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Feeding of Dairy Cattle

An efficient dairy animal is the result of better breeding, but its productivity depends largely upon the feed and care given to it. Many innovations are under way to meet nutritional needs of dairy animals. Feed is the largest input into commercial milk production and accounts for over half of its total cost. Proper attention to feed can help bring down this cost. Moreover, Indis milk output could be doubled if the dairy animals were only adequately fed. In India, the common feeding practice is to let animals graze on pastures besides feeding them a mixture of cakes, grains by-products and other filler ingredients. The concept of compound cattle feed is also catching up, though slowly. There is tremendous scope for innovations to meet nutritional demands of high-yielding crossbred animals and even low-yielders. A dairy animal is known as one of the most efficient producers of food for man. It can utilize large quantities of feed, much of which is inedible in the natural state. Economical production of milk, however, depends largely upon three main factors-the efficiency of an animal, its nutrition, and management. The efficient cow /buffalo is the result of inheritance and improved breeding. Its productivity, however, depends upon the adequate inputs in terms of feed and care. It has been estimated that India's present milk output could be doubled if dairy animals were only adequately fed. Some of the ways and means of achieving this objective are discussed. At the outset, it is useful to consider the normal milk production pattern of well-fed and well-managed animals. Bio-safety of Feed ingredients and its Impact on Milk Quality The milk producers should realize that they are not only in business of animal keeping and milk production, but also in business to provide safest food to people. Milk is a very complex liquid. Its primary purpose is to provide nutrients and protection to the young mammal until it is capable of consuming solid foods. The milk processors should realize that the milk is processed to: eliminate health risks and spoilage; remove remaining contaminant particles; maintain the flavour of the product; reduce the fat content if it necessary and stabilize the fat content to stop separation; and, to make various products. Once the milk leaves the cow, nothing can be done to enhance the value of the milk, but much can be done to prevent loss of value before the milk reaches the consumer. It must be handled correctly from the moment of milking. Protection from contamination before, during and after milking; holding time for milk at any temperature or stage in the storage and transportation chain critically affect the rate of bacterial multiplication; and, temperature strongly affects the rate of bacterial growth.

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Milk Contaminants Water Bacteria and other microorganisms Antibiotics and other drugs used to treat cows. Pesticides or insecticides applied to cow or her environment Products of fungi (mycotoxins) in the feed Chemicals used in cleaning the equipment. Others. It is illegal to add water in milk in any country. Antibiotic residues in milk should be minimized as: Some people are allergic. Antibiotics interfere with preparation of some dairy products like cheese and yoghurt. Low levels of antibiotics in food contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. Aesthetic: Consumers assume that milk they purchase comes from healthy cows. Pesticide and insecticide residues in milk They appear through feed or as a result of contamination after milking. They are carcinogenic for consumers. The pesticides are DOT, BHC and their isomers and chlorinated compounds like aldrin, dialdrin, hepatochlor, etc. There are many reports that the pesticide levels are many times more than prescribed PFA limits. Mycotoxins and other feed contaminants Through mould contaminated feed Aflatoxins and other toxins are reported to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic and hepatotoxic in most animals and human beings. Regular monitoring of mycotoxins is essential. Aflatoxin from aspergillius flavus. It is estimated that as much as 25 per cent of the worl( cereals are contaminated with known mycotoxins. Comm fungi are Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicilia. Fungi can grow any stage - crops in field, at harvest, in storage or during fe processing. These silent killers have negative impact on anin productivity and human health. In colder temperate climatl vomitoxin, zearalenone, ochratoxin, DAS, T-2 toxin, etc. , common. In warm and humid climates, aflatoxin is major pre lem. In winter, vomitoxin, zearalenone, ochratoxin, T-2 to) etc. can create problems. About 1-4 per cent of aflatoxin present in feed can be excreted through milk. Aflatoxin B" G" G2 are converted to hydroxyl derivatives. These toxins can appear in milk within 48 hours of their intake of contaminated feed and continue for 3-4 days after the withdrawal of feed. Various methods of milk processing only partially destroy a toxin M.

