voi puin mai devreme. (Se las suficient timp participanilor pentru a-i definitiva desenele.) Pe msur ce creaia voastr se apropie de sfrit, ncercai s fii contieni de tot ceea ce trezete ea din punct de vedere emoional n voi: bucurie, tristee, tensiune, furie, iubire, ur, revolt, suprare sau orice altceva. (Cnd toi participanii i-au terminat desenele se ofer acestora cte un bold pentru a-i pune n piept mina desenat, pentru o mai bun identificare cu elementele componente ale acesteia.) Facei acum cunotin cu celelalte mini, prezentndu-v i fiind curioase s aflai ct mai multe lucruri despre ele. Nu uitai s fii contieni de tririle pe care le avei i de gndurile care v trec prin minte atunci cnd intrai n contact cu fiecare mn prezent aici n sal. (Se las suficient de mult timp pentru interaciune participanilor. Discuiile purtate se fac la persoana nti. Se organizez apoi grupuri de cte 4 persoane pentru a aprofunda procesul de relaionare i intercunoatere.) i acum, pentru c v-ai cunoscut suficient de bine, v invitm s realizai la nivelul fiecrui grup o poveste n imagini. (Se ofer fiecrui grup o coal mare de carton alb.) O poveste n care s se regseasc fiecare mn care o creeaz, cu evenimente semnificative, dar i cu triri importante. Va fi povestea grupului vostru, pe care o vei prezenta apoi celorlali participani. Va deveni o poveste vie, cu personaje, care va fi pus n scen n aceast sal de lucru. (Se ofer timp participanilor pentru a creiona povestea n imagini i pentru a o regiza apoi. Cnd povestea i regia sunt gata, fiecare grup devine trup de actori pe scena improvizat a slii de grup. Se recomand participanilor s fie permanent contieni de ceea ce triesc atunci cnd se implic n diversele activiti ale exerciiului provocativ.) Strategiile de valorificare a experienei: Participanii au fost invitai la sfritul experimentului de grup s noteze n jurnalul personal al experienei avute. Jurnalul a fost apoi mprtit grupului i s-au fcut o serie de corelaii Now meet the other hands, by introducing yourselves and being curious to fid out as many things as possible about them. Remember to stay in contact with the feelings you have and the thoughts that cross your mind, when you interact with each hand present here in this room. (Participants are given enough time to interact. The discussions they carry are done in the st 1 person. Then, groups of 4 are made in order to go deeply into the process of relating to one another and knowing one another.) And now, because you got to know one another pretty well, we invite each group to make a picture story. (Each group is given a large piece of white cartoon.) A story that reunites each hand creating it, with significant events and important feelings. The story will become alive, it will have characters, and it will be acted in this work room. (Participants are given time to draw the picture story and then to direct it. When the story and its staging are ready, each group turns into a group of actors on the scene improvised in the work room. Participants are recommended to be aware at all times of what they feel when they get involved in the various aspects of the provocative exercise.) Strategies experience: of gaining from the

Participants were invited to jot down the personal diary of their experience at the end of the group experiment. The diary was then shared with the group, and a series of connections was made between the experiences they had within the provocative space and those in daily life. What followed was the identification of a series of blockages and maladjusted relating patterns, and, starting from here, the in-depth personal analysis of each group member was made.

4. Results
This exercise allowed the participants to develop three of the emotional intelligence components (self awareness, empathy and social abilities), in a pleasant, secure atmosphere, favorable to living new experiences. Acquisitions took place not only during the provocative exercise, but also as an effect of the in-depth psychological analyses which were done after the exercise itself. A group decided to present the picture story in a few lines, which one of the participants then recited: On an early winter day Seven hands passed on their way And they got snow-bound

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ntre experienele trite de studeni n spaiul provocativ i cele din viaa de zi cu zi. A urmat apoi identificarea unor serii de blocaje i pattern-uri de relaionare maladaptative i, pornind de la acestea, s-a trecut la analiza personal aprofundat a fiecrui participant la grup. They were very worn out. They looked for a hut And got there at dusk. Of one another unaware They joined their fates through tales. They felt alone at night, on Eve, And telling tales, they found relief. With all they felt, a fir tree they adorned And they found only whats best under the Christmas Tree, Friendship united them and so they headed home. Another group chose to present its story as a collage formed by the drawings they had worn on their chests. The collage was also accompanied by a text. Once upon a time there was the Hand of Destiny who, on a winter day, stopped at a castle. Curious about it, it climbed the stairs of the palace and got to a ball room where Christmas was being celebrated. The Hand of destiny made it possible that a poor singer fell in love with a princess and the princess fell in love with him, and that he may sing to her and celebrate Christmas together, loving one another on musical notes. They lived happily ever after! And thus we told you our story! The participants personal analysis helped them to practice their abilities to connect to their needs and feelings, and pinpointed several difficulties they had in their relations to significant persons in their lives: mother, father, grandfather, grandmother, etc. Difficulties relating to significant persons, which are the result of some emotional blockages and some behaviour that were once adaptive for the child, but maladaptive for the young man or woman today, could be overcome as a result of individual psychological analysis done by each group participant. The participants were challenged to identify and use those patterns of constructive relating, that can help them in maintaining healthy relationships not only with their significant others, but also with other people. 5. Conclusions By activating these personal resources, by discovering new patterns of efficiently relating to others, by becoming aware and by taking responsibility for ones own life, students in Psychology develop their emotional intelligence and its components: self awareness, empathy, motivation, social skills and self-regulation, through the experiential group for personal optimization. Developing their emotional abilities has an impact on the improvement of their own didactic behaviour and gaining professional success.

4. Rezultate obinute
Acest exerciiu a permis participanilor s-i dezvolte trei dintre componentele inteligenei emoionale (contiina de sine, empatia i abilitile sociale) ntr-o atmosfer plcut, securizant, propice tririi unor experiene noi. Achiziiile au avut loc att n timpul exerciiului provocativ, ct i ca urmare a analizelor psihologice aprofundate realizate dup desfurarea acestuia. Un grup a ales s prezinte povestea desenat n imagini sub forma unui mnunchi de versuri, pe care l-a recitat una dintre participante: ,,ntr-o zi de iarn crud, apte mini pe-un drum trecur, i rmaser nzpezite... Erau foarte ostenite. O caban cutar, i ajunser spre sear. Fr a ti una de alta, Prin poveti i-au unit soarta. Se simir solitare, chiar n seara de Ajun, i gsir alinare prin povestea ce i-o spun. Cu tot ce au simit, un brad au mpodobit, Iar sub bradul de Crciun au gsit tot ce-i mai bun, Prietenia le-a unit i spre cas au pornit. Alt grup a ales s-i prezinte povestea sub forma unui colaj format din desenele pe care le-au purtat n piept. Colajul a fost nsoit i el de un text. ,,A fost odat ca niciodat Mna destinului care, ntr-o zi de iarn, a poposit la un castel. Curioas, aceasta a urcat scrile palatului i a ajuns ntr-o sal de bal unde se srbtorea Crciunul. Mna destinului a fcut astfel nct un cntre srac s se ndrgosteasc de o prines i aceasta de el, s-i cnte i s srbtoreasc mpreun Crciunul, iubindu-se pe note muzicale. Au trit fericii pn la adnci btrnei! i am nclecat pe-o a i v-am spus povestea noastr! Analiza personal a participanilor le-a facilitat acestora exersarea capacitilor de conectare la propriile nevoi i stri emoionale i a evideniat diferite dificulti pe care acetia le ntmpinau n relaiile cu persoane semnificative din viaa lor: mama, tatl, bunicul, bunica etc. Rezultat al unor blocaje emoionale i al unor comportamente adaptative cndva pentru copil, maladaptative pentru

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tnrul/ tnra de astzi, dificultile de relaionare cu persoanele semnificative au putut fi depite ca urmare a analizelor psihologice individuale fcute de fiecare participant la grup. Participanii au fost provocai s-i identifice i s utilizeze acele pattern-uri de relaionare constructive care i pot ajuta n meninerea unor relaii sanogene att cu persoanele semnificative din viaa lor, ct i cu alii. This experiment supports the vision of a new educational paradigm, which was described in the volume coordinated by Laureniu Mitrofan, Personal Development transversal university competency (a new educational paradigm). Among the positive effects of the experiential group for personal optimization, one can count: the development of emotional intelligence and empathy, development of social and relational intelligence, development of cultural intelligence and communitarian, interethnical integrating strategies; spiritual maturation, development of inter-denominational and religious tolerance; development of ones ecologic awareness, responsibility, attitudes and behaviours. All of these have an obvious favourable impact on the students preparing for successfully practicing the profession of psychologist.

5. Concluzii
Prin activarea resurselor personale, prin descoperirea unor noi pattern-uri de interaciune eficiente, prin contientizarea i asumarea responsabilitii propriei vieii, studenii de la psihologie i dezvolt inteligena emoional i componenele ei: contiina de sine, empatia, motivaia, abilitile sociale i autoreglarea, prin intermediul grupului experienial de optimizare personal. Dezvoltarea abilitilor emoionale ale acestora influeneaz optimizarea propriului lor comportament didactic i obinerea succesului profesional. Acest experiment realizat susine viziunea unei noi paradigme educaionale descris n volumul coordonat de Laureniu Mitrofan, Dezvoltarea personal competen universitar transversal (o nou paradigm educaional. Printre efectele pozitive ale grupului experienial de optimizare personal pot fi enumerate: dezvoltarea inteligenei emoionale i a empatiei, dezvoltarea inteligenei sociale i relaionale, dezvoltarea inteligenei culturale i a strategiilor integratoare comunitare, interetnice; maturizarea spiritual, dezvoltarea toleranei interconfesionale i religioase; dezvoltarea contiinei, responsabilitii, atitudinilor i comportamentelor ecologice. Toate acestea au, evident, un impact favorabil asupra pregtirii studenilor pentru a practica cu succes profesia de psiholog.

* * *

INTELIGENA EMOIONAL PE PARCURSUL VIEII 101,5 102,7 101,8 95,3 90 92 94 96 96,8


50+ ani 40-49 ani 30-39 ani 20-29 ani 16-19 ani

Nivelul inteligenei 1 emoionale

98

100

102

104

Fig. 2.1. Evoluia inteligenei emoionale pe parcursul vieii (adaptat dup Stein i Book, 2003, p. 19)

Fig. 2.1. The evolution of emotional intelligence during ones lifetime (adapted from Stein and Book, 2003, p. 19)

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Revista de Psihoterapie Experienial, nr. 44, decembrie 2008 Bibliografie Bibliography


1. Badea, V. (1999), Grupul experienial un creuzet al transformrii de sine, Revista de Psihoterapie Experienial nr. 7 (The experiential group a vessel for self transformation, in Journal of Experiential Psychology no. 7), Ed. SPER, Bucharest Bennett-Goleman, T. (2002), Alchimia emoional (Emotional Alchemy), Ed. Curtea Veche, Bucharest Elias, M.J., Tobias, S.E., Friedlander, B.S. (2002), Inteligena emoional n educaia copiilor (Emotional Intelligence in the education of children), Ed. Curtea Veche, Bucharest Elias, M.J., Tobias, S.E., Friedlander, B.S. (2003), Stimularea inteligenei emoionale a adolescenilor (Stimulating emotional intelligence in teenagers), Ed. Curtea Veche, Bucharest Mitrofan, I. (2004), Terapia unificrii, abordare holistic a dezvoltrii i a transformrii umane (Unification Therapy, a holistic approach to human development and transformation), Ed. SPER, Bucharest Mitrofan, I., Ene, A. (2005), Ne jucm nvnd nvm jucndu-ne! dezvoltare personal asistat de calculator n grup experienial (ctre o nou paradigm educaional) (We play by learning... we learn by playing! computer assisted personal development within the experiential group (towards a new educational paradigm)), Ed. SPER, Bucharest 7. Mitrofan, L. (2007), Dezvoltarea personal cadru teoretic explicativ. Nevoia implementrii unui proiect educaional centrat pe competene psihocomportamentale, n Mitrofan, L. (coord.) (2007), Dezvoltarea personal competen universitar transversal (o nou paradigm educaional), Ed. Universitii din Bucureti (Personal Development explanatory theoretical frame. The need for implementing an educational project focused on psychobehavioural competencies, in Mitrofan, L. (coord.) (2007), Personal Development transversal university competency (a new educational paradigm)), Ed. Bucharest University, Bucharest 8. Roco, M. (2004), Inteligena emoional i creativitatea (Emotional intelligence and creativity), Ed. Polirom, Iai 9. Segal, J. (1999), Dezvoltarea inteligenei emoionale (Developing emotional intelligence), Ed. Polirom, Iai 10. Stein, S.J., Book, H.E. (2003), Fora inteligenei emoionale: inteligena emoional i succesul vostru (The force of emotional intelligence: emotional intelligence and your success), Ed. Allfa, Bucharest 11. Vernon, A. (2004), Consilierea n coal: Dezvoltarea inteligenei emoionale prin educaie raional-emotiv i comportamental. Clasele I-IV (School counselling: Developing emotional intelligence through ratio-emotional and behavioural education. Grades I-IV), Ed. ASCR, Cluj-Napoca

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

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Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, no. 44, December 2008

Singurtatea repere psihologice i factori explicativi Loneliness psychological milestones and explanatory factors Lisolement des repres psychologiques et des facteurs explicatifs
conf. univ. dr. Laureniu MITROFAN University of Bucharest, Romania

Rezumat Dei solitudinea i singurtatea au nelesuri similare, ele sunt cuvinte care descriu situaii foarte diferite. Solitudinea este, n cele mai multe cazuri, o alegere. Singurtatea este, mai degrab, o consecin. Singurtatea apare n momentul unei discrepane ntre nivelul de contact social de care are nevoie o persoan i gradul actual n care reuete s i satisfac aceast nevoie. Deficitul ar putea fi n ceea ce privete relaiile intime ale persoanei, ceea ce duce la singurtatea emoional sau la nivelul reelei sociale, ceea ce duce la singurtate social. Singurtatea social este rezultatul unei integrri neadecvate n reeaua social, a nu fi parte integrat i important ntr-un sistem social coeziv. Singurtatea cronic rezult din inabilitatea de interaciune i comunicare social, a crei cauz este plasat de muli psihologi n deficitele de afectivitate i de stil de ataament din copilrie. Lipsa de preocupare fa de copil, incertitudinile, contradiciile, agresivitatea din partea adulilor din preajm constituie o premis favorabil pentru ca el s devin o persoan n general singuratic pe parcursul vieii. Starea de singurtate este asociat cu efecte negative precum depresie, anxietate, insatisfacie, nefericire, timiditate i, uneori, grav suferin psihic. Cuvinte cheie: solitudine, singurtate social, singurtate emoional, singurtate cronic, excludere i marginalizare social Rsum Mme si la solitude et lisolement ont des significations similaires, ce sont des mots qui dcrivent des situations trs diffrentes. La solitude est, la plupart des cas, un choix. Lisolement est une consquence, plutt. Lisolement apparat au moment dune discordance entre le niveau de contact social dont a besoin une personne et le degr actuel dont elle russit satisfaire ce besoin. Le dficit pourrait se situer au niveau des relations intimes de la personne, ce qui mne

Abstract Although isolation and loneliness have similar meanings, they are words that describe very different situations. Solitude is, in most cases, a choice. Loneliness is rather a consequence. Loneliness occurs when a there is a discrepancy between the level of social contact that a person needs and the degree to which the person manages to satisfy his need. The deficit could regard the intimate relations of the person, leading to emotional loneliness or loneliness on the social network, thus leading to social isolation. Social loneliness is the result of inadequate integration in the social network, not being an integrated and important part in a cohesive social system. Chronic loneliness results from the inability of social interaction and communication, whose cause is placed by many psychologists in the deficits of emotionality and style of attachment in childhood. Lack of concern about the child, uncertainties, contradictions, aggressiveness on the part of the adults around is a favourable prerequisite for him to become a generally single person during his lifetime. The state of loneliness is associated with negative effects like depression, anxiety, dissatisfaction, unhappiness and sometimes serious mental suffering. Keywords: solitude, social isolation, emotional loneliness, chronic loneliness, social exclusion and socal marginalization

The concept of loneliness has attracted the attention of social sciences for more than two decades, and several approaches have been proposed in an effort to understand its nature. The operational definition of loneliness would be the derogatory report of the quantity and quality of real interpersonal relationships and those

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lisolement motionnel ou au niveau du rseau social, ce qui conduit lisolement social. Lisolement social est le rsultat dune intgration non adquate dans le rseau social, cest- dire ne pas tre partie intgre et importante dun systme social cohsif. Lisolement chronique est la suite de linhabilet dinteraction et de comunication sociale dont lorigine est situe par nombreux psychologues dans les dficites daffectivit et dans le type dattachement de lenfance. Le manque dintert envers lenfant, les incertitudes, les contradictions, lagressivit de la part des adults de lentourage, ce sont des facteurs qui favorisent quune personne devienne isole au cours de sa vie. Ltat disolement est associ aux effets ngatifs tel la dpression, lanxit, linsatisfaction, le malheur, la timidit et, parfois, la souffrance psychique grave. Mots cl : solitude, isolement social, isolement motionnel, isolement chronique, exclusion et marginalisation sociale

Mai mult de dou decenii, conceptul de singurtate a atras atenia tiinelor sociale i au fost propuse mai multe variante de abordare n efortul de a-i nelege natura. Singurtatea s-ar defini operaional ca raportul defavorabil dintre cantitatea i calitatea relaiilor interpersonale reale i cele dorite de individul respectiv (A. Neculau, 2003). Putem vorbi de singurtate atunci cnd numrul interaciunilor sistematice cu ceilali este prea mic i/sau nu ndeajuns de profund i consistent n comparaie cu aspiraiile. Starea de singurtate este asociat cu efecte negative precum depresie, anxietate, insatisfacie, nefericire, timiditate i, uneori, grav suferin psihic. Perplau i Perlman (1982) au oferit o multitudine de definiii ale singurtii; una dintre definiii se refer la singurtate ca la experiena neplcut care apare n momentul constatrii unor deficiene n reeaua social, fie din punct de vedere cantitativ, fie calitativ: singurtatea se refer la experiena de izolare i la sentimentele de deprivare n relaiile cu ceilali, ceea ce coincide cu deficiene calitative sau cantitative n propria reea interpersonal. Aceiai autori au identificat, n acelai timp, trei asumpii comune pentru cele mai multe dintre definiiile oferite. n primul rnd, singurtatea este rezultatul percepiei deficienelor n propriul mediu social; n al doilea rnd, singurtatea este o stare subiectiv experimentat de individ i nu neaprat un aspect obiectiv care s interfereze cu mediul social al acestuia; n al treilea rnd, aceast experien este, cel mai frecvent, neplcut i productoare de stres. Aceste trei asumpii sunt considerate constructe de baz i de perspectivele contemporane asupra singurtii. innd cont de aceast conceptualizare, singurtatea apare n momentul unei discrepane ntre nivelul de contact social de care are nevoie o persoan i gradul actual n care reuete s i

desired by the individual concerned (A. Neculau, 2003). We can talk about loneliness when the systematic interaction with others is too small and / or not deep enough and consistent compared with ones aspirations. The state of loneliness is associated with negative effects like depression, anxiety, dissatisfaction, unhappiness, diffidence and sometimes serious mental suffering. Perplau and Perlman (1982) offered a multitude of definitions of loneliness; a definition of loneliness refers to it as to an unpleasant experience that occurs when one finds deficiencies in his social network, either in quantitative or qualitative way, solitude refers to the experience of isolation and feelings of deprivation in relationships with others, which coincide with quantitative or qualitative deficiencies in their interpersonal network. The same authors have identified at the same time, three assumptions which are common to most definitions offered. First, solitude is the result of perceiving deficiencies in ones own social environment; secondly, solitude is a condition experienced by the subjective individual and not necessarily an objective issue that interferes with his social environment; thirdly, this experience is, most frequently, unpleasant and stress-producing. These three assumptions are considered to be basic constructs by contemporary perspectives on loneliness. Bearing in mind this concepts, solitude occurs when there is a discrepancy between the level of social contact that a person needs and the actual degree to which one manages to satisfy his need for it. The deficit could refer to the intimate relationship of the person, leading to emotional solitude or solitude in the social network, thus leading to social loneliness. Any effort to avoid loneliness failed and will fail, because it is against the fundamental laws of life. Psychological reality can not establish a direct connection between being alone and feeling alone, so that we can experience the paradoxical situation of being alone and not feeling alone. Solitude can be of many types, but feeling alone does not necessarily mean being alone. Although isolation and solitude have similar meanings, they are words that describe very different situations. We love solitude, but we detest loneliness. Solitude is, in most cases, a choice. The word solitude does not have the same meaning a wound, an emptiness to be filled. Solitude is simply fulfillment. Solitude is, rather, a consequence. In order to find themselves, some people find their own path in isolation. For others, it can be a form of avoidance of social contacts. There are those for whom solitude is a form of escaping their own person, eluding the Ego that practically makes them invisible as souls.

