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Heat Transfer in Engine

2103471 Internal Combustion Engine

About 35% of the total chemical energy that enters an engine in the fuel is converted to useful crankshaft work, and about 30% of the fuel energy is carried away in the exhaust flow in the form of enthalpy and chemical energy. Thus, about one third of the total energy must be dissipated to the surroundings by some mode of heat transfer. Remove the heat is highly critical in keeping an engine and engine lubricant from thermal failure. On the other hand, it is desirable to operate the engine as hot as possible to maximize thermal efficiency.

Energy distribution
Typical disribution of energy use in an IC engine as percent of total fuel energy.

Energy distribution
There are several categories in which Energy flow in an engine can be placed:
Energy to useful work, Energy to exhaust gas, Energy to coolant, Direct energy loss through walls, Energy to the sump, Etc.

For the purpose of this lesson, the first three categories will be used with the rest classified simply as the remainder. The proportion which is transferred to each depends upon the design of the engine and the conditions under which is operating.

Energy distribution
The losses can be categorized according to the engine process. Proportioning the direct heat losses to each process could be approximately as shown below (+sign indicates heat flow to coolant):

Inlet (suction) Compression Combustion Expansion Blowdown Exhaust Total

- 0.5% + 0.5% + 2.0% +10.0% +12.0% + 1.0% +25.0%

Engine Temperature
Typical temperature distribution in an IC engine operating at steady state.

Engine warmup
Temperature of components, shown in figure below, increases with time after a cold engine is started. In cold weather, the warmup (steady-state condition) period can be as high as 20-30 minutes.

Engine parameters which affect the heat transfer

Scale (size) effect Effect of mixture on heat transfer Evaporative cooling Compression ratio Timing Engine load Exhaust back pressure Engine speed Engine Material Coolant temperature

Engine parameters which affect the heat transfer

Engine speed

Processes of heat transfer

Conduction: Convection: Radiation:

dT & = k q dx
& = hT q
& = (T14 T24 ) q

For forced convection, the film coefficient is found from a correlation of the form: Nu=f(Re, Pr) Where Nu = hD/k, Re = vD/ , Pr = cp/k

Heat Transfer By Forced Convection

Forced convection accounts for the major part of the heat that flow from gases to the engine parts. For the general case of a fluid flowing through a tubular passage, a simple model of the following has been used: Nu = C(Re)n(Pr)m Correlations of heat transfer coefficients in a passage of uniform circular cross section, for air and water, are: Nu = 0.023(Re)0.8(Pr)0.4

Engine Heat Transfer Model

Simple model :
Nu = 0.023(Re) (Pr)
0.8 0.4

Annands formula for total heat transfer :

&=a q L (Re)b (T Tw ) + c(T 4 Tw4 ) D

Where a = 0.38 for two stroke, a = 0.49 for four stroke c = 1.6 x 10-12 for CI , c = 2.1 x 10-13 Waschnis formula:
h = (3.26) D m 1v m p mT 0.751.62 m
s 1 v = C ( p p0 ) v = C v + v 2 1 p c where and c V1 p1 vp piston speed, vc gas velocity, D bore diameter p cylinder pressure, p0 motoring pressure, subscript 1 properties at the beginning of combustion