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PSIHOLOGIA RESURSELOR UMANE Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional Centrul de Monitorizare Profesional n Psihologia Muncii - Organizaional Universitatea "Babe-Bolyai",

Cluj-Napoca Director fondator: Redactor responsabil: Responsabili de numr: Colegiul de redacie: Smaranda Boro Petru Cureu Ioana David Doru Dima Drago Iliescu Daniel Paul Filaret Sntion Zsolt Szentgyrgyi Delia Vrg Colegiul consultativ: Zoltn Bogthy Universitatea de Vest, Timioara Sofia Chiric Universitatea Babe-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca Cary Cooper Lancaster University Management School, Lancaster Nicolae Jurcu Universitatea Tehnic, Cluj-Napoca Rmi Kouabenan Universitatea Pierre Mends, Grenoble Frank J. Landy CEO SHL North America: Litigation Support Division Jacques Leplat Directeur Honoraire LEcole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris Mircea Miclea Universitatea Babe-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca Nicolae Mitrofan Universitatea Bucureti Ioan Radu Universitatea Babe-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca Zissu Weintraub Departamentul de tiine Comportamentale, Ministerul Aprrii Interne, Israel Mielu Zlate Universitatea Bucureti Psihologia Resurselor Umane (ISSN: 1583-7327) apare bianual.
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Horia D. Pitariu Horia D. Pitariu Roxana Capotescu, Coralia Sulea

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2. 3.

4.

5.

Pentru carte: Katzenbach, J.R. & Smith, A. (1993). The Wisdom of Teams. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Pentru capitol sau studiu din cadrul unei cri: Harrison, R. (1974). Role negotiation: a tough-minded approach to team development. In P.J. Berger (Ed.), Group Training Techniques. Essex: Gower Press.

The Human Resources Psychology magazine is written according to the American Psychological Standards set for articles. The following conditions are a must in order that an article be published:

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For an article published in a magazine: Armenakis, A.A., & Bedeian A.G. (1992). The role of metaphors in organizational change. Group and Organizational Management, 17, 242-248. For a book: Katzenbach, J.R. & Smith, A. (1993). The Wisdom of Teams. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

For a chapter or study included in a book: Harrison, R. (1974). Role negotiation: a tough-minded approach to team development. In P.J. Berger (Ed.), Group Training Techniques. Essex: Gower Press.

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Pour un chapitre or une tude trouve dans une livre: Harrison, R. (1974). Role negotiation: a tough-minded approach to team development. In P.J. Berger (Ed.), Group Training Techniques. Essex: Gower Press.

PSIHOLOGIA RESURSELOR UMANE


Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional Centrul de Monitorizare Profesional n Psihologia Muncii Organizaional Universitatea "Babe-Bolyai", Cluj-Napoca

Volumul 3, nr. 1/2005

Asociaia de tiine Cognitive din Romnia Cluj-Napoca

Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional Facultatea de Psihologie i tiinele Educaiei, Secia Psihologie Str. Koglniceanu, 1, etaj 3, camera 307 Tel./ fax: 0264-598751 Adresa web: www.apio.ro E-mail: office@apio.ro

Copyright 2005 Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional

Publicarea de articole n Revista ,,Psihologia Resurselor Umane e avizat de trei recenzori.

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Editura: Asociaia de tiine Cognitive din Romnia Str. Gh. Bilacu, nr. 37, Cluj-Napoca Email: ascr@psychology.ro
Tiprit n Romnia

Psihologia Resurselor Umane Volumul 3, nr. 1, 2005

CUPRINS Editorial Steven R. Brown Trecutul e un prolog Studii i Cercetri Robert M. Lipgar , John P. Bair, Cristopher G. Fichtner Integrarea cercetrii cu conferina de nvare: 10 ani de studii bazate pe metodologia Q investignd nvarea experienial n tradiia Tavistock David Bimler, John Kirkland De la circumplex la sfer: percepiile asupra activitilor vocaionale, investigaie i aplicaii Drago Iliescu, Smaranda Boro O alternativ pentru constituirea hrilor cognitive n studiul identificrii organizaionale: Q-sort Janet Firth, Dan Nichita Studiu de caz al strategiei de resurse umane adoptate n cadrul unei organizaii n vederea integrrii n Uniunea European: Poliia Romn de Frontier Darrell W. Boothe, Thomas Li-Ping Tang Le management de la qualit totale: application et problmes encontrs 6

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29

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51 61

Managementul Resurselor Umane n Practic Care e cea mai potrivit persoan pentru un post de munc? Psihologii iau n considerare noi modaliti de relaionare a diferenelor individuale cu succesul la locul de munc

69

Figuri de psihologi Edwin A. Fleishman - Medalia de aur pentru o via dedicat aplicrii psihologiei 71

Recenzii i Note Bibliografice MIELU ZLATE (2004). Tratat de psihologie organizaional-managerial. Bucureti: Editura Polirom (Daniela Vercellino) EDMOND CRACSNER (2005). Istoria psihologiei militare romne. Bucureti: Editura Psyche (Roxana Capotescu)
Cri noi de psihologia muncii i organizaional

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Informaii

Human Resources Psychology Volume 3, no. 1, 2005

CONTENT Editorial Steven R. Brown Whats Past Is Prologue Studies and Research Robert M. Lipgar , John P. Bair, Cristopher G. Fichtner Interating Research with Conference Learning: 10 Years of Q Methodology Studies Exploring Experiential Learning in the Tavistock Tradition David Bimler, John Kirkland From Circumplex to Sphere: Perceptions of Vocational Activities, Explored and Applied Drago Iliescu, Smaranda Boro An Alternative to Mapping Organizational Identification: Q-sort Janet Firth, Dan Nichita A Case Study Analysis of an Organizations Strategic HR Approach to Integration into the EU: the Romanian Border Police Darrell W. Boothe, Thomas Li-Ping Tang Total Quality Management: Implementation and Common Pitfalls 6

13 29 41

51 61

Applied Human Resource Management Who is the best person for the job? Psychologysts find a way to link individual differences with success in the workplace 69

Psychologists Figures Edwin A. Fleishman - Golden Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology 71

Book Reviews and Bibliographical Notes MIELU ZLATE (2004). Treatise of Organizational and Managerial Psychology. Bucureti: Polirom Publishing House (Daniela Vercellino) EDMOND CRACSNER (2005). History of Romanian Military Psychology. Bucureti: Psyche Publishing House (Roxana Capotescu) New Books of Work and Organizational Psychology 75

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Information

TRECUTUL E UN PROLOG
Steven R. Brown
Kent State University

cel care tie cum s atepte, nu trebuie s fac concesii. (Freud, 1922, p. 40)

n scrisoarea sa din 1935 ctre revista tiinific britanic Nature, William Stephenson a prezentat ideea care avea s primeasc ulterior denumirea de metodologia Q, i n acea scrisoare el i-a exprimat optimismul cu privire la invenia sa, care (a susinut el) introduce tehnica factorial, din activitatea de grup i de teren, n laborator, acoperind sfere ale activitii, pn acum, neexplorate sau imposibil de explicat prin apelul la factorizare (p. 297). Printre acele sfere, neexplorate pn atunci, Stephenson a menionat n mod explicit estetica, psihologia educaional i teoretic (pur) i factorul g al lui Spearman, despre care a spus c sunt acum subiecte de cercetare n condiii experimentale mult mbuntite. Acest termen generic pentru toate aceste sfere a ajuns s fie cunoscut sub numele de subiectivitate, iar preocuparea pentru un studiu tiinific al subiectivitii reprezint raiunea de a fi a metodologiei Q i criteriul pe baza cruia aceasta i revendic dreptul la notorietate. Oamenii mprtesc opinii despre lucruri de exemplu, despre faptul c nu s-ar fi cuvenit ca Statele Unite s intervin n Irak fr susinerea Naiunilor Unite, sau c romanul cel mai bine vndut, Codul Da Vinci, este o poveste captivant, sau c exist via dup moarte etc., toate acestea fiind, pur i simplu, subiective, adic nu pot fi demonstrate n acelai mod n care se poate dovedi c 2 + 2 = 4 sau c apa nghea la 0o C. Opinia necesit un susintor, ceea ce implic referirea la propria persoan, acesta nefiind i cazul unui fapt. Totui, anterior metodologiei Q, nu exista o modalitate sistematic de a califica toate aceste aspecte ale subiectivitii sau o modalitate care s se supun standardelor tiinifice. Poeii i filozofii, de-a lungul timpului, au fost ntotdeauna contieni de importana subiectivitii, la fel cum au tiut i despre vise, ns a trebuit ca un Freud s inventeze mijloace sistematice de studiu al viselor, acesta fiind i rolul lui Stephenson n cazul subiectivitii. Aceast ediie special, dedicat metodologiei Q, constituie o ocazie potrivit pentru o evaluare experimental viznd msura n care a fost justificat optimismul iniial al lui Stephenson. La nceput, ideile sale au fost ntmpinate cu nencredere i chiar iritare. Dup moartea lui Sir Charles Spearman, care a fost mentorul lui Stephenson, Sir Cyril Burt a devenit liderul oamenilor de tiin preocupai de analiza factorial, prerile acestuia cu privire la corelarea persoanelor

fiind att de contradictorii fa de cele ale lui Stephenson, nct cei doi au gsit necesar clarificarea poziiilor respective n cadrul unui articol care i are drept co-autori (Burt & Stephenson, 1939). Au existat cteva aspecte n privina crora au fost de acord, ns multe asupra crora i-au exprimat dezacordul, numeroase aspecte din cele din urm avndu-i originea ntr-o problem a definirii viznd natura matricei (sau a matricelor) care urmau s fie supuse analizei factoriale. n ceea ce privete distincia dintre Q i R, de exemplu, Burt a considerat ambele aspecte ca implicnd aceleai scopuri, metode i teoreme, i fiind doar moduri alternative de analiz a oricrui tabel sau cifre (Burt & Stephenson, 1939, p. 274). Cu alte cuvinte, din punctul de vedere al lui Burt, a existat ntotdeauna o singur matrice care a fost adus n discuie, calcularea corelaiilor dintre coloanele matricei fcnd obiectul metodei R, iar calculul corelaiilor dintre rnduri fcnd obiectul metodei Q. Astfel, principiul reciprocitii expus de Burt a explicat c factorii obinui ca urmare a corelrii persoanelor ar trebui s fie de aceeai natur i numr cu cei obinui ca urmare a corelrii trsturilor (p. 278), avnd n vedere c cele dou seturi de factori au rezultat din acelai set de numere. Stephenson, pe de alt parte, a susinut c argumentele lui Burt confund reciprocitatea, care poate corespunde unuia i aceluiai set de date, cu supoziia lui Stephenson viznd dou seturi distincte de date care sunt destul de lipsite de legtur i care servesc unor obiective psihologice diferite (Burt & Stephenson, 1939, p. 278). De aceea, din punctul de vedere al lui Stephenson, au fost ntotdeauna luate n discuie dou matrice una cuprinznd msurtori obiective ale trsturilor (cum ar fi QI, viteza de citire etc.) i care urma s fie supus analizei factoriale R, i o a doua, cuprinznd rspunsuri subiective (precum cele obinute ca urmare a sortrii Q) care avea s fie supus analizei factoriale Q. Metoda R se putea aplica coloanelor primei matrice (care putea fi, la fel de bine, examinat i pe rnduri), n timp ce metoda Q putea fi aplicat asupra persoanelor celei de-a doua matrice (putnd fi, la fel de bine examinate, mai nti rndurile i apoi coloanele) de aici, cele patru sisteme factoriale diferite la care a fcut anterior referire (Stephenson, 1936). Ceea ce a vrut Stephenson s denumeasc prin R i Q au fost analiza R a primei matrice i analiza Q a celei de-a doua matrice; adic, a fost vorba de dou matrice diferite. Cincisprezece ani mai trziu, trecnd n revist Studiul comportamentului al lui Stephenson, Burt (1955) a continuat s susin supoziia unei singure matrice de date, astfel nct dac ne

limitm la msurtorile obinute o singur dat, putem, fie s facem media persoanelor i corelarea trsturilor, sau [pentru aceeai matrice de date] s facem media trsturilor i corelarea persoanelor (Burt, 1955, p. 58), o viziune pe care a meninut-o pn la sfritul vieii (Burt, 1972). Pn la apariia crii lui Stephenson, principalii oameni de tiin preocupai de analiza factorial au nclinat balana de partea lui Burt Charlotte Banks, Hans Eysenck i Godfrey Thomson (cu unele rezerve) n Marea Britanie, i ulterior R.B. Cattell, J.P. Guilford, Quinn McNemar i L.L Thurstone n Statele Unite (Studiul comportamentului a fost publicat trecnd peste rezervele lui Thurstone, decizie care a fost justificat prin republicarea crii n 1975 n cadrul seriei clasice din cadrul University of Chicago Presss Midway). Cronbach i Gleser (1954) nu au fost deloc surprinztori atunci cnd au caracterizat activitatea lui Stephenson ca fiind neltoare (cf. Stephenson, 1954), iar aceast poziie oficial a fost introdus n lunga istorie al crei autor e Mowrer (1953). Doar acei scriitori americani situai n afara psihologiei propriu-zise de exemplu, teoreticianul sistemelor Russell Ackoff, asistentul social Charles Gershenson i psihiatrii Bernard Glueck i Lyman Wynne au scris recenzii receptive. n domeniul sociologiei, att Ralph Turner, ct i Melvin DeFleur au adoptat un punct de vedere critic asupra Studiului comportamentului, respectiv n privina lucrrii ulterioare a lui Stephenson, Teoria jocului asupra comunicrii n mas (1967), iar acest lucru poate explica motivele pentru care numrarea studiilor din sociologie implicnd metodologia Q, ntreprinse pn n prezent, se poate face apelnd doar la degetele unei singure mini (i aceasta incomplet!), cu toate c trebuie remarcat faptul c metodologia Q a fost primit cu entuziasm de un grup viguros de sociologi rui (http://www.qmethod.narod.ru/). n parte, datorit dominanei lui Burt i opoziiei sale n raport cu ideile lui Stephenson, Stephenson a prsit Marea Britanie n 1947 i s-a mutat n Statele Unite, unde i-a petrecut restul vieii. Pn la nceputul i ctre mijlocul anilor 60, interesul psihologilor americani fa de metodologia Q s-a estompat cu excepia acelora specializai n domeniul evalurii personalitii care i-au meninut interesul n sortarea Q ca i tehnic (de exemplu, Block, 1961) i nu a mai fost reanimat timp de 30 de ani. Acest declin al interesului a coincis cu plecarea lui Stephenson, din Departamentul de Psihologie, la Universitatea din Chicago i cu mutarea n cele din urm, doi ani mai trziu, la faimoasa coal de Jurnalism a Universitii din Missouri, unde i-a fost acordat distincia de Profesor n domeniul Cercetrii Reclamei / Publicitii, pn la ieirea la pensie din 1972. n

acest timp, teoria jocului propus de el a stimulat interesul asupra metodologiei Q n tiinele comunicrii, conducnd la numeroase publicaii i disertaii (la Missouri i la Universitatea din Iowa, mai ales) venite din partea unor persoane care ocup, n prezent, poziii academice superioare. Teoria jocului a fost comparat, n mod favorabil, cu teoriile lui McLuhan, Ellul i Marcuse (Rowan, 1978), ceea ce a determinat republicarea sa n 1988. Eu am luat contact cu ideile lui Stephenson n timpul studiilor universitare n jurnalism, la nceputul anilor 60 , interes pe care l-am meninut cnd m-am transferat la tiine politice, domeniu ce cuprinde anumite aspecte ce au suferit transformri care le-au fcut receptive la ceea ce a avut de oferit metodologia Q. Pe msura difuziunii interesului i a forei dobndite, a devenit necesar stabilirea liniilor de comunicare, i astfel, n 1977 a luat natere o revist trimestrial (intitulat Subiectivitate operant, n continu publicare de aproape 30 de ani), iar n 1985 a avut loc prima conferin anual. Sinergia rezultat ca urmare a contactului interdisciplinar a determinat fondarea, n 1989 (la doar cteva luni dup moartea lui Stephenson), a Societii Internaionale pentru Studiul tiinific al Subiectivitii (I4S), care va organiza cea de-a 21-a ntlnire a sa n 2005 n Vancouver, iar n 2006, n Trondheim. Aceste iniiative au fost apreciate de forumul electronic de discuii (500 de persoane nscrise de pe ntreg mapamondul) i de pagina web Qmethod (www.qmethod.org). Dezvoltarea i accesibilitatea pachetelor PQMethod freeware i PCQ software de introducere i analiz a datelor (Schmlock & Atkonson, 2002; Stricklin & Almeida, 2004) au jucat un rol semnificativ n aplatizarea curbei nvrii tehnice i n transmiterea metodologiei Q n faa unei noi audiene. Accelerarea interesului pentru metodologia Q din ultimii ani apare n iniiative precum Societatea Coreean pentru Studiul tiinific al Subiectivitii (K4S) i n revista sa, Q Metodologie i Teorie, n recent publicatul Journal of Human Subjectivity, ca i n publicarea studiilor metodologice Q n reviste i edituri academice prestigioase, incluznd o ediie anterioar special (Goldman & Brown, 1990). Apariia volumelor lui Brown (1980), McKeown i Thomas (1988) a fost util pentru clarificarea ideilor ascunse n proza mai dificil de neles a lui Stephenson. Indicatorii mai receni ai progresului sunt vizibili n calitatea i rafinamentul publicaiilor notabile, precum recentele articole enciclopedice (Brown, 2004; Ozer, 2001; Robbins, 2005), capitolele din cri (Brown, in press-a, in press-b; Brown, Durning & Selden, 1999; Durning & Brown, in press; Febbraro, 1995; Gauzente-Juguet, in press; Smith, 2001, pp. 319-343; Stenner & Stainton Rogers, 2004; Stainton Rogers, 1995) i acele

capitole de metodologie din crile care mizeaz substanial pe metodologia Q (de exemplu, Aalto, 2003; Addams, 2000; Barry & Proops, 2000; Dryzek & Holmes, 2002; Peritore, 1999; Robyn, 2005; Sylvester, 1999). Acum sunt disponibile, n mod regulat, workshop-uri tehnice la conferinele anuale Q (i on-line la www.qmethod.org), fiind accesibile i seminariile universitare dedicate metodologiei Q, n universitile din Statele Unite, Europa i Orient. n 2004, metodologia Q a nceput s fie predat n faa unei vaste audiene europene la coala de Var n Analiza i Colectarea Datelor n tiinele Sociale a Universitii din Essex (Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii). Un non-academician al crui interes n metodologia Q dateaz de mai mult de 30 de ani, a scris recent Voi pleca n mormnt cu credina c Stephenson va intra, n cele din urm, n istoria tiinific, pe poziii de egalitate cu orice alt titan al secolului 20 (comunicare personal). Dac este prea devreme pentru orice pronunare definitiv de acest fel, nu este nici un pericol n a concluziona c, n egal msur, discrepana dintre prima viziune a lui Stephenson, din 1935, i modul n care metodologia Q este neleas i valorificat, n mod curent, se estompeaz. Un capitol recent al lui Smith (2001), de pild, nlocuiete 70 de ani de neclariti n psihologia academic, prin plasarea activitii lui Stephenson pe aceeai poziie cu alte capitole ale behaviorism-ului, psihologiei cognitive, fenomenologiei, post-modernismului i a altor coli de gndire care s-au impus, i merge chiar mai departe, sugernd c celelalte coli au multe de nvat de pe urma studiului subiectivitii operante. Dac nelegerea metodologiei Q a deraiat datorit erorilor conceptuale ale trecutului, atunci se pare c trenul gndirii a fost repus pe inele de-a lungul crora ruleaz acum, prin propria energie ctre destinaia sa, mai puin preocupat fa de linia moart a trecutului. Aceast ediie special a Psihologiei Resurselor Umane constituie testamentul acestei realizri i poate marca sfritul ndelungatului prolog Q. Traducerea: Aleksandra Maletici