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Effect of mycotoxicosis on health and production performance include: Poor feed efficiency. Reproductive problem caused by Zearalenone. Swelling of mammary glands Atrophy of the ovaries. - Increased susceptibility to diseases. Mycotoxin residues in milk - Presence of aflatoxin M, - The ratio of transfer from feed to milk is 65-100:1. Recent trends in mycotoxin control Nutritional modifications. Use of mineral clays, activated charcoal, zeolites, alur silicates, etc. Use of new generation products like yeast cell wall content~ mannan oligosaccharides (Adsorbents). Mould inhibitors Other feed contaminants Wild onion and kale can impart flavours. Heavy metals like lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic etc. been reported in milk and milk products. To ensure biosafety at the dairy farms, no animal protein Sources should be used in feed. Like in poultry farms, biosecurity me, should be followed in dairy farms also. Biosecurity refers to practices intended to make herds more secure against biologic meaning contagious diseases. The most significant risk factor introducing a new disease onto a dairy farm is purchasing animals. These production ceilings will not be reached unless the animal remains in good health for the remaining eight months of lactation, is fed adequately his period, and is milked and handled competently in the shed. If average yield per cow /buffalo is to be raised, then the first assault must be directed at improving the performance of the cows at beginning of their lactations. What determines starting yield? The importance of good yield at the commencement of the lactation cannot be over-emphasized. If one assumes that the animals are healthy then the three main involved are: The animal must be in adequate physical condition at the time of calving. The shed routine for milk removal from the animal must be efficient. The ration after calving must contain adequate amount of energy and protein.

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Hay Good hay should be leafy, green in colour, free from mould and foreign materials. It should preferably be from legume crops. It must be cut at an early stage of maturity. Hay from a late crop is less palatable and lower in total digestible nutrient, protein, calcium and phosphorus. Cereal hays can be made from oats, barley, bajra, etc. These hays when cut early in the flowering stage and sufficiently before the milky stage retain much of their green colour and have reasonably good feeding value. However, they are less palatable and nutritious than legume hays. Cereal hays are low in protein and so they must be fed with a protein supplement. Legume hays contain higher protein and calcium than cereal hay. They are also more palatable. The most important point to remember in preparing legume hay is to preserve leaves which contain over 75 per cent protein of the whole plant. Good quality hay is made mostly from lucerne and berseem crop if they are cut at the proper stage and cured without loss of leaves. Silage Highly palatable and rich in carotene, silage is an efficient feed because there is little waste when it is fed to animals. Even silage made from plants with coarse stalks, such as maize and sorghum, will be eaten with practically no waste. Also, the crop can be ensiled in weather that does not permit curing into dry forage (hay). If storage is a problem, silage offers the additional advantage of being highly compact. The feeding value of any silage depends on its moisture content and efficiency of making it. The feeding system for dairy cattle has three important components. They are: 1.Roughages/Dry Fodder 2. Forages/Green Fodder 3. Concentrates/Oil cakes, etc. 1. Rouhgages They are low in energy and protein and form the bulk of the feed. Roughages are rich in crude fiber constituting cellulose and hemicelluloses. The crude fiber is degraded in the rumen by microbes to volatile fatty acids like acetic, propionic and butyric. These acids are the source of energy and precursors of milk fat. Roughages are must in the feed. Roughages are obtained from maize or jowar, kadbi, wheat or rice straw, sugar cane tops, dry hay etc. Roughages have low palatability but animals still relish them. 2. Forages They are green forages. They contain about 80% moisture and hence are juicy in nature. They add value to the feeding system. Forages have better digestibility than roughages.
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They also form the bulk of the feed and are rich in energy and protein. Usual source of forages are green Lucerne, berseem and green frass. The forage are used for silage making. 3. Concentrates Concentrates are rich in protein and are essential to meet the protein deficit. They are also rich in energy. Concentrates are palatable. They are essential part of the feeding system. Concentrates are made up of cereals, cereal byproducts, cakes and extraction. The list of ingredients that he part of the concentrates is given in below table. Thus the roughages, green forages and concentrates form the complete feeding system. They are supplemented with minerals and trace elements and vitamins A and D3. In addition to the above, there are various supportives which when added to this ration, improve feed quality, food digestion, body metabolism, apart from increasing milk yield and improving body condition. Ingredients used in Cattle feed concentrates Energy Source Maize, Jowar, wheat, Damaged grains, Wheat Bran, Rice polish, tapioca. Protein Source Cottonseed Cke, Rapeseed Meal, Sunflower Meal, Peanut Meal. Maize Glutan, Coconut Meal, Soybean Meal Low energy source Liquid Molasses, Rice Bran Extraction, Safflower Extraction Uncoventional Breweries Grains, Malt Sprouts, Bread/Biscuit Waste, Tomato Waste, Ingredients Babul Chuni, Tamarind Seed Powder, Mango Seed Kernel, Turmeric Powder, Cassiatora Seeds, mahuwa Seed Cake, Salseed Meal, Rubber Seed Cake, Ambadi cake. New Feed Ingredients It is estimated that feed requirement of ruminants at moderate levels of production can be met without using much of cereals and other human food ingredients. Important non-conventional feed ingredients include seeds of mango, tamarind, babul; seed cakes like castor, mahua, sal and niger; agro-industrial by-products like apple waste, bagasse; and, agricultural wastes like sunflower heads and straw. Two major limitations in the large-scale utilization of these ingredients are: collecting them economically and presence of some anti-nutritional factors in some of them. These limitations may be overcome through reduction in size (by cutting, grinding, etc.), heat treatment, softening, treatment with alkalies, acids, salts, use of enzymes for digestion or bio-degradation, using suitable microbial cultures, etc. Use of Probiotics Directly fed micro-organisms (DFM), popularly called as probiotics, contain live cells of yeasts and bacteria. In trials, yeasts have shown significant improvement in animal performance. These cultures help in ruminal digestion by supplying essential amino acids

