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Acid - Base Equilibria 3

Additional Aspects of Acid-Base Equilibrium

Salts and Polyprotic Acids Discussion: What happens, on a molecular level, when sodium acetate (or any salt of a weak acid and a strong base) is dissolved in water?

Equation 1: Would you expect the resulting solution to be acidic, basic or neutral? Whats the trick?? (Ka HC2H3O2 = 1.8 x 10-5).

Equation 2:

Task: Calculate the pH of a solution made by dissolving 10.0 grams of NaC2H3O2 (s) in water, making the final solution volume equal 1.0 L

Discussion: What is the difference between a monoprotic and a polyprotic acid? Give an example of each.

Recall your lab: Polyprotic acids are amphoteric, so will have several equivalence points when titrated - each acidic proton is either removed (NaOH titration of the acid form) or added (HCl titration of the base form). Each deprotonation step will have a specific Ka (or pKa) value associated with it (see slide / handout)

Equivalence Point 1 H2A H+ + HApKa1 = 2.3 Ka1 = ________________ Equivalence Point 2 HA- H+ + ApKa2 = 9.7 Ka2 = ________________

Generic titration plot for a diprotic acid (H2A) with a strong base

Note: Titration plots can be used to determine Ka values this will be covered in more detail below.

Questions: Which indicators would be best for detecting the two titration endpoints, observed for H2A (above), when this diprotic acid is titrated with NaOH (aq)? What color changes would be observed?

The common Ion effect Consider the following equilibrium for acetic acid: HC2H3O2 (aq) H+ (aq) + C2H3O2- (aq) Discussion: according to Le Chteliers Principle, what would happen to the position of the above equilibrium if a large amount of C2H3O2- (aq) (from, for example, NaC2H3O2) were added? Your description:

(an unnecessarily wordy) Dictionary Description The extent of ionization of a weak electrolyte is decreased by adding a strong electrolyte (such as a salt) that has a common ion with the weak electrolyte in solution

Worked Example: What is the pH of a solution made by adding 0.125 mol. of HC2H3O2 and 0.075 mol. of NaC2H3O2 to enough water to make a 1.0 L solution? Ka acetic acid = 1.8 x10-5 Use the standard I.C.E. method for weak acids, BUT include the (now non-zero) initial concentration of the conjugate base introduced via dissolving its salt.


Task: Calculate [F-] and pH of a solution that is simultaneously 0.20M in HF (aq) and 0.10 M in HCl (aq). Ka for HF = 6.8 x10-4

ANS: [F-] = 1.4 x10-3 M pH = 1.0 Comment:

Buffered Solutions Buffered solutions (buffers) are weak acid / base conjugate pairs that resist drastic changes in pH upon addition of strong acids or bases from external sources. This is simply a specific application of the common ion effect the common ion introduced from an external source is always either H+(aq) (from a strong acid) or OH-(aq) (from a strong base) Discussion / Background: consider the following generic weak acid /conjugate base equilibrium (see appendix):

HA (aq) H+ (aq) + A- (aq)

According to Le Chteliers Principle, what would happen to the position of the above equilibrium if: 1. A large amount of H+ (aq) from an external source (such as a strong acid like HCl (aq)) were added?

Equation: 2. A large amount of OH- (aq) from an external source (such as a strong base like NaOH (aq)) were added?

Equation: Buffering capacity and Buffer pH A buffer will resist changes in pH (i.e. increases in either [H+] or [OH-]) by reacting away these chemical species. The buffering capacity of the buffer is determined by the relative concentrations of the weak acid (HA) and conjugate base (A-) at equilibrium. For example, a buffer with HA: A- in a 10:1 ratio will be able to react away x10 more OH- than can H+ before the buffer becomes exhausted. The chemical makeup of the buffer (i.e. Ka or Kb for the weak acid/base system) determines the natural pH the buffer. Buffers of virtually any pH between ~2 and 13 can be constructed.