WHATS PAST IS PROLOGUE


Steven R. Brown
Kent State University

... he who knows how to wait need make no concessions. (Freud, 1922, p. 40)

In his 1935 letter to the British science journal Nature, William Stephenson introduced an idea that was later to be named Q methodology, and in that letter he waxed optimistic about his invention, which (he claimed) brings the factor technique from group and field work into the laboratory, and reaches into spheres of work hitherto untouched or not amenable to factorization (p. 297). Among those spheres hitherto untouched, Stephenson explicitly mentioned aesthetics, educational and pure psychology, and Spearmans g, all of which he said were now subject to scrutiny under greatly improved experimental conditions. The generic term for all of these spheres has come to be referred to as subjectivity, and it is the provision for a scientific study of subjectivity that is Qs raison dtre and its claim to fame. People hold opinions about thingse.g., that the U.S. ought not to have gotten itself involved in Iraq without U.N. backing, or that the best-selling novel The Da Vinci Code is a thrilling story, or that there is life after death, etc., all of which are purely subjective, i.e., are not subject to proof in the same way that we can prove that 2 + 2 = 4 or that water freezes at 0 C. An opinion requires an advocate, which implies self-reference, whereas a fact does not. Prior to Q methodology, however, there was no systematic way to qualify all of this subjectivity, or at least no way that could toe the mark in scientific respects. Poets and philosophers down the ages had always been aware of the importance of subjectivity, just as they had also known about dreams, but it took a Freud to invent a systematic means for studying dreams, and Stephenson did the same for subjectivity. This special issue on Q methodology provides a convenient occasion for a tentative assessment concerning the extent to which Stephensons initial optimism has been vindicated. At the outset, his ideas were met with disbelief and even irritation. Following the death of Sir Charles Spearman, who was Stephensons mentor, Sir Cyril Burt was the leading British factor analyst, and his own views on correlating persons were so at variance with Stephensons that the two of them found it necessary to clarify their respective positions in a co-authored article (Burt & Stephenson, 1939). There were some points of agreement but many of disagreement, and several of the latter could be traced to a matter of definition

concerning the nature of the matrix (or matrices) that were to be factor analyzed. With regard to the distinction between Q and R, for instance, Burt regarded the two of them as involving much the same aims, methods, and theorems, and as merely alternative ways of analyzing any rectangular table of figures (Burt & Stephenson, 1939, p. 274). That is, for Burt, there was always only a single matrix that was at issue, and calculating correlations between the columns of that matrix was R method, and between the rows Q method. Burts reciprocity principle therefore stated that the factors obtained in correlating persons should be of the same nature and number as in correlating traits (p. 278) since the two sets of factors had emanated from the same set of numbers. Stephenson, on the other hand, held that Burts arguments confuse a reciprocity that may conceivably apply to one and the same set of data with Stephensons postulation of two distinct sets of data that are quite unrelated and serve different psychological objectives (Burt & Stephenson, 1939, p. 278). Hence, for Stephenson, there were always two matrices at issueone comprised of objective trait measurements (such as IQ, reading speed, etc.) and that was to be R factor analyzed, and then a second comprised of subjective responses (such as obtained from Q sorting) that was to be Q factor analyzed. R method was applicable to the columns of the first matrix (which could also be examined by rows), whereas Q method was applicable to the persons of the second matrix (which could also be examined via rows and then columns)hence his earlier reference to four distinct factor systems (Stephenson, 1936). It was the R analysis of the first matrix and the Q analysis of the second matrix that Stephenson meant by R and Q; i.e., two separate matrices were involved. Fifteen years later, in his review of Stephensons The Study of Behavior, Burt (1955) was still entertaining the assumption of a single data matrix, so that if we confine ourselves to measurements obtained on a single occasion, we may either average the persons and correlate the traits, or [for the same matrix of data] average the traits and correlate the persons (Burt, 1955, p. 58), a view that he maintained until the very end (Burt, 1972). By the time Stephensons book appeared, all other major factor analysts had weighed in on the side with BurtCharlotte Banks, Hans Eysenck, and Godfrey Thomson (with some reservations) in Britain, and later R.B. Cattell, J.P. Guilford, Quinn McNemar, and L.L. Thurstone in the U.S. (The Study of Behavior was published over Thurstones reservations, a decision that was vindicated when the book was republished in 1975 as part of the

University of Chicago Presss Midway classics series.) Cronbach and Gleser (1954) were not atypical when they characterized Stephensons work as treacherous (cf. Stephenson, 1954), and this official view was incorporated into Mowrers (1953) lengthy history. Only those U.S. writers outside psychology propere.g., systems theorist Russell Ackoff, social worker Charles Gershenson, and psychiatrists Bernard Glueck and Lyman Wynnewrote receptive reviews. In sociology, both Ralph Turner and Melvin DeFleur were critical, respectively, of The Study of Behavior and also of Stephensons later work, The Play Theory of Mass Communication (1967), and this helps to account for why it is to this day that the number of studies employing Q methodology in sociology can be counted on one hand (with some of the fingers missing!), although it is to be noted that Q has recently been taken up with enthusiasm by a vigorous group of Russian sociologists (http://www.qmethod.narod.ru/). In part because of Burts preeminence and his opposition to Stephensons ideas, Stephenson left Britain in 1947 and moved to the United States, where he spent the remainder of his life. By the early to mid 1960s, interest in Q methodology by U.S. psychologists fadedonly those in the specialized field of personality assessment retained interest in Q sorting as a technique (e.g., Block, 1961)and it was not resuscitated for another 30 years. This decline in interest coincided with Stephensons departure from the Department of Psychology at the University of Chicago (1956) and eventual move two years later to the University of Missouris famed School of Journalism, where he was Distinguished Professor of Advertising Research until his retirement in 1972. During this time, his play theory stimulated interest in Q methodology in the communication sciences, leading to many publications and dissertations (at Missouri and the University of Iowa in particular) by individuals who now occupy senior academic positions. Play theory was compared favorably with the theories of McLuhan, Ellul, and Marcuse (Rowan, 1978), leading to its republication in 1988. I was introduced to Stephensons ideas while engaged in graduate studies in journalism in the early 1960s and carried that growing interest with me when I transferred to political science, certain parts of which were undergoing renovations that made them receptive to what Q methodology had to offer. As interest diffused and gained momentum, it became necessary to establish lines of communication, and so in 1977 a quarterly journal/newsletter was created (entitled Operant Subjectivity, in continuous publication now for almost 30 years) and in 1985 the first annual

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conference was held. The synergy resulting from interdisciplinary contact led to the establishment in 1989 (just a few months after Stephensons death) of the International Society for the Scientific Study of Subjectivity (I4S), which holds its 21st annual meeting in 2005 in Vancouver and its 2006 meeting in Trondheim. These initiatives have been complemented by the Q-Method electronic discussion list (500 subscribers worldwide) and the Qmethod web site (www.qmethod.org). The development and accessibility of the PQMethod freeware and PCQ software packages for data entry and analysis (Schmolck & Atkinson, 2002; Stricklin & Almeida, 2004) have played a significant role in flattening the technical learning curve and placing Q in the hands of new audiences. The acceleration of interest in Q methodology in recent years is indicated in initiatives such as the Korean Society for the Scientific Study of Subjectivity (K4S) and its journal, Q-Methodology and Theory, and the newly published Journal of Human Subjectivity, as well as by the publication of Q methodological studies in leading journals and academic presses, including a previous special issue (Goldman & Brown, 1990). The appearance of the volumes by Brown (1980) and McKeown and Thomas (1988) were helpful in clarifying the ideas hidden in Stephensons denser prose. More recent indications of progress are visible in the quality and sophistication of signpost publications such as recent encyclopedia articles (Brown, 2004; Ozer, 2001; Robbins, 2005), book chapters (Brown, in press-a, in press-b; Brown, Durning, & Selden, 1999; Durning & Brown, in press; Febbraro, 1995; Gauzente-Juguet, in press; Smith, 2001, pp. 319343; Stenner & Stainton Rogers, 2004; Stainton Rogers, 1995), and in those methodological chapters in books that substantially rely upon Q methodology (e.g., Aalto, 2003; Addams, 2000; Barry & Proops, 2000; Dryzek & Holmes, 2002; Peritore, 1999; Robyn, 2005; Sylvester, 1999). Technical workshops are now routinely available at annual Q conferences (and via on-line streaming at www.qmethod.org), and graduate seminars devoted to Q are increasingly available in U.S., European, and Oriental universities. In 2004, Q methodology began to be taught to a largely European audience at the University of Essex (U.K.) Summer School in Social Science Data Analysis and Collection. A non-academician whose interest in Q methodology dates back more than 30 years recently wrote that I will go to my grave believing that Stephenson will eventually go down in scientific history as the equal of any of the other 20th century titans (personal communication). Whereas it is too early for a definitive pronouncement of this sort, it may be safe to conclude that, on balance, the

discrepancy is narrowing between what Stephenson first envisioned in 1935 and the way in which Q methodology is currently understood and utilized. A recent chapter by Smith (2001), for instance, reverses 70 years of misunderstanding in academic psychology by placing Stephensons work on par with other chapters on behaviorism, cognitive psychology, phenomenology, postmodernism, and other more obvious schools of thought, and goes even farther by suggesting that the other schools have much to learn from the study of operant subjectivity. If understanding of Q methodology was derailed by conceptual errors of the past, then the train of thought seems to have been placed back on the track where it is now rolling along on under its own steam toward its own destination with less worry about the sidetracks of the past. This special issue of Human Resources Psychology is testament to this achievement and may be said to mark the end of Qs lengthy prologue.

References Aalto, P. (2003). Constructing post-Soviet geopolitics in Estonia. London: Frank Cass. Addams, H. (2000). Q methodology. In H. Addams & J. Proops (Eds.), Social discourse and environmental policy: An application of Q methodology (pp. 14-40). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Barry, J., & Proops, J. (2000). Citizenship, sustainability and environmental research: Q methodology and local exchange trading systems. Cheltenham, UK: Edwad Elgar. Block, J. (1961). The Q-sort method in personality assessment and psychiatric research. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. Brown, S.R. (1980). Political subjectivity: Applications of Q methodology in political science. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Brown, S.R. (2004). Q methodology. In M.S. LewisBeck, A. Bryman, & T.F. Liao (Eds.), The SAGE encyclopedia of social science research methods (Vol. 3, pp. 887-888). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Brown, S.R. (in press). Q methodology and naturalistic subjectivity. In B.D. Midgley & E.K. Morris (Eds.), Modern perspectives on J.R. Kantor and interbehaviorism. Reno, NV: Context Press. Brown, S.R. (in press-b). Applying Q methodology to empowerment. In D. Narayan (Ed.), Measuring empowerment: Cross-disciplinary perspectives. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2005. Brown, S.R., Durning, D., & Selden, S.C. (1999). Q methodology. In G.R. Miller & M.L. Whicker (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in public administration (pp. 599-637). New York: Marcel Dekker. Burt, C. (1955). [Review of the book The study of behavior]. Occupational Psychology, 29, 58.

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Burt, C. (1972). The reciprocity principle. In S.R. Brown & D.J. Brenner (Eds.), Science, psychology, and communication: Essays honoring William Stephenson (pp. 39-56). New York: Teachers College Press. Burt, C., & Stephenson, W. (1939). Alternative views on correlations between persons. Psychometrika, 4, 269-281 Cronbach, L.J., & Gleser, G.C. (1954). [Review of the book The study of behavior]. Psychometrika, 19, 327-330. Dryzek, J.S., & Holmes, L. (2002). Post-communist democratization: Political discourses across thirteen countries. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Durning, D., & Brown, S.R. (in press). Q methodology and decision making. In G. Morl (Ed.), Handbook of decision making. New York: Marcel Dekker. Freud, S. (1922). Group psychology and the analysis of the ego. London: Hogarth Press. Gauzente-Juguet, C. (in press). La mthodologie Q et l'tude de la subjectivit [Q methodology and the study of subjectivity]. In P. Roussel & F. Wacheux (Eds.), Mthodes de recherche pour les sciences de gestion et applications en gestion des ressources humaines. Brussels: De Boeck, 2005. Goldman, I., & Brown, S.R. (Eds.) (1990). Q Methodology and communication: Theory and applications. Electronic Journal of Communication/La Revue Electronique de Communication, 1(1), special issue. McKeown, B.F., & Thomas, D.B. (1988). Q methodology (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences series, Vol. 66). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Mowrer, O.H. (1953). Q-techniquedescription, history, and critique. In O.H. Mowrer (Ed.), Psychotherapy (pp. 316-375). New York: Ronald. Ozer, D.J. (2001). Q-sort technique. In W.E. Craighead & C.B. Nemeroff (Eds.), The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral science (3rd ed., pp. 1359-1360). New York: Wiley. Peritore, N.P. (1999). Third World environmentalism: Case studies from the Global South. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Robbins, P. (2005). Q methodology. In K. KempfLeonard (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social measurement (Vol. 3, pp. 209-215). San Diego: Elsevier. Robyn, R. (2005). Methodology. In R. Robyn (Ed.), The changing face of European identity: A sevennation study of (supra)national attachments (pp. 17-36). London: Routledge. Rowan, J. (1978). The structured crowd (Psychological Aspects of Society series, Book 4). London: Davis-Poynter. Schmolck, P., & Atkinson, J. (2002). PQMethod (2.11). Computer program, accessible from http://www.qmethod.org. Smith, N.W. (2001). Current systems in psychology: History, theory, research, and applications. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Thomson Learning. Stainton Rogers, R. (1995). Q methodology. In J.A. Smith, R. Harr, & L. Van Langenhove (Eds.), Rethinking methods in psychology (pp. 178-192). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Stenner, P., & Stainton Rogers, R. (2004). Q methodology and qualiquantology: The example of discriminating between emotions. In Z. Todd, B. Nerlich, S. McKeown, & D.D. Clarke, (Eds.), Mixing methods in psychology: The integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in theory and practice (pp. 101-120). London and Hove, NY: Psychology Press. Stephenson, W. (1935). Technique of factor analysis. Nature, 136, 297. Stephenson, W. (1936). The foundations of psychometry: Four factor systems. Psychometrika, 1, 195-209. Stephenson, W. (1953). The study of behavior: Qtechnique and its methodology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Stephenson, W. (1967). The play theory of mass communication. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Stricklin, M., & Almeida, R. (2004). PCQ for Windows (Academic Edition). Computer program, accessible from http://www.qmethod.org. Sylvester, J.L. (1998). Directing health messages toward African Americans: Attitudes toward health care and the mass media. New York: Garland.

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INTEGRATING RESEARCH WITH CONFERENCE LEARNING: 10 YEARS OF Q METHODOLOGY STUDIES EXPLORING EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING IN THE TAVISTOCK TRADITION *

Robert M. Lipgar ** , Ph.D. Chicago Center of the A. K. Rice Institute Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago Medical Center John P. Bair, Ph.D. North Chicago Veterans Administration Medical Center Finch University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School Christopher G. Fichtner, M.D. Illinois Department of Human Services, Finch University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School
Abstract

Empirical assessment and self-study procedures were implemented during a series of nonresidential weekend group relations conferences in the Tavistock tradition and were used to augment conference learning for staff and members. These studies were organized and conducted so that focus on the conferences primary task was maintained. Findings of several studies of leadership, learning styles, and the role of the consultant are discussed. Administrative and methodological problems encountered in integrating research with conference learning are also reviewed. Because of the Tavistock models distinctive emphasis on subjectivity and on learning through direct experience of covert and often primitive processes, a research methodology compatible with experiential learning was sought. Q methodology made it possible to obtain quantifiable, objective, indepth information about values, attitudes, and dispositions characteristic of individuals and of individuals and groups in interrelationship. The Q studies were carried out over a 10-year period as an integral part of conference work. Learning based on firsthand observations and experience was combined with feedback based on systematic empirical research. The staff reviewed research findings in post-conference sessions to promote their development and competency. Conducting research in the context of group relations conferences provides experience in dealing with conflicting attitudes toward relying on knowledge based on personal experience, empirical data, or theory for decision-making. The results of this study have implications for conducting self-study and assessment outcome evaluations in other institutions and organizational settings.
Key words: Tavistock model, Q methodology, leadership, learning stiles, role of the consultant

Retiprit cu permisiunea autorului i a International Society for the Scientific Study of Subjectivity, deintoarea dreptului de copyright pentru varianta integral, aprut pentru prima dat n Operant Subjectivity, 2000 (October), 24 (1): 1-24
*

**

Address inquiries to: Robert Lipgar, Suite 2901, 950 N. Michigan Avenue, Chicago IL 60611, rlipgar@yoda.bsd.uchicago.edu. 13