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and vitamins to microflora and also creating optimal conditions of pH in rumen. So far, limited success has been achieved. Mineral Nutrition Minerals are often insufficient in the green and dry fodder. They are generally supplemented through concentrates. They can be provided in the form of mineral premixes or urea-molasses mineral block licks. More recently, the supply of minerals is being advocated in the form of chelates. Chelation technology is also practised for the supply of essential amino acids, but it has not been widely accepted so far due to cost consideration. Minerals in Dairy Cattle Nutrition Dairy Cattle require at least 17 minerals in their diet for optimal milk production, reproductive performance and herd health. As milk producing ability of dairy animals increases, more and more attention is needed to the importance of mineral matter in dairy ration. For dairy cattle, the major minerals are calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine and sulphur. Growing and lactating animals particularly need specific quantities of minerals, specially calcium and phosphorus. Minor minerals, which are required in very small quantities, are known as trace minerals or micro minerals. These include manganese, zinc, iron, copper, iodine, cobalt and selenium. Though the requirement of these trace minerals is small, their proper level should be ensured in the feed to achieve optimum performance and herd health. Due to peculiar inter-relationship between minerals, the excess of one may cause deficiency of another even though the latter may be present in the diet at the required level. Even small imbalances or deficiencies can result into problems related to reproduction, health and milk production. There are two sources of minerals: (a) Grains and fodder; and, (b) Supplements, to balance the minerals present in the feedstuffs. The mineral contents of feed or supplements are of little value for any given feed formulation unless the availability, or digestibility, of the mineral is known. The bio-availability can be improved by chelation and biotech application. Such biotech minerals are also referred to as organic minerals. Role and requirements of Minerals have been described below: Calcium & Phosphorus: Calcium is needed for developing and maintaining the rigidity of bones. It also contributes to the formation of intracellular cement and the cell membranes, and regulation of nervous excitability and muscular contraction. About 90 per cent calcium is stored in the bones, where it can be reabsorbed by blood and tissues. It builds strong bones and teeth, keeps animal heart beating regularly, helps in normalizing bloodclotting action and helps metabolize body's iron. Phosphorus combines with calcium in the bones and teeth. It plays an important role in energy metabolism of the cells, affecting proteins, carbohydrates and fatty acids. Phosphorus deficiency is the most widespread of all the mineral deficiencies affecting grazing livestock.

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Magnesium: It is a key substance in proper functioning of nerves and muscles. It is also needed for the maintenance of bones. Magnesium is often coupled with calcium in the feed supplements because of its synergistic effects. Sodium, Potassium and Chloride: Salt is unique in that animals have a much greater appetite for sodium and chloride in salt than for other minerals. Most plants provide insufficient sodium for animal feeding and may lack adequate chloride content, a':ld therefore, salt supplementation is a critical part of a nutritionally balanced diet for animals. Sodium makes up approximately 93% of the basic mineral elements in the blood stream. The other nutrient in salt is chloride, which is also essential for life. The popular chloride shift is the backbone of acid-base balance of the blood. It is also an essential part of the hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach, which is required to digest most feedstuffs. The requirement of salt by growing animals is usually adequately supplied by adding one per ce'1t common salt to the concentrate mixture and providing free-choice to a source of salt, like mineral brick, after the calf is a few months old. Lactating cows need approximately 30 gm of salt per 1.8-2 Iitres of milk while dry cows need approximately 40 gm salt daily.