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satisfac aceast nevoie. Deficitul ar putea fi n ceea ce privete relaiile intime ale persoanei, ceea ce duce la singurtatea emoional, sau la nivelul reelei sociale, ceea ce duce la singurtate social. Orice efort de evitare a singurtii eueaz i va eua, deoarece este mpotriva legilor fundamentale ale vieii. Realitatea psihologic nu poate stabili o legatur direct ntre a fi singur i a te simi singur, astfel c putem experimenta situaia paradoxal de a fi singuri i a nu ne simi singuri. Solitudinea este de multe feluri, dar a fi solitar nu nseamn neaprat a fi singur. Dei solitudinea i singurtatea au nelesuri similare, ele sunt cuvinte care descriu situaii foarte diferite. Iubim solitudinea, dar detestm singurtatea. Solitudinea este, n cele mai multe cazuri, o alegere. Cuvntul solitudine nu are acelai sens de ran, de gol care trebuie umplut. Solitudine nseamn pur i simplu mplinire. Singurtatea este, mai degrab, o consecin. n nevoia de a se descoperi pe ei nii, unii oameni se exileaz n solitudine. Pentru alii, poate fi o form de evitare a contactelor sociale. Mai sunt i aceia pentru care solitudinea este o form de evadare din propria persoan, o eludare a Eu-ului care i face, practic, invizibili sufletete. Solitudinea cristalizeaz gndurile, cur prioritile de noroiul preteniilor pe care le crm n saci de vinovie. Solitudinea poate fi o form de purificare. Solitudinea este starea spiritual n care ne natem, acea stare natural i adevrat. Cu timpul o uitm, ne maturizm i ne devine din ce n ce mai strin. Uneori, o regsim, dar acum ne speriem, cci am devenit strini fa de ea (Mircea Eliade). Solitude crystallizes thoughts, it cleans the priorities of the muddy pretentions we carry in sacks of guilt. Solitude can be a form of purification. Solitude is the spiritual state of our birth, that natural and real state. Over time we forget about it, we became more mature and it becomes increasingly foreign to us. Sometimes, we find it again but now it frightens us, because we have become strangers to its meanings (Mircea Eliade).

Factors that influence loneliness


The primary purpose of the researches was to identify the causes and consequences of loneliness, two categories of causes being identified: individual factors, which refer to the person, aspects of personality and social factors, which refer to the individual social environment, family and friends and hereditary factors. Ira Levin and Joseph Strokes (1986) have investigated the relationship between different individual variables, such as extraversion, depression, self-esteem, neurotic behaviour and attitude towards others, and loneliness. The results of their study suggests that individual differences are mediated by social networks, all of these variables could influence the motivation or ability to keep social relationships. According to a study conducted by researchers from Chicago University and the Free University in Amsterdam, heredity could determine why some adults are alone for long periods of time. They found that 50% of identical twins and 24% of the dizygotic twins share the same features of loneliness. The study on twins is an effective method to analyze the impact of heredity over the evolution of a person because of similarities between them. One of the interesting findings of this study is that the feeling of loneliness may reflect an innate emotional response to a stimulus on which an individual has no or very little control, researchers say. Until now, psychologists have thought that solitude was caused by shyness, poor communication skills and inability to create strong links with other people. Lately, however, scientists have become increasingly more interested in the role solitude plays in human health. Another study, conducted by John Cacioppo, from the Chicago University, has shown that solitude is a risk factor for cardiac conditions, and, in addition, it affects self-respect, mental status, anxiety, anger and sociability. That solitude can be inherited has been shown in previous studies on children, but the study conducted by the Dutch and Americans is the first evidence that heredity continues to play an important role in loneliness and older ages.

Factori care influeneaz singurtatea


Scopul primar al cercetrilor a fost identificarea cauzelor i consecinelor singurtii, identificndu-se mai multe categorii de cauze: factorii individuali, care se refer la caracteristicile persoanei, la aspecte ce in de personalitate, factorii sociali, care se refer la caracteristicile mediului social individual, familia i prietenii, i factorii ereditari. Ira Levin i Joseph Strokes (1986) au investigat relaia dintre diferite variabile individuale, precum extraversie, depresie, stim de sine, nevrozism i atitudine ctre ceilali i singurtate. Rezultatele studiului lor sugereaz c diferenele individuale sunt mediate de reelele sociale; toate aceste variabile ar putea influena motivaia sau abilitatea de a meine relaii sociale. Potrivit unui studiu realizat de ctre cercettorii de la Chicago University i de la Free University din Amsterdam, ereditatea ar putea determina de ce anumii aduli sunt singuri pentru perioade lungi de timp. Acetia au descoperit c 50% din gemenii univitelini (identici) i 24% din cei bivitelini (diferii) mprtesc aceleai trsturi ale singurtii.

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Studiul pe gemeni este o metod eficient de a analiza impactul ereditii asupra evoluiei unei persoane, datorit similitudinilor dintre acetia. Una dintre concluziile interesante ale acestui studiu este c sentimentul de singurtate ar putea reflecta un rspuns emoional nnscut la un anumit stimul asupra cruia un individ nu are control sau are foarte putin, spun cercettorii. Pn n prezent, psihologii au crezut c singurtatea era cauzat de timidate, abiliti de comunicare precare sau de inabilitatea de a crea legturi solide cu ali oameni. n ultimul timp ns, oamenii de tiin au devenit din ce n ce mai interesai de rolul pe care l joac singurtatea n sntatea oamenilor. Un alt studiu, realizat de ctre John Cacioppo, de la Chicago University, a demonstrat c singurtatea este un factor de risc pentru afeciunile cardiace; n plus, aceasta afecteaz respectul de sine, starea psihic, anxietatea, furia i sociabilitatea. Faptul c singurtatea poate fi motenit a fost demonstrat n studii anterioare pe copii, dar studiul realizat de ctre olandezi i americani este primul care dovedete c ereditatea continu s joace un rol important n singurtate i la vrste naintate. Cercettorii sunt de prere c singurtatea a aprut la nceputurile evoluiei umane, cnd, din cauza lipsei hranei, vntorii i n general cei ce se ocupau de acest aspect, hotrau s nu mai mpart mncarea cu familiile lor. Astfel, acetia reueau s supravieuiasc perioadelor de foamete, dar reversul medaliei era dezvoltarea strilor de anxietate, ostilitate i negativism. Singurtatea cronic rezult din inabilitatea de interaciune i comunicare social, a crei cauz este plasat de muli psihologi n deficitele de afectivitate i de stil de ataament din copilrie. Lipsa de preocupare fa de copil, incertitudinile, contradiciile, agresivitatea din partea adulilor din preajm constituie premise favorabile pentru ca el s devin o persoan n general singuratic pe parcursul vieii. Fenomenul de singurtate apare i se perpetueaz, ntruct, cel mai adesea, survine o circularitate cauzal negativ; copilul, i apoi tnrul, fie excesiv de prudent, retras, ori, dimpotriv, agresiv, face ca ceilali s l resping, respingere care, la rndul ei, accentueaz reinerea i nencrederea n persoanele ntlnite, care i-ar putea deveni eventual prieteni sau camarazi. Dificultatea de a lega prietenii are, foarte probabil, i alte cauze dect experienele din copilrie; presupunem c ar avea i o component genetic. Studiind succesele i insuccesesle n stabilirea de relaii interpersonale ale unor studeni timp de mai multe luni, Langston i Cantor (1989) au constatat faptul c cei care s-au bucurat de succes au perceput contextele i obligaiile interpersonale sensibil diferit fa de cei fr succes i au dezvoltat strategii interacionale diferite. Mai precis, cei mai puin abili n a Researchers declared that solitude appeared at the beginning of human evolution, when, due to lack of food, hunters and those dealing with this issue, decided to no longer share food with their families. Thus, they managed to survive periods of famine, but the reverse of the medal was developing states of anxiety, hostility and negativism. Chronic solitude results from the inability to socially interact and communicate, whose cause is considered to be, by many psychologists, emotional deficiency and the style of attachment in childhood. Lack of concern about the child, uncertainties, contradictions, aggressiveness shown by the adults are good premises for him to become a lonely person during his entire life. The phenomenon of loneliness appears and perpetuates because, most often, there occurs vicious circle of negative causes; the child, and then the youngster, whether he is overly cautious, withdrawn, or, on the contrary, aggressive, makes others reject him; the rejection strengthens his distrust in other persons, who could have eventually become his friends or partners. The difficulty of making friends is very likely to have other causes than childhood experiences; we suppose it also has a genetic component. Studying for several months successes and failures in establishing interpersonal relationships of students, Langston and Cantor (1989) found that those who have enjoyed success perceived contexts and interpersonal obligations noticeably different from those without success and they have developed different strategies of interaction. More specifically, the ones who were less empowered to establish relations have seen and appreciated the situation in terms of being negative and they answered in terms of social anxiety, adopting a limited and conservative behaviour, looking to avoid the risk of being rejected. That behaviour lead to a formation of unfavourable impressions. Instead, students who have proven capabilities of interaction, also saw interesting challenges in the situation and the opportunity to make new friends. Behavioural strategies were based on openness and transparency, which led to favourable reactions from others. Some aspects of the social environment have been linked in the empirical sense of loneliness, for example, people who do not often have social contacts, people who have few close friends and a little dense social network have often experienced the feeling of great loneliness. Numerous studies have shown that certain imperfect social skills lead to loneliness, of which the most important is the lack of capability to establish relations of friendship in an agreeable manner. The people who are lonely, as a rule, are isolated and tend to be efficient through reduced verbal transmission or through non-verbal signs (face and

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stabili relaii au perceput i apreciat situaia n cauz ca negativ i au rspuns n termeni de anxietate social, adoptnd strategii limitate i conservatoare, cutnd s evite riscul de a fi respini. Respectivul comportament a determinat din partea celorlali formarea de impresii nefavorabile fa de ei. Dimpotriv, studenii care au dovedit capaciti de interaciune, au vzut n situaia dat provocri interesante i prilejul de a-i face noi prieteni. Strategiile comportamentale s-au bazat pe deschidere i transparen, ceea ce a dus la reacii favorabile din partea celorlali. Cteva aspecte ce in de mediul social au fost legate n mod empiric de sentimentul de singurtate; de exemplu, persoanele care nu au frecvent contacte sociale, persoanele care au puini prieteni apropiai i o reea social puin dens au experimentat adesea sentimentul marii singurti. Studii numeroase au artat c anumite deprinderi sociale imperfecte conduc la singurtate, dintre care cea mai important este absena unei capaciti de a stabili relaii de prietenie ntr-o manier agreabil. Cei singuratici, de regul, nu au un tipar de autodezvluire, comunic puin, sunt izolai i tind s devin eficieni prin redusa transmitere verbal ori prin semne non-verbale (faa i vocea); le scade capacitatea cognitiv, sunt mai pasivi i mai puin insisteni; au un coeficient redus de ncredere n alii i, global, atitudine negativ fa de oameni, corelat cu un concept inadecvat privind prietenia, nerealiznd c starea de bine la care aspir individul presupune obligaii i loialitate. Dei studiile au identificat fenomenul singurtii n toate societile, intensitatea lui difer n funcie de cultur. Sociologii au asociat diferenele naionale n ceea ce privete singurtatea cu diferenele de integrare social, operaionalizat n numrul de persoane care aparin reelelor lor sociale, implicarea n organizaii civice i activitile de voluntariat care s ofere suport social. Oamenii se simt singuri, unii percep singurtatea n condiii i ocazii speciale, dar o recepteaz diferit dac ne raportm la sex, vrst, nivel cultural i material. Femeile se simt singure n proporie mai mare dect brbaii, ele au o nevoie mai stringent de a vorbi, de a comunica, de a avea prieteni. Persoanele care au depit 50-60 de ani i destul de muli tineri ntre 15 i 24 de ani se simt singuri. La fel, ntr-o proporie semnificativ, un studiu din Marea Britanie gsete c persoanele vduve i divorate se simt singure. Singurtatea este resimit cnd oamenii se mbolnvesc, atunci cnd sunt ntr-o societate cu strinii, dup moartea unei rude sau a unui prieten apropiat, de srbtorile Crciunului sau de revelion. Pentru a depi" singurtatea, dorind s reia comunicarea, studiile arat c cei mai muli oameni singuri se duc s stea de vorb cu un prieten ori un vecin (mai ales cei tineri), se duc la plimbare, cei mai n vrst prefer s se uite la televizor ori s citeasc, femeile ncep s se ocupe de hobby-urile lor, brbaii prefer s mearg la restaurant sau la cafenea. Tinerii voice), they have a decrease in their cognitive ability, they are more passive and less persistent, have a low coefficient of trust in others and, overall, a negative attitude towards people related to an inadequate concept of friendship, not realizing that their state of individual wealth to which one aspires also implies obligations and loyalty. Although studies have identified the loneliness phenomenon in all societies, its intensity varies across cultures. Sociologists have associated national differences in terms of solitude with differences of social integration, operationalising the number of people who belong to their social networks, their involvement in civic organizations and volunteer activities that provide social support. People feel alone, some perceive the loneliness under special occasions, but most people experience loneliness in different ways, if we relate to sex, age, material and cultural level. Women feel themselves lonely in a greater proportion than men, they have an urgent need to speak, to communicate, to have friends. People who have exceeded 50-60 years and quite a lot of young people between 15-24 years are feeling alone. Similarly, a study in Britain found in a significant proportion that those widowed and divorced feel alone. Loneliness is felt when people get sick when they are in a society with strangers, after the death of a relative or a close friend or during Christmas and New Years Eve. In order to beat loneliness, wishing to resume communication, studies show that most people go by themselves to talk with a friend or a neighbour (especially the young ones do that), go for a walk, while the elderly people prefer to watch television or read, women begin to deal with their hobbies, men prefer to go to a restaurant or cafe. Young people who feel alone are sad, depressed, experience anxiety, are irritable, intense, with an impairment of internal censorship, with low self esteem and they become hostile towards the group. Unlike the young ones, elderly people learned to be alone, especially if they have a high cultural level, they engage in various activities, find their occupations, watch television, read or engage in artistic activities. People experience solitude in different ways and feel it differently, depending on their level of need for social attachment. How well do people tolerate solitude? Bachelors appear as messengers of the new values that govern personal life.

Loneliness and social networks


Loneliness occurs as a result of unfulfilled specific human needs. Weiss (1975) has developed the idea of the two types of loneliness and because this theory suggests that solitude

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care se simt singuri sunt triti, depresivi, anxioi, suprcioi, emotivi, cu cenzur intern sever, cu autoaprecieri sczute, devin ostili fa de grup. Spre deosebire de tineri, oamenii n vrst au nvat s fie singuri, mai ales dac au un nivel cultural ridicat; ei se angajeaz n diverse activiti: i gsesc ocupaii, se uit la televizor, citesc ori se implic n activiti artistice. Oamenii experimenteaz singurtatea n diferite moduri i o resimt diferit, n funcie de nivelul nevoilor lor pentru intimitate social i ataament. Ct de bine suport oamenii singurtatea? Celibatarii apar drept mesageri ai noilor valori care guverneaz viaa personal. appears as a result of relational deficits, we suggest the default view that relationships provide some supplies. The first nurturing aspect social relations is security, subdivided into attachment, nurturing emotion and emotional guidance. The need for attachment is satisfied in romantic relationships or in a close friendship relation. Providing emotional nurture arises in the situation when the adult person assumes responsibility for the childs needs and becomes committed to meet them, being aware that there is a need for it. Being guided or assisted by a significant person or one whom you trust is a security problem and it is also a reminiscence of the parent-child relationship. The second aspect of wholesome relations refers to affiliation, whose absence leads to social loneliness. The taxonomy of Weiss talks about social integration, the amount of reinsurance, and the feeling of a trustworthy alliance. Social integration is based on a shared network in which individuals share information and experiences and could change the relationship. Reinsuring the value is focused on an individuals competence in a social role and is typical of labour relations. The feeling of an alliance of trust is given by combating feelings of vulnerability and abandonment. If the need for security is not satisfied, emotional loneliness appears, lack of opportunities for receiving nurturing behaviour induces feelings of existential unimportance, and the lack of guidance and assistance leads to feelings of uncertainty and anxiety. Regarding the category of affiliation needs, their dissatisfaction leads to social loneliness, in some particular cases leading to the absence of integration into a social network. Differences between adults and children in terms of attachment. Researchers have demonstrated that attachment, as part of the human psyche, does not disappear at the adult age, but rather changes (apud Hazan and Shaver, 1994). The expression of childhood attachment is seen at adult age, while racing for some romantic attachment. Weiss (1982) argued that the ability to feel emotional lonely has been selected by evolution because it introduces pressure to seek more than a sexual partner, namely to seek a partner at an emotional level. But despite the similarities between the attachment of childhood and the one at the adult age, there are still some notable differences. The relationships of childhood attachment are nutritious and complementary. Enabling attachment to cause the activation of the child care from parents, so the parent secures, but does not receive care. Adult relationships are more mutual, and ensure each partner receives care, so the care and attachment are integrated into a more dynamic way. To investigate this phenomenon, it

Singurtatea i reelele sociale


Singurtatea apare ca rezultat al nemplinirii nevoilor specific umane. Weiss (1975) a elaborat ideea celor dou tipuri de singurtate i, datorit faptului c aceast teorie sugereaz c singurtatea apare ca urmare a deficitelor relaionale, se sugereaz implicit ideea conform creia relaiile asigur anumite provizii. Primul aspect hrnitor al relaiilor sociale este securitatea, subdivizat n ataament, hrnire emoional i cluzire emoional. Nevoia de ataament este satisfcut n relaiile romantice sau n relaiile de prietenie strns. Asigurarea hranei emoionale apare n situaia n care adultul i asum responsabilitatea pentru nevoile copilului i se angajeaz s le satisfac, contientiznd c este nevoie de el. A fi cluzit sau asistat de o persoan semnificativ sau de ncredere este o problem de securitate i este, de asemenea, o reminiscen a relaiei printe-copil. Cel de-al doilea aspect hrnitor al relaiilor se refer la afiliere, a crei absen duce la singurtate social. Taxonomia lui Weiss vorbete despre integrare social, reasigurarea valorii i sentimentul unei aliane demne de ncredere. Integrarea social este bazat pe o reea comun n care indivizii mprtesc informaii i experiene i ar putea schimba relaii. Reasigurarea valorii este focalizat pe competena individual ntr-un rol social i este caracteristic unei relaii de munc. Sentimentul unei aliane de ncredere este dat de combaterea sentimentelor de vulnerabilitate i abandon. Dac nu este satisfcut nevoia de securitate apare singurtatea emoional; lipsa oportunitilor de comportament hrnitor induce sentimente de neimportan existenial, iar lipsa ghidrii i asistrii duce la apariia sentimentelor de nesiguran i anxietate. n ceea ce privete categoria nevoilor de afiliere, nesatisfacerea lor duce la singurtate social, n mod particular n absena integrrii ntr-o reea social.