The Educational Goals of A.K. Rice/Tavistock Working Conferences In the mid 1950s, A. K. Rice and his colleagues at the Tavistock Institute for Human Relations conceived what we have come to know in the United States as group relations conferences. Working conferences in the Tavistock tradition are conducted now throughout the world. They were designed originally to supplement didactic training for executives and managers by providing special opportunities for experiential learning about authority and leadership. In describing the distinctive task of these working conferences, A. K. Rice stresses that they are to provide opportunities to gain knowledge-of-acquaintance through experiential learning that is distinctively different from knowledge about (Rice 1965, p. 24). Conferences in the Tavistock tradition are exercises in gaining the kind of knowledge relevant to a persons capacity to be the kind of knowledge that enhances the capacity to act in particularly relevant, effective, and sophisticated ways. The distinction between experiential and abstract or theoretical learning is basic to understanding the characteristic objectives and methods of the Tavistock model. Thus, Bions psychoanalytic understanding of the difference between knowing about and being (1962, 1965), is critical to understanding group relations conferences in the Tavistock tradition and to understanding their far-reaching impact over many years in many different settings. Although the early development of this work at the Tavistock Institute for Human Relations was influenced by Kurt Lewins work in the United States, the influence of Wilfred Bion and other psychoanalysts was powerful in giving the Tavistock model its distinctive emphasis on studying covert and regressive processes in group and organizational dynamics. One can hear echoes of Kurt Lewins work with groups emphasizing communication and feedback, but the greater influence of psychoanalysis that stresses interpretation and attribution of meaning is clear. With regard to the functioning of the staff in their roles as conductors of these conferences, Rice notes:
[He/she] cannot observe with a detached objectivity that relieves him of the responsibility of taking account of what he

is feeling himself. If he finds himself becoming embarrassed, anxious, angry, hurt, or pleased, he can ask himself why he is feeling what he is feeling, and can attempt to sort out what comes from within himself and what is being projected onto him by conference members. [He] can use himself as a measuring instrument however, rough and ready to give him information about the meaning of behavior, both consciously and unconsciously motivated. If he can then find an explanation of the projection in terms of the specific task set for that event, he can make an interpretation about the behavior of those present, including himself. So far as he is able, the consultant [staff member working in that Integrating Research with Conference Learning 3 role] is concerned only with what is happening here and now. The skill of the consultant lies in his capacity to analyze on a barely conscious intellectual framework his feelings, and to express them in ways that will help the members of the group to understand their own feelings as they are experiencing them. (Op. cit. 26-7)

Group relations conferences in the Tavistock tradition reflect Bions resolute determination to advance the human capacity to seek and discover knowledge. For Bion, being alive and relating in a social context are vital to both learning and being. Group relations conferences are in the psychoanalytic tradition. They are temporary educational institutions to provide opportunities for learning in the here and now. In its objectives, design, and methods, the Tavistock model for studying groups and organizations parallels Bions vision and work as a psychoanalyst. The Challenge of Doing Research in the Context of the Tavistock Tradition True to this tradition, we in the Chicago region sought to add a kind of research activity to the program of conference events and activities that would be compatible with the basic intentions of the Tavistock model and would add to the opportunities for the participants to learn. We wanted the research also to be relevant to the broader interests of academic and clinical group

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psychologists. Such research and teaching objectives are often thought to be incompatible. To accomplish both, the researchers and their methods had to be authorized and made intimate parts of the conference, open for self-study like all other aspects of staff and member behavior. The research methods had to combine advantages of projective techniques in psychology with the ease of administration characteristic of commonly used objective assessment techniques. Despite modern developments in the use of the Rorschach (Exner 1978; Lipgar 1992a), for instance, in the field of personality assessment, adaptation of such procedures for group administration did not seem appropriate. A.K. Rice resisted doing research on these conferences on a number of grounds, because he did not want to focus on details without understanding the institution of the conference as a whole. Integrating research activities into the conference work requires clarity and commitment to the primary task of the conference, which is to provide learning opportunities for the registered members. To do this, we had to articulate our motives for collecting data as clearly and simply as possible. Findings not only had to be accessible, but also had to be made a part of the experiential work to the extent possible. The research had to be open for discussion and study, including the interpersonal and systems impact of the research team, its role and performance, as well perceptions and fantasies of staff and participant-members about the researchers, their methods, and their data. Fears and fantasies, hopes and myths about the power of researchers, their instruments, or the truth of the research findings have to be considered as part of the life of the group. These attitudes and questions were made part of the conference experience and studied as such during the conference so that more learning by acquaintance could be achieved. To do research in such a context, the director of the conference selected leaders for the research team who were fully experienced and qualified both as study group consultants and as researchers in other settings. The conference director discussed the research goals and methods in detail with the individual selected to head the research team, who then accepted the role of assistant director for research. Together the director and the

assistant director for research selected 2-3 additional members for the research team. Each of these individuals was experienced as a member in several conferences and had additional qualifications as a researcher, analyst, or staff member in other conferences. Prior to the conference, the research team met regularly to prepare the research instruments, plan the work in detail, and build team cohesion. Steps in a Program of Conference Research Studies Q Studies of the Small Group Consultants Role The role of the small study group consultant carries much of what is distinctive in the tradition. The research focused on that role, because the small study group experience is particularly critical to member participation and learning from the work of the conference. Conference participant responses on evaluation questionnaires have subsequently provided support for this decision by consistently rating the small study group experience as the one in which they were most emotionally involved and from which they learned the most. Mindful of Rices caution not to lose the whole in the study of details, we decided first to study staff orientation to the role of the small group consultant. We began by interviewing a number of people who had served in this role several times. The interviews produced a collection of statements, referred to as a concourse (Stephenson 1978) in terms of Q methodology (Stephenson 1953; Brown 1980; Smith 2001). From this collection of more than 150 statements, 72 were selected as a balanced representation of attitudes toward the role representative of Bions 4 categories of mental activity in groups: Work, basic assumption Dependency (baD), basic assumption Fight/Flight (baF/F), and basic assumption Pairing (baP) 18 statements for each of these 4 categories. The statements were Q sorted by 12 staff members, ranging in experience in group relations conference work from 2 to approximately 20 years. Each Q sort constructed by the staff persons represented the sorter's viewpoint about the role and work of the consultants in the small group conference. The Q sorts were intercorrelated forming a 12 12 matrix that was factor analyzed yielding the 4 orthogonal factors

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shown in Table 1, interpreted as Work, Educative, Nurturing, and Protective (Bradley 1987). The factors were associated with levels of consultant experience. An interpretive reading of the items rated highest and lowest on each of the factor arrays showed that these factors could be linked to Bions (1961) categories of Work, basic assumption Dependency (baD), Pairing (baP) and Fight/Flight (baF/F), respectively. The interpretation of the relationships of the factors to one another was modified upon 1 reexamination of these findings (Lipgar 1993). They were renamed Group-Interpretive Analyst, Group Facilitator, CollaboratorParticipant, and Protective Manager, respectively, and considered complementary components of competency in the consultants role rather than steps in a hierarchy of experience. Further examination of data collected in the initial 1986 Q study, revealed that each of the staff consultants whose Q sorts had the highest loadings in the dominant Work factor came to serve as directors or associate directors in subsequent conferences. This association of factor profiles with advancement in leadership responsibilities is consistent with the expectation that there is within the culture of conducting group relations conferences in the Chicago/Evanston area a set of attitudes and beliefs that places a high value on Bions insights into group psychology, his stress on tracking and interpreting group-as-a-whole transferences, projective identifications, and splitting. There was a single exception to this finding: the factor profile for a staff member in the initial study placed Nurturing (associated with baP) above the Work factor. This highly qualified individual, closely associated with both the sponsoring institution and the founding director of the conference work here, soon assumed the role of conference director. In subsequent Q studies, after working in the directors role, the individuals factor profile
1

Table 1. Highest Ranked Consultancy Q Statements by Factor* Rank Statement Factor 1: Work (Group-Interpretive Analyst) 1 I feel the consultants most meaningful contribution to the group is his/her sensitivity to the groups transferences. I try to understand what is being put into me and if I am somehow colluding in accepting a projection and not being aware of it. I pay attention to the whole group and to splits in the group and what they represent. I especially keep track of boundary violations. I try to distinguish between what I bring into the group and what the group may be putting into me. Factor 2: Educative (Group Facilitator) 1 2 I believe the main role of the consultant is one of facilitation for the groups own process. I try to help people understand what is work and what is non-work. I look for opportunities to help members see the connection between the impulses and fantasied wishes and the restraints (and defenses) they have developed as a group. I keep in mind what is going on in the larger system of the conference, what this group brings into the room from the conference, and what it may come to represent for the conference. I am diligent in interpreting the de-skilling of the members and their wish to put all the power and knowledge into me, when this occurs. Factor 3: Nurturing (Participant-Collaborator) 1 I prefer to use concrete examples of group behavior in my consultations. I want people to understand that there is no magic; that my interpretations come from the same data that they have observed, that is available to everybody. In my interpretations, I often include data that the interpretations come from. I try to present the data to account for my interpretation. I first look for how members comments and participation reflect attitudes toward the consultant. Factor 4: Protective (Protective Manager) I try to avoid interpretations that cause narcissistic wounds. I avoid naming members when I make an interpretation. I seldom speak directly to an individual. Consultations should mirror or reframe work of which the group might be unconscious. If the group is about to act out, Ill step in with an interpretation.

2 3 4 5

3 4 5

1 2 3 4

The re-examination of the factor-arrays (a weighted composite of the rankings of the statements as occurred in those loaded highest in that factor) supported Bradleys finding that these 4 factors are substantially associated with Bions insights, and can be considered as 4 critical dimensions of effective functioning in the consultants role (Bradley, 1987). Interpretation and re-interpretation of factors is integral to the methodology of Q studies and can be considered a strength of Stephensons approach to research.

* From composite matrix based on staff Q sorts before and after the 1985 conference.

shifted loadings on the Work factor increased and were now higher than the loadings on the Nurturing factor, consistent

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with the others who advanced to higher levels of leadership. Some Implications of the Initial Study As an objective map, these findings confirmed the presence of a culture of opinions and standards within which experienced consultants work and are promoted. Orientation toward the consultants role was an important marker in identifying individual readiness to assume authority and leadership. Further, the reciprocal is also likely to be true: working in positions of authority and leadership influences ones orientation toward the role. These intelligible findings are based on a factor analysis with the correlation matrix of only 12 staff members. This study also serves as an example for the use of Q methodology to discover conceptual frames or orientational sets associated with role behaviors of special interest, adding to our understanding of how orientation to the consultants role is related to learning for leadership and to competence and experience in conference work. The results confirm Stephensons view that much insight can be gained with small samples and that subjectivity, ones attitudes and values, can be studied scientifically. Q studies can reveal lawful relationships between subjectivity (specifically Q sort behavior, or operant subjectivity) and samples of behaviors gathered in experimental design strategies using different circumstances, or stimulus conditions (Lipgar 1965). The usefulness of Q methodology is demonstrated in at least 2 other ways. First, the 4 factors found in the initial study of only 12 staff members appear again and again in each of 8 subsequent conference staff matrices. This constitutes substantive evidence that the psychological dimensions or types generated in the initial matrix are operative, defining meaningful differences among staff groups in other conferences. Specifically, the factor arrays, Q sorts representing each of the 4 factors, were included as prototypes in correlation matrices obtained from staffs in more than 8 subsequent conferences; factor analyses (varimax solutions) of the other staff correlation matrices produced these prototype factors as the highest loaders (in the range of 0.75 to 0.86) among the 5 or 6 factors in the new matrices. Such high levels of consistency

in empirical findings is unusual in the social sciences and bears noting, especially considering that subsequent intercorrelation matrices were generated from various conference staffs of different sizes, different personnel and composition, working under different conference directors at conferences conducted with different institutional sponsorship. Secondly, the heuristic value of these factors seems significant in that they bear a striking resemblance not only to Bions categories (based on insightful clinical observation), but also to the 4 factors of leadership functions (based on Rmethodology) reported by Lieberman, Yalom and Miles (1973) in their study of leadership in encounter groups: 1) Meaning Attribution; 2) Caring; 3) Emotional Stimulation; and 4) Executive Functions. The Q factors, Bions categories, and the Lieberman et al. factors are logically congruent and can be related to the 4 essential functions of social systems described by Edelson (1970) based on Talcott Parsons theory of action (1937, 1951). Edelson (op. cit.) also points out the relation of Parsons 4 social systems factors to Freuds 4 major structural concepts for the individual psyche: Ego, Id, Ego-Ideal, and Super-Ego. Such interrelationship among conceptual frames developed by different investigators using different methods to study psychosocial systems, should inform further investigations. Outcome Studies: Members Learning for Leadership In 1987, we began the empirical exploration of members views of leadership in non-residential weekend group relations conferences. We employed a more conventional data collection procedure, one that might appear more familiar to participants, a questionnaire on which conference participants would rank, on a scale of 1 to 4, 68 statements containing 17 four-item sets descriptive of leadership behaviors and attitudes. This was the first step toward developing a Leadership Q sort for use in subsequent conference studies. Questionnaire data from the 1987 and 1991 conferences were submitted to multivariate analyses (Lipgar and Struhl 1993). Statistically significant changes were found in the opinions of good leadership during both conferences, changes that were in directions
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consistent with the educational goals for working conferences in the Tavistock tradition. Registrants responding to this questionnaire before the conference presented an idealized portrait of leadership the leader as a hero, a cardboard cutout figure of a 10year-olds ego ideal. In contrast, the portrait of the preferred leader that emerges after conference participation retains many of those idealized characteristics, but is rounded out with greater appreciation and specification of what it takes to function in a leadership role. Instead of a flat black and white portrait, a description emerges with form, depth, and color: leadership connected to members at work and to group process (op. cit. 59). A comparison of statements ranked highest before and after the conference, shows that members increase their appreciation of the process of functioning on the job. Leadership traits, matters of having the right stuff, were replaced with statements describing leadership functions and interactions, matters of relationships among individuals working together as a group. Furthermore, in contrast with the 1987 conference where members were impressed with true grit and the importance of persistence and personal responsibility; the 1991 conference members valued leadership more openly attuned to the emotional life of the group and actively engaged in protecting group functioning (op. cit. p. 65). However, the views of leadership shifted subsequent to their work in the conference. The views of members from the 1991 conference changed more than those in 1987. Using the Q sorts for the 1987 and 1991 conference staffs a hypothesis can be offered to account for the differences in learning outcomes: the culture of the 2 staff groups differs, as represented by their different factor profiles. Between 1987 and 1991, a shift occurred in staff orientation to consultancy, considered a key role affecting conference output (Hayden and Carr 1991). In 1987, the conference staff group was represented by 4 factors in the following order of prominence: Group-Interpretive Analyst, Group Facilitator, Participant-Collaborator, and Protective Manager. In 1991, the prominence order of the factors changed; the Group Facilitator factor ranked first and the Group Analyst factor was ranked second. The staff culture in 1991 was more complex in terms of the factor structure, involving the emergence of

6 factors. The change in the order of the factors (in terms of how much of the variance each accounted for) was parallel to changes in conference members views of leadership. The shift in the staff culture, more toward a group facilitative mode and away from a strictly interpretive one, implied an appreciation of leadership attuned to teamwork, to the dynamics of people working together as a group, rather than leadership in a more independent and heroic stance. The results from this study are an example of the use of Q data to explore ways in which conference design and staff functioning may affect member learning. The use of factor scores to map key aspects of staff culture can more objectively examine relationships between conference staff orientation and member learning. To obtain a closer view, we developed a leadership Q sort based on interviews with experienced staff in addition to the leadership questionnaire designed for the earlier studies (1987, 1991). We used the leadership Q sort with staff and members of the 1995 conference to test several hypotheses. By examining longitudinal changes in individual factor loadings, we were able to describe changes in member and staff views of leadership, changes in the factor loadings within these 2 groups, and changes in relations of groups and subgroups to one another. Conference cultures and change in terms of their concepts of good leadership can be examined in depth. The factor structures identify and quantify subgroups of opinion: fault lines of diversity in terms of views of leadership. Q studies make it possible to track the direction of change in individuals as representatives of subgroups, identified either by demographics or by roles taken during the 2 life of a conference. For example, factor profiles of men can be compared with factor profiles of women. It is also possible to study the experience and opinions of any particular subgroup. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate similarities and differences between the 1995 and 1996 conference cultures. Figures 3 and 4 illustrate changes in member and staff views of leadership before and after the conference.
2

In these studies, individuals with particular leadership orientations are examined only as representatives of subgroups and not in terms of their personal histories or traits.

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Figure 1 summarizes the factor structure of all staff and members both before and after the 1995 weekend nonresidential conference. The factor structure can be considered a map of good leadership, an important aspect of conference culture. The 1995 conference culture was objectively and

quantitatively represented, by 6 factors, and was composed of 6 subgroup views of good leadership: Group Process Facilitator (21%), Action Manager (11%), Task Leader (13%), Non-directive Egalitarian Leader (1%), Professor (4%), and Committee Coordinator (3%). Table 2 contains a list of the high ranking

Non-loaders Other Factors Mixed Factor I Mixed

12% 12% 23% 3% 4% 1% 13% 11% 21% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%

Factors

VI Committee Coordinator V Professor IV Non-Directive Egalitarian III Task Leader II Action Manager I Group Process Facilitator

Percent Members Loading

Figure 1. Staff and Member Leadership Orientations 1995 Group Relations Conference (Based on composite matrix of member and staff Q sorts before and after the conference.)

Non-loaders Other Factors Mixed

7% 13% 22% 1% 8% 11% 20% 18% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%

Factors

Factor I Mixed V Administrator IV Bion Work Group Leader III Team Player II Manager-Coach I Group Process Facilitator

Percent Members Loading

Figure 2. Staff and Member Leadership Orientations 1996 Group Relations Conference (Based on composite matrix of member and staff Q sorts before and after the conference.)

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statements for each of these factors. Another 23% of the staff and membership who loaded on both Factor 1 and on 1 or more of the remaining factors saw the good leader as a combination of the Group Process Facilitator and 1 of the other types. They are referred to in the figure as mixed-loaders. Figure 2 shows a different conference culture in 1996. The factor structure shifted slightly, and although the Group Process Facilitator type was still present, there emerged an even stronger representation of a Manager-coach leader. A comparison of the Action Manager type that emerged in 1995 with the Manager-coach of 1996 shows subtle 3 but important differences in these 2 concepts . Similarly, the Team Player has much in common with both the Non-directive Egalitarian and Committee Coordinator types that emerged in the 1995 conference culture. The Bion Work Group Leader represented by 8% of the conference group in 1996 has much in common with the Task Leader identified in 1995, but included new subtleties about responding to affects in the group-as-a-whole and with the use of ones self. Figures 3 and 4, representing 1995 and 1996, respectively, show changes for the members only in relation to composites of the whole conference cultures before and after participation in the work of the conference. These changes are in terms of shifts in members factor loadings. In both the 1995 and the 1996 conference, there was a dramatic increase in the extent to which members post-conference Q sorts loaded on the Group Process Facilitator factors, providing strong evidence that members valued more highly those leadership attitudes and behaviors associated with facilitating the relationship aspects of group functioning. In both conferences the Group Facilitator factors included most of the staff working in consulting roles, and especially the small study group consultants.
3

Table 2. Highest Ranked Leadership Q Statements by Factor*

Rank

Statement Factor 1: Group Process Facilitator Able to use his/her own feelings to understand group Recognizes emotional issues affecting the groups work Understands how others influence him/her Reflect aspects of its process to the group Factor 2: Action Manager Gets others to feel part of decision-making Manages groups time and resources well Shows persistence Keeps group focused on task Factor 3: Task Leader Keeps group focused on task Gives group structure and guidance Capable of abstract thinking and clear speaking Reflects aspects of its process to the group Factor 4: Non-directive Egalitarian Values personal and individual responsibility Regards others as equals Harmonizes members needs with task requirements Able to use his/her own feelings to understand group Factor 5: Professor Capable of abstract thinking and clear speaking Tolerates ambiguity Shows persistence in face of obstacles Values personal responsibility and individual

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4

Factor 6: Committee Coordinator Raises the right questions when things get stalled Respects groups potential Optimistic about members capacities Gets others to feel part of decision-making

Q statements ranked highest for the 1996 factor 2, Manager-coach: keeps group focused on task, gives group structure and guidance, manages groups time and resources well, and provides group with inspiration and motivation. Examination of the rankings of all 41 statements elaborated the portrait of a leader as one who provided inspiration, modeling, and mentoring, whereas the 1995 Action Manager was seen more as an organizer who got things done.