The third most abundant mineral in the animal body after calcium and phosphorus, is potassium. It works closely sodium and chloride to maintain fluid distribution, pH balance and to augment nerve-impulse transmission, muscle contraction, regulation of heartbeat and blood pressure. A natural salt of the mineral chlorine, chloride works with sodium and potassium to help maintain the proper distribution and pH of all body fluids and encourages nerve and muscle functions. Sulphur: Sulphur is part of every cell, especially in the rich tissues of animal hair, hoof, muscle and skin. It is forming mineral that is part of the chemical structure of the acids methionine, cystine, taurine, and glutathione. It assists in metabolism as part of vitamin B1, vitamin-H and vitamin Bs; and helps regulate blood glucose level as a constituent of insulin, and helps regulate blood clotting. Sulphur is also known to convert so substances into non-toxic ones that can be excreted and therefore is used to treat poisoning from cadmium, lead and mercury. Manganese: It is essential for the proper formation and maintenance of bone, cartilage and connective tissues. It also plays role in synthesis of proteins and genetic materials, and helps produce energy from feeds. It also acts as an antioxidant and in normal blood clotting. Zinc: It is an important mineral for many functions of body to the root structure of all living cells. It is integral to the S' of RNA and DNA, the genetic material that controls cell division and function. It is also essential for proper wound However, excessive quantities of zinc interfere with utilize other trace minerals such as copper and iron. Iron: An important component of hemoglobin, the protein red blood cells, iron is important up to two months of age, a its deficiency in dairy cattle is not common.

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Copper: Its many functions include: Role in the formation of hemoglobin in the blood, in the absorption and utilization of facilitate red blood cells to carry out oxygen transportation, regulation of blood pressure, heart rate and promoting fertility. Cobalt: Most dairy rations will require no supplemental sources of cobalt. This is a mineral part of vitamin B'2 which help in red blood cell formation and also maintains nerve tissues. Iodine: It is a part of several thyroid hormones and it strongly influences nutrient metabolism, nerve and muscle function teeth condition, and physical and mental development. At least 12 mg iodine should be provided to dairy animals on daily basis. Selenium: It is essential to mammals and higher plants in small amounts. It stimulates the metabolism, and is an antioxidant which protects cells and tissues from damage caused by free radicles. Molybdenum: It is a component of the enzyme xanthine oxidase and an important trace mineral which acts as antioxidant and helps the body remain healthy by detoxifying sulfites and sulphur compounds. Chromium: It works with insulin to regulate the body's sugar to help body bum sugar and it plays a role in metabolism and is essential to fatty-acid metabolism. Fluoride: It is a natural form of the mineral fluorine, which is required for healthy teeth and bones. It helps form the enamel that protects teeth from decay and cavities, and increases bone strength and stability.

New trace elements of the future: Nickel, vanadium, tin, and silicon are some of the trace elements that may be deficient in animal diets in the future as soils decline in fertility crop or animal yields increase. Feed Requirement It is essential to understand the feed requirement of the dairy animal. Feed is required for maintenance, growth, production of milk and reproduction (growth of foetus). The requirement is measured in terms of: Total Digestive Nutrients (TDN) Digestive Crude Proteins (DCP) Rumen Degradable protein (RDP) Undegradable Protein (UDP) Metabolizable Energy (Me/Kcal/Kg) Calcium (Ca) Phosphorus (P0