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Diferene ntre aduli i copii n ceea ce privete ataamentul. Cercettorii au demonstrat c ataamentul, ca i component a psihicului uman, nu dispare la vrsta adult, dar se schimb (apud Hazan i Shaver, 1994). Expresia ataamentului din copilrie se observ la vrsta adult, n cursa pentru ataamentul romantic. Weiss (1982) a argumentat c abilitatea de a simi singurtatea emoional a fost selectat de evoluie pentru c introduce presiunea de a cuta mai mult dect un partener sexual, i anume de a cuta i un partener emoional. Dar, n ciuda similaritilor dintre ataamentul din copilrie i cel de la vrsta adult, exist i diferene notabile. Relaiile de ataament din copilrie sunt hrnitoare i complementare. Activarea ataamentului la copil suscit activarea sistemului de ngrijire din partea printelui, astfel nct printele asigur, dar nu primete ngrijire. Relaiile adulilor sunt mult mai reciproce, fiecare partener asigur i primete ngrijire, astfel nct sistemele de ngrijire i de ataament sunt integrate ntr-o modalitate mult mai dinamic. Pentru a investiga acest fenomen a fost necesar operaionalizarea conceptelor de reea social i integrare. n timp ce psihologia se concentreaz asupra individului i sociologia are n vedere grupul, analiza reelei sociale se refer mai ales la structura relaiilor dintre membrii individuali ai unui grup social. Unitatea de analiz nu este nici individul, nici grupul, ci legturile dintre indivizii care formeaz grupul, cu att mai mult cu ct pattern-ul acestor legturi este cel care ofer structura social. n analiza reelelor sociale se disting, la nivel de pionerat, Kurt Lewin, Jacob Moreno i Fritz Heider. Avnd insight-ul c un pattern de relaionare are propriile caracteristici, Moreno investigheaz pattern-ul relaiilor dintre oameni i inventeaz metoda de a-l reprezenta grafic prin sociogram. Analiza reelei sociale opereaz cu msurtori efectuate la patru nivele. Datele care provin dintr-o reea social posed dou proprieti: numerice i de direcie. Aspectele numerice pot fi dihotomice (numite i binare), avnd posibilitatea de a indica prezena sau absena unei relaii, sau valorice, prin care relaiile pot fi cuantificate. Legturile valorice comune se refer, printre altele, la fora prieteniei i gradul de ncredere. Aspectele care in de direcie se refer la a primi i a oferi valori precum prietenia sau puterea interpersonal. Prin identificarea emitorului i receptorului legtura capt o direcie, altfel spunem despre legtur c este nedirecionat, aspect foarte frecvent n relaiile care nu au un curs bine stabilit. Ali indicatori pe care i ofer analiza reelei sociale sunt gradul centralitii, definit ca numr al relaiilor directe pe care o persoan le are, gradul de apropiere, care ia n considerare ntreaga reea i se refer la msurarea distanei, care acord importan numrului de legturi intermediare necesare pentru a stabili o conexiune ntre ego i un alt membru al reelei. was necessary to define operatively the concepts of social network and integration. While the focus of Psychology is the individual and that of Sociology is the group, social network analysis refers particularly to the structure of relationships between individual members of a social group. The unit of analysis is not any individual or group, but the links between the individuals who form the group, which is even more important as the pattern of these connections is the one that offers the social structure. In analyzing social networks, one can distinguish several pioneers, like Kurt Lewin, Jacob Moreno and Fritz Heider. Having the insight that a pattern of relationships has its own characteristics, Moreno investigates relationships between people and creates an original method the sociogram. Social network analysis runs with measurements made at four levels. The data coming from a social network owns two properties: numerical and direction. Numerical issues can be dichotomy (known as binary) and having the opportunity to indicate the presence or absence of a relationship, or value, through which relationships can be quantified. The shared value connections refer, among other things, to the strength of friendship and trust. Aspects of direction are about receiving and providing values such as friendship or interpersonal power. By identifying the transmitter and the receiver, the connection receives a direction, otherwise we say about the connection that it is not directed, which happens very frequently in relationships that do not have a well established course. Other indicators that social network analysis gives are the degree of being close to the centre of the social network, defined as the number of direct relationships that a person has, a persons degree of approximation, which takes into account the entire network and refers to measuring the distance, considering the significant number of intermediate links necessary to establish a connection between an ego and another member of the network. General characteristics of social networks and concepts with which the network analysis operates, can be grouped into two: those that refer to the interaction and those that referring to structure. In terms of interactions between the network units, we have: 1. Multiplicity of the actor, and of the network, which refers to the proportion to which there are more types of relationships between the same actors (multiplex), and between all members of the network. We therefore refer to the frequency of contacts in a relationship, but that same person may have several types of relationships: the emotionality, the exchange of goods, family relations etc. 2. Relational content: relationships and transaction negotiation, communication, proximity,

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Caracteristicile generale ale reelelor sociale, precum i conceptele cu care opereaz analiza de reea pot fi grupate n dou: cele ce se refer la interaciune i cele ce in de structur. n ce privete interaciunile dintre unitile reelei, avem: 1. multiplicitatea actorului, respectiv a reelei, care se refer la proporia n care exist mai multe tipuri de relaii ntre aceiai actori (multiplex), respectiv ntre toi membrii reelei. Nu ne referim deci la frecvena contactelor ntr-o relaie, ci la faptul c aceleai persoane pot stabili mai multe tipuri de relaii: de afectivitate, de schimb de bunuri, de rudenie etc.; 2. coninutul relaional: relaii de tranzacie i negociere, comunicaionale, de proximitate, instrumentale, afectiv-emoionale sau sentimentale, relaii de putere (un caz al acestora fiind relaiile de nrudire i descenden); 3. forma relaional, care se refer la sensul relaiei dintre doi actori, precum i la intensitatea (tria) legturii dintre acetia. Multe relaii sunt inegale; asimetria n relaiile tranzacionale dintre actori constituie un indicator al diferenelor de statut i putere dintre ei, la nivel formal sau informal. ntr-o diad marital de pild, n care unul dintre parteneri d mai mult celuilalt i primete mai puin, sunt n joc mai muli factori explicativi; cert este c, la scar statistic, n societile moderne deschise, alturi de statutul economic-social al celor doi, un rol important l are valoarea (puterea) pe piaa erotic i marital. Prietenia autentic este un exemplu elocvent de schimb echitabil de afectivitate i preuire; ea are ca suport simetria n valorizarea reciproc. Intensitatea relaiei poate fi operaionalizat prin frecvena cu care apare o interaciune, precum i durata acesteia, reprezentnd indicatori importani ai naturii i calitii relaiei. (Evident, interpretarea acestora nu se va face n mod mecanic.) n studiul singurtii i al integrrii sociale nu este suficient s cuantificm gradul n care individul face parte dintr-un grup, ci trebuie s acordm o atenie deosebit naturii grupului. De asemenea, densitatea grupului, definit ca numrul de relaii prezente ntre membrii fa de numrul relaiilor posibile, d indicii despre sentimentul de integrare; astfel, densiti mari asigur un sens al comunitii, un sentiment de apartenen la grup. Strokes (1985) raporteaz o relaie semnificativ ntre extraversie i singurtate, sugernd c extraverii se simt mai puin singuri pentru c ei aparin unor reele sociale mai mari i mai dense de prieteni. Acelai autor teoretizeaz o relaie slab, nesemnificativ statistic, ntre numrul de prieteni fa de care ne simim apropiai i singurtate, sugernd c singurtatea nu se rezum la a avea puini prieteni, ci se refer mai ales la structura relaiilor de prietenie. Autorii au ajuns chiar la concluzia c oamenii singuri instrumental, emotional-emotional or sentimental, relations of power (a case of them being kinship relationships and family background). 3. Relational form, which refers to the meaning of the relationship between the two actors, including the intensity (strength) of the link between them. Many relationships are unequal; asymmetry in the transaction relations between actors is an indicator of differences in status and power of them, at a formal or an informal level. In a marital pair for example, where one of the partners gives more than the other and receives less, there are more explanatory factors; it is certain that, on a statistic scale, in the open modern society, along with the social-economic status of the two, an important role goes to the value (power) one has on the erotic and marital market. Friendship is a genuine example of fair exchange of emotionality and pricing, it has the support on symmetry mutual valorisation. The intensity of relationship can be described in terms of the frequency with which interactions occur, as well as its duration, representing an important indicator of the nature and quality of the relationship (obviously, their interpretation will not be made mechanically). In the study of loneliness and social integration, it is not enough to quantify the degree to which the individual belongs to a group, but we must pay special attention to the nature of the group. Moreover, the density of the group, defined as the number of relationships between members in reference to the total number of possible relationships, gives clues about the feeling of integration, so that a high density ensures a sense of community, a sense of belonging to the group. Strokes (1985) reported a significant relationship between loneliness and extraversion, suggesting that extravert individuals feel less alone because they belong to a larger and much more dense social network. The same author describes a relatively low, statistically insignificant relation between the number of friends to which we feel close, and loneliness, suggesting that loneliness is not about having few friends, but about the structure of the friendship relations. The authors have even come to the conclusion that people themselves are very dissatisfied and unhappy with their social relationships and to force them to interact with others will not change things in any way.

Types of loneliness
Jeffrey Young (1981) differentiates three types of loneliness: a transient loneliness that lasts a few minutes or hours, which probably is not serious;

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sunt foarte nemulumii i nefericii cu relaiile lor sociale i a i fora s interacioneze cu ceilali nu va schimba n niciun fel lucrurile. a situational loneliness, caused by a specific event (divorce, death of a loved person or moving to another geographical area) and it may take up to one year; a chronic loneliness, specific to people with difficulties in making contacts and establishing social intimacy, with a duration of more than two years.

Tipuri de singurtate
Jeffrey Young (1981) difereniaz trei tipuri de singurtate: o singurtate tranzitorie care dureaz cteva minute sau ore i care, probabil, nu este serioas; o singurtate situaional, cauzat de un eveniment specific (divor, decesul persoanei iubite, mutarea ntr-o alt zon geografic) i care poate dura pn la un an; o singurtate cronic, specific persoanelor cu dificulti n realizarea contactelor sociale i stabilirea relaiilor intime, cu o durat de peste doi ani. Tipul de singurtate despre care cei mai muli oameni vorbesc, prin raportare la propria experien, este singurtatea emoional, caracterizat de absena unei legturi strnse, afective cu o alt persoan. n cazul adulilor, aceast legtur ia, de cele mai multe ori, forma unui ataament romantic, fr a se exclude posibilitatea unei prietenii apropiate. Ulterior, Weiss (apud Russell, D., Cutrona, C.E., Rose, J., & Yurko, K. 1984) face meniunea c prietenia ajunge foarte rar s primeasc statutul de relaie de ataament. Singurtatea emoional se ntemeiaz pe credina c sinele nu merit dragostea i atenia altcuiva sau, dimpotriv, pe credina c ceilali nu sunt capabili de suport emoional. R. Weiss (apud Russell, D., Cutrona, C.E., Rose, J., & Yurko, K. 1984) vorbete, pe lng singurtate emoional, i de singurtatea social, definit ca lipsa integrrii ntr-o reea social i caracterizat de sentimentul de neapartenen la un grup social important. Weiss pleac de la asumpia c singurtatea nu este rezultatul unei distorsiuni n percepia social sau al unor nevoi exagerate de companie.

The type of loneliness that most people speak about, in reference to their own experience, is emotional loneliness, characterized by the absence of a close link with another person. In the case of adults, it mostly takes the form of a romantic attachment, without excluding the possibility of close friends. Later on, Weiss (apud Russell, D., Cutrona, CE, Rose, J., & Yurko, K. 1984) mentions that friendship rarely gets to receive the status of the attachment relationship. Emotional loneliness is based on the belief that ones self does not deserve love and attention from someone else, or, on the contrary, on the belief that others are not capable of giving emotional support. R. Weiss (apud Russell, D., Cutrona, CE, Rose, J., & Yurko, K. 1984) talks about social loneliness, different from emotional loneliness, and which he defined as a lack of integration into a network characterized by the feeling of not belonging to an important social group. Weiss starts from the assumption that loneliness is not the result of distortions in perception of social needs or of an exaggerated need for company.

Emotional loneliness
Russel (1984) defined emotional loneliness as: that kind of loneliness where one lacks intense and lengthy relationships with another person, although most often this relationship is a romantic one, it can be any one-on-one relationship that can give feelings of affection and security. Emotional loneliness indicates the lack of intimacy with close friends and it has no connection with the number of friendships. Quaker and Munn (2002) showed that some individuals may be socially isolated without feeling alone, while other individuals may feel alone without being socially isolated. Emotional loneliness refers to the emotional state of feeling isolated. The theory which stipulates that the absence of a connection attachment produces a specific type of loneliness, proposed by Robert Weiss in 1973, was new and avant-garde. Making a connection with another theory, which claims that people have a fundamental need for attachment, one arrived at another level of research on the link between attachment and loneliness. Attachment theory is launched in 1944 by John Bowlbys study on childrens relationships with their keepers, through which it has been found that

Singurtatea emoional
Russel (1984) definea singurtatea emoional ca acel tip de singurtate n care lipsete relaia intens i de durat cu o alt persoan; dei cel mai frecvent aceast relaie este de tip romantic, ea poate fi orice relaie unu-la-unu care s ofere sentimente de afeciune i securitate. Singurtatea emoional indic lipsa intimitii cu prieteni apropiai i nu are nicio legatur cu numrul de prieteni. Quaker i Munn (2002) au demonstrat c unii indivizii pot fi social izolai fr s se simt singuri, n timp ce ali indivizi se pot simi singuri fr a fi social izolai.

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Singurtatea emoional se refer la starea emoional de a se simi izolat. Teoria care stipuleaz ideea c absena unei legturi de ataament produce un anume tip de singurtate, propus de Robert Weiss n 1973, a fost nou i avantgardist. Fcnd o conexiune cu o alt teorie, care susine c oamenii au o nevoie fundamental de ataament, s-a ajuns la un alt nivel al cercetrilor asupra legturii dintre ataament i singurtate. Teoria ataamentului debuteaz n 1944 prin studiul lui John Bowlby privind relaiile copiilor cu ngrijitorii lor, n urma cruia s-au gsit corelaii ntre separarea de mam i delincvena juvenil. Ulterior autorul demonstreaz c separarea de mam coreleaz i cu riscul unei boli fizice sau psihice n copilrie. Bowlby (1969) demonstreaz c dezvoltarea sistemului de ataament se bazeaz pe trei propoziii; prima copii care sunt ncreztori n persoanele de ataament experimenteaz o fric mai puin cronic dect cele care sunt nesigure n raport cu persoan de ataament. A doua propoziie ateptrile privind figurile de ataament sunt produsul numeroaselor experiene repetate n perioada sensibil a copilriei. Aceste ateptri persist pe parcursul ntregii viei. A treia propoziie expectaiile reflect n mod corect experiena actual cu persoana de ataament. Aceste ateptri sunt elaborate ntr-un sistem mental de reprezentri comprehensive (att ale altor persoane, ct i ale sinelui), numit model intern de lucru. Tipuri diferite de modele interne de lucru produc pattern-uri predictibile de comportament, numite stiluri de ataament (securizant, anxios sau ambivalent i evitant). Tipul de model intern pe care fiecare l posed influeneaz gradul n care individul este capabil s stabileasc relaii intime i apropiere emoional i influeneaz n aceeai msur gradul n care individul experimenteaz singurtatea. Modelul celor trei tipuri de ataament se bazeaz pe dou dimensiuni ortogonale: evitarea intimitii i anxietatea de abandon. Studiind reaciile copiilor la situaii stranii, Main i Solomon (1990) au identificat i o alt categorie, i anume ataamentul dezorganizat sau dezorientat, caracterizat de absena unei strategii coerente pentru managementul anxietii. Bartholomew i Horowitz (1991) au teoretizat c stilul de ataament al adultului este cel dezorganizat i l-au numit ataament temtor. Una dintre caracteristicile acestui tip de ataament este frica de respingere, care duce la evitarea relaiilor apropiate i are rdcini adnci n sentimentul de insecuritate personal i al nencrederii n ceilali. n ceea ce privete modelele de ataament ale adulilor, ataamentul securizant i pstreaz numele, pe cnd ataamentul evitant din copilrie corespunde stilului de refuz, iar ataamentului ambivalent i corespunde stilul preocupat. Ataamentul din copilrie se exprim cel mai bine n viaa adultului n cutarea ataamentului romantic. Cum spuneam, Weiss (1982) argumenta c aceast capacitate de a there is a correlation between the separation from ones mother and juvenile delinquency. Subsequently, the author demonstrates that separation from ones mother also correlated with the risk of physical or mental illness in childhood. Bowlby (1969) demonstrates that the development of the attachment is based on three sentences, first children who are confident and trust the people to whom they are emotionally attached experience less chronic fear than those who are insecure in relation to the attachment persons. The second sentence the expectations from the people to whom they are emotionally attached are the product of numerous experiences repeated during the sensitive period in childhood. These expectations persist throughout life. The third sentence expectations properly reflect the current experience with the attachment person. These expectations are developed in a comprehensive mental representation (the representation of other people as well as the representation of the self), called internal working model. Different types of internal working models produce predictable patterns of behaviour, called attachment styles (secure, ambivalent and anxious or avoiding). The type of internal model that we each possess influences the degree to which the individual is able to establish close relationships and emotional intimacy, and it also influences, in an equal measure, the degree to which an individual experiences solitude. The model of the three types of attachment is based on two orthogonal dimensions: avoiding intimacy and anxiety vs. abandonment. Studying the reactions children have in strange situations, Main and Solomon (1990) have identified another category, namely, unorganized or disoriented attachment, characterized by the absence of a coherent strategy for managing anxiety. Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991) also theorize that the style of adult attachment is disorganized, and they called it fearful attachment. One of the characteristics of this type of attachment is fear of rejection, which leads to avoidance of close relationships and has deep roots in the feeling of personal insecurity and distrust in others. Regarding models of adult attachment, secure attachment keeps its name, while avoiding attachment corresponds to a so called refusal style, and the ambivalent attachment corresponds to a concerned style. Childhood attachment is best expressed in adult life through his search for romantic attachment. As we said, Weiss (1982) argued that this ability to feel emotional solitude has been selected by nature and passed next generation precisely because they introduce pressure to seek a partner who satisfies not only the sexual needs but also the emotional ones. Although a small number of similarities between childhood attachment and the attachment in the adult age can be identified, the differences are more numerous. The attachment