* From a composite matrix based on staff Q sorts before and after the 1995 conference.

Heads of administrative teams were represented as another subgroup by either Factor 2, the Action Manager in 1995, or

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Factor 5, the Administrator, in the 1996 conference. Another subgroup was composed of the conference director and 2 other staff members who had broad administrative experience and responsibilities in other settings. These staff were represented in 1996 by Factor 3, the Bion Work Group Leader, thus distinguishing them from both the consulting

team members on the Group Facilitator factor and the administrative team members on the Action Manager and Administrator factors. Although some members moved toward the Task Leader factor in 1995, no members appeared on the more sophisticated Bion Work Group Leader factor in 1996 either before or after the conference.

VI Committee Coordinator V Professor IV Non-Directive Egalitarian

6% 0% 3% 8% 3% 0% 9% 16% 21% 4% 15%

Before After

Factors

III Task Leader II Action Manager I Group Process Facilitator 0%

32% 30% 40%

10%

20%

Percent Members Loading


Figure 3. Group Relations Conference 1995 Members Changes in Leadership Orientations (Based on composite matrix of Member and Staff Q Sorts before and after the conference. Trends presented in terms of percentages based on pure loaders in each factor. When mixed-loaders were included, the profiles were essentially the same.)

V Administrator IV Bion Work Group Leader III Team Player

2% 0% 0% 0% 18% 1% 23% 14% 16%

Before After

Factors

II Manager-Coach I Group Process Facilitator 0% 10%

38% 20% 30% 40%

Percent Members Loading


Figure 4. Group Relations Conference 1996 Members Changes in Leadership Orientations (Based on composite matrix of Members and Staff Q Sorts before and after entering the conference. Trends presented in terms of percentages based on pure loaders in each factor. When mixed-loaders were included, the profiles were essentially the same.)

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In order to test the hypothesis that subtle and sophisticated learning about authority and leadership, as represented in the Bion Work Group Leader factor, does not occur during a weekend non-residential conference, it would be necessary to design and conduct a future Q study during 1 or more 5-day or 9-day residential conferences. If confirmed, findings would be consistent with the belief generally held among members of the A. K. Rice Institute that 9-day national conferences provide in-depth opportunities for learning not accessible in non-residential weekend conferences, even though the conference design and methods used are quite similar. Research activities in the 1996-98 conferences included conventional evaluation questionnaires to provide data on how members rated the conference experience and its component parts, i.e., small group, large group, intergroup, conference plenary discussion, and review and application group experiences. Responses on the questionnaires also provided ratings of the effectiveness of staff in each of these events. During the 1996 conference, the most intensively researched in this series, we obtained ratings from small group consultants about their own and each others contributions to teamwork. Additionally, the research staff attended small group team meetings as observers and rated the small group consultants contributions to the teams work. The additional data allowed the exploration of links between staff behavior, conference culture, and member learning. Linking Staff Performance to Member Learning Empirical studies conducted during the 1987 and 1991 conferences demonstrated that learning takes place in terms of statistically meaningful changes in views of leadership (Lipgar and Struhl 1995) and that factor profiles of orientations to the role of small group consultant (Bradley 1987; Lipgar 1993) were useful as objective ways to map key aspects of staff cultures (Lipgar and Bair 1997). In order to examine the relation of staff orientation to staff behavior and consider linkages to member learning, we compared the learning in small study groups. Questions examined included each consultants views of leadership, peer ratings of contributions to teamwork, observer ratings of consultant contributions to the team, member ratings of consultant contributions to the small group,
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and members views of small group learning. Evidence was found to support member learning about leadership, as inferred from shifts in factor loadings before and during conferences. As expected, peers on the Small Group Consulting Team rated the designated head of their team as the most effective among their group of 5; the research observers were less likely to rate the team head in this way. One of the small group consultants seemed to be regarded as most effective, both in member ratings and, more importantly, in the movement of group members from 1 factor to another during the conference. This seemed significant, because, although he was less experienced than the head of the consultant team, he was the only consultant to load on the Bion-Work Group factor along with the director. Members of this consultants group tended to show the most movement from 1 factor to another. Movement tended to be in the direction of the Group Process Facilitating factor, where most of the staff was located. This factor places more value on facilitating than on analysis or interpretation of the dynamics of the group as a whole. Group Facilitators tend to emphasize group process and responding empathically to the emotional life of the group, which is virtuous and positive. This emphasis is not quite the same as the true Bion stance. The Bion Work Group Leader is group-centered, but attends also to task, structure, and use of self in understanding the group process, sorting out what are projections and what are the consultants personal issues. Q methodology provided objective quantitative data to build and test hypotheses about multi-leveled interactions within social matrices. Q studies data combined with other data enhanced our understanding of on-the-job performance in relation not only to contractual and covert role assignments, but also to authorizations in the context of working groups and organizations. This illustrates another use for Q study results: hypotheses are brought to the analysis of the data and refined or shaped for further investigation. New hypotheses may be developed for examination, thus supporting what Stephenson and others have termed abduction using the terminology of American philosopher Charles Peirce.

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Learning Styles and Group Participation In the 1997 conference, we began to use Q sorts to explore the process of learning by experience how do people engage in the work of these conferences? How do different learning styles affect educational outcomes? A Q sort composed of 34 statements was selected from a concourse about peoples views of themselves as participants and learners in important educational activities. The learning styles Q sort allowed us to advance several steps in understanding how members and staff engage experientially in conference work. For the first time, Q data could be analyzed during the conference. Since a research period of hour had been scheduled on Saturday afternoon for all staff and members to construct Q sorts, it was possible for the research team to process the data and report findings to staff during the evening. The next day the results were reported to the entire conference during the plenary review session. Because of this procedural innovation, learning from the research was authorized as part of the work of the conference. The high level of cooperation obtained during the 1997 conference for a real time research project reflected the excellent 4 cooperative work of the research team. Before the conference, all staff and 38 of 43 members constructed Q sorts, and during the conference, all members and staff sorted. The ability to analyze the data and report initial findings in a plenary conference review session, made data collecting and analysis an integral part of the discovery and discourse processes, thus reinforcing social system study objectives as components of the conference. The research team delivered their interpretation of the factors in the form of brief monologues, giving the factors a voice, as though each factor were a member participating in the open dialogue and discourse of the plenary review session. Individual factor loadings were not announced, and no discussion was held about 5 methodological or theoretical matters.

John P. Bair, Ph.D., Assistant Director for Research and head of the 1997 research team consisting of Steven R. Brown, Ph.D., Clive Hazel, Ph.D., and Ann Kaplan, Ph.D. 5 Prior to the conference and during the plenary opening, members had been invited to address

In the pre-conference correlation matrix, 3 factors were identified, 2 of which were bi-polar. During the conference, 2 more factors emerged. The report of research findings did not stir much discussion during the plenary review session or the final review and application sessions. Since this was the first time in our conference work that real time research data analysis was introduced as an integral part of the learning opportunities and experience, it is perhaps not surprising that more exploration did not occur. Nevertheless, the report raised staff awareness of the different learning styles and provided insights about ways members join or resist joining various conference tasks. During the conference, discussion and review of the Q findings can illuminate and identify covert processes that advance or inhibit learning. However, another factor solution based on the same intercorrelation matrix was explored several months after the conference. It revealed 7 styles of participation and learning (listed here in decreasing order of the amount of variance each accounted for in the matrix): 1) Belief that learning requires engagement, both with others and with inner feelings; 2) Self-reliant (perhaps counterdependent), self-possessed, and selfauthorizing; 3) Thoughtful engagement of inner feelings and others in the here and now; 4) Cooperative acceptance of authority and structure, harmony seeking; 5) Assertive, competitive with authority, willing to express dissent and conflict; 6) Willingness to work with difficult emotions (i.e., anger), but requiring structure and authority in order to be interactional; 7) Responsive, dependent on and reactive to situational aspects. The factors and their relative prominence provided a quantified representation of the 1997 conference and an objective basis for exploring similarities and differences with other conference cultures. This particular structure could be used as preparation for further work, a baseline against which to compare and contrast future conference cultures. Hypotheses could be considered about the relationship of member and staff orientations to learning, satisfaction with the experience of various conference events, and the nature and extent of changes in concepts of leadership before and during the conference.

inquiries about the research to the assistant director for research or the author as conference director. 23

During the 1997 conference, we collected questionnaire ratings from members regarding their evaluations of the conference program and the consultants. We asked small group consultants to rank the members of their groups in terms of the quality of their involvement as workers. Research observers ranked the contributions of the small group consultants to the work of their teams. Each consultants small study group was characterized in terms of the factor loadings of the members, while each consultant was characterized in terms of orientation to the consultants role. The dynamics of factor loadings before, during, and after the conference served as an indicator of the kind of learning that occurred. Together with other ratings and anecdotal reports by staff and members, qualitative case study comparisons of the consultants work and that of their groups were attempted. Our aim here was two-fold: 1) To develop hypotheses (a, b, and c) about the function of: (a) consultants (as psychological work leaders, in Bions sense, with (b) the views members hold of good leadership (as an indicator of educational outcome) together with (c) the styles of participation and learning that characterize conference members. 2) To obtain objective evidence to support hypotheses about the ability of consultants to facilitate effective learning among group members. This is an on-going program of research in which methods as much as subjects are on trial (Lipgar 1992b), and in which Q methodology has been found to be a flexible and powerful tool. Staff Relations and Development The directors commitment to include research as an integral part of the conference altered group dynamics within the conference staff. Relationships among teams were affected. Feelings of competition, inevitably part of staff dynamics, were stirred in unfamiliar ways. The researchers were viewed as interlopers, technocrats who had little appreciation for the members struggles with conference objectives and who had neither real commitment to the Tavistock tradition nor understanding of the primary task. The research team explored strategies to reduce feelings of envy toward the consulting team who had direct contact with the membership. They felt left out. Both reactions, left

unexamined, could have affected staff performance negatively and jeopardized the success of the conference. While tensions emerged among the staff throughout the conference and were part of the work, they were most often exposed and turbulent in the inter-group or institutional events. At these events intra-staff relations were naturally under scrutiny, since members, representing their own groups in various roles, could attend and interact with the staff (as one of the working groups) in this part of the conference program. Unless there had been some meaningful work addressing staff relations prior to these sessions, the ability to use research findings and explore feelings and fantasies stirred by the presence of the other set of eyes, could have been impaired. One anecdote can serve to illustrate the depth of feelings that emerged. During the institutional event (one of the here and now sessions in which research staff are not restricted to the role of observers), a conference member, in the role of a plenipotentiary, raised a question for discussion with the staff and addressed one staff member by her first name. Motivated perhaps by a need to have more direct contact with members in order to participate in the real work of the conference, one of the research staff described what he had perceived to be an inappropriate presumption of familiarity by the member. This interpretation registered as an affront to the member and she left the conference, missing the final 3 events of the weekend. The addition and authorization of a research team changed staff structure and dynamics in significant ways. Our lack of experience with these new challenges left the director and staff unprepared to deal with the incident in a constructive way that might have convinced the offended member to remain with the conference and thereby could have enhanced learning for both members and staff. Authorizing the research team to carry out the research tasks raised new questions about role boundaries, particularly concerning authorization of the consulting team to function as primary interpreters of conference dynamics. What were the relative merits, power, and credibility of interpretations based upon different kinds of data? When would it have been appropriate, when could it have been helpful, to make interpretations based upon research findings rather than clinical observations, and when might it have been

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appropriate to present the data upon which interpretations had been based? Staff became more uncertain about their roles and authorizations. Anxieties about being inadequate, or being seen as inadequate, increased. The need to assert the legitimacy and relevance of ones insights led at times to heightened intra-staff competitive tensions. Anxieties raised in staff meetings were sometimes expressed quite directly in terms of Whom did the director love more? Issues involving the relationship between the humanities or liberal arts and the sciences, usually handled less openly in academic circles, were experienced by the staff and explored in the conference in much more personal terms. In 1996, two post-conference review sessions were held specifically to discuss orientations toward consultancy as represented in the individual Q sort factor profiles in order to prepare staff to work together. Review session preparation included printing each staff members name and position on the factor structure. Five factors accounted for the staff intercorrelation matrix, which was comprised of Q sorts from before and after the conference for each staff member. Three staff defined a factor named Group Process Facilitator and accounted for the largest portion of the variance in the matrix. Other factors defined by more than 1 staff person included Mentor-coach; and Bion Work Group Leader. Staff who attended the postconference review discussion explored not only technical matters (such as how the research was conducted and the meaning of loading on a factor), but also substantive issues of how consultants could best contribute to the work of the group and to member learning. Some of the competitive feelings and anxieties about being scrutinized by the director and ones peers were also explored. This opened discussion of individual staff member views of consultancy and perceptions of self-competence. Relations between the research team and staff became more collaborative in 1997. Using postconference meetings to review research findings in detail and discuss the ways to integrate research with conference learning provided new opportunities to share staff work experiences and advance the purpose of conference workshops.

A Work in Progress Group relations conferences, treated here as social laboratories microcosms of larger institutions traditionally not only provide distinctive opportunities for learning, but also can be structured and conducted as challenging contexts for testing self-study research methods. Selecting research questions, determining which aspects of these temporary educational institutions to investigate, and selecting techniques for data collection and analysis must be considered in the context of the primary group learning tasks. Integrating research activity with the traditional work of the conferences necessitates finding new ways to solicit and maintain staff and maintain active member participation to enrich the overall educational experience. Our experiences, obtained over more than 10 years conducting research as part of group relations conferences conducted in Evanston and Chicago, Illinois, carry implications for outcome evaluation and selfstudy in other educational, institutional, and organizational contexts. Research that is planned and supported as on-going endeavors in organizational settings can advance learning for all participants by providing ongoing feedback and review. Q methodology can enhance our understanding about how members learn, how consultants contribute to the psychological work of the conference, and how leadership functions both in member groups and among staff. To extend and understand the interactional functioning of different systems within social matrices require both quantitative and clinical methods. Learning and knowing, as well as leadership psychological and managerial take place in social matrices and are functions of them. People approach their work as learners, and exercise their authority and leadership in different ways. They also engage in learning by experience along several dimensions: openness vs. defensiveness in relation to the social matrix; acceptance vs. defiance of authority; responsiveness to internal vs. external stimuli. Deeper and more comprehensive knowledgeof-acquaintance of authority, leadership, groups, and organizations, as well as testable hypotheses and scientific knowledge all can be gained and communicated from results of appropriately designed Q methodological studies.

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The 3 major components of a working conference in the A. K. Rice/Tavistock tradition include: 1) the role of the consultant as a psychological leader based primarily on the group work of Wilfred Bion (1961); 2) learning for leadership as the primary goal-oriented task; 3) learning by experience as the method (Rice, 1965). The design of the conference events, the general philosophy of management and consultation, the emphasis on task and boundary management, as well as the encounter and management of anxieties integral to learning by experience, all follow from these 3 components. Our research efforts, therefore, have been directed to learning more about consultant behavior and values, leadership behavior and functions, and the process of participatory group learning. The penetrating power of Q methodology and its adaptability make these experiential and profoundly personal, yet communal, journeys possible and instructive. Together with the intensive encounters engendered in group relations conferences, the scientific inquiries of operant subjectivity enable us to combine the riches of the domain of feelings, fantasies, and values with the discipline of quantification and statistical analysis. Conclusions Among the results from the Q studies conducted during a series of conferences which show the usefulness and power of this research approach are: 1) objective mapping of critical dimensions of the consultants role; 2) objective mapping of significant aspects of conference cultures; 3) quantification of changes in understanding of leadership among members and staff before and after the conference; 4) abductive development of hypotheses specifying some covert processes that may affect staff effectiveness as work leaders; and 5) preparation of new hypotheses relating specific leadership and learning variables. Research findings can also be used to refine conceptual frameworks about leadership and group dynamics. Factors representing different consulting stances were remarkably consistent over several conferences. Furthermore, the factors represent an objective conceptual map of leadership dimensions and consultancy functions. The factor loadings of individuals were correlated not only with the

amount of experience subjects had in the consulting role, but also with satisfaction ratings assigned by registrants while reflecting on their small group experiences. The dimensions of the consultant role as mapped by Q factor analysis bears striking resemblance to dimensions of leadership functioning as developed by researchers using other investigative methods and settings (e.g., Bion; Lieberman, Yalom, and Miles; Edelson/ Parsons). With Q methodology, a scientific approach to qualitative research about subjectivity, nuances of complex subjective experiences and inter-subjective dynamics can be objectified, quantified, and integrated into the primary educational mission of any organization or institution. The studies described here raise questions important for understanding group psychology in general and group relations conference work in particular: 1) To what extent is it virtually inevitable that groups move away from the difficult tasks set forth by the founders, tasks which inspired them? 2) Are there common dimensions, forms, and structures underlying particular manifestations of orientational sets, values, and attitudes at any particular time and in any particular organizational setting? 3) Is the search for lawful relationships among such variables as leadership and consultancy stance, learning style, and learning-ofacquaintance in conflict with group experiential learning? 4) Will the A. K. Rice Institute and Tavistock tradition, so inspired by Bions work and vision, become in contemporary practice another movement to facilitate cohesiveness and belongingness at the expense of the hard work of learning, growth, and adaptation? In the most profound sense, both Bion and Stephenson studied learning and knowing: how personal experiences inform our thoughts, knowledge, and actions; how personal experiences are shared and transformed both as common sense and as sophisticated knowledge. With different but not incompatible contributions, both Wilfred Bion and William Stephenson bring us further along the journey of exploring the unknown, symbolizing the asyet-unspoken, and giving voice to thoughts waiting to be born searching concourses of communicability. By integrating group relations conference work with Q studies, we cross the threshold to new ways of learning, new ways of sharing our learning, and new

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ways of creating knowledge about leadership and community.