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These requirements vary as per the body weight, status of milk yield and the age of the animal. It is important that these nutrient requirements are met with a combination of roughages, fodder and concentrates. A judicious use of this combination is necessary to offer balanced feed to the animal. Since concentrates are made from various sources of ingredients, it is essential that standard specifications to be maintained. Specifications for Compounded Feed As per the specifications issued by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the compounded cattle feeds shall be in the form of a meal or cubes or pellets. The feed shall be free from harmful constituents, metallic pieces and adulterants. The feed shall also be free from fungal growth and insect infestation; and from fermented, musty, rancid or any other objectionable odour. The farmer is advised to use the following tips: The total feed consumption of a cow is estimated at the rate of 3% of body weight on dry matter basis i.e. without moisture. This proportion is 3.5% in case of buffaloes. Feed recommendation is as follows: concentrates 1.5 kg for body maintenance and 0.4 kg per litre of milk production. Roughages and fodder ad libitum. In this case 50% greens are advisable on dry matter basis. Depending upon body weight and milk yield, one can choose between premium to lower end of concentrate compound volume. At a very high level of milk yield, it may not be possible to feed all the daily required nutrients from the feed.In such a case, the cow is able to use the body reserves to meet the milk demand. It is, therefore, imperative that feeding care is taken through challenge feeding system. UMMB Lick The UMMB (Urea Molasses Mineral Blocks) licks supply most of the nutrients generally deficient in a straw based diet. These are urea, molasses, mil supplements, common salt and brans/cakes. Guar gum powder, sodium bentonite and lime are used as binding agents. The proportion of key ingredients like urea and molasses in the formulation is adjusted to ensure their optimum utilization. The level of binding agents is adjusted to obtain the blocks of good texture under different climatic conditions. The UMMB licks are manufactured in different states under the cooperative sector. In manufacturing UMMB, a hot process technique was employed The UMMB lick should be kept before the animal in a special dispenser to facilitate it to lick as and when desired. In offering UMMB lick, provision of adequate straw / fodder and water should be made Licking of block may be slow in the beginning, but it should not be discontinued. The block should be fed only as Iick. It should be fed regularly to get the desired results. Block should be protected from water, dust, dung and urine. Urea Treatment of Straw Straw is a coarse, fibrous, lowly palatable material deficient in nitrogen and minerals and poorly digestible. As a result, there is less consumption of straw by animals. Various methods have been developed to improve straw utilization by employing physical, chemical, physio
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chemical and microbiological agents. However, in field application the urea treatment method has been widely accepted. Treatment of straw by urea can greatly increase its nutritional value, digestibility, palatability and intake. Straw becomes soft and pliable and protein enriched after treatment, and cattle relish it. Open stack treatment of straw in bulk of 500Kg or more is recommended for the following reasons: It eliminates the need for repeated treatment of small lots of straw. The method requires minimum input cost. Long form (unchaffed) treated straw can be chaffed very easily. Bulk treatment ensures long duration feeding of treated straw. However, other suitable methods can be red depending upon the area needs. Method of treatment The methodology comprises packing of straw in a welded wiremesh or other suitable enclosure layer-by-layer. Urea at the rate of four per cent of straw is sprinkled in solution form layer-bylayer and then well-pressed by manual trampling. The volume of water to be used for solution depends on the type and initial moisture content of straw. Mineral mixture at appropriate level is also sprinkled layer-by-layer and the heap is kept covered by plastic sheet. Treated straw heap is left undisturbed for two-to- three weeks before its use as feed. Feeding Treated Straw The recommended mode of feeding treated straw is as follows: Take out the required quantity of the urea treated straw each time. Initially aerate the treated straw for half-an-hour before feeding. Once the animal is accustomed to the treated straw, feed it without aeration. Cattle relish the ammonical smell. Animals can consume 50 per cent more treated straw than the untreated one. Watch for increase in milk yield after two weeks of feeding treated straw regularly. Do not disturb the concentrate level if the increase in milk is observed. However, if increase in milk yield is not found, start reducing concentrate a handful every day progressively until the milk production starts declining. This way one-third of total concentrate can be replaced by treated straw without affecting milk production In case an animal does not accept the treated straw initially, sprinkle some concentrate powder / flour over it to induce eating. Bypass Protein Feed Apart from the normal feeding system, two new concepts are becoming popular in dairy feeding. They are by pass proteins and bypass fat. The basic difference between conventional balanced cattle feed and Bypass protein Feed (BPF) is that the basis for formulation is protein/DCP in the former and RDP/UDP besides protein in the latter. Ideally, compounded BPF should have a minimum of 28 percent crude protein, 18 percent UDP and minimum 8 percent RDP. These levels result in maximum economic gains. The recommended allowance per litre milk is 250-300gms which is almost half of the allowance recommended for conventional balanced feed. Though the cost of BPF per kilogram is higher