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simi singurtatea emoional a fost selectat de natur i transmis generaiilor urmtoare tocmai datorit faptului c introduce presiunea gsirii unui partener care s nu satisfac doar nevoile sexuale, ci i pe cele emoionale. Dei se poate identifica un numr restrns de asemnri ntre ataamentul din copilrie i cel de la vrsta adult, diferenele sunt mult mai numeroase. Relaia de ataament dintre copil i persoana care l ngrijete este complementar, astfel nct activarea sistemului de ataament al copilului acioneaz ca stimul pentru activarea sistemului de ngrijire al printelui sau al persoanei de ataament. Printele asigur ngrijirea, dar nu primete acelai lucru din partea copilului. Sistemul de ataament i cel de ngrijire sunt integrate n viaa adultului ntr-o modalitate mult mai dinamic. La acest lucru se referea i R. Weiss (1974) atunci cnd vorbea despre cei trei factori care asigur securitatea social: ataamentul, care este dinamic, factorul hrnitor, cnd sinele ofer i cellalt primete, i factorul de ndrumare, cnd sinele primete i cellalt ofer. Shaver i Kazan (1994) au propus o descriere a stilurilor de ataament ale adulilor: astfel, adulii care au un model de ataament securizant au ncredere n propriile fore i au ncredere n ceilali, avnd n acelai timp mai multe relaii intime satisfctoare; adulii care au un model de ataament anxios-ambivalent consider c sunt pregtii pentru o relaie, dar simt c ceilali nu sunt aa de pregtii ca i ei. Autorii sugereaz c aceti aduli sunt dornici de autodezvluire i cel mai frecvent fac acest lucru ntr-un mod neadecvat, iar n ceea ce i privete pe adulii cu un model de ataament evitant, aceti evit relaiile intime, cel mai probabil din teama de a nu fi rnii. Relaia dintre ataament i singurtate emoional. innd cont de teoria lui Weiss, care pune la baza singurtii emoionale relaia de ataament, se pot desprinde cteva ipoteze: persoanele care i-au pierdut figurile de ataament ar trebui s experimenteze singurtatea emoional, fr a tri i singurtatea social. Printre aduli, gsirea unui partener romantic este cea mai rspndit form de ataament, cu toate c i cel mai bun prieten poate fi o figur de ataament. Deducem o alt ipotez: absena partenerului romantic sau a celui mai bun prieten ar trebui s fie predictori pentru singurtatea emoional. Weiss susine c pierderea ataamentului emoional prin dispariia persoanei de ataament poate fi remediat doar prin introducerea unui alt ataament. i, nu n ultimul rnd, prevalena singurtii emoionale ar trebui s varieze n funcie de stilul de ataament, astfel nct cei care au un stil de ataament mai nesigur sunt mai predispui experienei singurtii. Studiile ulterioare au demonstrat c un suport social puternic din partea familiei i a prietenilor nu atenueaz impactul sentimentului de singurtate emoional. relationship between the child and the person who takes care of him is complementary, thus enabling the attachment of the child to act as a stimulus for activating the care of parents or the person of attachment. The parent provides care, but doesnt get the same thing from the child. The attachment and care are integrated into adult life in a more dynamic way. R. Weiss (1974) referred to this when he talked about the three factors that ensure social security: attachment, which is dynamic, the nutritious factor, when the self offers and others gain and the guidance factor when the self gains and others offer. Shaver and Kazan (1994) have proposed a description of the attachment styles of adults, according to which adults who have a secure attachment model, trust their own strengths and trust in others, while having more satisfying intimate relationships; adults who have a model of anxious-ambivalent attachment, consider that they are ready for a relationship, but feel that others are not as ready as them. The authors suggest that these adults desire self-disclosure, and most often do so in an inappropriate manner; as for the adults with a model of avoiding attachment, they avoid intimacy, lest they should be emotionally harmed. The relationship between emotional attachment and loneliness. Taking into account Weisss theory, which stipulates that attachment relationships stand at the foundation of emotional loneliness, one can make some hypotheses: people who lost their attachment figures should experiment emotional solitude without a social life and solitude. Among adults, finding a romantic partner is the most widespread form of attachment, although, ones best friend may be a figure of attachment. We can deduct another hypothesis: the absence of a romantic partner or of a best friend should be a predictor for emotional solitude. Weiss claims that the loss of emotional attachment by the disappearance of a person to whom the individual was originally attached, can be resolved only through the apparition of another attachment. And, last but not least, the prevalence of emotional loneliness should vary depending on the style of attachment, so those who have a style of insecure attachment are more likely exposed to the experience of loneliness. Subsequent studies have shown that a strong social support from family and friends does not attenuate the impact of emotional feeling of loneliness.

Social loneliness
Social loneliness is the result of inadequate integration in the social network, it means not to be integrated and not to be an important part in a cohesive social system. Russel (1984) defines

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Revista de Psihoterapie Experienial, nr. 44, decembrie 2008 Singurtatea social


Singurtatea social este rezultatul unei integrri neadecvate n reeaua social, a nu fi parte integrat i important ntr-un sistem social coeziv. Russel (1984) definete singurtatea social ca un tip de singurtate care implic senimentul de neapartenen la un grup sau la o reea social, fie c este vorba despre un grup de prieteni care se angajeaz mpreun n diferite activiti, fie c este vorba despre un grup care ofer posibilitatea satisfacerii nevoii de apartenen prin preocupri comune, munc sau alte activiti. Singurtatea social se refer la expresia izolrii i la sentimentul deprivrii n relaiile cu ceilali, sentiment care coincide cu percepia unor deficiene n reeaua social a individului. Baumeister i Leary (1995) au avansat ipoteza apartenenei pentru a oferi o baz general care s susin cercetrile empirice ale fenomenului de afiliere. Ei argumenteaz c oamenii experimenteaz singurtatea atunci cnd sunt deprivai de integrarea social, identificnd, ca produs al evoluiei, nevoia de a aparine unui grup, care este nnscut. Pentru a ntri aceast ipotez, autorii citeaz literatura antropologic, care identific n toate culturile umane elemente sociale. Aa cum ataamentul ofer securitate copilului, tot aa ipoteza apartenenei argumenteaz c satisfacerea nevoii de alian procur securitate pentru toi membrii grupului. Weiss (1987) descrie izolarea social ca starea n care individul contientizeaz c este pe cont propriu, fr aliai, ntr-o lume plin de pericole. n principiu, opusul sentimentului de apartenen este sentimentul de a fi n mod intenionat exclus, sentiment care completeaz tabloul emoional al izolrii sociale. Gardner, Pickett i Brewer (2000) au descoperit c, dup ce au experimentat excluderea social, indivizii au demonstrat o atenie sporit n perceperea i solicitarea informaiilor sociale explicite. Un astfel de rspuns sugereaz existena unei capaciti cognitive de colectare a informaiilor necesare integrrii sociale. Leary et al. (1995) au identificat n stima de sine un indicator precoce al unei posibile excluderi sociale. Aceste observaii, att n plan cognitiv, ct i n plan afectiv, au artat c oamenii sunt sensibili la posibilitatea pierderii integrrii sociale i, dac acest lucu se ntmpl, ei sunt echipai pentru a ncepe reintegrarea. n ncercarea de operaionalizare a conceptului de integrare se disting cercetrile lui Jones (1981), care observ corelaiile pozitive dintre diversitatea interaciunilor interumane i singurtate. Cercetrile acestui autor arat c un scor sczut la diversitatea interconexiunilor nseamn multe conversaii care se repet n acelai grup de oameni, situaie care sugereaz social loneliness as a kind of loneliness that involves the feeling of not belonging to a group or a social network, whether its a group of friends who engages in various activities together, whether its a group that offers the opportunity to meet the need of affiliation with common interests, work or other activities. Social loneliness refers to the expression of isolation and the feeling of deprivation in relationships with others, feeling which coincides with the perception of deficiencies in the individuals social network. Baumeister and Leary (1995) have advanced the hypothesis of affiliation to provide a general basis to support empirical research of the phenomenon of membership. They argued that people experience loneliness when they are deprived of social integration, and identified, as a product of evolution, the need to belong to a group that is actually inborn. To strengthen this hypothesis, the authors cite anthropological literature that identifies all the social elements of human cultures. Similar to a child attachment that provides security, so does the hypothesis of belonging to the group argue that satisfying the need for alliance provides security for all members of the group. Weiss (1987) describes the status of social isolation the state in which the individual is aware of the fact that he is on his own, without allies, in a world full of dangers. The opposite feeling of belonging, the feeling of being deliberately excluded completes the picture of emotional social isolation. Gardner, Pickett and Brewer (2000) found that, after experiencing social exclusion, individuals have demonstrated an increased attention in perception and social explicit request information. Such a response suggests the existence of a cognitive capacity to collect information which is necessary to the process of social integration. Leary et al. (1995) have identified selfesteem as an early indicator of a possible social exclusion. These observations, both on the cognitive and affective level, showed that people are sensitive to the possibility of losing social integration, and if this thing happens, they are equipped to start reintegration. In the attempt to operatively define the concept of integration, one can distinguish among the research of Jones (1981), that he observed a positive correlation between diversity of human interaction and loneliness. This authors research shows that a low score on the diversity of interconnections means that many conversations are repeated in the same group of people, situation which suggests integration into a social network. In reverse, a score high on diversity means to talk to many people, but rarely more than once, which suggests a desperate need for human contact. Williams and Solano (1983) have investigated the social networks of lonely people and

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integrarea ntr-o reea social. n sens invers, un scor nalt la diversitate nseamn a vorbi cu multe persoane, dar rareori mai mult dect o dat, ceea ce sugereaz nevoia disperat de contact uman. Williams i Solano (1983) au investigat reelele sociale ale celor singuri i ale celor care nu sunt singuri, pentru a identifica posibilele diferene. Rezultatele au artat c, n ceea ce privete numrul reciproc de cei mai buni prieteni, nu exist diferene ntre cele dou grupuri. n acelai timp s-a descoperit o corelaie puternic ntre singurtate i intimitate, ceea ce sugereaz c, dei prietenii celor care experimenteaz singurtatea demonstreaz reciprocitate n relaia de prietenie n aceeai msur n care o demonstreaz i prietenii celor care nu experimenteaz singurtatea, cei care se simt singuri percep, n mod semnificativ, un grad mai redus de intimitate n acele relaii. Investignd i situaia celor mai buni prieteni declarai, cercettorii au constatat c percepia distanei emoionale are ecou i la acetia. Cnd Williams i Solano (1983) au extins rangul celor mai buni prieteni dincolo de primele trei nominalizri, lrgind scala pn la zece nominalizri, au identificat aspecte surprinztoare. Persoanele singure au demonstrat mai puine relaii reciproce dect se ateptau. Interesant este c acelai lucru s-a ntmplat i cu cei care nu se simeau singuri. Cei care s-au situat la nivelul mediei au fost cei care nu au avut diferene semnificative, la nivelul reciprocitii, fa de ateptrile declarate. Concluzionnd, persoanele care ocup extremitile au mai puini prieteni reciproci dect grupul de mijloc. Acest lucru ar putea explica rezultatele unor cercetri similare, precum cele ale lui Cutrona (1982), care nu au identificat nicio relaie ntre numrul de prieteni i singurtate. Williams i Solano (1983) au calculat i scorul de popularitate, nsumnd numrul de nominalizri ca prieten ale participantului i lund n considerare numai poziiile superioare. Corelaiile dintre acest scor al popularitii i rezulatele la scalele de singurtate au fost puternic pozitive, astfel nct cu ct o persoan se simte mai singur, cu att obine un scor mai mic la popularitate. Printre cercettorii care au investigat singurtatea s-a numrat i Russel, care a postulat faptul c numrul de prieteni nu coincide cu ideea integrrii ntr-un grup. n ciuda acestui aspect, cercettorul a descoperit c un scor compozit al reelei sociale a participantului poate prezice singurtatea social. De asemenea, satisfacia n ceea ce privete relaia de prietenie este un indicator cu valoare predictiv al acestui tip de singurtate. Weiss vorbete i despre diferenele calitative n ceea ce privete reaciile comportamentale i cele afective ale participanilor n raport cu cele dou tipuri de singurtate. those who are not lonely to identify possible differences. Results showed that, in terms of number of mutual best friends, there are no differences between the two groups. At the same time the study revealed a strong correlation between loneliness and intimacy, which suggests that although friends of those who experience loneliness demonstrate reciprocity in the relationship of friendship, in the same way that friends of those who are not experiencing loneliness show, those who fell lonely perceive significantly a lower degree of intimacy in those relationships. Investigating the situation of the best declared friends, researchers have found that the perception of emotional distance is also echoed in them. When Williams and Solano (1983) have extended the rank of the best friends beyond the first three nominations, to a large scale up to ten nominations, they identified some surprising aspects. Lonely people shown less reciprocal relationships comparing to their expectations. It is interesting that the same thing happens to the people who were not feeling alone. Those who were on the average were those who had no significant differences at the level of reciprocity, against their declared expectations. In conclusion, those who occupy the extremities have fewer reciprocal friends than the middle group. This could explain the results of similar surveys, such as those of Cutrona (1982), which did not identify any relationship between the number of friends and loneliness. Williams and Solano (1983) also calculated the score for popularity, adding up the number of nominations of the participant as a friend and taking into account only the higher positions. Correlation between the score of popularity and outcomes at scales of loneliness were strongly positive, so the more a person feels lonely the less he gets a higher score in popularity. Among researchers who have investigated loneliness as a phenomenon, Russel postulated that the number of friends does not coincide with the idea of integration in a group. Despite this issue, the social researcher found that a composite score for a participants social network can predict social loneliness. Also, satisfaction regarding the relationship of friendship is an indicator with predictive value of this kind of loneliness. Weiss talks about qualitative differences regarding behavioural and emotional reactions of the participants in relation to the two types of loneliness.

How is our live and health influenced by loneliness?


Psychology of lonely single person is very special and sometimes becomes hard to understand by others, who are people living in a couple-culture.

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Revista de Psihoterapie Experienial, nr. 44, decembrie 2008 Cum ne influeneaz singurtatea viaa i sntatea
Psihologia persoanei singure este foarte special i, uneori, devine greu de neles pentru ceilali, oamenii cu o cultur de cuplu. Graniele mentalului omului singur, fie ea femeie, fie el brbat, sunt mult mai rigide dect n situaia celorlali. Atitudinile sunt mai evidente i mai fixe, egoismul mai proeminent. Schimburile psihologice sunt mai srace, comunicarea mai puin intens. Sigur c toate acestea se accentueaz odat cu vrsta, ca sisteme de securitate emoional. Singuraticul voluntar nu este pierdut definitiv, cum se spune, pentru societate. Singuraticul nfrnt, din pcate, da. Reacia la singurtatea social include plictiseal, sentimente de excludere i de marginalizare, la fel de bine cum poate include i depresie. Reacia la singurtatea emoional, n spe la izolarea emoional, este cea de hiperalterat i sensibilitate exagerat fa de ceilali, care ar putea fi interpretate ca i anxietate social. Depresia prezice singurtatea social, pe cnd anxietatea nu prezice singurtatea emoional. Weiss nu exclude posibilitatea ca i depresia s fie un semn al singurtii emoionale, dar nu face nicio referire n acest sens; el sugereaz doar c anxietatea, pe care o remarc printre reaciile la singurtatea emoional, este tcut, se petrece n linite. Studii recente au stabilit o legtur ntre singurtate i utilizarea serviciilor medicale. Singurtatea emoional coreleaz cu acuze somatice, depresie, iar studiile au demonstrat c cei care sufer de singurtate au utilizat de 60 de ori mai mult serviciile medicale, fa de pacieni care sufereau de aceleai afeciuni, dar care nu nregistrau scoruri mari pe scala de singurtate. Studiile leag singurtatea de inciden sporit a anumitor manifestri fiziologie: astfel, cei care au scoruri mari pe scala de singurtate sunt de dou ori mai expui s se infecteze cu virusul gripei, au un risc de patru ori mai mare dect cel al oamenilor care nu sunt singuri de a face infarct sau de a muri din cauza unei boli de inim. Mental psychological boundaries of a lonely person, whether its male or female, are more rigid than in other circumstances. Attitudes are more obvious and more fixed, selfishness is more prominent. Psychological exchange is poorer, communication is less intense. Surely that all strengthen with age, as emotional security systems. The lone volunteer is not lost forever, as they say, for society; the defeated lonely person unfortunately is. Reactions to social solitude loneliness include boredom, feelings of exclusion and marginalization, as well as depression. Emotional reaction to solitude, in particular to emotional solitude, is exaggerated sensitivity to others, which could be interpreted as social anxiety. Depression predicts social solitude, while anxiety does not predict emotional solitude. Weiss does not exclude the possibility that depression is a sign for emotional loneliness, but he made no reference to this matter; he only suggests that anxiety, which he mentioned among emotional reactions to solitude, is quiet, existing in silence. Recent studies have established a link between loneliness and the use of medical services. Emotional loneliness correlates with somatic complaints, depression, and studies have shown that those who suffer from loneliness used 60 times more medical services, compared to patients suffering from the same diseases, but not registering high scores on the loneliness scale. Studies connect solitude of increased incidence of certain physiological events, so that, for example, those who have high scores on the scale of loneliness are two times more exposed to be infected with the flue virus, have a four times higher risk than people who are not lonely to have a heart attack or to die from a heart disease.