Rezumat Evalurile empirice i procedurile de autocunoatere au fost implementate pe parcursul unei serii de conferine de weekend asupra relaiilor de grup n tradiia Tavistock i au fost utilizate pentru a dezvolta nvarea n cadrul conferinei pentru personal i membri. Aceste studii au fost organizate i conduse pentru a menine focalizarea pe sarcinile de baz ale conferinei. Sunt discutate cteva studii asupra leadership-ului, stilurilor de nvare i rolului consultantului. Sunt de asemenea trecute n revist problemele administrative i metodologice ntmpinate n integrarea cercetrii cu nvarea n cadrul conferinei. Deoarece modelul Tavistock accentueaz n mod distinctiv subiectivitatea i nvarea prin experiena direct a proceselor ascunse i deseori primitive, a fost cutat o metodologie compatibil cu nvarea experienial. Metodologia Q face posibil obinerea unor informaii cuantificabile, obiective i profunde cu privire la valorile, atitudinile i caracteristicile dispoziionale ale indivizilor i grupurilor aflate n relaii. Studiile bazate pe metodologia Q au fost desfurate pe o perioad de 10 ani ca parte integrant a conferinei de lucru. Invarea bazat pe observaii i experiene directe a fost combinat cu feedback bazat pe cercetare empiric sistematic. Echipa a analizat rezultatele conferinei n sesiuni desfurate la sfritul conferinelor pentru a promova dezvoltarea i competena acestora. Realizarea cercetrii n contextul conferinelor asupra relaiilor de grup furnizeaz experiene pentru abordarea atitudinilor conflictuale fa de cunotinele bazate pe experiena personal, date empirice, sau teoria privind luarea deciziilor. Rezultatele acestui studiu au implicaii pentru autocunoatere i aprecierea rezultatelor evalurilor n alte instituii i contexte organizaionale. Acknowledgement The authors wish to acknowledge with appreciation Robert Mrtek and Marsha Mrtek whose editorial efforts have made this report more readable and coherent.

Bradley, D. (1987). A Q methodology study of the conceptual framework of small study group consultants. Doctoral dissertation. The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Chicago, IL. Brown, S.R. (1980). Political subjectivity: Applications of Q methodology in political science. New Haven: Yale University Press. Edelson, M. (1970). Sociotherapy and psychotherapy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Exner, J.E. (1978). The Rorschach: A comprehensive system Vol. 2: Current research and advanced interpretation. New York: Wiley. Hayden, C. & Carr, W. (1991). Responsibility, accountability, and ethics in organizations: The evaluation of group relations conference consultants. Paper presented at the Eleventh Annual Scientific Meeting of the A. K. Rice Institute, St. Louis, MO. Lieberman, M.A., Yalom, I., and Miles, M.A. (1973). Encounter groups: First facts, New York: Basic Books. Lipgar, R.M. (1965). Subjective probability notions, guessing behavior, and their personality correlates. Doctoral dissertation. University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. (1992a). The problem of R in the Rorschach: The value of varying responses. Journal of Projective Assessment 58(2): 223-30. (1992b). A programme of group relations research: emphasis on inquiry and the trial of techniques. Group analysis 25: 365-75. (1993). Views of the consultants role: A Q methodology study. In Changing group relations: The next 25 years. Ed. T.W. Hugg, N.M.Carson, and R.M. Lipgar. Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute. Lipgar, R.M. & Bair, J.P. (1997). Appraising small study group consultants effectiveness: The compatibility of Q Methodology and the A. K. Rice Institute. Paper presented at the Thirteenth Biennial Meeting of the A. K. Rice Institute, April -3-6, Houston, TX. Lipgar, R.M. & Struhl, S. (1995). Learning for leadership: Member-learning during group relations conferences. In Community/Chaos: Proceedings of the Eleventh Scientific Meeting of the A.K. Rice Institute. Ed. K.L. West, C. Hayden, and R.M. Sharrin. Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute. Miller, E.J. & Rice, A.K. (1967). Systems of organization. London: Tavistock Publicatons, Ltd. Parsons, T. (1937). The structure of social action. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe.

References
Bion, W.R. (1961). Experiences in groups. New York: Basic Books, Inc. (1962). Learning from experience. New York: Basic Books, Inc. (1965). Transformations. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

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Rice, A.K. (1965). Learning for leadership. London: Tavistock Publications, Ltd. Parsons, T. et al. (1951). Some fundamental categories of the theory of action: A general statement. In Toward a general theory of action. Ed. T. Parsons and E. Shils. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Smith, N.W. (2001). Operant subjectivity: objectivity of subjectivity. Chapter 11 in Current systems in psychology: History, research, and applications. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. Stephenson, W. (1953). The study of behavior. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. (1978). Concourse theory of communication. Communication 3: 21-40. Suggested Readings Bair, J.P. (1990). The effect of member's ego styles on psychoanalytic work processes in small groups. Doctoral dissertation. Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. Brown, S.R. (1994). Group psychology and leadership. Address delivered at a panel on psychological approaches to studying leadership, Midwest Political Science Assoc., Chicago, April 14-16, 1994. [Unpublished paper available from the author.] Culver, L. (1995). Q methodology in group relations research: Role ideal and performance in role of small group consultants. Doctoral dissertation. The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Chicago. Cytrynbaum, S. (1993). Gender and authority in group relations conferences: So what have we learned in fifteen years of research? In Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Scientific Meeting of the A. K. Rice Institute. Ed. S. Cytrynbaum and S.A. Lee. Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute. (1995). Group relations research progress report: contextual and methodological issues in the study of gender and authority in Tavistock group relations conference, or it depends. In Community/Chaos: Proceedings of the Eleventh Scientific Meeting of the A. K. Rice Institute. Ed. K.L. West, C. Hayden, and R.M. Sharrin. Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute. Edelson, M. (1988). Psychoanalysis: A theory in crisis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (1989). The nature of psychoanalytic theory: Implications for psychoanalytic research. Psychoanalytic Inquiry 9: 169-92. Edelson, M. & Berg, D.N. (1999). Rediscovering groups: a psychoanalysts journey beyond

individual psychology. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Edelson, M. & Jones, A. (1954). Operational exploration of the conceptual self system and of the interaction between frames of reference. Genetic Psychological Monographs 50: 43-139. Granda, K.L. (1992). Consultant personal and working framework and its impact on memberauthority relations in small groups. Doctoral dissertation. Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. Harrow, M., Astrachan, B.M., Tucker, G.J., Klein, E.B., & Miller, J.C. (1971). The T-group and study group laboratory experiences. Journal of Social Psychology 85: 225-37. Klein, E.B. (1978). An overview of recent Tavistock work in the United States. In Advances in experiential social processes. Ed. C.L. Cooper and C.P. Alderfer. New York: John Wiley. Klein, E.B., Correa, M.E., Howe, S.R., & Stone, W.N. (1983). The effect of social systems on group relations training. Social Psychiatry 18: 712. Lipgar, R.M. (1993). Bions work with groups: construed and misconstrued. In Transformations in global and organizational systems. Ed. S. Cytrynbaum and S.A. Lee. Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute. (1998). Beyond Bions Experiences in groups: group relations research and learning. In Bions legacy to groups. Ed. P.B. Talamo, F. Borgogno, and S.A. Merciai. London: Karnac Books. McGarrigle, E.K. (1992). Ego ideal and the role behavior of the small study-group consultant. Doctoral dissertation. Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Chicago, IL. McKeown, B. and Thomas, D. (1988). Methodology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Q

Miller, E.J. (1985). The politics of involvement. In Group relations reader 2. Ed. A.D. Colman and M.H. Geller. Jupiter, FL: A. K. Rice Institute. Pines, M. (Ed.) (1985). Bion and group psychotherapy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Stephenson, W. (1986). Protoconcursus: The concourse theory of communication. Operant Subjectivity 9: 37-58, and 73-96. Stock, D. and Thelen, H.A. (1958). Emotional dynamics and group culture. New York: New York University Press. Thelen, H.A. (1958)). Dynamics of groups at work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (1984). Research with Bions concepts. In Bion and group psychotherapy. Ed. M. Pines. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

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Studii i Cercetri

FROM CIRCUMPLEX TO SPHERE: PERCEPTIONS OF VOCATIONAL ACTIVITIES, EXPLORED AND APPLIED


*David Bimler, John Kirkland Massey University, New Zealand

Abstract

Schematic maps of the world of work are often used in vocational guidance. Arguably a map is most effective if it coincides with the cognitive representation already internalized by job-seekers. Here, multidimensional scaling was used to extract a consensus representation from judgements about similarities among a set of vocational-aptitude descriptors. To exclude artefacts confined to a single procedure for eliciting similarity judgements, or a single form of analysis, three different procedures were used, and multiple groups of informants. The results converged on a vocational space with at least three dimensions. Its axes were interpreted as people / things, indoor / outdoor, and creative / routine aspects of work though the map is rotationally indeterminate, so other frames of reference are valid. This map is shown to accommodate individuals preference rankings of the descriptors, by representing them as vectors.
Key words: interests; aptitudes; multidimensional scaling

Introduction Job-seekers confront a bewildering plethora of occupational titles and descriptions. They must make sense of information impinging on them from a variety of sources. At the same time, they must make sense of their own preferences and aptitudes: their enjoyment or lack of it for various facets of work, job-related activities, and rewards (reinforcers) provided by jobs. There is evidence that job-seekers who set out with clear career intentions achieve higher satisfaction and performance in their jobs than those who find work by accident or default. Clarity of intentions, and awareness of the range of available alternatives, are associated with job satisfaction. According to Shivy, Phillips and Koehly (1996), what counselors can offer to job-seekers is a tool for thinking
*

Corresponding author. Address: David Bimler Health and Human Development, Massey University Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North, New Zealand Ph. 0064-4-3800151 d.bimler@massey.ac.nz

about occupational opportunities; a schema or map of the world of work. Once internalized, it provides a framework for organizing both sets of information (and becoming aware of both ranges of choices). A number of such schemata have been proposed. Holland introduced a classification of occupations into six divisions (occupations may also have secondary and tertiary tags), and parallel classifications of work interests and vocational personalities (1973). Prediger (1982) interpreted these six categories as regions within a two-dimensional continuum, shifting the emphasis to the pair of bipolar axes that underlie this continuum. These axes provide a co-ordinate system, in which a given occupation can be located and its attributes can be specified. Prediger identified them as the oppositions People / things and Ideas / data. However, Tracey and Rounds pointed out equally valid alternative axes or oppositions for spanning the continuum (1996), and other ways of dividing it into categories (1995). Seven and eight categories characterize the systems of Athanasou (2002) and Roe (1956). Given the long history and widespread use of tools based on Hollands system, it

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might seem otiose to re-address this issue. Nevertheless, we argue that if job-seekers benefit from vocational counseling by acquiring a schema a framework for organizing information, clarifying their aspirations and options, and facilitating communication with advisers then any pre-existing consensus about occupational structure, shared across the culture, is probably most easily acquired (if not present already, in nascent form). Hollands categorical system and the subsequent dimensionalized schemata grew out of theory, and are not necessarily the way that an informant (or a consensus of informants) would spontaneously think about the world of work. A number of studies have explored the cultural consensus about occupations, not always finding the structure predicted by these theoretical schemata (Shivy et al., 1996; Shivy, Rounds & Jones, 1999). Note also that occupational titles are not necessarily the best items to investigate occupational cognition the best landmarks within the underlying structure, as it were. We argue below in favor of a finer-grained item set of job activities or aspects. There is a long research tradition of representing vocational cognition with maps reconstructed from direct judgements of similarity, or from similarity estimates derived indirectly from preference rankings (reviewed by Rounds & Zevon, 1983; Davison, Richards & Rounds, 1986). The mathematical procedures for this cognitive cartography are known as multidimensional scaling or MDS (Jones & Koehly, 1993). Individual items (titles, etc.) are represented as points within a spatial map of two or three dimensions (or more), arranged so that the distance between any pair of points reflects the (dis-)similarity between the corresponding items. Adjacent items are the most similar, and the most interchangeable. Most distant items are most dissimilar: the choice or opposition between them is most clear-cut. This explicitly geometrical metaphor is a natural way of approaching the vocational domains. Crucially, judgements of occupational similarity can be used as judgements of transferability (how well a candidate will be suited to one job if he is known to be ideally suited to a second). Reeb (1971) demonstrated that the two are highly correlated and yield equivalent MDS solutions. MDS played a central part in the research reported here. Subjects indicated their relative preferences among a set of 99

vocational activities. A three-dimensional map of the items, depicting their interconnections and underlying structure, was instrumental in analyzing the subjects responses. But the item set is the culmination of an empirical process of progressive refinement, with MDS applied at each iteration to indicate any absences within the set (where items needed to be generated) and any redundancies (where highly similar items could be rationalized). In geometrical terms, these correspond to regions of the map where too few items were distributed, or too many, respectively. When a MDS solution is properly aligned, each of its dimensions (axes) is interpretable as a particular distinction drawn by the informants; in other words, as a particular attribute on which items can vary, such that the difference between two items values on the attribute contribute to the overall impression of inter-item dissimilarity (and eventually to inter-item distance). Thus specific attention was paid to ensuring that item-points were present at the extremes of the three dimensions, since such items convey in pure form the vocational attribute or quality represented by that axis, positively or negatively depending on the pole. When a subjects preferences are elicited, such items sample his or her attitudes to that attribute most directly. New items were generated if necessary. Alternative domains and dimensions Existing tools for vocational assessment tend to assume that the different domains within the broader ambit of vocation titles, aptitudes or skills, interests, predicates (Coxon & Jones, 1979) are all homologous ways of referring to the same structure, with homologous axes underlying them. One might describe these different item sets as different sets of landmarks that all occupy the same landscape, and are all equally good for navigating within it. But the empirical evidence suggests that these domains do differ in the salience of specific dimensions. Dawis (1992, p. 177) concluded that The RIASEC structure fits only interest data, and an occupations map based on interest data will not correspond to [] an occupations map based on other vocational variables. For reinforcers (the extrinsic, motivating attributes of jobs), some can be accommodated within occupation-title space,

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but not all (Shubsachs & Davison, 1979). MDS treatment of reinforcers revealed additional dimensions (Ronen et al., 1979). Most MDS analyses of the subjective dissimilarities among a list of occupation titles find a Prestige or Status dimension emerging as a prominent quality of occupations, used by informants to discriminate them (e.g. Burton, 1972; Kraus, Schild & Hodge, 1978; Shivy et al., 1996). Alternatively a dimension is given a label such as level of educational requirement (Coxon & Jones, 1979) or simply Level (Reeb, 1971), diverging from Status, but highly correlated with it. There are also studies where status varied little among the items available these were restricted to a narrow band of status levels so the quality failed to distinguish them as a dimension in the MDS solution (Coxon, 1971; Johnson, 1992). Status level is clearly a useful variable to know about occupations, and about an individuals vocational aspiration; to omit it from discussion brings to mind the performance reported by Walter Scott, of [] the tragedy of Hamlet, the character of the Prince of Denmark being left out. But at the same time, it is an irrelevant and confounding factor for the purpose of determining which tasks and activities job-seekers like to do, and where they excel. When we assess the overall dissimilarity between two items, there are only so many dimensions we can consider concurrently, i.e. only so many independent qualities on which inter-item differences will contribute. This is a cognitive limitation of the human mind (additional to the celebrated 72 limit of short-term memory). The high salience of Status may mean that some other form of variation is thrust into the background; some variation that might gain in importance if the salience of Status were reduced. For this reason, the present study moves away from job titles as the landmarks of choice for examining the structure of occupational cognition. Titles do have other disadvantages. As a practical tool for eliciting a job-seekers preferences, they allow idiosyncratic factors to contribute significantly. A school-age client who has not previously mulled over the relative appeal of different careers might opt for one above others for any number of trivial or irrational reasons: because he has heard of it, or because she has a relative in that line of work, or because a recent TV series has glamorized the occupation.

For less familiar items that have not entered the cultural consensus, informants judgements of similarity will be no more than guesswork, with no preconceived niche readily accessible within our mental filing systems. Conversely, clarity in our minds about the connotations of a given occupational title implies that it is conspicuous within the consensus. But a title that is familiar enough to evoke instant associations and a concrete mental image may not correspond to a single specific combination of activities. Scientist, for instance, evokes a single image (someone in a white lab coat) but covers a diffuse, heterogeneous range of actual jobs. Coxon (1971) was careful to work with a list of occupations that avoided those titles with heterogeneous connotations. Note also that judgements of similarity among job titles are likely to be based on stereotypes as much as on accurate knowledge of the various jobs requirements, especially if the number of titles is large enough to map the terrain to a useful degree of detail. The cultural consensus is not an infallible guide to the true nature of a given occupation; distorted and oversimplified perceptions of the occupational domain are shared as easily as veridical ones (creating another rle for vocational counseling to correct a job-seekers misconceptions if they would lead to later dissatisfaction with a chosen career). Even experts may disagree. Schwartz (1992) documents the discordance among vocational analysts on the correct coding for Dentistry. Fortunately, possible distortions in the cultural consensus that is, the possible inaccuracy of locations within the map of points representing specific jobs do not detract from its value as a schema. Some studies have worked around issues of misconception and ignorance by providing informants with a gloss on each title an explanation of the duties and activities it involves. In fact, one could dispense with the titles altogether by unpacking them and asking informants to judge similarities among the component activities. That approach was taken here. Which is not to say that the present items capture all the information of interest, if used for vocational assessment. It may be that for a complete characterization of a jobseekers vocational profile, activity items such as these should be combined with others drawn from complementary domains, to sample complementary axes such as Status.

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The VOC-99 items Ninety-nine items were developed and fine-tuned over a series of iterations, to explore the multidimensional semantic space they occupied and to sample it comprehensively and evenly. Rather than vocational titles, items were worded in terms of vocational activities and objects of activity (i.e. verbs and nouns), after verbs and nouns were found in a pilot study to be interchangeable. The iterations involved rewording items, winnowing items out when they led to duplication or redundancy, and generating new ones to fill any voids or under-represented regions in the space. Three key dimensions or axes of the map were tentatively identified, and attention was paid to ensure that there were items sampling these dimensions in relatively pure form (and located at the axial extremes). Instances are listed in Figure 1. They are numbered from 1 to 106 (with some numbers skipped). Items were printed on 35-by-75 mm. slips of card for the data-collection tasks. This allowed informants to physically manipulate them, sorting them into piles according to various criteria. Three sets of data are considered here. In the first two, informants indicated the similarities among the meanings of the items, considered qua general concepts. In the third, the items were applied in specific cases: informants ranked these features of jobs in order of personal preference. (1) Method of Triads (MoT) Here the informant is presented with three items at a time and asked to identify the odd-one-out or one least like the remaining two in each triad (Coxon & Jones, 1979). This is equivalent to identifying the most similar pair of items. The triads are created randomly, by shuffling the deck of item-cards and dealing them out in groups of three. The triadic method was applied to an earlier selection of 78 items. For convenience these were split into two subsets of 21 and 57 items for the MoT process. Although six of the items were later winnowed out, 72 were retained in the final version. Thus these data are useful here as a way of validating the final three-dimensional map. For the 21-item subset, seven triads were generated by each cycle of shuffling and dealing. Thirty Massey University students were recruited as subjects (genders not recorded) and paid for a one-hour session. Most of them provided six cycles, for a total of 1162 triads.