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(about 1.3 to 1.5 times to that of cattle feed), the cost per litre of milk is lower because of its lower allowance per litre of milk. Advantages The BPF has distinct superiority over the conventional feed in many ways as described below: The efficiency of protein utilization is far superior in BPF formulation as it is based on the principle of dietary protein degradability. Nutritionally, it is quite similar to traditionally used oilcakes which are very expensive ranging from Rs 5 - 10 per kg. As such, it could be used as a replacement of traditional oilcakes being used by the farmers. As only choice materials of high palatability are used in BPF manufacture, its acceptance by the animal is excellent. It can support the nutrient requirement of even high yielding animals. The need for concentrate per unit milk production is substantially reduced using BPF as compared to the conventional CF. As a result of this, the existing feed processing capacity can cater to the needs of larger population of milch animals. It is well known that the proteins are broken down to peptides and amino acidsin rumen by microbial fermentation. The microbes convert these aminoacids into microbial proteins. All the proteins, however, are not converted by microbes. Some of them escape rumen and go for normal gut digestion. Microbes generally attack easily available proteins which are also nutritious for post ruminal function. These proteins are classified as rumen degradable proteins (RDP) and undegradable proteins (UDP). It has been observed that milk production can be enhanced by providing easily breakable peptide chain and good quality amino acids for ready availability for milk synthesis. These essential amino acids are lysine, methionine and arginine. While best protein sources could be soyabean meal, maize gluten and groundnut cake or their extractions, such protein sources can be protected from rumen microbial attack by way of heating or chemical treatment such as with formaldehyde or coating. Choose best protein or amino acid composition, protect the source from rumen microbial attack and make it available for direct synthesis. This improves the milk yield. Such proteins are called bypass protein. By pass protein therefore: Must be protected from ruminal attack. Must be good in amino acid source. Should have quality, suitable for easy digestion. Should have a ratio of 50:50 UDP:RDP Is a sure way to boost milk yield. Bypass Fat It is always a dream for a farmer to get fat content in his cow's milk. Generally, feed contains about 2.5% to 3.5% the case of cattle the milk fat is synthesized by the biochemical process in rumen from the feed source. Farmer often resorts to feeding vegetable oil to the cow. This, however, is utilized purely as energy source and may partly improve milk yield and fat but that is because the animal may
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be on marginal feed deficit, which is corrected by giving high energy in the form of oil. Such oil liberates unsaturated fatty acids, which have in fact inhibiting effect on carbohydrate splitting microbes. This restricts formation of acetic and propionic acid. To overcome this a new concept of bypass fat with saturated fatty acid composition has been developed. By pass fat concept is based on the following principles: About 35% of the fatty acid component in milk fat is accounted for by C-16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. Bypass fa contains 99% crude fat. Its principal constituents are C-16:0 (48-25%) and C-18:0 (42-48%) fatty acids. This fat is entirely of vegetable origin with palm oil as its major base. It has a ME value of 90Kcal/Kg. This two saturated long chain fatty acids are partially released in the rumen but mostly pass in the small intestine where 95% of them are digested. The fatty acids pass from blood to the udder where they can be incorporated directly in the milk fat. This results in the increase in milk and milk fat output. Thus the normal productivity of milch cow can be achieved if the above-mentioned feeding methods are implemented. Factors effecting Milk Yield and Milk Fat Milk yield: Normal lactation days are 300. The milk yield increases for about 2 months after parturition and reaches the peak. After this period, there is steady decline of 10% every month till the 10th month. Day-to-day variation, usually drop, in the milk results due to: Improper and under feeding; denial of water; diseases, excitement oestrus; incomplete evacuation of udder. Age of cow: The milk yield potential depends on the age of the cow-First lactation 75%; Second lactation: 85%; Third lactation: 92%; Fourth lactation: 98%. Pregnancy: As pregnancy advances milk yield comes down, 60 days dry period optimizes milk yield. Temperature: For optimum profitable dairying, ambient temperature from 40F t, is a safe zone. Extremes are not good. Milk fat: There is direct relationship between milk fat and milk yield. As the milk goes up milk fat comes down and vice versa. Fore milk has 1 % fat, last drawn mil 8-15% fat. long interval in milking reduces milk fat. Exercise increases milk fat. M milk has low fat. Evening milk has high fat. Feed Components and their significance Component Significant Function Water Most important nutrient for digestion, absorption Proteins Amino acids for growth of tissues and muscles Carbohydrates Soluble starch, Sugar Crude fiber for providing energy Fats For body conditioning as reserved source of energy, for healthy skin and central nervous system.
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Minerals