Titration curves for non-buffered and buffered systems (see appendix)

Titration of a strong acid with NaOH (non-buffered)

Titration of a weak acid /conjugate base buffer with NaOH

Diagram illustrating the buffer region for a weak acid undergoing titration with NaOH (aq). Recall: HA + OH- A- + H2O Equivalence is reached when moles HA present = moles OH added. Before equivalence, the natural pH of the buffer is maintained

Diagram illustrating the buffer region for weak acids of specific Ka values undergoing titration with NaOH (aq). Discussion: What do you notice with regard to the relationship between Ka and the natural pH of the buffer?

Note: The mathematical relationship between pH and Ka is discussed further below

Because buffers are essentially just either a weak acid or a weak base and their respective conjugate in equilibrium, a standard common ion I.C.E. approach can be used to find the natural pH of a buffer (recall the HC2H3O2 / NaC2H3O2 system discussed previously).

Example (group work): What is the pH of a buffer that is 0.12 M in lactic acid (HC3H5O3) and 0.10M in sodium lactate? Ka = 1.4 x10-4.

Drugs are typically either weak acids or weak bases (more on this later), so their pH - which relates to solubility, and ultimately if the drug should be taken orally or intravenously is of great interest to MCAT and PCAT examiners! Problem: Do you think they intend for you to employ a time consuming modified I.C.E. methodology on the CAT test?
The Verve had a good Answer: handle on weak acid / base equilibria. Kind of.

Solution: There is a quicker and much more convenient method to find the pH of a buffer solution: the Henderson Hasselbalch equation.

Derivation of the Henderson Hasselbalch equation Since, for any weak acid conjugate base buffer:


Henderson Hasselbalch equation

Task: Assume you are taking the PCAT or MCAT- use the H-H equation to quickly answer the previous lactic acid buffer question: What is the pH of a buffer that is 0.12 M in lactic acid (HC3H5O3) and 0.10M in sodium lactate? Ka = 1.4 x10-4.

Discussion: When you perform a titration, what is true in terms of the moles of acid and base present at equivalence? What then must be true at halfequivalence?

What happens to the H-H equation at half-equivalence for the titration of a weak acid with NaOH? (i.e. when moles HA unreacted = moles A- formed)?

pH = pKa for a buffer at half- equivalence (i.e. when [HA] = [A-])

(see titration cure examples, above (H2A), and in Appendix)

Mr. Buffers buffer (buffers in the body) Blood has a regulated (buffered) pH of 7.4. The buffer responsible for maintaining the pH of blood is the carbonic acid / hydrogen carbonate system i.e. the same one studied in your recent lab: H2CO3(aq) H+ (aq) + HCO3-(aq) Group work: If H2CO3(aq) has a concentration of 0.0012 M in human blood, what is [HCO3-] in blood? Is blood better at resisting changes in [H+] or [OH-]? Ka = 4.3 x10-7

Lewis acids/bases and more about Drugs The Lewis lonepair transfer model In the Lewis model: Lewis Acids are identified as lone pair electron acceptors Lewis Bases are identified as lone pair electron donors Just like proton transfer, but viewed in terms of what the proton sticks to

Example: NH3 (aq) as Lewis base

Question: Why worry about Lewis base behavior, when it is essentially just B-L theory from a different point of view? Answer: Most interesting drugs (be they legal or illegal) are Lewis bases they contain N: group(s) (just like ammonia). Problem: Most free bases (where have you heard that term before?) are volatile and not too soluble in water not good candidates for turning into oral (or other) medication. Solution: Turn free bases into acids salts acid salts are soluble and nonvolatile, so have long shelf lives and can be taken orally.

Generic example of forming the acid salt of a free base

D: + HCl (aq)

[D: H]+[Cl]-

A great many drugs, both legal and illegal, are manufactured and sold as the acid or other salts Levitra (vardenafil HCl):

Crack (cocaine sodium hydrogen carbonate):

Social commentary: I dont want to go off on a rant here, but

Solubility Equilibria Background: What is a saturated solution?

Official definition: A solution in which undissolved solute and dissolved solute are present in equilibrium Most apparently insoluble solids (such as chalk, for example) are sparingly soluble they dissolve to a tiny degree:

CaCO3 (s)

Ca2+ (aq) + CO32- (aq)

Task: Derive a simple products over reactants expression for the above equilibrium featuring solid chalk (calcium carbonate) and its dissolved ions. What cancels?