For the 57-item subset, 19 triads were generated by each cycle of shuffling and dealing. Fifty-three students were recruited through Massey University, most of them providing three cycles, for a total of 2831 triads. (2) GOPA-sorting This is the familiar process of sorting by similarity (Coxon, 1999), with additional phases to extract further information from the participants (Bimler & Kirkland, 2003). The acronym stands for Group-, Opposite-, Partition- and Additive-sorting phases. In Group- or G-sorting, informants arrange the items in groups according to similarity (as in Burton, 1972; Krause et al., 1978), then proceed to refine those groupings in the P- and A-sorting phases. The resulting judgements of similarity are complemented by dissimilarity judgements elicited by O-sorting. Here the informants look for pairs of groups that are collectively most dissimilar, i.e. groups that are antinomial in their content, or closest to a polar opposition. The penultimate selection of items contained only 78 items. This selection was GOPA-sorted by 30 students at Massey university (14 F, 16 M). Twenty-one items were added, creating the final set of 99 items. These were GOPA-sorted by a different 50 students (36 F, 14 M). (3) Method of Successive Sorts (MOSS) This is a variant of Q-sorting (Block, 1961). Informants sort items into five rankordered piles, ranging from most appealing, congenial or preferred items (which go into the pile at one extreme) to those least preferred (which go into the pile at the other extreme). The sorting is a two-step process. The informant first creates three piles containing items that are more preferred, neutral, and less preferred. Second, the first pile is subdivided into piles containing most and more preferred items, while the third pile is subdivided into piles of least and less preferred. Items can be shifted between piles if the informant reconsiders. Often a researcher using Qsorting sets the number of items in each pile, but a forced distribution was not thought necessary here. MOSS data came from 137 students from classes in four New Zealand secondary schools. Ages ranged from 15 to 18, with a roughly equal gender mix.

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Analysis (1) Triadic data lend themselves to a direct form of MDS, using a Maximum Likelihood algorithm (Bimler & Kirkland, 2001). A given triad, consisting of the items Ei, Ej, Ek, is represented in the MDS solution by three points (xi, xj, xk) that form the corners of a triangle. Analysis consists of iteratively relocating the points within the geometrical model until they conform with as many judgements as possible. A judgement from one of the informants that Ei is the odd-one-out in the example that is, that Ej and Ek is the most-similar pair is an indication that in geometrical terms, xi should be the acute corner of that triangle. This can be restated as a pair of implied distance comparisons: djk (the length of the side of the triangle between xj and xk) should be less than both the other distances dij and dik, where these distances naturally depend on the positions of xi, xj, xk. A goodness-of-fit criterion is defined to measure how well all those comparisons are met by the reconstructed distances, and points are adjusted to maximize the criterion (Takane, 1978). (2) Estimates of inter-item similarity were extracted from the GOPA data, and analyzed with Kruskals algorithm for nonmetric least-squares MDS (Jones & Koehly, 1993). One similarity estimate comes from the proportion of times that a given pair of items are grouped in a pile together (co-occurrence). We write this as dSij; together these elements comprise a 99-by-99 matrix DS. A second estimate of association between two items is their antinomality, which we write as dOij, with DO as the matrix of these estimates. This is the proportion of O-sorting decisions in the GOPA data, in which Ei and Ej are found in piles that are chosen as most opposite (for details see Bimler & Kirkland, 2003). (3) MOSS data from the q-th informant can be written as 99 values: each item receives a value according to the pile it is assigned to, from +2 (most preferred) down to -2 (least preferred). These are rescaled (ipsatized) to a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. We write vq to denote the q-th array of 99 normalized values, and vqi for individual values in vq. The correlation rij between the vqi and vqj assigned to a given pair of items Ei and Ej,

when q varies over all 137 informants, is a further index of association between that pair. The correlations for all the pairs, written as a matrix DM, are grist for the mill of MDS. Following Johnson (1995), Canonical Correlation or CANCORR was used to check the independently-obtained MDS solutions for similarity. CANCORR compares two sets of coordinates by extracting a linear combination from each, such that the correlation between them Rc is maximal. It goes on to extract further pairs of linear combinations (each new combination being orthogonal to those previously extracted from its respective coordinate set), providing correlations R2, R3. To foreshadow the Results section, a three-dimensional solution was preferred. Thus each item is represented by the coordinates {xi1, xi2, xi3}, or xi for short. The solution as a whole can be written as a 99-by-3 matrix X (in which xi is the i-th row). We can use this solution to summarize the preference rankings from the q-th informant, vq, by way of multivariate regression (Jones & Koehly, 1993). The value vqi assigned to the i-th item is the dependent variable, and there are three independent variables, the coordinates that represent that item in X. Regression provides the approximation: vqi bq0 + bq1 xi1 + bq2 xi2 + bq3 xi3 (where the offset bq0 is usually close to 0) and a multivariate correlation Rq that measures the compatibility between X and vq. Rq ranges up to 1 if the approximation is perfect. Between them, bq1, bq2, bq3 summarize the whole array (with Rq indicating how much is thereby lost). Conveniently, they are also the components of a vector, i.e. the direction in vocation space in which the vqi increase. For instance, a high value of bq1 corresponds to a vector nearly parallel to the first dimension D1, and indicates a tendency to endorse or reject items according to their locations along D1 (their xi1 values). The 99 values vqi are thus reduced to global, low-resolution terms. It is also useful to examine variations among subjects without the intermediary of X. Comparing the p-th and q-th informants, rpq is the correlation between vpi and vqi, with i ranging across items. Factor decomposition of the 137-by-137 correlation matrix would be inverse factor analysis or Q-factoring. Here, for ease of comparison with the previous section, we analysed the matrix with MDS.

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Results First the question of dimensionality was considered. For the matrix DS, MDS solutions with two, three, four and five dimensions yielded Stress1 values (poorness-of-fit) of 0.309, 0.212, 0.160 and 0.135. The 2D solution is patently inadequate, while the 5D solution is not substantially better than 4D. We settled on three dimensions for convenience of display. One 3D solution XS was derived from the matrices DS and DO together (using the repeated-measure feature of MDS). A second solution XM was derived from DM. Comparing XS and XM with CANCORR, the three canonical correlates were Rc = 0.87, R2 = 0.77, R3 = 0.66. All are significant at p < 0.0001 (according to a 2 test of Wilks statistic). In other words, three pairs of mutuallyrecognizable linear combinations can be extracted from the coordinate sets, or to put it more loosely, the two solutions can be rotated so that each of the three dimensions from either solution has a recognizable counterpart in the other. Two other indices of similarity between XS and XM are the Procrustes distance gl between them; and the correlation rSM between corresponding inter-item distances. According to these indices, XS and XM are acceptably similar, with gl = 0.117 and rSM = 0.58. We concluded that the data from (2) and (3) are manifestations of the same underlying structure, and analyzed all three matrices together, producing a compromise between them that was reasonably compatible with each. This was the 3D solution X. A 4D solution X4 was also retained, for comparison with the triadic results, which again involved CANCORR. Since the MoT data relate to two disjoint sets of items, two 4D solutions XT1 and XT2 were obtained, containing 21 and 57 items respectively. Due to subsequent removal of items, only 15 of the items in XT1 found their way into X4, meaning that canonical correlates can be large without reaching the threshold of significance. Even so, the first two correlates were significant at p < 0.013 (Rc = 0.99, R2 = 0.91, R3 = 0.72, R4 = 0.08). All 57 items in XT2 also appear in X4. This time, all canonical correlates were significant at p < 0.002 (Rc = 0.96, R2 = 0.94, R3 = 0.84, R4 = 0.41). While this does not guarantee that the structure of X is meaningful, it confirms that it is at least reproducible, and

not attributable to noise or an artefact confined to one specific procedure. In fact there are four mutuallyrecognizable axes. The fourth dimension is interpretable but minor, and it is omitted in the following discussion, for ease when displaying the solution. It seems to draw a distinction between internally-focussed self-reliance at one extreme (with items such as 71, Dealing with a variety of challenges; 74, Working by myself, alone; and 97, Doing it my way), and external focus at the other extreme (with items such as 25, Working in the food industry; 43, Working with people from other countries; and 103, Being a team player). Fortunately, retention or omission of this fourth dimension has little impact on items coordinates along the first three dimensions. We interpret D1, the first dimension of X, as a gradient from people to things (see Figure 1). D2 can be glossed as indoors versus outdoors; alternative labels for the distinction are cerebral versus physical, or simply heads versus hands. D3 is a gradient from creativity to routine. On close inspection, the structure of Figure 1 turns out to be a hollow sphere, with the points located roughly equidistant from the origin. 1 This spherical quality provides an alternative way of displaying the MDS solution. By ignoring the minor variations in their radial distances from the center, they can be treated as points on the surface of a globe, and projected onto two dimensions. For this, the globe is divided into two hemispheres (positive- and negative-D1 halves) and flattened separately. This perspective shows how the points would look from the center of the sphere, i.e. the origin. Figure 2 is the outcome. The two outer circles indicate the equator where D1 = 0. The D1 axis is at the center of each circle, with the inner circles corresponding to 30 and 60 angles away from that axis. These concentric circles represent the relative magnitude of the People/Things component, compared to others (i.e. the ratio between D1 on one hand, and D2 and D3 on the other).

Radial distance from the center in MDS solutions is often interpretable as specificity. The fringes of the solution contain very specific items, while vague, widely-applicable items are found near the origin. Specificity is more-or-less constant in a welldesigned set of items, so the spherical property is frequently encountered.

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Figure 1. Three-dimensional MDS solution for 99 Vocation items: (a) D1 / D2 plane; (b) D1 / D3 plane.

Examples of items at the two extremes of D1 (People versus things) are 22 Working with people (rather than with things), 65 Working with sick or injured people, 69 Teaching others; ranging through to 19 Operating big machinery, 26 Working with machines, 47 Servicing heavy equipment.

Examples of items at the two extremes of D2 (Indoors versus outdoors alternatively, Cerebral vs. Physical) are 16 Providing others with legal advice, 37 Working with documents, 62 Working with private information; to 28 Being a professional sports person, 93 Looking for adventure, 104 Pushing my body to the physical limits.

Examples of items at the two extremes of D3 (Creativity versus Routine) are 6 Creating material which can be used for entertaining others, 45 Working with video and film, 55 Performing in the entertainment industry; to 79 Following known pathways, walking in others footsteps, 86 Keeping to traditional ways, 101 Doing as my elders/parents suggest.

Thus Figure 2 can be thought of as a pair of polar coordinate plots, with concentric circles as the radial coordinate. The angular coordinate represents the ratio between D2 (Indoors / Outdoors) and D3 (Creativity / Routine) components. In each hemisphere, the positive and negative extremes of D2 are at 3 oclock and 9 oclock respectively; while the positive and negative extremes of D3 are at 12 oclock and 6 oclock. We turn now to the informants personal rankings of the items. These are incorporated in X by fitting a vector (a direction) to each

informant, running from least-preferred items on one side of the solution, through to mostpreferred items on the other side, tracing the gradient of preference. The average of the multiple correlations Rq was high. The vector components bq1, bq2, bq3 show the relative importance of each dimension of vocation space. For example, bq1 indicates the extent to which the q-th informants preference for any item is determined by its location along the People / Things axis. Similarly, high values of bq2 or bq3 indicate a tendency to endorse or reject items

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Figure 2. MDS solution for 99 Vocation items: their locations, as seen from the center. The two hemispheres of the solution are shown separately (stereographic projection).

Figure 3. Crosses represent vectors in the MDS solution, projected into the same split-hemisphere diagram of Figure 2. Each vector is one school pupils MOSS data set.

according to their locations along D2 or D3: their connotations of Indoors / Outdoors and Creativity / Routine. A vector can be included in a projection such as Figure 2, by noting the point where it intersects the notional sphere, and projecting that point (along with the items) into two dimensions. Figure 3 is the result. One can assert that this structure is inherent in the preference rankings, rather than somehow imposed during their conversion into vectors, since it can also be found in the pattern of correlations rpq amongst informants. MDS analysis of the correlation matrix yields a three-dimensional solution, Y, in which the 137 informants are each represented by a point yq. These locations have much in common with

their vector components (this is little more than a re-statement of the overall compatibility between the preference rankings and the aptitude map X). Specifically: the correlations between yq1, yq2, yq3 (the coordinates representing the q-th informant in Y) and bq1, bq2, bq3 respectively are 0.91, 0.92 and 0.83. In that case, one may wonder why the creation of the subject space Y wasnt enough, and what more is learnt by creating X and using it as an intermediary to convert the rankings into vectors. The answer is that vector components are interpretable (having identified the axes of aptitude space). Coordinates within Y are not directly

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interpretable, nor do they provide any key to newly-acquired data. Figure 3 reveals a strong tendency for subjects to prefer people over thing-oriented items that is, most vectors have negative bq1 components, and concentrate in the People hemisphere to the left of the figure. Superimposed on this is a gender difference: the general preference for People-centered activities was stronger among girls. There are large within-group variations; even so, if bq1 > 0, one can say with some confidence that the informant was male. This difference is clear in other data sets, involving earlier versions of the item set, but regrettably gender was not recorded for all cases shown here. In another application, 24 market researchers ranked the items with a target of

Ideal Market Researcher (at the 2004 Conference of the New Zealand Market Research Society). That is, each activity or aptitude was scored by the likelihood or desirability of finding it expressed in a actual researcher. Due to time constraints, they were only presented with 45 items (every second one). These individual descriptions fitted well as vectors into X, with 0.57 as the mean value of Rq. As shown in Figure 4, the average description was summarized as bq1 = -0.69, bq2 = -0.62, bq3 = -0.37 (the ideal Market Researcher favors working with people rather than things; indoor rather than outdoor forms of work; and creative rather than routine tasks). Individual deviations from this unsurprising consensus were small.

Figure 4. Crosses represent vectors in the MDS solution, as in Figure 3 (People hemisphere only). Vectors shown as small crosses are individual descriptions of ideal market researcher; large cross is the average description.

Discussion By virtue of the way it was obtained, the three-dimensional geometrical model or aptitude space X reflects a widely-shared cultural consensus: a Weltanschauung (Day et al., 1998), or collective conscience in Durkheims term. In a pilot study we applied the same MDS methodology to a list of 70 nouns (items of the form working with -----)

used by Career Services New Zealand, and a second list of 74 verbs, with very similar outcomes. The same structure is likely to emerge from any sufficiently comprehensive and homogeneous inventory such as the Career Interest Test (Athanasou, 2002). The present scheme subsumes two of three axes extracted in a MDS study (Day & Rounds, 1998) of the 90 items comprising the unisex American College Test or UNIACT (Swaney,

37

1995); 2 there the third axis was uninterpretable. There is nothing innovative about our use of three dimensions to map a vocation space. Roe (1956) and Strong (1943) presented three-dimensional frameworks. Forty years of planar maps followed, before Tracey and Rounds (1996) returned to a spherical occupational map. However, the present D2 (cerebral / physical, or indoor / outdoor) appears to be new. Conversely, some of the axes found in studies of related but not identical item domains were not encountered here, such as Status among occupational titles. Hence we reiterate that of the salient attributes of occupations, used to discriminate among them, not all can be reflected by or accommodated within aptitude space. Nevertheless, occupations can be represented within our model, using item rankings by suitably-qualified informants. The multidimensional framework further provides a measure of an informants suitability for a job: the similarity between two vectors, one representing the job, the other summarizing his or her activity preferences. Of the dimensions reported here, People / Things (D1) and Creativity / Routine (D2) can be combined in various proportions to generate other axes and polarities encountered in the literature: Orientation, Data / Ideas, Conventional / Artistic, Sociability and Conformity (Hogan, 1983). In an objective sense, no set of axes is better than its alternatives: because rotation has no effect on inter-item distances, a spatial model can be rotated to new axes without affecting how well it accounts for the data. Rotational indeterminacy is an unavoidable feature of such models. Vocational models are a prime example of Guttmans observation (1966) that a ring or circumplex, a continuous circular configuration of points (as in the D1/D3 plane
2

here), can subsume a proliferation of rival factors and polarities (see also Tracey & Rounds, 1995, 1996). 3 Regions of the model can be related back to the familiar RIASEC categories of Hollands 1973 scheme. The positive and negative extremes of D3, for example, contain items such as 79, Following known pathways and 2, Working with visual arts or crafts respectively, which would be categorized as Conservative and Artistic. But six categories delineating a hexagon are clearly too few to exhaust a three-dimensional manifold. One rationale for carving the circumplex into categories such as Hollands is that vector components are arguably too broad, and too abstract for clients to grasp when counselors present the outcome of analysis. Alternative ways of aggregating the item values vqi are desirable, to provide a finer-grained battery of more intuitive summary scales. These also have the potential of capturing more information, lost in such a drastic, Procrustean reduction of the data as vector components. At any rate, generating finer-grained scales is a matter of pooling the values from a catchment area of sufficiently-related items, to obtain a single score that is more robust than the values of single items. Selecting related items is straightforward with a MDS map, in which relatedness is shown as geometrical proximity. Conclusion If young school-leavers entering the job market held clearly-formulated opinions about the world of work, vocational guidance would simply be a matter of eliciting their views about personal aptitudes and preferences, and matching these to available career paths. In practice, however, the teenage mind is notoriously inchoate, veiled in inarticulate obscurity as much to self-report as to outside observers. So far several hundred senior secondary school students have described their activity preferences by sorting the VOC-99 item inventory (or earlier recensions). Other subjects have used the inventory by following a trilemma technique that we developed as an alternative to MOSS-sorting. Here the informant chooses the most- and leastpreferred alternatives from a choice of three.
3

This instrument is not completely homogeneous. Its constituent items purport to be interests or activities. But on inspection, many items designed to capture an individuals level on the Investigative scale one sector of the RIASEC continuum are not things one might do, but rather things one knows (or would like to know). UNIACT Item 25, for instance, is Understand biology. To an extent this scale is incommensurate with the other five scales, and set aside from them, whether or not the theoretical distinction between the Investigative and other categories is valid.

One ring to rule them all, one ring to find them; one ring to bring them all, and in the darkness bind them.