Vitamins

Ca, P, Mg, Na, K Cl, Co, Fe, Zn, Mn, se, Iodine. These are important constituents of body tissues, help in metabolism, important for fertility. A,D.E and K which are fat soluble B Complex group- B1,B2,B6,B12, Niacin, pantothenate, Biotin, choline, Folic acid, ascorbic acid. These are very essential in all metabolic processes, normal health and development.

Calculation for Estimating Body weight of Cow Body weight (in Kgs)= Length+Height+ Girth (in centimeters) The Length can be measured from the mouth to the. hind end starting from the base of the tail. The Height from the top of the hump to the base of the front feet. The Girth from the centre of the back taking complete round (that is end to end). This principle applies to all he bovines. Ten Pointers for Effective Feed Management To fully tap the potential of high yielding cows and buffaloes the following points of feeding management are of practical importance: Feeding dairy animals on homegrown fodder, especially leguminous or a mixture of leguminous and nonleguminous, would be most economical as compared to feeding them on crop residues and concentrates. Feed roughages (hay or hay and silage) twice a day and concentrates or grain mixture at or before milking. Green forages are much more palatable than the hays prepared from them. Through liberal feeding of greens or silage, the need to feed concentrates can be cut down by 33 per cent. When leguminous fodder such as lucerne and berseem is fed, the quantity of concentrates can be further cut down. Again, the greens especially leguminous fodder should not form the entire roughage ration because of the risk of producing bloat. It should be mixed with green grasses/ hay or other non-leguminous fodders/ crop residues before feeding. If grass is not readily available, it may be replaced with straw in the proportion of one kg of straw for every four kg of green grass. Long grasses / other fodder / crop residues must be chaffed before feeding to reduce wastage. Concentrate must be fed after moistening it with some water to reduce dustiness. The moistened feed should be fed the same day. The digestive system of a high-producing dairy animal has a limited capacity and so to obtain the required nutrients, the digestibility of the ra tion on dry matter basis must per cent or higher. It will enaL cow to assimilate the available ents in the feed. Roughages ma) to be supplemented with feel centrates to ensure nutrients for mum milk production. The cow must be conditioned adequately before calving so as to the needed body reserve for good milk production after calving. For this it must calve in relatively fat condition and so must be on a fattening ration for the last two months of the dry period. It must be provided energy requirements equal to that of a cow producing about 10 kg of milk a day and gain at least half a kg in bodyweight. everyday in the
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last two months of lactation. Feed at least one kg of concentrate mixture per day and in larger quantities for the high-yielder. A dry cow is often considered as d which is not in 'profit', whereas it should be considered as a cow preparing for profit' - and the amount of the profit depends on the thoroughness of the preparation. In a herd is well managed, the dry cow r high in priority for feed. A well-conditioned cow loses weight after calving, but increases her daily milk yield. In fact, if it is going to produce 10 to 12 kg or more milk a day any length of time, it will have to lose some weight. Cows usually cannot take enough feed in a day to produce this quantity of milk for any length of time without losing weight, irrespective of how good the feed may be. The weight loss is largely from body fat stored for this purpose when it was dry. A well grown jersey cow may lose about 50 kg in the two months after calving, while a large Holstein may lose 150 kg over the same period. The cow that is poorly conditioned at calving time I hardly likely to respond to additional feed inputs. In any case, her yield will be mediocre of even low. Some of the additional feed supplied will be diverted to her body conditioning. It is more expensive to fatten cows after calving then it is to fatten them before calving. For maximizing income, the dairy animals should be fed individually according to their individual milk yield and nutritional requirements, instead of allowing the same ration to each animal in the herd. Liberal feeding is necessary for continued high milk production and its persistency throughout the lactation. An abundant supply f clean drinking water must be provided at all times. It is the most essential feed ingredient. Do not permit cattle to drink water from dirty ponds, streams or tanks as it would result in increased incidence of diseases, lowered vitality and decreased milk production. Daily water intake for an animal of 30 kg bodyweight yielding 5kg of milk daily will be about 35-40 litres. About the same quantity of water is required for general cleanliness of the animal and its shed.

Source: Dairy India 2007 Published by Dairy India Year Book, A-25, Priyadarshini Vihar, New Delhi-110092 India Emali:dairyindia@gmail.com Ph: +91-11-225543326

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