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Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, no. 44, December 2008 Selective bibliography


Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995), The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation, Psychological Bulletin, 117, p. 497529 Bazzini, Kraus, L.A, D., Davis, M.H, Church, M., Kirchman, M. (1993), Personal and Social Influences on Loneliness: The Mediating Effect of Social Provision, Social Psychology Quartely Black, Katherine A, Differences In Adolescents Behavior During Conflict Resolution Tasks With Best Friends, http://www.emeraldinsight.com Bogaerts, S. (2006), Feeling of Subjective Emoional Loneliness: an Exploration of Attachement, Vraje Universitat Bowlby, J [1969] (1999), Attachment, 2nd edition, Attachment and Loss (vol. 1), New York: Basic Books. LCCN 00266879; NLM 8412414 Duck, S. (1983), The Psychology of Close Relationships, The Harnester Press Eve, M., Pahl, R. (2002), Les reseaux sociaux: lamitie, Archives europeenes de sociologie, vol. 43/3, p. 386-409, p. 410-423 Flood, M. (2005), Mapping Loneliness in Australia, Discussion Paper Number 76 February Gardner, W. L., Pickett, C., & Brewer, M. B. (2000), Social exclusion and selective memory: How the need to belong influences memory for social events, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, p. 486496 Geers, A.L., Reilley, S.P., Dember, W. (1998), Optimism, Pessimism, and Friendship, Ohio University, University of Cincinnati Godechot, O. (1996), Les determinants sociaux de lamitie, CREST, Laboratoire de sociologie quantitative, Universite de France Gonzalez, Marta C., Lind, Pedro G. and Herrmann, Hans J. (2006), System of Mobile Agents to Model Social Networks, Physical Review Letters. 96, 088702 Gruenert, S.M. (2003), Intimacy, Fathers, Best Friends and the Well-Being of Young Adult Males, Swinburne University Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. R. (1994), Attachment as an organizational framework for research on close relationships, Psychological Inquiry, 5, p. 1-22 http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr//2/hi/health/6332883.stm, accessed on 11.11.2006, 10.50 PM Igarashi, T., Robins, G., Pattison, P. (1999), Longitudinal Changes in Friendship Networks, Osaka University, Univesity of Melbourne Jeffrey, Geller, M.D. (2000), Loneliness: An Overlooked and Costly Health Risk Factor, Minnesota Medical Association, April 2000/Volume 83 Levin, Ira, Strokes, J.P. (1986), An examination of the relation of individual difference variables to loneliness, Journal of Personality 54 (4), p. 717733 Lieben-Norwell, D., Novak, J., Kumar, R. (2005), Geographic routing in social networks, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Caleton College Mahon, N.E., Yarcheski, A.& T., Cannella, B., Hanks, M. (2005), A Meta-Analysis of Predictor of Loneliness During Adolescence, University of New Jersy, University of Iowa Main, M & Solomon, J. (1990), in Greenberg, M. T., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, M. (Eds.),. Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention, p. 121-160, The University of Chicago Press: Chicago Nielsen, J. (2000), Does the Internet Make Us Lonely?, Alertbox, February 20, 2000 Quellette, D.M. (2000), The Social Network and Attachment Bases of Loneliness, University of Virginia Russell, D., Cutrona, C.E., Rose, J., & Yurko, K. (1984), Social and emoional loneliness: An examination of Weisss typology of loneliness, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, p. 1313-1321 Sheets, V.L., Lugar, R. (2005), Friendship and gender in Russia and the United States, A Journal of Research Smith-Lovin, L. (2006), The evolution of our social networks, http://online.sagepub.com, accessed on 10.10.2006, 9.57 PM Weiss, R. (1975), Loneliness: The Experience of Emotional and Social Isolation, The MIT Press (April 15, 1975) Williams, J., Solano, C. (1983), The Social Reality of Feeling Lonely, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 2, p. 237-242 Young, J. E. (1981), Cognitive Therapy and loneliness, in Emergy G., Holon S.D. & Bedrosian R.C., eds, New directions in cognitive therapy, New York: Guilford Press, p. 139-59

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Widowhood: the experience of loneliness and subjective well-being Vduvia: experiena singurtii i a strii de bine subiective Le veuvage : lexprience de la solitude et du bien-tre subjectif
Maria Eugnia DUARTE SILVA*, Cludia CARREIRA, Ana Sousa FERREIRA and Catarina COSTA Lisbon University, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences

Abstract Widowhood is one of the stressful life events in a life course. Adjusting may be difficult for older adults experiencing a decrease in social networks. This study aims to explore widowhood in old age the experience of loneliness and subjective well-being. The attachment perspective (Bowlby, 1980), the relational model of loneliness (Weiss, 1973) and the subjective well-being construct (Diener, 2000) are the frames of reference. Sample consisted of 65 Portuguese communitydwelling men and women (65 to 96 years), married and widowed. Participants answered a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larson, & Griffin, 1985), the reduced version of the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale (Stroebe, Stroebe, Abakoumkin, & Schut, 1996) and the Instrumental and Expressive Social Support Scale (Ensel & Woelfel, 1986). Results of discrete discriminant analysis considering age group, gender, emotional loneliness, social loneliness, subjective well-being, emotional, practical and financial support variables showed good discrimination between widowed and married groups. All results were favourable to married participants as far as positive affects were concerned. Weiss theory, the association between loneliness and attachment, was supported, with the marital relationship being a means of emotional support, and widowhood having an impact on the experience of emotional loneliness. Key words: widowhood, old-age, loneliness, subjective well-being Rezumat Vduvia este unul din evenimentele stresante care apare de-a lungul vieii. Adaptarea poate fi dificil pentru adulii mai n vrst care trec printr-o slbire a reelei sociale. Scopul acestui studiu este s exploreze
*

vduvia la btrnee experiena singurtii i a strii de bine subiective. Teoria ataamentului (Bowlby, 1980), modelul relaional al singurtii (Weiss, 1973) i conceptual de stare de bine (Diener, 2000) sunt punctele de referin. Eantionul a fost format din 65 de brbai i femei de naionalitate portughez, locuitori ai comunitii (ntre 65 i 96 de ani), cstorii i vduvi. Participanii au rspuns la un chestionar socio-demografic, Scala Satisfactiei de via (Diener, Emmons, Larson, & Griffin, 1985), la varianta redus a Scalei de Singurtate Emoional i Social (Stroebe, Stroebe, Abakoumkin, & Schut, 1996) i la Scala Instrumental i Expresiv de Suport Social (Ensel & Woelfel, 1986). Rezultatele analizei discrete discriminatorii referitoare la variabilele grup de vrst, sex, singurtate emoional, singurtate social, stare de bine subiectiv, sprijin emoional, practic i financiar, au indicat o clar deosebire ntre grupurile de vduvi i cele cu persoane cstorite. Toate rezultatele au fost favorabile pentru persoanele cstorite, n ceea ce privete emoiile pozitive. Teoria lui Weiss, asocierea dintre singurtate i ataament, a fost sprijinit de rezultate, relaiile maritale fiind un mijloc de suport emoional, iar vduvia avnd un impact asupra experienei de singurtate emoional. Cuvinte cheie: vduvie, btrnee, stare de bine subiectiv Rsum Le veuvage est une des expriences les plus stressantes du cycle de vie. Les adultes gs peuvent avoir des difficults sy adapter car ils souffrent dune diminution du rseau social. Lobjectif de cette tude est dexplorer le veuvage pendant la vieillesse lexprience de la solitude et le bien-tre subjectif. La perspective de lattachement (Bowlby, 1980), le modle relationnel de la solitude (Weiss, 1973) et le bien-tre subjectif (Diener, 2000) constituent le cadre de rfrence. 65 hommes et femmes portugais, maris ou veufs (gs de 65-96), ont rpondu un questionnaire sociodmographique et aux chelles de Satisfaction

Maria Eugnia Duarte Silva, PhD, address: Faculdade de Psicologia e de Cincias da Educao, Alameda da Universidade, 1649-013 Lisboa, Portugal. E-mail: meds@fpce.ul.pt

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avec la Vie (Diener, Emmons, Larson, & Griffin, 1985), Solitude Emotionnelle et Sociale (Stroebe, Stroebe, Abakoumkin, & Schut, 1996) et de Support Instrumental et Expressif (Ensel & Woelfel, 1986). Lapplication dune mthode danalyse discriminante discrte sur les variables ge groupe, genre, solitude motionnelle, solitude sociale, bien-tre subjectif et support motionnel, pratique et financier, a montr une bonne discrimination entre les groupes. Les rsultats concernant les affects positifs sont favorables aux participants maris. La thorie de Weiss sur lassociation entre la solitude et lattachement a t vrifie, la relation du couple tant une forme de soutien motionnel et le veuvage ayant un impact sur lexprience de solitude motionnelle. Mots cls : veuvage, vieillesse, solitude, bientre subjectif

The population of Europe, as in many parts of the world, is aging, and in many countries the aging rate is something that no human society has experienced before. Portugal is no exception as it is considered to be an aged country with 16.4 of its population over 65 years of age (Instituto Nacional de Estatstica, 2002). As a result of longer longevity, more people spend longer periods of time living as couples, from late middle age to older ages. Although the difference in life expectancy between women and men is narrowing, the face of old age, particularly the oldest of all, is still mainly female (Peace, DittmannKohli, Westerhof, & Bond, 2007). Consequently women are more prone to having distressing experiences, for instance, losing their life partners through death or experiencing the narrowing of their social networks or even a shorter disability-free life. Due to gender differences, which have tended to have more impact on current groups of older adults, who have similarly maintained traditional gender-role specialization throughout their marriages, life courses have been more gender dissimilar. In this sense, more women have tended to be less educated, having occupied less important professional jobs or to not even have pursued careers, but instead, having mainly cared for their families. Consequently their old age may catch them less prepared and may bring them more distressing experiences, including poverty (Arber & Ginn, 2005; Estes, 2005; Kamilar, Segal, & Qualls, 2000). Nevertheless, women tend to have more family ties and are more active within families, assuming the role of kin-keepers, which may constitute an advantage or a protective factor, as far as emotional and social support, in giving and receiving, is concerned (Liang, Krause, & Bennet, 2001; Lowenstein, 2005). According to the theory, beginning in early adulthood and continuing through old age, people actively narrow their social environment

and achieve increasing emotional closeness in meaningful relationships (Carstensen, 1992). One of the most important figures of affective investment tends to be the chosen partner in life. This person may represent the relevant attachment figure with whom special strong affective bonds are developed and whose loss arouses anxiety and gives rise to intense sorrow. This attachment behaviour is a normal and healthy part of human nature according to Bowlbys theory (1980). So widowhood has been considered one of the most distressing events in life, as a spouse may represent the significant emotional attachment figure, closely connected to the experience of well-being (Bowlby, 1980; Lopata, 1973; Stroebe, Stroebe, Abakoumkin, & Schut, 1996, Wisocki & Skowron, 2000). Being married is still the norm in middle and old age and Portugal is no exception here. Due to restrictions in functional autonomy and reduced social networks, many old people lack opportunities for social interaction which is limited to certain types of social contacts within the close family (Holland et al., 2005). Losses and illness place obvious constraints on the availability of social partners, especially in very old age, limiting relationships to those with whom one lives. As women tend to live longer than men, the widowhood experience may be a more common life event in their lives. Isolation may then afflict many aged people, promoting feelings of loneliness (Victor & Scharf, 2005). The subjective experience of loneliness may represent a challenge to well-being in the sense that it is a response to the absence of a close, intimate attachment (Stroebe et al., 1996). Feelings of anxiety and emptiness are a common experience for those who report emotional loneliness. This kind of loneliness has been characterized as the loneliness of emotional isolation, which can only be remedied through the experience of another emotional attachment, substituting that which has been lost. The lack of social contact in terms of opportunities for engaging in a social network, promotes the loneliness of social isolation which can be remedied by access to social interaction. Experiencing social loneliness promotes feelings of boredom, aimlessness and marginality. In addition, social isolation may lead to emotional isolation (Townsend, 1973; Van Baarsen, Snijders, Smit, & Van Duijn, 2001; Weiss, 1972, 1982). The experience of widowhood in old age and the lesser availability for investment in new significant affective bonds, which would facilitate adjustment enabling one to overcome loss, may represent a threat to subjective wellbeing, promoting emotional and social loneliness (Coombs, 1991). Nevertheless, receiving social support may represent a buffer to the experience of loneliness, whatever its contours, thus, providing protection from negative affects (Lopata, Heinemann, & Baum, 1982). This study aims to explore widowhood in old age in terms of the experience of loneliness and subjective well-being.

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Sample A convenient sample was used. The sample consisted of 65 Portuguese community-dwelling elderly adults (35 women and 30 men) who were between 65 and 96 years of age (47.7% between 65 and 74; 38.8% between 75 and 84; and 13.8% 85 or older). 28 participants were married (out of these 14 women) and 37 were widowed (out of these 21 women). For research purposes two groups were formed in accordance with marital status. Table 1 shows the socio-demographic characteristics of the entire sample.
Table 1: Scio-Demographic Variables Variable Category Frequency Gender Male 30 Female 35 Age Group Marital Status Length of widowhood (in years) 65 74 75 - 84 >= 85 Married Widowed >= 4 5 - 10 11 - 20 >= 21 31 25 9 29 36 6 17 8 5 % 46.2 53.8 47.7 38.5 13.8 44.6 55.4 9.2 26.2 12.3 7.7

Procedure Data was collected by two psychologists at Day Activity Centres for elderly people and at State Medical Centres. Each of the 65 participants answered socio-demographic and psycho-social questions and the afore-mentioned questionnaires were completed. Items were read to all participants as some had difficulties at performing the task of reading due to poor sight or insufficient literacy skills. Results One technique of discrete discriminant analysis as a method for the multivariate study of group differences was applied to the two groups, married and widowed, in order to determine which set of variables best captured or characterized group differences (Brito, Celeux, & Sousa Ferreira, 2006). Group prior probabilities were assumed to be equal and correctly classified rates were estimated by half-sampling. Figure 1 presents the medians of the six variables which entered the First-Order Independence Model emotional loneliness, social loneliness, subjective well being emotional support, financial support and practical support. Table 2 presents results from the two discriminant analyses: one considering eight variables, the mentioned variables plus age group and gender, and another considering only the six discrete variables. In both analyses, emotional loneliness and emotional support are the first variables to enter the model, meaning they are the ones with the highest predictive power. In the first analysis one may see that age is a relevant variable but gender and financial support do not add much more information from an explanatory perspective. In fact, in both models, the order of relevance of the six discrete variables is the same. In the first model, 68% of subjects are correctly classified, but in the second, 70%. Afterwards, two groups were formed taking into account the time when widowhood occurred: less than 6 years (n = 9) and over 19 years ago (n = 7). The Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences between groups, with lower results in the longer time widowed group (mean rank for longer widowed participants 6.00; mean rank for short widowed participants 10.44), meaning higher subjective well-being for this group (U = 14, p = .03, one-tailed). Bearing in mind the gender variable, widowed participants (15 male and 21 female) were also compared in terms of discrete variable results. No significant differences were found.

Instruments Participants answered a socio-demographic questionnaire, and Portuguese versions of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larson, & Griffin, 1985, Diener, Suh, Lucas, & Smith, 1999), the Instrumental and Expressive Social Support Scale (Ensel & Woelfel, 1986) and the reduced version of the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale (Stroebe et al., 1996). The Satisfaction with Life Scale is a five-item scale with a 7-point Likert-type response. This scale is a measure of overall subjective well-being understood as a cognitive-judgmental process (Diener et al., 1985). The Instrumental and Expressive Social Support Scale is a 5-point Likert-type response scale with 28 items, inquiring about a dimension of emotional support comprising 8 items, a dimension of financial support, comprising 3 items and a third dimension of practical support, comprising 3 items. These 14 items plus the other 14 items make a Total Social Support score, which is a global dimension of social support (Ensel & Woelfel, 1986). The reduced version of the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale is a four-item scale, two-item evaluating each kind of loneliness, emotional loneliness and social loneliness. For each statement, subjects have to decide whether the statement is true or false as far as they are concerned (Stroebe et al., 1996). All measures presented favourable psychometric properties.

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Figure1. Box-plot of the considered Variables in Married and Widowed Group
3,0 Emotional Loneliness Social Loneliness Subjective Well-Being Emotional Support Financial Support Practical Support

2,5

2,0

1,5

1,0 1 - Married Group 2 - Widowed Group

Marital Status

Table 2: Discrete Discriminant Analysis between the two Groups


Variables (by decreasing order of predictive capability) Emotional Loneliness Emotional Support Age Group Subjective Well-Being Practical Support Social Loneliness Gender Financial Support Emotional Loneliness Emotional Support Subjective Well-Being Practical Support Social Loneliness Financial Support % Total Cases Correctly Classified % Correctly Classified in the Married Group % Correctly Classified in the Widowed Group

8 Variables

68%

83%

56%

6 Variables

70%

69%

70%

Discussion In general, results confirm the hypothesis that widowed elders differ from the married ones, taking into account the experience of emotional loneliness, emotional support, subjective well-being, practical support, social loneliness and financial support. The best predictor variables to group membership were emotional loneliness, emotional support and subjective well-being. These results may mean that emotional affects as intra-psychic variables were more relevant than issues associated with the support of others, as far as the experience of widowhood is concerned. When age group and gender were taken as variables, the percentage of well classified participants in the group dropped from 70% to 68% but the ones classified in the married group improved significantly (from 69% to 83%). All results in terms of positive affects favoured the married participants. As expected, in accordance with the attachment perspective (Bowlby, 1980) and the relational model of loneliness (Weiss, 1973, 1982), the widowed elders experienced more emotional loneliness than the married elders. It seems that the presence of others providing support did not fill the loss of the attachment figure by widowhood. In addition, and as expected, older married participants experienced more subjective well-being than the widowed ones.

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Marriage has been regarded as having a protective effect on health and contributing to the experience of low levels of loneliness. Widowhood is a stressful life event which may bring forth some distressing outcomes. If Bowlby (1980) conceptualized the attachment figure as a source of bonding and security feelings, Weiss (1973, 1982) showed that emotional loneliness comes from the experience of loss. Widowhood may confront people with the loss of the relevant attachment figure resulting in the experience of lonely feelings. Adaptation to the widowhood event which requires a good enough grief work following bereavement is indeed a must if one is geared towards successful aging. It is the grief work that allows for the reorganization of affects and new emotional investments which may contribute to the development and increase of well-being and life satisfaction. In our sample the participants who were widowed for a longer period of time showed higher levels of subjective well-being, probably associated with successful mourning work. Being a woman makes it more likely to be confronted with the partners loss, as women live longer lives than men. It is then their development task to gather whatever resources they can get and actively pursue the possible trajectory for attaining development goals and fulfilling successful aging. On the basis of the sample under study one may conclude the confirmation of the Weiss theory the association between loneliness and attachment , the relevance of the marital relationship as a means of emotional support, and the impact of widowhood on the experience of emotional loneliness. This research has some limitations which need to be taken into consideration. The size of the sample, based on which the groups were formed, was small, thus, leading to small groups for married and widowed participants. The age of the older participants, was nevertheless too heterogeneous.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larson, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985), The satisfaction with life scale, Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, p. 71-75 Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. E. (1999), Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress, Psychological Bulletin, 125, p. 276-302 Ensel, W., & Woelfel, M. (1986), Measuring the instrumental and expressive functions of social support, in N. Lin, A. Dean, W. Ensel (Eds.), Social support, life events and depression, p. 129-152, London: Academic Press Estes, C. L. (2005), Women, ageing and inequality: A feminist perspective, in M. L. Johnson, V. L. Bengtson, P. G. Coleman, & T B. L. Kirkwood (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of age and aging, p. 552-559, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press Holland, C., Kellaher, L., Peace, S., Scharf, T., Breeze, E., Gow, J., et al. (2005), Getting out and about, in A. Walker (Ed.), Understanding quality of life in old age, p. 49-63, Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press Instituto Nacional de Estatstica (2002), Census 2001: Resultados provisrios [2001 Census: Preliminary results], Lisboa: Instituto Nacional de Estatstica Kamilar, C. B., Segal, D. L., & Qualls, S. H. (2000), Role of gender and culture in the psychological adjustment to aging, in R. M. Eisler & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of gender, culture, and health, p. 405-427, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers Liang, J., Krause, N. M., & Bennet, J. M. (2001), Social exchange and well-being: Is giving better than receiving?, Psychology and Aging, 16, p. 511-523 Lopata, H., Heinemann, G. & Baum, J. (1982), Loneliness: antecedents and coping strategies in the Lives of Widows, in Peplau, L.A. & Perlman, D., Loneliness: a sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy, p. 310-326, New York: John Wiley & Sons Lopata, Z. H. (1973), Loneliness: Forms and components, in R. S. Weiss (Ed.), Loneliness. The experience of emotional and social isolation, p. 102-115, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Lowenstein, A. (2005), Global ageing and challenges to families, in M. L. Johnson, V. L. Bengtson, P. G. Coleman, & T B. L. Kirkwood (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of age and aging, p. 403-412, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press Peace, S., Dittmann-Kohli, F., Westerhof, G. J., & Bond, J. (2007), The ageing world, in J. Bond, S. Peace, F. Dittmann-Kohli, & G. Westerhof (Eds.), Ageing in society. European perspectives on gerontology, 3rd ed., p. 1-14, London: Sage Stroebe, M., Stroebe, W., Abakoumkin, G., Schut, H. A. (1996), The role of loneliness and social support in adjustment to loss: A test of attachment versus stress theory, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, p. 1241-1249 Townsend, P. (1973), Isolation and the loneliness in the aged, in R. S. Weiss (Ed.), Loneliness. The experience of emotional and social isolation, p. 175-188, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Van Baarsen, B., Snijders, T., Smit, J. H. & Van Duijn, M.A. (2001), Loneliness but not alone: Emotional isolation and social isolation as two distinct dimensions of loneliness in older people, Educational and Psychological Measurement, 61, p. 119-133 Victor, C, & Scharf, T. (2005), Social isolation and loneliness, in A. Walker (Ed.), Understanding quality of life in old age, p. 100-116, Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press Weiss, R. S. (1973), Loneliness. The experience of emotional and social isolation, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Weiss, R. S. (1982), Issues in the study of loneliness, in A. Peplau & D. Perlman (Eds.), Loneliness: A source book of current theory, research and therapy, p. 135-149, New York: John Wiley & Sons Wisocki, P., & Skowron, J. (2000), in R. M. Eisler & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of gender, culture, and health, p. 429-447, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers