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Sixty-six of these three-way forced-ranking choices comprise the entire questionnaire (so each item is ranked twice, in two different contexts). Each choice has been optimized to make it as stark (and informative) as possible (Bimler & Kirkland, submitted). Their responses were summarized within a three-dimensional framework. There has been general satisfaction among the informants with this feedback; the summaries made sense, and rang true, while telling the informants more than they previously knew (or were aware of). It has been used with adults as well as school-leavers. Over the years, the broad topic of vocational cognition divisible into sub-topics of job titles, reinforcers, etc. has been one popular focus of MDS research. MDS studies of the vocational realm have burgeoned into a substantial literature (Davison et al., 1986; Rounds & Zevon, 1983). The interest is practical as well as theoretical. From the outset, MDS explorations of an item set have been intimately involved with the design of instruments for practical assessment. That was certainly the case here. Our model of aptitude space has multiple purposes. These include to facilitate communication between vocational counselors and clients, and to provide the latter with an explicit schema for integrating vocational information and clarifying options. Since its structure was obtained from a shared, widelyaccessible consensus about item interrelationships, it should serve these purposes better than models driven by theory.
Rezumat Hrile schematice ale mediului muncii sunt des utilizate n consilierea vocaional. O hart este mai eficient n condiiile n care coincide cu reprezentarea deja internalizat de candidaii pentru un post. n acest studiu, scalarea multidimensional a fost utilizat pentru a realiza o reprezentare consensual pentru judecile referitoare la similaritile din cadrul unui set de descriptori pentru aptitudinile vocaionale. Pentru a exclude artefactele limitate de o singur procedur de obinere a judecilor similare sau de o singur form de analiz au fost utilizate trei proceduri diferite i grupuri multiple de participani. Rezultatele converg spre un ,,spaiu vocaional cu cel puin trei dimensiuni. Axele sale au fost interpretate ca ,,oameni/ lucruri, ,,interior/ exterior i aspecte ,,creative/ rutiniere ale muncii dei harta nu este determinat rotativ, astfel nct i alte cadre de referin sunt valide. S-a artat c aceast hart

cuprinde clasificrile descriptorilor realizate de participani reprezentndu-le ca vectori. Acknowledgements We are grateful to Peter Batra for helpful discussions, and his help in collecting the Market Researcher data. References Athanasou, J. A. (2002). A brief, free and standardised assessment of interests for use in educational and vocational guidance career interest test (Version 3.0). Occasional Paper 14, University of Technology, Sydney. Bimler, D. & Kirkland, J. (2001). Categorical perception of facial expressions of emotion: Evidence from multidimensional scaling. Cognition & Emotion 15, 633-658. Bimler, D. and Kirkland, J. (2003). Smoke and mirrors: Mapping the dimensions of a cigarette space. Quality & Quantity 37, 377-391. Bimler, D. & Kirkland, J. (no date). Trilemmas: Characterising the Japanese concept of amae with a three-way forced-ranking technique. Submitted manuscript. Block, J. (1961). The Q-sort method in personality assessment and psychological research. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas (reprinted 1978, Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press). Burton, M. (1972). Semantic dimensions of occupation names. In: Multidimensional Scaling: Theory and applications in the Behavioral Sciences (eds. Shepard, Romney, Nerlove). Pp. 55-71. Coxon, A. P. M. (1971). Occupational attributes: Constructs and structure. Sociology, 5, 335354. Coxon, A. P. M. (1999). Sorting Data: Collection and Analysis. Newbury Park, CA.: SAGE. Coxon, A. P. M. and Jones, C. L. (1979). Class and hierarchy: The social meaning of occupations. London: Macmillan Davison, M. L., Richards, P. S. & Rounds, J. R. Jr. (1986). Multidimensional scaling in counseling research and practice. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 178-184. Dawis, R. V. (1992). The structure of occupation(s): Beyond RIASEC. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 40, 171-178. Day, S. X & Rounds, J. (1998). Universality of vocational interest structure among racial and ethnic minorities. American Psychologist, 53, 728-738. Guttman, L. (1966). Order analysis of correlation matrices. In Handbook of Multivariate

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Experimental Psychology (ed. R. B. Cattell), 438-458. Chicago: Rand McNally. Hogan, R. (1983). A socioanalytic theory of personality. In: M. M. Page (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation 1982. Personality: Current theory and research (pp. 55-89). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Holland, J. L. (1973). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments. Englewood-Cliffs, NJ: PernticeHall. Johnson, L. (1995). A multidimensional analysis of the vocational aspirations of college students. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development, 28, 25-44. Jones, L. E. & Koehly, L. M. (1993). Multidimensional scaling. In G. Keren & C. Lewis (eds.), A handbook for data analysis in the behavioral sciences: Methodological issues (pp. 95-163). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Kraus, V., Schild, E. O., Hodge, R. W. (1978). Occupational prestige in the collective conscience. Social Forces, 56, 900-918. Prediger, D. J. (1982). Dimensions underlying Hollands hexagon: Missing link between interests and occupations? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 259-287. Reeb, M. (1971). Similarity, prestige and desirability of jobs as seen by counsellors and 14-year-old boys. Occupational Psychology, 45, 233-242. Roe, A (1956). The psychology of occupations. New York: Wiley. Ronen, S., Kraut, A. I., Lingoes, J. C. and Aranya, N. (1979). A nonmetric scaling approach to taxonomies of employee work motivation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 14, 387-401.

Rounds, J. B. Jr. & Zevon, M. A. (1983). Multidimensional scaling research in vocational psychology. Applied Psychological Measurement, 7, 491-510. Schwartz, R. H. (1992). Is Hollands theory worthy of so much attention, or should vocational psychology move on? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 40, 179-187. Shivy, V. A., Phillips, S. D. & Koehly, L. M. (1996). Knowledge organization as a factor in career intervention outcome: A multidimensional scaling analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 178-186. Shivy, V. A., Rounds, J. & Jones, L. E. (1999). Applying vocational interest models to naturally occurring occupational perceptions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 207-217. Strong, E. K. (1943). Vocational interests of men and women. Stanford, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press. Swaney, K. B. (1995). Technical manual: Revised unisex edition of ACT interest inventory (UNIACT). Iowa City: ACT. Takane, Y. (1978). A Maximum Likelihood method for nonmetric multidimensional scaling: I. The case in which all empirical pairwise orderings are independent Theory. Japanese Psychological Research, 20, 7-17. Tracey, T. J. G. & Rounds, J. (1995). The arbitrary nature of Hollands RIASEC types: A concentric-circles structure. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 431-439. Tracey, T. J. G. & Rounds, J. (1996). The spherical representation of vocational interests. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48, 3-41.

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AN ALTERNATIVE TO MAPPING ORGANIZATIONAL IDENTIFICATION: Q-SORT


Drago Iliescu* D&D Research Smaranda Boro Department of Psychology, Babe-Bolyai University

Abstract

Our paper proposes an approach to combine aspects from social cognition, cognitive mapping, individual mental representations and a stringent aspect from the practice of organizational studies: organizational identification. We argue that organizational identification links the self-concept to the organization, by means of sharing similar, enduring and central attributes (Dutton et al., 1994, Greenwald et al., 2002). After reviewing the approaches to organizational identification as presented in the literature, as well as the measures customarily used, we give special attention to the most important attempts to operationally define this concept, that stem from social identity theory. We then connect organizational identification to the study methods used in fundamental research for the concept of self, primarily to the use of cognitive maps in representing the self-concept. We hence adopt an operational definition of the term and propose as an alternative method of data collection and data analysis for cognitive mapping: the Qmethodology. We analyze in an empirical study the limits and benefits of Q-methodology in the mapping of organizational identification.
Key words: cognitive mapping, organizational identification, self concept

Issues of organizational identification How is organizational identification defined in the field literature? A review of definitions points to the fact that by the same word are named very different realities. The most obvious fact is its superposition with the concept of organizational commitment. For instance, Meyer & Allen (1997) define organizational commitment as an attitude or an orientation that links the identity of the person to the organization, a process by which the goals of the organization and those of the individual become congruent (Meyer & Allen, 1997). OReilly and Chatman (1986) define commitment as a psychological bond between
*

Corresponding authors: Drago Iliescu (dragos.iliescu@ddresearch.ro), D&D Research Smaranda Boro (smarandaboros@psychology.ro) Department of Psychology, Babe-Bolyai University

the employee and the organization, but differentiate between three forms this bond can take: compliance, identification and internalization. They define identification as the process of an individual accepting influence from a group (organization) in order to establish and maintain a relationship. Hence, an individual may respect a groups values without adopting them, as opposed to internalization (when influence is accepted because the induced attitudes/values are congruent with ones own) or compliance (when the are declaratively accepted in order to win a certain benefit) (OReilly & Chatman, 1986). Interestingly enough, the scale (12 items) developed to measure these three dimensions turned out to have only two factors: 1) identification & internalization and 2) compliance (Sutton & Harrison, 1993; Martin & Bennett, 1996). In fact, this superposition between identification and internalization is also present in other commitment questionnaires (e.g. Organizational Commitment Scale,

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Balfour & Wechsler, 1996: What this organization stands for is important to me.). Furthermore, in building his Organizational Identification Questionnaire, Cheney (1983) defines it as an active process by which individuals link themselves to elements in the social scene. This link is what many other scholars have termed as organizational commitment (Downs, 1994). In one of the most cited articles in the field, Asforth and Mael (1989) refine the concept of identification, differentiating cognitive, behavioral and emotional aspects related to it and discriminate between identification itself and its antecedents or consequences. Starting from the social identification theory, they define organizational identification as the perception of unity with / belonging to a social aggregate (in this case, an organization). In other words, they define identification as a form of self-categorization. They also postulate four principles of group identification, which clear much of the previous confusions. These principles are (Ashforth & Mael, 1989): 1. Identification is a perceptual-cognitive concept, not necessarily associated with specific behaviors or emotional states. 2. Group identification means experiencing at personal level the groups successes or failures. 3. Identification is different from internalization. Identification means referring to self in terms of a social category, while internalization means incorporating the groups attitudes / values as guiding principles of ones own behavior. Accepting a social category as a definition of self does not imply also accepting those groups values and attitudes. Also, identification is specific to each organization; internalization and commitment might not be, because several organizations may share common goals and values. Commitment might arise because that organization is a vehicle for ones own career goals. This leads to the fact that leaving that organization for another one where these goals can better be fulfilled is possible at all times. Identification with an organization, though, means one cannot leave it without some kind of psychic loss (Levinson, 1970, apud Ashforth & Mael, 1989). 4. Group identification is similar to identification with an individual, in the

sense that one defines oneself in terms of that social referent. As previously mentioned, the authors also propose a number of antecedents that level group (organizational) identification distinctiveness of the group, the groups prestige, salience of outgroups, factors associated with group formation (personal interaction, similarity, liking, proximity, shared goals or threats, shared history etc.) , as well as consequences stemming from ones organizational identification support and commitment towards the organization (particularized according to the elements of identification); cohesion, cooperation, altruism, positive group evaluations; internalization of norms and values, homogeneity in attitudes and behaviors (Ashforth & Mael, 1989). As a conclusion to the refinements the authors make to the concept and a consequence of the fact they view it in terms of social categorization, they point to the fact that group (organizational) identification is also present in the absence of interpersonal cohesion, similarity or interaction to the other group members. Dutton, Dukerich & Harquail (1994) define organizational identification as the degree to which a member defines himself or herself by the same attributes that he or she believes defines the organization. Strong organizational identification occurs when (1) ones organizational identification is more salient than alternative identities and (2) his or her self-concept has many of the same characteristics he or she believes define the organization as a social group. An organizations members are said to become attached to their organization when they incorporate the characteristics attributed to the organization to their self-concept. In this perspective, the self-concept refers to the totality of self-descriptions and self-evaluations subjectively available to an individual (Hogg & Abrams, 1988, cit. in Ashforth & Mael, 1989). Dutton and collaborators propose three ways of operationalizing strength of identification: (1) directly assessing it, through scale-based measures; (2) by asking organizational members to evaluate a set of identities and indicate the relative degree to which these identities accurately describe them as individuals, either by ranking each identity or ranking them in hierarchy; (3) directly assessing the level of overlap between the characteristics by which an individual describes him-/herself and the characteristics

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that typify the organization. These are those characteristics that are enduring, central and distinctive to both the individual and the organization (Dutton et. al., 1994). In our paper, we shall use Dutton, Dukerich and Harquails definition of organizational identification as our work definition. They define organizational identification as a process of self-definition, through the cognitive connection established between the definition of the organization and the definition of self (Dutton et al., 1994). At this point, we shall review some of the most important contributions to the study of the self concept in fundamental research. We shall look at the implication for research of the definition proposed by these authors and the methods they have accordingly used. Our aim is to adopt a proper method for the study of organizational identification, a method that is both valid and easy applicable in ecological settings. The self and the self-concept Greenwald defines the self-concept as the association of the concept of self with one or more (nonvalence) attribute concepts (Greenwald et. al., 2002). The self can only be defined in relation to the different groups one belongs to. By the representation Greenwald and collaborators propose for the conceptualization of the self, they adhere both to Heiders equilibrium theory and to Tajfel and Turners social identity theory. The representation proposed is in fact a cognitive map of the self-concept. Such a map is illustrated in figure 1.

This structure includes associations that correspond to social psychological constructs of self-concept, self-esteem, stereotype, and attitude in the psyche of an elderly female academic. Nodes (ovals) represent concepts and links (lines) represent associations. Line thickness represents strength of association. The self-concept includes links of the ME node to concepts that include roles (professor, grandmother) and trait attributes (intelligent, athletic) (Greenwald et. al, 2002, p. 5).

They further developed this representation of the self to a more theoretical refinement, which adheres to Heiders equilibrium theory and offers a dynamic view of the social concepts comprised (i.e. stereotype, attitude, self-concept and self-esteem and identification). Such a representation is presented in figure 2. They explain this figure as it follows:
Each vertex of the triangle represents a concept. A balanced identity design always includes self as one of the concepts (bottom vertex), and it also includes both a social category (group) concept and an attribute concept. The three associations measured in the design are identified on the triangle edges that join the vertices for the two associated concepts. The groupself association corresponds to an identity. The labels for the other two types of associations depend on whether the attribute is valence or not. If the attribute is valence, then the group-attribute association is an attitude and the self-attribute association self-esteem. If the attribute is not, then the group-attribute association is a stereotype and the self-attribute association is an aspect of self-concept (Greenwald & al, 2002, p. 9).

Figure 1. A social knowledge structure (Greenwald et. al., 2002)

Figure 2. A representation format for balanced identity designs (Greenwald et. al., 2002).

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Getting back to the issue of organizational identification, as connected to the self-concept, there is a necessary point to be made now. As Ellemers and collaborators (2002) argue, one source of confusion in the literature is that the term "social (in this case, organizational) identification" has been used to refer to the content of the identity itself, as well as to indicate the strength of the association with a particular social category. These are essentially different components of the social identity, which although related, may operate relatively independently of each other (Ellemers & al., 2002). In terms of the cognitive map Greenwald proposes, this is the difference between the attributes included, and the distance between self (as a node) and these concepts (as nodes in the map). To conclude these theoretical remarks regarding the study of self, we focus on Greenwalds conceptualization of identity as the link between the self and a social group and of self-concept as the link between self and attributes that belong to that social category. In our case, organizational identity could be conceptualized as a cognitive map comprising the self and those attributes characteristic to the organization, that the individual has encompassed in his selfconcept. Such a map would illustrate the attributes more important to the definition of self as situated closer and having stronger ties with the node representing the self. The problem is that only by drawing the map of organizational identity, we still wouldnt know too much about organizational identification, since we assumed that the latter means using the same attributes to define oneself as they use to define their organization. In order to obtain a cognitive map of organizational identification, we should superpose the map of organizational identity with the one of the organizations image, as suggested by Dutton et al. (1994). At this point, the logical question that arises is what method would be best suited to collect and aggregate the data to draw this cognitive map?. Cognitive mapping In the study of organizational identification, cognitive mapping is first of all a method of researching and constructing the structure defining an individuals selfidentification and/or his or her opinion about the characteristics defining the organization. Cognitive mapping has been widely accepted
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in current research as a mostly qualitative investigation technique, based on ideographical methods (such as individual indepth interviews or thought-listing technique) (Daniels, 1999; Cacioppo, Hippel & Ernst, 1997), sometimes structured by the usage of scaling and small instruments. Such structuring methods may imply the pile sorting technique (Trochim, Cook & Setze, 1994), repertory grids (Daniels, 1999) and ratings on Likert scales. The pile sorting technique requires participants to group the statement slips into piles in a way that makes sense to them. The only restrictions in this sorting task are that there cannot be (a) exclusively oneitem piles (in a 20-item set, there shouldnt be 20 one-item piles), (b) one pile consisting of all items, or (c) a miscellaneous pile (any item thought to be unique should be placed in its own separate pile). According to Trochim, Cook & Setze (1994), cognitive mapping combines a group process (brainstorming, unstructured sorting, and rating of the brainstormed items) with several multivariate statistical analyses (multidimensional scaling, the PathFinder algorithm or hierarchical cluster analysis) and concludes with a group interpretation of the conceptual maps that result. Hence, cognitive mapping has also been viewed as a technique for the visualization of structure and connectivity, based upon data collected with other, quantitative and structured methods of investigation. One such method is the visual card sorting, which implies the physical mapping of the given concepts on a sheet of paper, so that physical proximity would reflect similarity and causal determination relations. This method allows the computation of map connectivity and map diversity, hence computing map complexity (Cureu, 2003). Multi-dimensional scaling and the Pathfinder algorithm have both made a career out of visualising statistical data. We take this last stance and consider cognitive mapping to be an important visual tool the researcher may use to clarify connections and patterns that one is confronted with the utter impossibility of grasping, when based on purely numeric and statistical information. Most of the research on cognitive mapping hitherto has defined data collected on matters of organizational identification, both pertaining of the organizational level and of the more individual aspects, as being objective

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data. However, even though objective in a sense of objectively measured, data collected from individuals about how they view their organization, about how they describe their social group, about how they describe themselves are purely subjective data, in the sense that they cannot be objectively and reliably measured the same one measures the distance between two points in space or the outside temperature. These data are results and products of the mind and should be treated as such and assessed with the help of methodologies that (a) ascertain this epistemological stance and (b) have proven to have both the techniques and the expertise to deal with subjective data. Based on these reasons, we argue that Q-methodology is fit to be a data collection tool for cognitive mapping, because of its epistemological background, its procedure and form of both raw data and final results it provides. Q-Methodology Q methodology circumscribes both a data collection (Q-sorting) and a data analysis technique (Q-factor analysis). The core distinction from classical research methods in social sciences resides in the fact that this method analyses/correlates people instead of variables, thus building typologies (Stephenson, 1953). It resembles cluster analysis, but while the latter is only a mathematical method of data aggregation, Qmethodology is a comprehensive approach, which keeps the researcher in permanent contact with the data. The resulted typologies are hence impregnated with meaning and do not only constitute the best mathematical solution (Iliescu, 2003). This interaction with the data is based on a constructivist assumption lying behind Q-methodology. Q-methodology is qualitative through its assumptions and the logic of research, and quantitative through the statistical apparatus sustaining data analysis (Q-factor analysis) (Brown, 1996). A Q-sorts results can provide a wealth of rich data and researchers can use this technique to qualitatively discover patterns of behaviors and perceptions of individuals. Next, it is a description of how the results of a Q-sort investigation can be quantitatively analyzed, which allows researchers to compare individuals with each other and identify composites (i.e., typologies) of individuals. (Iliescu, 2003).