Any sparingly soluble salt (ionic compound) will have a related solubility product (Ksp) expression. Ksp values are known for most compounds at 25oC. For chalk (calcium carbonate):

Ksp = [Ca2+][CO32-] = 4.5 x 10-9

Note: Since the ionic materials we are dealing with are sparingly soluble, their Ksp values are necessarily very low Compound BaSO4 Ag2SO4 Ksp 5.0 x10-9 1.5 x10-5 Compound CaF2 AgCl Ksp 3.9 x10-11 1.8 x10-10

See the Appendix for a more complete list

Task: Write solubility product expressions for the following equilibria 1. Dissolution of barium sulfate

2. Dissolution of calcium fluoride

3. Dissolution of silver sulfate

As with all other equilibria, the concentration of a reactant is raised to the power of its stoichiometic coefficient in the expression

Solubility and Ksp Group work: You drop a stick of chalk into some pure water. What will the concentration of the Ca2+ (aq) ions be in the resulting saturated solution after the solid and its aqueous ions have attained equilibrium? Hint: Use the Ksp expression

Harder example: A saturated solution of magnesium hydroxide has a pH of 10.17. Find Ksp for Mg(OH)2. See appendix for equation.

Solubility The solubility (s) of any sparingly soluble salt (ionic compound) is expressed in terms of the solvated metal cation

For the dissolution of AgCl: AgCl (s) Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)

solubility (s) = [Ag+] (which also = [Cl-] in this example)

Task: Derive an expression for s in terms of Ksp, given that, for silver chloride: Ksp = [Ag+][ Cl-]

Group Task: Determine Ksp and solubility (s) expressions for the following equilibrium:

CaF2 (s)

Ca2+ (aq) + 2F- (aq)

Worked (quantitative) Example: What is the solubility of calcium fluoride in g/L? Ksp = 3.9 x10-11 Plan:

Note: Solubilities (especially in the biochemical and medical fields) are often quoted in g/L or mg/mL

Ksp and the Common Ion Effect Recall: According to Le Chteliers Principle, increasing the concentration of a dissolved reactant or product in equilibrium will cause the equilibrium to shift in order to remove that material. The same is true for Ksp equilibria

Worked Example: Calculate the molar solubility (s, in mol/L) of CaF2 in a solution that is 0.010M in Ca(NO3)2 (aq) Plan: set up a modified I.C.E. grid, then insert and evaluate in the Ksp expression. Notice that any compound that undergoes partial dissociation (weak acids, weak bases, buffers, and now sparingly soluble salts) can be modeled using the I.C.E. method coupled with the appropriate equilibrium expression its just a case of same math, different application.

Discussion / Observation: As the infamous serial killer Jeffery Dahmer would have told you, the easiest way to get sparingly soluble salts (like calcium phosphate (bone)) into solution is to dissolve them in an acid. Jeffery obviously paid attention in Gen. Chem., as this is a standard lab trick: Example: Consider the dissolution equilibrium of the sparingly soluble salt material magnesium carbonate:

MgCO3 (s)

Mg2+ (aq) + CO32- (aq)

If HCl (aq) is used as a solvent, then:

HCl (aq)

H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) (complete dissociation)

Now, the H+ ions will enter into equilibrium with the carbonate anion, which is the conjugate base of the weak acid HCO3-:

H+ (aq) + CO32- (aq)

HCO3- (aq)

Question: What happens to the original magnesium carbonate equilibrium when carbonate ions are removed in this way? What will happen to the value of [Mg2+] (s) and the amount of sold magnesium carbonate present?

Common Ion
Question 2 (25 points): A solution contains 2.5 x 10-4 M Ag+(aq) and 1.7 x 10-3 M Pb2+ (aq). A. If NaI (aq) is added, will AgI (Ksp = 8.3 x 10-17) or PbI2 (Ksp = 7.9 x 10-9) precipitate first?

B. Specify the concentration of I- (aq) needed to begin precipitation of the material you determined would precipitate first in part A.