References
Arber, S., & Ginn, J. (2005), Gender dimensions of the age shift, in M. L. Johnson, V. L. Bengtson, P. G. Coleman, & T B. L. Kirkwood (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of age and aging, p. 527-537, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press Bowlby, J. (1980), Attachment and loss: Vol. 3. Loss sadness and depression, London: The Hogarth Press Brito, I., Celeux, G., & Sousa Ferreira, A. (2006), Combining methods in supervised classification: A comparative study on discrete and continuous problems, RevStat Statistical Journal, 4, p. 201-225 Carstensen, L. L. (1992), Social and emotional patterns in adulthood: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory, Psychology and Aging, 7, p. 331-338 Coombs, R. (1991), Marital status and personal well-being: A literature review, Family Relations, 40, p. 97-102 Diener, E. (2000), Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index, American Psychologist, 55, p. 34-43

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Proiect metodologic pentru cercetarea factorilor psihologici implicai n boala neoplazic Methodological project for the study of psychological factors involved in neoplasic disease Projet mthodologique pour la recherche des facteurs psychologiques impliqus en cas de maladie noplasique

asist. univ.drd. Oana GOSTIN, Univ. Petre Andrei Iai

Rezumat Teoriile privind legtura dintre caracteristicile psihice i pattern-urile comportamentale i relaionale pe care le dezvolt indivizii i activarea sau dezactivarea sistemului imunitar au aprut ca necesitate de a rspunde la o serie de ntrebri: cum se ntmpl c indivizi supui la aceiai factori stresori i sub influena acelorai ageni cancerigeni reacioneaz diferit? Pot terapiile alternative s contribuie la ncetinirea sau stoparea evoluiei bolilor? Teoriile elaborate n timp asupra relaiilor dintre psihic i somatic au promovat ideea potrivit creia patologia psihic influeneaz cancerogeneza sau cel puin evoluia nefavorabil a bolii. Studiul de fa pornete de la trei ipoteze teoretice generale: 1. Prima se refer la existena unor diferene individuale n adaptarea la stres. 2. Cea de-a doua ipotez general se refer la capacitatea factorilor cognitivi de explicitare a diferenelor individuale n adaptarea la stres; 3. Membrii familiilor n care apar cazuri de cancer particip la un scenariu de via ntemeiat pe disfunciile famililale, care se poate transmite transgeneraional. Cuvinte cheie: pattern-uri comportamentale i relaionale, factori stresori, patologie psihic, cancerogenez, scenarii de via, disfuncii famililale Rsum Les thories sur la relation entre, dune part, les traits psychiques et les patterns comportementaux et

Abstract Theories regarding the link between the psychological characteristics and the behavioural and relational patterns developed by individuals and the activation or deactivation of the immune system have emerged as a result of the need to answer a series of questions: why do individuals who are subjected to the same stress factors and who are under the influence of the same carcinogen agents react differently? Are alternative therapies able to slow-down or stop the evolution of diseases? Over time, theories that have approached the connection between the psyche and the somatic have promoted the idea that psychic pathology has an impact on carcinogenesis or at least on the unfavourable evolution of the disease. The present study is based on three general and theoretical hypotheses: 1. The first refers to the fact that there are individual differences in the adaptation to stress. 2. The second general hypothesis takes into account the capacity of cognitive factors to explain individual differences in the adaptation to stress. 3. Members of families in which someone has or had cancer participate in a life scenario based on family dysfunctions that may be transmitted over generations. Key words: behavioural and relational patterns, stress factors, psychic pathology, carcinogenesis, life scenario, family dysfunctions

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Revista de Psihoterapie Experienial, nr. 44, decembrie 2008


relationnels que les individus dveloppent, et dautre part, lefficacit ou linefficacit du systme immunitaire, ont apparu suite la ncessit de rpondre une srie de questions telles: comment expliquer la raction diffrente des individus influencs par les mmes facteurs stressants et les mmes agents cancrignes? Les thrapies alternatives peuvent-elles contribuer au ralentissement ou larrt de lvolution des maladies? Les thories labores durant les annes sur les relations entre le psychique et le somatique ont soulign lide de linfluence que la pathologie psychique a sur la gense du cancer ou au moins sur lvolution dfavorable de la maladie. Cette tude part de trois hypothses thoriques gnrales: 1. La premire: il y a des diffrences individuelles en ce qui concerne ladaptation au stress. 2. La deuxime: les facteurs cognitifs peuvent expliciter les diffrences individuelles dadaptation au stress. 3. Les membres des familles o il a y a des cas de cancer participent un scnario de vie construit sur le dysfonctionnement familial, qui peut se transmettre dune manire transgnrationnelle. Mots cl: patterns comportementaux et relationnels, facteurs stressants, pathologie psychique, cancrogense, scnarios de vie, dysfonctionnement familial

THEORETICAL APPROACHES Theories regarding the connection between the psychological characteristics and behavioural and relational patterns that one develops and the activation or deactivation of the immunity system appeared as a necessity to give an answer to a series of questions that have been preoccupying scientists who were concerned about the incidence of cancer: how come individuals exposed to the same stressing factors and under the influence of the same cancerous agents have different reactions? How come stress and negative thoughts contribute to the apparition and evolution of organic illnesses? Can alternative therapies contribute to the slowing down or stopping of the evolution of diseases? Why, after a similar trauma, some persons have perturbations and others not? In connection to these, the following problem arises: why morbid manifestations are located in different parts, in an organ or another? Theories on the relationship between psyche and soma, which were constructed in time, promoted the idea that psychic pathology influences the genesis of cancer, or, at least, its unfavourable evolution. Thousands of years, traditional clinical medicine emphasized the importance of psychic factors in aetiology. When we consider the subjective access to an event (or to events that have a cumulative effect), it becomes necessary to refer to a series of aspects that specific literature names dispositions, risk factors, protection factors, coping style and personality. In the following lines, we aim to focus on these factors. THE OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESESOF THE STUDY The present study starts from the following three general hypotheses: 1. The first one refers to the existence of some individual differences in adaptation to stress. We imply that there is a series of psychological factors, involved in cancer aetiology. This hypothesis implies the study of human personality. We consider that it is not events in themselves that are risk factors, but the significance given to them. Thus, the following two hypotheses appear: 2. The second general hypothesis refers to the ability of cognitive factors to explain individual differences in stress adaptation. People who are characterised by positive cognitions in about their selves and the world, will have a lower level of psychological and somatic distress.

ABORDRI TEORETICE Teoriile privind legtura dintre caracteristicile psihice i pattern-urile comportamentale i relaionale pe care le dezvolt indivizii i activarea sau dezactivarea sistemului imunitar au aprut ca necesitate de a rspunde la o serie de ntrebri care au preocupat oamenii de tiin, ngrijorai de incidena cancerului: cum se ntmpl c indivizi supui la aceiai factori stresori i sub influena acelorai ageni cancerigeni reacioneaz diferit? Cum stresul i gndurile negative contribuie la apariia i evoluia afeciunilor organice? Pot terapiile alternative s contribuie la ncetinirea sau stoparea evoluiei bolilor? De ce dup o traumatizare analoag unele persoane prezint perturbri i altele nu? Legat de acestea, apare urmtoarea problem: de ce manifestrile morbide se localizeaz diferit, la nivelul unui organ sau a altuia? Teoriile elaborate n timp asupra relaiilor dintre psihic i somatic au promovat ideea potrivit creia patologia psihic influeneaz cancerogeneza sau cel puin evoluia nefavorabil a bolii. Milenii dea rndul, medicina clinic tradiional a pus accentul pe importana factorilor psihici n etiologie. Cnd avem n vedere accesul subiectiv la un eveniment (sau la evenimente cu efect cumulativ) este necesar s ne referim la o serie de aspecte pe care literatura de specialitate le numete dispoziii, factori de risc, factori de

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protecie, stiluri de coping i de personalitate. Ne propunem n continuare s ne concentrm atenia asupra acestor factori. OBIECTIVELE I IPOTEZELE CERCETRII Studiul de fa pornete de la trei ipoteze teoretice generale: 1. Prima se refer la existena unor diferene individuale n adaptarea la stres. Presupunem c exist o serie de factori psihologici implicai n etiologia cancerului. Aceast ipotez presupune luarea n studiu a personalitii umane. Considerm c nu att evenimentele n sine constituie factori de risc, ci semnificaia care le este conferit. Astfel, apar urmtoarele dou ipoteze: 2. Cea de-a doua ipotez general se refer la capacitatea factorilor cognitivi de explicitare a diferenelor individuale n adaptarea la stres. Indivizii caracterizai prin cogniii pozitive despre sine i lume vor avea un nivel redus de distres psihologic i somatic. 3. Membrii familiilor n care apar cazuri de cancer particip la un scenariu de via ntemeiat pe disfunciile famililale, care se poate transmite transgeneraional. n aceste familii, scenariul repetitiv reprezint un factor de risc major n apariia bolii. Pornind de la cele trei ipoteze teoretice enunate, studiul de fa i propune ca obiectiv general identificarea acelor scheme cognitive care opereaz ca factori protectori n stres, iar ca obiective specifice: - identificarea factorilor psihologici implicai n etiologia cancerului; - identificarea situaiilor i a reaciilor cu potenial de repetitivitate n sistemul familial (reacii circular - patogene); - obiectivarea vulnerabilitii psihice ca element favorizant n boli psihosomatice (respectiv n cancer); - identificarea modificrilor psihologice la bolnavii neoplazici; - identificarea i evidenierea rolului factorilor de susinere n evoluia favorabil a bolii. LOTUL DE SUBIECI I PROBELE PSIHOLOGICE FOLOSITE METODOLOGIE Cercetarea s-a desfurat pe un eantion de 30 de subieci de sex feminin, prezentnd forme de neoplasm mamar. Diagnosticul de neoplazie este cel stabilit de ctre medicii din spitalele unde au fost internate bolnavele, pentru intervenie chirurgical sau pentru orice alt tip de asisten terapeutic. 3. The members of the families with cases of cancer take part in a life script based on family dysfunctions, that can be transgenerationally transmitted. In these families, the repetitive script represents a major risk factor in the apparition of the disease. Starting from the three theoretical hypotheses stated above, the present study has as general objective the identification of those cognitive schemes that operate as protective factors in stress, and, as far as specific objectives are concerned: - the identification of psychological factors involved in cancer aetiology; - the identification of the situations and reactions that have a potential for repeating themselves in the family system (circular-pathogen reactions); - the objectification of psychological vulnerability, as favouring element in psychosomatic diseases (in cancer, respectively); - identification of psychological changes in patients with neoplasm; - identification and emphasis on the role of sustaining factors in the favourable evolution of the disease. THE GROUP OF SUBJECTS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS USED METHODOLOGY The research took place on a group of 30 female subjects, who had forms of breast cancer. The neoplasm diagnostic is the one established by the doctors in the hospitals where the patients were hospitalized for a surgical intervention or for any other type of therapeutic assistance. Patients were randomly selected, from the oncology section of the St. Spiridon Hospital in Iasi, where they were on post-operatory treatment with chemotherapy. The age of the subjects was between 50 and 65 years, and as far as education levels are concerned, I note that they had medium and higher education. The application of instruments for the observation of the patients was done individually, during several sessions. In order to achieve the proposed objectives, and to verify the working hypotheses, it is necessary to identify such elements as the following: personality traits, the ability to become aware of feelings and to express them, selfesteem, ones attitude towards ones masculinity/femininity, avoidant attitude, the competency for existence, the effects of traumatising events as mirrored in the subjective

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Pacientele au fost selectate aleator din secia de oncologie a Spitalului Sf. Spiridon din Iai, unde urmau tratamente postoperatorii cu citostatice. Vrsta subiecilor era ntre 50 i 65 de ani, iar n ceea ce privete nivelul de colarizare menionez c au studii medii i superioare. Aplicarea instrumentelor i observarea bolnavelor s-a facut individual, n mai multe ntlniri. Pentru ndeplinirea obiectivelor propuse i pentru verificarea ipotezelor de lucru este necesar identificarea unor elemente cum sunt: trsturi de personalitate, capacitatea de a contientiza emoiile i de a le exprima, stima de sine, atitudinea fa de propria masculinitate/ feminitate, atitudinea evitant, competena pentru existen, efectele evenimentelor traumatizante n trirea subiectiv a individului, gradul de nefericire. n scopul de a studia relaia dintre cogniiile referitoare la sine i lume i anumite componente ale stresului (coping i reacii) s-au utilizat scale i chestionare de autoevaluare specifice. Probele psihologice folosite pentru investigarea personalitii pacientei care a dezvoltat cancer mamar sunt preluate din literatura de specialitate: 1. Life Distres Inventory (LDI) 2. Chestionar de alexitimie (Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire BVAQ) 3. Scala pentru evaluarea auto-eficienei 4. Impact of Ivent Scale (IES) 5. Scala pentru evaluarea locului controlului 6. Scala de stim de sine Rosenberg 7. Chestionar de optimism LOT R 8. Genograma 9. Evaluarea familiei n ansamblul su Aa cum se poate observa din Tabelul I, pacientele din lotul investigat au manifestat tendina de a obine distribuii normale ale scorurilor la variabilele: verbalizare emoional, via fantasmatic, analiza emoiilor, optimism, autoeficien, nefericire fa de sine i familie, nefericire fa de preocuprile extramaritale, respectiv stima de sine. Pentru variabila locul controlului, media scorurilor s-a situat nspre zona valorilor ridicate, indicnd tendina pacientelor de a fi externaliste. Acest rezultat confirm datele raportate n literatura de specialitate privitoare la caracteristicile individuale asociate personalitii i pattern-urilor comportamentale ale pacienilor care dezvolt neoplazii. Pentru variabilele gnduri, emoii i vise intruzive legate de aflarea diagnosticului, respectiv evitarea gndurilor i emoiilor legate de acest eveniment traumatic, distribuiile scorurilor au manifestat tendine n direcii opuse (tendina spre experience of the individual, the degree of unhappiness. In order to study the relationship between the cognitions regarding the self and the world and certain stress components (coping and reactions), we used specific self-evaluation scales and questionnaires. The psychological instruments that were used to investigate the personality of the patient who had developed breast cancer are taken from specialised literature: 1. Life Distres Inventory (LDI) 2. Questionnaire For Alexthymia (Bermond Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire BVAQ) 3. Scale For Self-Efficiency Evalution 4. Impact Of Event Scale (IES) 5. Locus Of Control Evaluation Scale 6. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale 7. Optimism Questionnaire LOT R 8. Genogram 9. Global Family Evaluation As it can be seen in Table I, the patients in the group under investigation presented the tendency to obtain normal distributions of the scores for the following variables: emotional verbalization, phantasmal life, analysis of emotions, optimism, self-efficiency, unhappiness regarding the self and family, unhappiness regarding extramarital preoccupations, and self-esteem respectively. The average score for the variable locus of control was on the area of high values, showing the patients tendency to be externalists. This result confirms the data reported in the specialised literature regarding the individual characteristics correlated with the personality and patterns of behaviour of the patients who develop neoplasm. For the variables intrusive thoughts, emotions and dreams connected to the finding out of the diagnostic, and avoidance of thoughts and emotions connected to this traumatic event, the distribution of scores presented tendencies in opposite directions (a tendency for high scores in the case of intrusiveness, and respectively, the tendency for low scores in the case of avoidance), these results indicating the tendency of the patients to manifest cognitive and emotional preoccupations for the diagnosed neoplasm (depression-specific ruminations). These results, correlated with the information gathered across the genogram analysis, led us to the hypothesis that these exaggerated preoccupations for negative thoughts and feelings that appear as a consequence of a dramatic life event express a predisposition (they structure) and are not a present reaction to finding out the diagnostic. Correlating this with the psychological theories regarding cancer aetiology, one can say

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scoruri ridicate n cazul intruzivitii, respectiv tendina spre scoruri sczute n cazul evitrii), aceste rezultate semnificnd tendina pacientelor de a manifesta preocupri cognitive i emoionale legate de neoplazia diagnosticat (ruminaii specifice depresiei). Aceste rezultate, corelate cu informaiile evideniate pe parcursul analizei genogramelor, ne-au condus ctre ipoteza potrivit creia aceste preocupri exacerbate pentru analiza gndurilor i emoiilor negative care apar n urma unui eveniment dramatic de via exprim o predispoziie (se structureaz) i nu este o reacie prezent n urma aflrii diagnosticului. Corelnd acest lucru cu teoriile psihologice privind etiologia cancerului putem spune c aceasta este o trstur de personalitate care a avut un rol important n declanarea bolii la pacientele investigate, cu att mai mult cu ct n istoria personal a fiecreia apare ca i constant pierderea prin deces a unei persoane importante (so, copii, avorturi repetate). Apariia ruminaiilor, alturi de slaba competen n a exprima emoii negative legate de evenimente traumatice, de sentimentele ambivalente pentru persoane semnificative (analiza genogramelor), urmat de pierderea acestora i autoculpabilizarea pacientelor, presupunem c au condus la exprimarea n plan somatic a emoiilor perturbatoare care nu au putut fi externalizate, rezultatul fiind dezvoltarea neoplaziilor. Dei distribuia scorurilor totale la indexul legat de nefericire a manifestat tendina de a fi normal, distribuiile scorurilor la ariile funcionrii personale legate de viaa profesional i de satifacia fa de via/ optimism au fost asimetrice: prima n sensul scorurilor sczute, indicnd un grad mai mare de mulumire, iar cea de-a doua n sensul scorurilor ridicate, indicnd un grad mai mare de nefericire, pesimism.Cel de al doilea rezultat este firesc, ntruct aceast dimensiune integreaz subdomeniile legate de satisfacia fa de via i ateptrile legate de viitor, domenii care par a fi alterate de aflarea diagnosticului de neoplazie (pentru paciente viitorul se rezum la prezent, iar prezentul nseamn pentru ele boal, intervenie chirurgical cu interesarea schemei corporale, insecuritate). Rezultatele obinute la dimensiunea care vizeaz satisfacia fa de via, optimism le vom corela cu rezultatele obinute la Chestionarul LOT R, de optimism, i observm c, atunci cnd li s-a cerut s aprecieze gradul de nefericire cu privire la satisfacia vieii i ateptrile n viitor pacientele se declar foarte nefericite sau extrem de nefericite, dei la Chestionarul LOT media este de 20,06, ceea ce nseamn o distribuie normal n ceea ce privete optimismul. Aceste rezultate par contradictorii, dar, avnd n vedere faptul c pacientele investigate au scoruri ridicate la locul controlului i analiznd itemii that it is a personality trait that had an important role in the triggering of the disease in the investigated patients, which is sustained even more by the fact that, in their personal history, the loss through death of an important person (husband, children, repeated abortions) is a constant factor. The occurrence of ruminations, along with a weak skill for expressing negative emotions about traumatic events, or ambivalent feelings for significant persons (genogram analysis), which is followed by their loss and the self-blaming of the patients, are supposed to have led to the somatic expression of the disturbing emotions that could not be externalised, the result being that of developing a neoplasm. Although the distribution of total scores for the index connected to unhappiness showed the tendency to be normal, the distributions of the scores to the personal areas of functioning in professional life and satisfaction with life/optimism were asymmetrical: the former in the sense of low scores, showing a higher degree of content, and the latter in the sense of high scores, showing a higher degree of unhappiness and pessimism. The second result is natural, as this dimension integrates the subcategories connected to life satisfaction and expectations for the future, domains that can be altered by finding out the diagnostic of neoplasm (for the patients, the future is restricted to the present, and the present means disease, surgery affecting the body scheme and insecurity). The results obtained for the dimension life satisfaction - optimism will be correlated to the results obtained in the LOT R optimism questionnaire, and we thus note that, when they were asked to evaluate the degree of their unhappiness regarding life satisfaction and expectations for the future, the patients declare themselves very unhappy or extremely unhappy, although in the LOT R Questionnaire, the average is 20.06, which means a normal distribution regarding optimism. These results seem contradicting, but, bearing in mind that the patients investigated have high scores for the locus of control, and analyzing the items of the LOT R Questionnaire, we notice that the latter answers are actually rather the consequence of the fact that the patients have feelings of helplessness in the control over their own lives, they do not take responsibility as a defence mechanism for the consequences of their own actions (external locus of control), so that we can say it is not about optimism, but about their tendency to take part in their lives as spectators and not as actors, meaning that the patients consider that no matter what they do, they cannot influence the relentless destiny (fatalist orientation), thus casting away their responsibility, trying to reduce the feelings of guilt, avoiding, not accepting reality, things which reflect

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Chestionarului LOT, observm c de fapt rspunsurile la acesta din urm sunt mai degrab consecina faptului c pacientele investigate au sentimente de neputin n controlul propriei viei, nu i asum ca mecanism de aprare consecinele propriilor aciuni (locul controlului extern), astfel nct putem spune c nu este vorba de optimism, ci de tendina de a participa la viaa lor ca spectator i nu ca actor, n sensul c pacientele consider c indiferent ce ar face nu pot influena destinul implacabil (orientare fatalist), n felul acesta deresponsabilizndu-se, ncercnd s reduc sentimentele de culpabilitate, evitnd, neacceptnd realitatea, ceea ce se reflect la nivel somatic prin apariia neoplaziei. Am constatat de asemenea c itemii chestionarului sunt generali, fr a insista pe un aspect al existenei n care subiecii s manifeste optimism, astfel c am putea interpreta rezultatele i din aceast perspectiv. Drept consecin, n timpul analizei genogramei, am revenit la instrumentele aplicate n ntlnirea anterioar i am analizat mpreun cu pacientele elementele de coninut ale chestionarelor. Un studiu prezentat n literatura de specialitate, realizat n S.U.A. pe un lot de 1366 de paciente cu neoplazii, prezint rezultate asemntoare n ceea ce privete media obinut n urma aplicrii chestionarului LOT R (McGregor, B. A., Deborah, J. B., Ankerst, P., Andersen, R. M., Yasui, Y., McTiernan, A., 2004). Gradul mai mare de nefericire n legtur cu propriul viitor ar putea fi legat de expectanele cu privire la nesiguran, dar i de cogniiile orientate ctre destinul nefavorabil, iar analiza genogramelor confirm aceast constatare (analiza pacientelor care au traversat evenimente traumatice). TABELUL II prezint frecvenele rspunsurilor (pe variante) pentru cele 18 domenii ale funcionrii personale, operaionalizate prin itemii inventarului pentru evaluarea nefericirii. Analiza acestora mi se pare relevant pentru a surprinde tendina pacientelor n ceea ce privete percepia propriei viei i pentru a nuana interpretrile. La satisfacia fa de via, 3 din 5 paciente au declarat c sunt extreme de nefericite, acest rezultat putnd reflecta faptul c diagnosticul de neoplazie a produs o reacie de insatisfacie care s-a generalizat asupra tuturor domeniilor funcionrii personale. De asemenea, aproape 3 din 5 paciente par a fi extrem de nefericite sau par a avea cel mai nalt grad de nefericire n legtur cu evoluia personal n viitor. Din nou, acest rezultat e necesar s fie legat de sentimentul de lips de control al propriei viei i de atitudinea rezervat cu privire la evoluia pozitiv, unul din aspectele pe care vom insista n terapie. on the somatic level through the apparition of the neoplasm. We also noticed that the items of the questionnaire are general, without insisting upon an aspect of life in which the subjects could be optimist, so that we can also interpret these answers from this perspective as well. In consequence, during the analysis of the genogram, we returned to the instruments applied the previous session and we analyzed together with the patients the content elements of the questionnaires. A study which was presented in the specialised literature, and which was done in the U.S., on a group of 1366 patients with neoplasm, shows similar results, as far as the obtained average in the LOT R Questionnaire is concerned (McGregor, B. A., Deborah, J. B., Ankerst, P., Andersen, R. M., Yasui, Y., McTiernan, A., 2004). The higher degree of unhappiness about the future could be connected to the expectations regarding ones uncertainty and to the cognitions about the unfavourable destiny, and the analysis of the genogram confirms this observation (the analysis of the patients who have experienced such traumatic events). TABLE II presents the frequencies of the answers (on ways of response) for the 18 domains of personal functioning, which were defined through operations by using the inventory items for the evaluation of unhappiness. Their analysis seems relevant for pointing to the tendency the patients have about their perception on their own lives and for making more diverse interpretations. In life satisfaction, 3 out of 5 patients declared they are extremely unhappy, and this result could reflect the fact that the neoplasm diagnosis caused a reaction of dissatisfaction which became generalized in all domains of personal functioning. Moreover, almost 3 out of 5 patients seem to be extremely unhappy or seem to have the highest degree of unhappiness about their future personal evolution. Once again, this result must be connected to the feeling of lack of control over ones life, and to the reserved attitude regarding the positive evolution, which is one of the aspects on which we will insist in therapy. Another domain about which 4 out of 5 patients expressed their unhappiness (choosing th th the 6 and 7 forms of response) was physical health, and this result must not be commented, if we consider the medical characteristics of the investigated patients. An interesting aspect is that, although 2 out th of 5 patients expressed their unhappiness (the 6 th and 7 forms of response) about their relationship with the husband and marriage, just one of 5 patients declared herself unhappy about sexual life. From the discussions with the patients, after the

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Un alt domeniu n legtur cu care 4 din 5 paciente i-au exprimat nefericirea (alegnd variantele 6-7) a fost sntatea fizic, iar acest rezultat nu mai trebuie comentat dac avem n vedere caracteristicile medicale ale pacientelor investigate. Un aspect interesant este c, dei 2 din 5 paciente i-au exprimat nefericirea (variantele 6-7) n legtur cu relaia cu soul i csnicia, doar una din 5 paciente s-a declarat nefericit n legtur cu viaa sexual. n urma discuiilor purtate cu pacientele dup completarea chestionarelor, putem interpreta acest rezultat ca fiind expresia unor disocieri pe care pacientele le percep ntre viaa marital i viaa sexual (pacientele au explicat rspunsurile prin faptul c nu au nevoi/ dorine sexuale i lipsa vieii sexuale, n acest caz, nu le provoac nefericire). Apare de aici ideea educaiei preventive n ceea ce privete armonizarea n plan sexual pentru a reduce riscurile tulburrilor hormonale i somatofiziologice care contribuie la dezvoltarea neolaziilor mamare. Din TABELUL II se mai observ o concentrare a frecvenelor rspunsurilor n zona variantelor 3-4, rezultat care este concordant cu distribuiile cvasinormale pentru dimensiunile funionrii personale legate de preocuprile maritale, activiti extramaritale, sine i familie. Analiza corelaiilor a pus n eviden existena unei corelaii negative semnificativ stabilit ntre scorurile la verbalizarea emoiilor i scorurile pacientelor la scala pentru evaluarea optimismului. Acest rezultat semnific tendina de asociere a optimismului cu un nivel sczut al verbalizrii emoiilor, iar dac inem cont de sensul scalei pentru chestionarul BVAQ, un scor sczut la verbalizarea emoiilor nseamn de fapt competene n exprimarea emoiilor n plan verbal (absena alexitimiei sub acest aspect). Dar am constatat, analiznd rezultatele anterioare, c distribuia cvasinormal a rspunsurilor la chestionarul LOT nu nseamn c pacientele investigate nu sunt pesimiste, ci mai degrab c nu consider c viitorul poate fi influenat prin aciunile lor. De asemenea, scorurile la analiza emoiilor din Chestionarul BVAQ au corelat negativ i semnificativ cu scorurile totale la scala LDI, acest rezultat semnificnd asocierea unui nivel ridicat al nefericirii fa de domeniile funcionrii personale cu tendina pacientelor neoplazice de a reveni asupra gndurilor i emoiilor negative. Scorurile la analiza emoiilor au corelat pozitiv i semnificativ cu scorurile la evitarea gndurilor, emoiilor i situaiilor legate de evenimentele traumatizante. Acest rezultat exprim tendina asocierii ntre preocuprile legate de evenimentul dramatic al stabilirii diagnosticului i analiza propriilor emoii (preocuparea excesiv fa de situaii dureroase, nemprtite, conduce n timp la vulnerabilizare). completing of the questionnaires, one can interpret this result as being the expression of some dissociations that the patients see between marital life and sexual life (the patients explained their answers by saying that they do not have any sexual needs/ desires and that the lack of sexual life, in this case, does not cause them unhappiness). What occurs here is the idea of preventive education as far as sexual harmonizing is concerned, in order to reduce the risks of hormonal and somatic-physiological disturbances, that contribute to the development of breast neoplasm. One can also notice in TABLE II a concentration in the areas of response forms 3 and 4, of the frequencies of the answers, a result which is in tone with the quasi-normal distributions for the personal functioning dimensions, connected to marital preoccupations, extramarital activities, self and family. The analysis of the correlations showed the existence of a significant negative correlation between the scores in verbalization of emotions and the patients scores in optimism evaluation scale. This result signifies the tendency to associate optimism with a lower score in verbalization of emotions, and if we take into consideration the positions of the values in the scale for the BVAQ Questionnaire, a lower score in verbalization of emotions actually means having skills in verbalization of emotions (the absence of alexithymia, in this respect). Yet, we noted that, considering the anterior results, the quasi-normal distribution of the answers in the LOT Questionnaire does not imply that the patients under investigation are not pessimist, but rather that they do not consider that their future can be influenced by their actions. Moreover, the scores in analysis of emotions in the BVAQ correlated negatively and significantly with the total scores in the LDI scale, this result signifying the association of a high level of unhappiness regarding the personal domains of functioning, with the tendency the patients with neoplasm have to return on negative thoughts and emotions. Scores in analysis of emotions correlated positively and significantly with the scores in avoidance of thoughts, emotions, and situations about traumatizing events. This result expresses the tendency of association that exists between the preoccupations about the traumatic event of establishing the diagnosis and the analysis of ones own emotions (the excessive preoccupation about painful situations, which is not being shared, leads, over time, to becoming more vulnerable). Peter Riedesser and Gottfried Fischer (2001), quote on Wilson who explains the intrusion as a cognitive mechanism of defence, in the

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Peter Riedesser i Gottfried Fischer (2001) l citeaz pe Wilson care explic intruziunea ca mecanism cognitiv de aprare, n sensul c, dei intruziunea poate fi neleas n concepte de asimilare i acomodare a experienei traumatice, pot aprea deformri cognitive, legturile pot fi percepute fals, explicate fals i cauzele pot fi atribuite distorsionat. Dac asimilarea experienei traumatice la schema traumei reuete, atunci aceasta se poate acomoda la rndul ei i poate integra informaia traumatic. Am mai observat o corelaie pozitiv semnificativ de intensitate moderat ntre scorurile la excitabilitatea emoiilor (ca dimensiune a alexitimiei) i scorurile la Chestionarul pentru evaluarea locului controlului, rezultat care semnific tendina de asociere a externalismului cu absena competenelor legate de stimularea emoional la aciunea unui eveniment inductor de emoii (triesc emoia, dar sunt inadecvate ca reacie). * * * sense that, although the intrusion can be understood through concepts of assimilation and accommodation of the traumatic experience, cognitive deformations can appear, connections can be falsely perceived, wrongly explained, and causes can be wrongly assigned. If the assimilation of the traumatic experience to the scheme of the trauma succeeds, the it can in its turn accommodate and integrate the traumatic information. We also noticed a significant positive correlation of moderate intensity between scores in excitability of emotions (as a dimension of alexithymia) and the scores in the locus of control evaluation questionnaire, a result which signifies the tendency of association of externalism with the absence of competences regarding emotional stimulation under the action of an emotionproducing event (they feel the emotion but they are inadequate in their reactions).

Bibliografie Bibliography
1. Athanasiu, A. (1998), Tratat de psihologie medical (Medical Psychology Treatise), Ed. Oscar Print, Bucharest 2. Allport, G.W. (1981), Structura i dezvoltarea personalitii (Personality Structure and Development), Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucharest 3. Bandura, A. (1971b), Social learning theory, N.Y. General Learning Press, Morristown 4. Blalock, I. A., Joiner Jr. Th. E. (2000), Interaction of cognitive avoidance coping and stress n predicting depression/anxiety, Cognitive Therapy and Research, vol. 24, no. 1 5. Bouvard, Martine (2002), Questionnaires et echelles devaluation de la personnalite, Masson, Paris 6. Carver, S., Scheier, M., Weintraub, J. (1989), Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, p. 184-195 7. CHELCEA, S. (1994), Locul controlului i emergena zvonurilor, n vol. Personalitate i societate n tranziie. Studii de psihologie social (Locus of Control and Rumour emergence, in Personality and society in transition. Social Psychology Studies), Societatea tiin i Tehnic, Bucharest 8. Chiricu, I. (1984), Cancerologie (Cancerology), Ed. Medical, Bucharest 9. Corcoran, K., Fischer, F. (eds.) (1987), Measures for Clinical Practice. A Sourcebook, The Free Press, New York 10. Coan, R. W. (1974), The Optimal Personality: An empirical and theoretical analysis, Columbia University Press, New York 11. Costa, P.T., McCrae, R.R. & Arenberg, D. (1980), Enduring dispositions in adult males, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, p. 793-800 12. Folkman, S., Lazarus, R.S. (1985), If it changes, it must be a process; study of emotion and coping, during three stage of college examination, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, p. 150-170 13. Health Psychology (2004), American Psychological Association, New York 14. Iamandescu, I.B. (1996), Psihologie Medical (Medical Psychology), Ed. Infomedica, Bucharest 15. Lazarus, R.S., Folkman, S. (1984), Stress, Appraisal and Coping, New York, Springer Publishing Company 16. Lengacher, C. A., Bennett, M., Gonzales, L., Cocs, C. M., Reintgen, D. S., Shons, A., Cantor, A., Djeu, J. (1998), Psychoneuroimmunology and Immune System Link for Stress, Depression, Health Behaviors and Breast Cancer, Complementary Health Practice Review 17. Lewis, C. E., Osullivan, C., Barraclough (1994), The Psychoimmunology of Cancer. Mind and body in the Fight for Survival?, Oxford University Press, New York 18. Mitrofan, I. (2004) Terapia unificrii, abordare holistic a dezvoltrii i transformrii umane (Unification Therapy, a Holistic Approach to Human Development and Transformation), Ed. SPER, Bucharest 19. Mitrofan, I., Ciuperc, C. (2002) Psihologia vieii de cuplu (The Psychology of living in a couple), Ed. SPER, Bucharest 20. Mitrofan, I., Stoica, D. (2005), Analiza transgeneraional n terapia unificrii (Transgenerational analysis in Unification Therapy), Ed. SPER, Bucharest 21. Negrea, E., Semen, I., Preda, C-Tin. (1984), Psihic i cancer (Psyche and Cancer), Bucharest 22. Popa-Velea, O. (1999), Elemente de psihosomatic general i aplicat (Elements of applied general Psychosomatics), Ed. Infomedica, Bucharest 23. Riedesser, P., Fischer, G. (2007), Tratat de psihotraumatologie (Psycho-traumatology Treatise), Ed. Trei, Bucharest 24. Stone, A., Neale, J. (1984), New measure of daily coping: development and preliminary results, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, p. 892-906 25. Temoshok, L. (1990), Type C and cancer, Random House, New York 26. Tudose, Ctlina (1987), Alexitimia, n C. Gorgos (red.), Dicionar enciclopedic de psihiatrie, vol. 1 (A-D) (Alexithymia, in C.Gorgos (red.), Encyclopaedic dictionary of Psychiatry, vol. 1 (A-D)), Ed. Medical, Bucharest

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Variabile msurabile (Measured Variables) Verbalizarea emoiilor (Verbal expression of emotions) Viaa imaginar (Imaginary life) Identificarea emoiilor (Identification of emotions) Excitabilitatea emoional (Emotional excitability) Analiza emoiilor (Analysis of emotions) Optimismul (Optimism) Autoeficiena (Self-efficiency) Locul controlului (externalism) (Locus of control (externalism)) Stima de sine (Self esteem) Gndurile/ emoiile, visele intruzive legate de un eveniment traumatizant (Intrusive thoughts/ emotions, dreams connected to a traumatising event) Evitarea gndurilor, emoiilor sau situaiilor legate de un eveniment traumatizant (The avoidance of thoughts, emotions or situations connected to a traumatising event) Preocuprile maritale (Marital preoccupations) Preocuprile profesionale (Professional preoccupations) Activitile extramaritale (sociale) (Extramarital (social) activities) Sinele i familia (Self and family) Satisfacia fa de via, optimismul (Life satisfaction, optimism) Scor total nefericire (Total score of unhappiness)

Medie (Average) 36.24 16.65 18.79 17.51 19.48 20.06 63.27 30.75 19.10 21.65 22.82 13.79 10.10 7.89 20.24 10.96 70

Abatere standard (Standard deviation) 1.76 5.17 3.28 2.47 4.91 3.62 7.28 2.87 2.69 3.85 2.37 4.08 2.62 2.17 2.87 1.67 9.80

Amplitudine teoretic (Theoretical amplitude) 8 - 40 8 - 40 8 - 40 8 - 40 8 - 40 10 -50 23 115 0 40 8 32 7 28 8 32 4 28 3 21 2 14 4 28 2 14 0 - 126

Tabelul I TABLE I.

Domenii ale vieii pentru care a fost evaluat nefericirea (Life areas for which unhappiness was evaluated) Csnicie (Marriage) Sex (Sex) Relaia cu soul (Relation with husband) Relaia cu copiii (Relation with children) Relaia cu celelalte rude (Relation with the other relatives) Treburile casnice (Home chores) Situaia financiar (Financial situation) Slujba (Job) Educaia (Education) Timpul liber (Free time) Viaa social (Social life) Religia (Religion) Planificarea timpului (Time planning) Sntatea fizic (Physical health) Independena personal (Personal independence) Rolul alcoolului n cas (The role of alcohol at home) Satisfacia vieii (Satisfaction with life) Ateptrile n viitor (Expectations for the future)

Nu exist nefericire (There is no unhappiness) 1 2 4 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 8 -

Foarte puin nefericire (Very little unhappiness) 2 7 5 7 1 2 8 10 6 3 2 15 2 14 -

ntructva nefericit (Somewhat unhappy) 4 10 4 9 10 12 5 9 12 4 3 10 6 1 2 -

Moderat de nefericit (Moderately unhappy) 10 6 7 3 16 10 10 4 8 12 15 2 19 9 1 7 5

Foarte nefericit (Very unhappy) 8 5 9 3 1 5 5 3 1 7 7 3 3 7 3 3 7

Extrem de nefericit (Extremely unhappy) 5 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 11 9 18 14

Cea mai mare nefericire (The greatest unhappiness) 2 15 1 1 3

Tabelul II TABLE II.

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Variabile (Variables) 1. verbalizarea emoiilor (verbalization of emotions) 2. viaa imaginar (imaginary life) 3. identificarea emoiilor (identification of emotions) 4. excitabilitatea emoional (emotional excitability) 5. analiza emoiilor (analysis of emotions) 6. optimism (optimism) 7. externalism (LC) (externalism (LC)) 8. autoeficien (selfefficiency) 9. stim de sine (self esteem) 10. gnduri i emoii intruzive (intrusive thoughts and emotions) 11. evitarea gndurilor i emoiilor (avoidance of thoughts and emotions) 12. scor total nefericire (total score of unhappiness) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

-0.11 0.33

-0.50** -

-0.03 0.21 -0.43* -0.02 0.03 -0.18 -0.04

-0.13 -0.28 0.26 -0.19 0.30 0.30 0.07

0.16 0.24 0.05 -0.01 0.18 -0.01 -0.38*

-0.05 -0.05 0.56** 0.17 -0.11 0.24 0.25 -0.07 -0.25 -0.01 -0.23 -0.01 0.12 0.38* -0.26 -0.20 -0.51** 0.59** 0.48** -0.03 -0.34 -

0.15

0.03

0.14

-0.16

0.42*

0.24

-0.41*

0.05

015

-0.63**

0.13

0.15

-0.16

-0.29

-0.41*

-0.15

0.22

-0.07

-0.14

0.38*

-0.38*

* p<0.05; ** p<0.01

Tabelul III TABEL III.

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Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, no. 44, December 2008

SPER este acreditat i recunoscut ca coal Romneasc de Psihoterapie Experienial i a Unificrii de ctre Colegiul Psihologilor din Romnia, cu aviz profesional nr. RF-II-B-2 din 19.06.2006 AFILIERI: Consiliul Mondial de Psihoterapie (World Psychotherapy Council - WPC) (2002), Federaia Romn de Psihoterapie (FRP) (2003), membr a European Association of Psychotherapy (EAP) Asociaia Psihologilor din Romnia (APR) (2004)

INFO PUBLICAIILE EDITURII SPER:

1. Iolanda Mitrofan, Adrian Nu, Jocurile contienei sau Terapia Unificrii: repere pentru o nou psihoterapie experienial, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 1999, 134 pagini, ISBN 97399221-0-4 2. Ctlin Nedelcea, Paula Dumitru, Optimizarea comportamentului profesional, ntre educaie i psihoterapie, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 1999, 150 pagini, ISBN 973-99221-1-2 3. Adrian Nu, Analize Experieniale (Cum l-am lichidat pe Buddha), Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 1999, 143 pagini, ISBN 973-99221-2-0 4. Adrian Nu, Ascultnd cu a treia ureche. Refleciile unui terapeut experienialist, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete experieniale, 1999, 142 pagini, ISBN 973-99221-3-9 5. Iolanda Mitrofan i colab., Orientarea Experienial n Psihoterapie. Dezvoltare personal, interpersonal i transpersonal, Editura SPER, colecia Alma Mater, 2000, 373 pagini, ISBN 97399221-4-7 6. Adrian Nu, Inter-realitatea. Psihoterapie i spectacol dramatic, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2000, 136 pagini, ISBN 973-99221-5-5 7. Adrian Nu, Secrete i jocuri psihologice. Analiz tranzacional, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete experieniale, 2000, 162 pagini, ISBN 973-99221-6-3 8. Adrian Nu, Analize psihologice. Oceanul din pictura de ap, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2001, ISBN 973-99221-7-1 9. Adrian Nu, Inocen i nchipuire. Psihologia relaiei de cuplu, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2001, 187 pagini, ISBN 973-99221-8-X 10. Iolanda Mitrofan i colab., Psihopatologia, psihoterapia i consilierea copilului abordare experienial, Editura SPER, colecia Alma Mater, 2001, 360 pagini, ISBN 973-99221-9-8 11. Angela Ionescu, Psihoterapia existenial: confruntarea cu preocuprile ultime ale existenei ca modalitate de dezvoltare i maturizare personal, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2001, 118 pagini, ISBN 973-85329-0-6 12. Laureniu Mitrofan, Prietenia, o cale de dezvoltare i maturizare a personalitii, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2001, 154 pagini, ISBN 973-85329-1-4 13. Lucian Radu-Geng, Cristian Ciuperc, Manipularea gndirii i comportamentului. Profeii care se automplinesc, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2001, 220 pagini, ISBN 973-85329-2-2 14. Iolanda Mitrofan, Diana Lucia Vasile, Terapii de familie, Editura SPER, colecia Alma Mater, 2001, 250 pagini, ISBN 973-85329-3-0 15. Elena Anghel, Dezvoltarea personal a copiilor, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 973-85329-4-9 16. Elena Vladislav, Ce este psihoterapia copilului?, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 973-85329-5-7 17. Cristian Ciuperc, Copiii viitorului sau viitorul copiilor, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 973-85329-6-5 18. Iolanda Mitrofan, Terapia experienial de familie, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 973-85329-7-3 19. Iolanda Mitrofan, Terapia comunicaional de familie, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 973-85329-8-1 20. Iolanda Mitrofan, Terapia integrativ de familie, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 973-85329-9-X 21. Iolanda Mitrofan, Terapia multipl de familie, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 973-85330-0-7 22. Iolanda Mitrofan, Terapia narativ de familie, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 973-85330-1-5 23. Iolanda Mitrofan, Terapia sistemic de familie, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 973-85330-2-3 24. Iolanda Mitrofan, Terapia strategic de familie, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 973-85330-3-1 25. Iolanda Mitrofan, Terapia structural de familie, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 973-85330-4-X 26. Iolanda Mitrofan, Terapia transgeneraional de familie, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 973-85330-5-8

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Revista de Psihoterapie Experienial, nr. 44, decembrie 2008

27. Geanina Cucu Ciuhan, Devierile comportamentale la copii, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 973-85330-6-6 28. Petrua Daniela Coman, Ce se ntmpl cu adolescenii abuzai, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 97385330-7-4 29. Iolanda Mitrofan, Ce este psihopatologia i psihiatria copilului, Editura SPER, 2001, ISBN 973-853308-2 30. Iolanda Mitrofan, Meditaii creative. Metafor transfiguratoare i contiin extins, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2001, 156 pagini, ISBN 973-85330-9-0 31. Iolanda Mitrofan, Doru Buzducea, Psihologia pierderii i terapia durerii, Editura Albedo, 1999, 194 pagini; reeditare revizuit i adugit, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2002, 202 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-10-2 32. Iolanda Mitrofan, Cristian Ciuperc, Psihologia i terapia cuplului, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2002, 184 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-11-0 33. Anca Munteanu, Terapia psihanalitic freudian, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2002, 96 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-12-9 34. Iolanda Mitrofan, Cristian Ciuperc, Psihologia vieii de cuplu ntre iluzie i realitate, colecia Alma Mater, Editura SPER, 2002, 493 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-13-7 35. Ctlin Nedelcea, Introducere n programarea neuro-lingvistic. Instrument psihologic pentru dezvoltarea personal, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2002, 200 pagini, ISBN 973-838314-5 36. Victor Badea, Marian E. Constantin, n umbra societii, Incursiune n viaa persoanelor fr adpost, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2002, 140 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-15-3 37. Laureniu Mitrofan, Atracia interpersonal sau Romeo i Julieta n cotidian, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2002, 184 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-16-1 38. Adrian Nu, Psihologia comunicrii n cuplu, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Exprieniale, 2002, 162 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-17-X 39. Adrian Nu, Suprafaa i adncimile cuplului, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2002, 148 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-18-8 40. Cristina Denisa Stoica, Relaii-capcan n familia toxicomanului, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2002, 155 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-19-6 41. Victor Badea (coord.), Asistarea persoanelor adulte fr adpost, Editura SPER, colecia Alma Mater, 2003, 183 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-00-5 42. Iolanda Mitrofan (coord.), Ioana Niculae, Denisa Cristina Stoica, Seramis Sas, Teodora Ciolompea, Liliana Dorob, Robrecht Keymeulen, Terapia toxicodependenei posibiliti i limite, Editura SPER, 2003, 243 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-01-3 43. Tudos tefan, Generare i regenerare psihologic. Principii, legiti, soluii, Editura SPER, 2003, ISBN 973-8383-02-1 44. Tudos tefan, Probleme psihosociale actuale n sportul de mare performan, Editura SPER, 2003, ISBN 973-8383-03-X 45. Tudos tefan, Perspective actuale n psihologia sportului. Modele i soluii, Editura SPER, 2003, ISBN 973-8383-04-8 46. Rodica Enache, O perspectiv psihologic asupra maternitii, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2003, 187 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-05-6 47. Ella Ciuperc, Cristian Ciuperc, Individul i lumea de lng el, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2003, 135 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-06-4 48. Adrian Nu, Psihoterapeutul de buzunar, Editura SPER, colecia Anim, 2003, 173 de pagini, ISBN 973-8383-07-2 49. Iolanda Mitrofan, Terapia Unificrii abordare holistic a dezvoltrii i a transformrii umane, Editura SPER, colecia Anim, 2004, 289 de pagini, ISBN 973-8383-08-0 50. Adrian Nu, Umbra. Polul ntunecat al sufletului, Editura SPER, colecia Anim, 2004, 173 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-09-9 51. Adrian Nu, Abiliti de comunicare, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2004, 127 de pagini, ISBN 973-8383-20-X 52. Adrian Nu, nchisori invizibile. Reflaciile unui psihoterapeut nonconformist, Editura SPER, colecia Anim, 2004, 125 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-21-8 53. Laureniu Mitrofan, Elemente de psihologie social, Editura SPER, colecia Alma Mater, 2004, 285 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-22-6 54. Victor Badea, Laureniu Mitrofan, Dimensiuni ale excluderii sociale, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2004, 150 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-23-4

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Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, no. 44, December 2008

55. Adrian Nu, Ghidul iluminrii pentru lenei, Editura SPER, colecia Anim, 2004, 133 pagini, ISBN 9738383-24-2 56. Ada Prvan, Dublul i diferena, Editura SPER, colecia Alma Mater, 2004, 364 pagini, ISBN 973-838325-0 57. Ioana Stancu, Mic tratat de consiliere psihologic i colar, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2005, 170 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-26-9 58. Adrian Nu, Comunicarea: chipuri, umbre i mti, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2005, 181 de pagini, ISBN 973-8383-27-7 59. Iolanda Mitrofan, Denisa Cristina Stoica, Analiza transgeneraional n Terapia Unificrii: o nou abordare experienial a familiei, Editura SPER, colecia Anim, 2005, 308 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-28-5 60. Iolanda Mitrofan, Augustina Ene, Ne jucm nvnd nvm jucndu-ne! Dezvoltare personal asistat de calculator, n grup experienial, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2005, 148 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-29-3 61. Iolanda Mitrofan, Adrian Nu, Consilierea psihologic: cine, ce i cum?, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2005, 200 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-30-7 62. Adrian Nu, Despre iubirea nonposesiv i exuberant, Editura SPER, colecia Anim, 2005, 96 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-31-5 63. Ion Cosmovici, Cinci minute la o cafea. Eseu despre intimitatea postmodern, Editura SPER, colecia Caiete Experieniale, 2005, 139 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-32-3 64. Adrian Nu, Calea Vrjitorului. Metodologia relaxat a revelrii Sinelui, Editura SPER, colecia Anim, 2006, 132 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-33-1 65. Adrian Nu, Psihologia cuplului, Editura SPER, colecia Alma Mater, 2006, 200 pagini, ISBN 9738383-34-X 66. Geanina Cucu-Ciuhan, Eficiena psihoterapiei experieniale la copilul hiperkinetic (studiu clinic de validare), Editura SPER, colecia Alma Mater, 2006, 227 pagini, ISBN 973-8383-35-8 67. Adrian Nu, Infinitul mic, iubindu-l pe cel Mare, Editura SPER, colecia Anim, 2007, 172 pagini, ISBN 978-973-8383-36-4 68. Adrian Nu, Mai mult de 10%. Unitatea vertical a creierului, Editura SPER, colecia Anim, 2007, 147 pagini, ISBN 978-973-8383-37-1 69. Iolanda Mitrofan, Psihoterapie (Repere teoretice, metodologice i aplicative), Editura SPER, colecia Alma Mater, 2008, 517 pagini, ISBN 978-973-8383-38-8 70. Adrian Nu, Interconexiuni. Fizica cuantic povestit de un psihoterapeut, Editura SPER, colecia Alma Mater, 2008, 225 pagini, ISBN 978-973-8383-39-5

Centrul i coala SPER funcioneaz n dou locaii:


B-dul Chiinu nr.12, bl. B22, ap. 3, interfon 03, sector 2, Bucureti, telefon 021.628.10.52, 0728.496.291 Str. Eforie nr. 8, et. 8, ap. 49, interfon 49C, sector 5, Bucureti, telefon 031.104.35.18, 0722.508.098 SPER ofer consultaii, programe terapeutice i formative, cure i strategii de analiz i optimizare personal experienial, testri psihologice individuale i de grup pentru: copii i adolesceni, aduli, cupluri i familii, specialiti n domeniul socio-uman i medical, organizaii.

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Revista de Psihoterapie Experienial, nr. 44, decembrie 2008

coala SPER
cf. avizelor profesionale ale Colegiului Psihologilor din Romnia, Comisia de Psihologie Clinic i Psihoterapie
(avizul profesional nr. RF-II-B-2 din 19.06.2006 i anexe) ofer urmtoarele programe:

A. Program formativ n 1. Psihoterapie Experienial i a Unificrii (PEU) centrat pe adult-copil-cuplu-familie i 2. Consiliere Psihologic Evaluarea i Consilierea Experienial a copilului, cuplului i familiei
Stadiul I al formrii n psihoterapie i consiliere:
- analiz didactic experienial i dezvoltare personal, individual i n grup, pentru studeni, alte categorii de clieni i/sau specialiti n psihologie, asisten social, medicin, psihopedagogie (cf. legii 213/2004 minimum 50 150 de ore); certificri de etap (nr. ore) - carduri

Stadiul II al formrii n psihoterapie i consiliere:


- grupuri de abilitare/formare n consiliere/ psihoterapie experienial (stagiul I de specializare postuniversitar, cf. legii 213/2004); grupuri specifice de abilitare n psihoterapie/ consiliere experienial a unificrii (ex: terapii creative, terapii de cuplu, terapii cu copii, de familie etc.), workshopuri tematice; certificri/ atestri specifice de etap (ex: diplome sau carduri pentru formare pentru consilier/ psihoterapeut sub supervizare minimum 200 500 de ore formare)

Stadiul III al formrii i certificrii n psihoterapie i consiliere:


- grupuri formare n PEU pentru avansai (stagiul II de specializare postuniversitar, cf. legii 213/2004); analiz experienial unificatoare i transgeneraional - individual i n grup (aprofundarea analizei didactice pentru psihoterapeuii sub supervizare); supervizare individual i n grup a absolvenilor colii SPER (stagiul III de specializare postuniversitar i alte stagii formative); stagii de supervizare pentru formatori; stagii pregtitoare pentru noi formatori i supervizori; psihodiagnoza clasic i experienial - stagii formative; certificri, atestri finalizatoare, integratoare (ex: specialist n consiliere/ psihoterapie PEU minimum 450650 ore, formator minimum 2000 de ore, supervizor minimum 3500 ore) certificat cu sigla i tampilele colii

B. Program de formare profesional continu n 1. Psihoterapie Experienial a Unificrii (PEU) centrat pe adult-copil-cuplu-familie (60 90 ore, 20 credite) i 2. Consiliere Psihologic Experienial centrat pe adult, copil, cuplu i familie (60 90 ore, 20 credite) C. Curs de formare profesional continu n Psihologie Clinic (96 ore, 20 credite)

Informaii, nscrieri programe i workshop-uri, comenzi de cri i reviste: tel. 031.104.35.18 / 021.628.10.52 / 0722.508.098, e-mail sperpsi@gmail.com Crile i revistele se trimit prin pot, cu plata ramburs. Vizitai i site-ul nostru i librria virtual la adresa: www.sper.ro

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Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, no. 44, December 2008

INSTRUCIUNI PENTRU AUTORI Pot fi trimise pentru a fi publicate n Revista de Psihoterapie Experienial studii i cercetri privind: psihoterapia, n special psihoterapia experienial, consilierea psihologic, psihopatologia i psihologia clinic, terapiile de familie, terapia copilului i adolescentului, psihopatologia i psihoterapia social, terapiile holistice i complementare. Articolele vor fi trimise n limba romn i limba englez (sau francez), cu titlul, rezumatul i cuvintelecheie n limba romn, englez i francez i cu textul n limba romn (obligatoriu cu diacritice) i englez (sau francez). Ca standarde de publicare vor fi folosite cele incluse n Publication Manual of the American Association, a 4-a ediie. Fiecare articol, care nu poate depi un numr de 25 de pagini (format A4, la 1,5 rnduri) va conine obligatoriu: a) numele complet al autorului sau autorilor, precum i afilierea lor; b) rezumatul, ce nu poate depi 200 de cuvinte, att n limba romn, ct i n cele dou limbi strine; c) maximum 5 cuvinte cheie (trilingv); d) textul propriu-zis; e) referine bibliografice; f) tabele/ figuri. Odat cu articolul, autorul va trimite o scrisoare prin care asigur editorul c acesta nu a fost trimis simultan i altor reviste i c, dac articolul va fi publicat, drepturile de copyright revin Editurii SPER Cons Edit, sub egida Societii Romne de Psihoterapie Experienial. Articolele pot fi trimise n dou moduri: a) prin pot, mpreun cu un disc (preferabil DOS format), la adresa: Iolanda Mitrofan, Str. Eforie, nr. 8, Et. 8, Ap. 49, Sector 5, Bucureti; b) prin e-mail, la adresa: sperpsi@gmail.com. Acceptarea manuscriselor Orice articol este admis pentru publicare numai pe baza avizului tiinific. Fiecare articol va fi trimis la 2 refereni tiinifici, fr ca autorul s tie cine sunt acetia. n cazul n care ambii refereni ofer un aviz favorabil, articolul urmeaz s fie publicat. Dac referenii fac unele sugestii pentru mbuntirea calitii articolului, atunci acesta este remis autorului pentru refacere, dup care se reia procedura de evaluare. Dac i a doua oar articolul nu este avizat favorabil de cei doi refereni, el va fi respins definitiv.

INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS In order to be published in Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy it can be sent studies and researches regarding: Psychotherapy, especially Experiential psychotherapy, Psychological counseling, Psychopathology and clinic psychology, Family therapy, Child and adolescent therapy, Psychopathology and social psychotherapy, Holistic and complementary psychotherapies. Articles will be sent as a manuscript in Romanian and English or French language, with the title, abstract and key-words in Romanian, English and French and the text of article in Romanian and English (or French). As standards for publication will be used those included in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, fourth edition. Each article which will not overpass 25 pages (A4 format, at 1.5 rows) will compulsory contain: a) complete name of author or authors, as well as their affiliation; b) abstract, which can not overpass 200 words, written in Romanian and both English and French; c) maximum 5 key words (in Romanian, English and French); d) complete text of article; e) references; f) tables/ figures. Also the author has obligation to send a letter in order to assure editor the article was not simultaneously sent to other journals and if the article will be published copyright is transferred to Romanian Society for Experiential Psychotherapy. All articles will be sent in 2 copies in one of the two ways: a) by mail, together with a computer disk (regularly DOS format) at the address: Iolanda Mitrofan, Eforie Street, nr. 8, Et. 8, Ap. 49, Sector 5, Bucharest; b) electronic submission, at the address: sperpsi@gmail.com. Peer Review Any article is admitted for publication only on the basis of scientific advice. Each article will be sent to two scientific personalities who will evaluate it. In no way the author will know these referees. In the case both referees offer a positive report the article will be published. If the report contains some suggestions relating the articles quality this will be sent to the author for improvement and after that will be applied again evaluation procedure. If both referees not approve the new form of article it will be definitive rejected.

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