The application of Q-method involves the following steps: 1. Preparing the application: extracting the communitys concourse on the subject of interest, through direct (individual of group interview) or indirect (document analysis) methods, establishing an optimum number of cards to operate with, sampling the statements from the concourse and creating a q-deck, choosing the forced distributions shape: the number of points on the scale [-x,+x], the number of cards to be placed on each point of the scale. 2. The application: the respondent is first required to group the cards in three piles: statements of agreement, statements of dissent and of indecision. The respondent is then asked to place all q-cards on the given continuum [x,+x], following the rules of the forced distribution, so that in the end the cards placing will resemble a normal curve (like in fig. 3).
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13

13

3 1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3

3 1 +4 +5

Figure 3. Forced distribution of Q-sorts

3.

Data analysis and Q-factors extraction. While R factor analysis (the analysis we commonly know as factor analysis) can be used to find similarities (or shared variance) across test items, in Q-factor analysis each person is treated as an experimental case and represents the factored entity. Thus,

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instead of factoring variables across people, in Q-factor analysis people are correlated across variables (Carr, 1992; Burt, 1972). Subjects and method The application we propose is a study of organizational identification in students. We used different samples for the two parts of our study. We first asked 63 students from the same department to make free associations based on the sintagm student in X (name of the department) at the Y University (the university where they study). They had this expression written down on a sheet of paper and had 5 minutes to write all the words or expressions that came to their minds. A large number of concepts (over 600) were drawn from their association. Out of these concepts, we kept (1) the ones that appeared most frequently, (2) that were particular only to this category of students and did not apply to all students (e.g. study, parties, exams). (3) We also eliminated synonyms, keeping only one if several appeared. In the end, we decided for a solution of 81 concepts, representing attributes, emotions, behaviors, facts, all related to being a student in X at the Y University. These concepts were written down on 81 cards, and 23 other students (study years 1 to 4, males and females, aged 19 to 33) had to complete two Q-sorts using them. The given distribution was from 5 to 5, as it follows: 1, 3, 6, 9, 13, 17, 13, 9, 6, 3, 1. They first had to fill it for their department and the second time for themselves as students there. They were given the following instruction: Please order the 81 cards you were given on a scale from 5 (I dont think this statement/concept is characteristic for my department /myself as a student of this department) to 5 (I think this statement/concept is characteristic for my department /myself as a student of this department) so as to respect the given distribution. Results and discussion We analyzed the results obtained from the sorts using Q-factor analysis (the PQmethod program, designed by Peter Schmolck). For the students image of the faculty, we first performed a centroid extraction in 7 factors. 20 of the 23 respondents loaded on
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the first factor, while none of the rest loaded significantly on any of the others. Based on this interesting result, we proceeded to a centroid two-factor extraction and adopted the resulting two-factor solution as a working one. In this context, the first factor was obviously the most spread one, and we may say, the one representative for the departments organizational culture. The Self-Identity sorts grouping after the factorial analysis in two distinctive factors shows that we have encountered an unexpected consensus in self-definition and self-perception. The first factor, containing 16 students is grouped around the conceptual territory of new ideals (z=1.541), knowledge (1.525), learning (1.417), development (1.201), work (1.055), high standards (1.024). They seem to be rather neutral towards items like group work (0.177), role models (0.069), uniqueness (0.016), loyalty (-0.105), and have a strong rejection for items like indifference (-2.397), boredom (-2.234), regrets (-2.196), anger (2.074), lack of action (-1.974), failures (-1.877). The second factor, loaded by only 4 students, occupies a self-representational territory based primarily on development (2.076), brand new information (1.847), expertise (1.810), highest standards (1.625), knowledge (1.272). These people are neutral towards concepts like status (0.072), new ideals (0.000), satisfaction (-0.026), prestige (0.136) and seem to heavily reject identifying themselves based on concepts like lack of action (-2.405), unorganized (-2.136), limits (1.803), fears (-1.729), regrets (-1.604). The factors are mostly similar in their rejection patterns, but are quite different in some of those things they adhere and are neutral to even though one cannot state they were contradictory or positioned competitively one towards the other. There seems however to be a serious increase in efficiency, a downto-earth taste of realism and a strive for doing better in the second factor, while the first seems to be more like the idealistic, normal, everyday student. Images of the organization in the representational system of the sample has split, too, in only two factors, the first loading 18 respondents and the second only two. We may conclude there is a more accentuated consensus regarding the description of the organization then it was the case for the selfdescriptions.

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Descriptions of the organization, based on the item-response pattern of this first factor, convolute around prestige (2.121), renowned (1.717), good teachers (1.664), high standards (1.590), dropping down in intensity towards vision (0.130), ambition (0.122), hopes (0.110), effort (0.025), power (-0.001), pleasure (0.039), something different (-0.063) and turning to a definite negative view of boredom (-2.060), limitations (-2.001), uncaring (-1.998), regrets (-1.902), routine (-1.713), lack of action (-1.691). Both pre-sorting and post-sorting interviews are consonant with this pattern of perception regarding the organization: the university is thus seen as being renowned, having high prestige and good teachers. The prestige is apparent both in the academic community, when compared with other universities in the domain of this department, and in student-talk. This prestige is naturally associated with members of the organization, so that professors teaching here are more positively evaluated by the outside world, and students learning here are looked up to by students from other universities. Furthermore, the university enforces high standards on its teachers, its students, the courses, the research programs etc. Few associate the university with lack of action, boredom or routine and, even though there is a widespread belief of students around the country that university life is generally full of limitations, frustrating in the lack of practical experience it provides and thus generating regrets, students in this university dont seem to be consonant with this view. The next step of our procedure was to visualize the maps of identity and of organizational image, according to the factors we obtained. We did this by means of plotting items into a two-factor space, considering the Z-scores of every item on every factor as coordinates. Figure 4 presents this visualization for organizational identity. As may be observed by visual inspection of the graphic, items are grouped on a path hinting at linear regression and at a high correlation between factor scores. However, there are significant differences in Z-scores for some items, from one factor to the other. The first factor has significantly larger scores on items like new ideals, satisfaction, learning, seriousness, uncaring and boredom (the last two being negatively loaded). As ascertained in post-sorting interviews, these students view the university as tainted by a

kind of idealistic halo, are highly satisfied with how things evolve, are set on learning and project their idealistic attitude on the current and future behavior of faculty staff. They reject the idea of boredom or uncaring, which is somehow hinted at by those students comprised in the second factor. The second factor has significantly larger scores on items like development, high standards, interaction, group work, power (negatively loaded), showing thus, consonant with post-sorting interviews, that they perceive the university as encouraging selfdevelopment, a high level of interaction among its members, group work and highest standards in scientific output and discouraging power games and dominance struggles.

Figure 4. An illustration of main organizational identity attributes, based on the results of Q-factorial analysis

A similar visualising procedure was run for organizational image, but superimposing the two pictures did not result in an intelligible relationship between selfevaluations and organization-evaluations of items. The reason for this could be the fact that, even though both resulting in two factors with the first one more heavily loaded, the two sorts are not similar: people in the first selfidentity factor are not always the same as people in the first organizational-perception factor. The factor solutions have been differently rotated for every sample and are actually the expression of connected but quite

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different segments of subjectivity. This is the reason we have reached out to MDS, as a visualising technique and not as a statistical interpretation technique. For further illustrations of our results, we only kept those attributes whose Z scores were larger than 1. We adopted this solution for two reasons: the first was that plotting 81 concepts on one map would result in too heavy and unintelligible an image; the second reason was that given the forced distribution, concepts with Z-scores lower than 1 were the ones piled in the middle. Those are the concepts the subject is not too sure about, considers them rather neutral or not concerned with the matter. Hence, the attributes we kept were the ones our subjects considered most important in describing themselves (or the organization), either by agreement or disagreement. The original factor solution resulted in 4 maps: one for each factor and one for each sort (self-image and organizational perception). We then compared them 1 by 1. The comparison was made by superimposing the map for image (for factor 1 or 2) with the map for identity (for factor 1 or 2). The aim was of course to compare subjective outputs of different realities given by the same people, and because some students cross-loaded (on factor 1 in the self-identity and on factor 2 in the organizational perception), three intelligible comparisons were made: image factor 1 identity factor 1, image factor 1 identity factor 2, image factor 2identity factor 1. We previously stated that for both identity and image, factor 1 gathers most subjects and is more clearly defined (being stable across several factorial solutions), while factor 2 is made up not of more uncertain opinions on the matter but on fewer and not mainstream ones. Hence, in factor 1 are those subjects who have a clear, stable opinion of the matter, consistent with the mainstream opinion and maybe loaded with just a hint of cultural idiosincratic models. By comparing image factor 1 with identity factor 1, we in fact should obtain a cognitive map of organizational identification (what is central and stable in both image and identity). By comparing image factor 1 with identity factor 2, we have the cognitive maps of subjects who have a clear and mainstream image of their faculty, but not of their organizational identity. Image 2identity 1 gives us a clue about the thinking of those subjects with a clear organizational identity,

but not with a homogenous and mainstream view of the faculty image. We shall now analyze more in depth the superposition described above, the general principles and the particular results obtained in our study. Figure 5 illustrates the visual solution obtained by a multi-dimensional scaling of item Z-scores from factor 1 of the self-identity sort and factor 1 of the organizational perception sort. The red marks represent attributes defining identity, while the blue ones refer to image. The lines between them represent the similarities of evaluation of these attributes, as they are related to image and identity.

Figure 5. A map of organizational identification

So what does this representation tell us about the students organizational identification? First of all, due to our choice of concepts (Z-scores higher than 1), we can see they are strongly polarized. It is interesting to notice that at the positive pole there are fewer concepts than at the negative one. There are several reasons for that. First of all, it is because the concepts rated with the highest agreement were different for image (prestige, fame, good professors) and for identity (new ideals, knowledge, study). The positive part the map is given first of all by attributes defining the object as an institution (for image) or as a person (for identity). Second, it may be that students in our sample define themselves or a situation easier by exclusion (by saying what they are not) than by inclusion (by saying what they are). As Greenwald (2002) states, one principle of self-definition is always the

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positivity of self. So denying negative attributes is one of the first tasks our cognitive systems deal with in the identification process. The attributes most strongly denied are boredom, limitation, regrets and fury for the facultys image and boredom, regrets, fury and lack of action for identity. The best-contoured attributes for organizational identification are challenge (positive), wasted time and boredom (negative). It appears that concepts having the best fit between self-image and organizational perception and being thus part of the identity (the matching of the above) are challenge, high standards, wasted time (negative) and boredom (negative). Concepts important and salient but not perfectly matched are development, work, hard study, uncaring (negative), limited (negative), discontent (negative). Concepts with a rather low degree of matching are annoying and disorganized (both negative). In the interpretation of the map, several aspects must be taken into account. We can first analyze the distance between concepts, as a measure of their similarity in the position they have in ones identity and in ones organizational image map. From this we can tell which are the defining attributes of identification (the closer they are represented, the more defining they are). Another measure of these attributes centrality or salience are the Z-scores they obtained. We could, based on the proximity measure, group the items into conceptual territories. As an example, we have a first, positive, conceptual territory where the challenge stemming from high standards can be met by hard study, work and selfdevelopment. And of course we could have a second, negative, conceptual territory, where failure is annoying, leads to fear and anger and lack of action turns into routine, regrets, wasted time and compromise. Second, we can analyze separately concepts of agreement and of disagreement. This is a valuable asset this technique offers for cognitive mapping, since it can represent reality in two dimensions: what we are and what we are not. Generally, cognitive maps reflect content (attributes), not their valences. Nevertheless, our cognitive system seems more prone in processing negative information, as proved in many decisional studies focused on the framing effect (see Cureu, 2003, for a thorough analysis of the literature).

Concluding remarks Starting from a fuzzy state of art in the research of organizational identification on the one hand and on the developments of fundamental research regarding the self, selfconcept and identity, our study proposed a novel approach for the study of organizational identification (superposition of cognitive maps of organizational image and identity), as well as a different method for data gathering (Qsort) and data analysis (Q factorial analysis). The advantages of the methodology we proposed lie in high ecological validity (participants reflect their own world in generating the items), ease of use in practice, but most important, in the representational realities this kind of map covers, offering information not only about content and structure, but about concept-valence as well.
Rezumat Lucrarea de fa pornete de la perspective ale cogniiei sociale, hrilor cognitive i teoriei identitii sociale n abordarea unei realiti organizaionale: identificarea organizaional. Aceasta din urm desemneaz legtura dintre conceptul de sine i organizaie, prin mprtirea unor atribute centrale, stabile i similare ntre cele dou (Dutton et al., 1994, Greenwald et al., 2002). Dup trecerea n revist a abordrilor identificrii organizaionale din literatura de specialitate, precum i a msurtorilor ei consacrate, ne centrm asupra operaionalizrii acestui concept, n termenii teoriei identitii sociale. De la identificarea organizaional trecem apoi la metodele de studiu a conceptului de sine, aa cum apar ele n cercetarea fundamental, n spe de utilizarea hrilor cognitive ca metod de reprezentare a conceptului de sine. Pornind de la o definiie operaional a termenului, propunem o metod alternativ de colectare i prelucrare a datelor pentru construirea hrilor cognitive, i anume metodologia Q. ntr-un studiu empiric, verificm limitele i avantajele metodologiei Q n cartarea identificrii cognitive.

References Ashforth BE, Mael F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14, 20-39. Balfour, D., Wechsler, B. (1996). Organizational commitment: antecedents and outcomes in public organizations, Public Productivity and Management Review, 29, 256-277.

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Brown, S.R. (1996). Q methodology and qualitative research. Qualitative health research, 6, 561567. Burt, C. (1972). The reciprocity principle. In S.R. Brown & D.J. Brenner (Eds.), Science, psychology, and communication: Essays honoring William Stephenson (pp. 39-56). New York: Teachers College Press. Cacioppo, J.T., von Hippel, W., Ernst, J.M. (1997) Mapping Cognitive Structures and Processes Through Verbal Content: The Thought-Listing Technique, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,65/6, 928-940. Carr, S.C. (1992) A primer on the use of Q technique factor analysis. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 25. Cheney, G. (1983). On the various and changing meanings of organizational membership: Field study of organizational identification. Communication monographs, 50, 342-462. Cureu, P. (2003) Formal group decision-making. A socio-cognitive approach, ASCR Press, ClujNapoca. Daniels, Kevin, Gerry Johnson, and Leslie de Chernatony (1999), Task and institutional influences on managers' mental models of competition. Organization Studies 23/1: 31-62. Downs, C.W. (1994). Organizational Identification Questionnaire. In Rubin, R.B., Palmgreen, P., Sypher, H.E. (eds.) Communication Research Measures, Guilford Press, NY. Dutton JE, Dukerich JM, Harquail CV. (1994). Organizational images and member identification Administrative Science Quarterly, 39, 239-263. Ellemers, N., Spears, R., & Doosje, B. (2002). Self and social identity. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 161-186.

Greenwald, A.G., Banaji M. R., Laurie A. Rudman, Shelly D. Farnham, Brian A. Nosek, Deborah S. Mellott (2002) A Unified Theory of Implicit Social Cognition, Psychological Review, 109/1, 325. Iliescu, D. (2003) Psycho-social aspects of organizational change, Unpublished doctoral thesis, Babe-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca. Martin, C.L., Bennett, N. (1996). The role of justice judgments in explaining the relationship between jo satisfaction and organizational commitment, Group and Organization Management, 21 (1), 84-104. Meyer, J.P., Allen, N.J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace, Thousand Oaks, Sage. OReilly, C., Chatman, J. (1986). Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: the effects of compliance, identification and internalization of prosocial behavior, Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 492-499. Stephenson, W. (1953). The study of behavior: Qtechnique and its methodology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Sutton, C.D., Harrison, A.W. (1993) Validity assessment of compliance, identification and internalization as dimensions of organizational commitment, Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 217-223. Trochim, W.M.K., Cook, J A., Seize, R.J. (1994) Using Concept Mapping to Develop a Conceptual Framework of Staff's Views of a Supported Employment Program for Individuals With Severe Mental Illness, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62/4, 766775.

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A CASE STUDY OF AN ORGANIZATIONS STRATEGIC HR APPROACH TO INTEGRATION INTO THE EU: THE ROMANIAN BORDER POLICE

Janeth Firth* University of Wolverhampton, UK Dan Nichita Romanian Border Police

Abstract

This year ten European countries will gain accession into the European Union, thus not only changing the size but its very nature. Europe has become a much more diverse place, with huge variations in the wealth of its member states. Romania, one of least developed countries of Europe, is working towards accession for the next phase in 2007. The paper presents a snapshot of an organisation preparing for the EU in 2007, the Romanian Border Police, and attempts to present a realistic picture of incidents encountered over a short period (ten months), as the organisation begins to develop and implement its HR strategy. The focus of this research is a group of Human Resource Development senior managers, and the impact they have had on the development and implementation of the strategic plan. In order to facilitate the modernisation project the main HRD specialists (regionally based) were given an opportunity of studying a postgraduate certificate in Human Resource Development at the University of Wolverhampton Business School. The research attempts to reveal whether the managers now have the necessary knowledge to facilitate the changes, and how this knowledge has been transferred into the workplace.
Key words: HR strategy, accession into the European Union, Romanian Border Police

Introduction and historical context

This case study has three main strands or themes, which are iteratively woven throughout. The first theme goes in search of the RPB culture, by applying accepted, tried and tested models to analyse organisational culture. Hofstedes (1991) five dimensional model is arguably the most influential and widely used. However, the works of Jackson
*

Correspondence can be addressed to: Janeth Firth, Principal Lecturer, University of Wolverhampton, UK, Tel: +44 (0) 1902 323663 Email: J.Firth@wlv.ac.uk Dan Nichita, Head of Training and Development, Romanian Border Police Email:dannichita@yahoo.com

(2002) will also be used and will provide a theoretical framework to help capture the links between culture and HR practice. The paper will then attempt to present the existing strategic HR position of the RBP, and examine the steps of transition intended to bring the organisation inline with its European counterparts, by the year 2007. The steps of transition have emerged as a result of conducting a strategic gap analysis. The RBP have called this the implementation of an advanced system for HRM, with the HR strategy being largely based on the training of managers. The global and specific objectives have clearly been articulated and the research hopes to reveal how far the RBP have come in starting to achieve its objectives.

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The third theme therefore is concerned with those involved in the process of change, to achieve the strategic HR objectives, i.e. the transition agents: those senior managers who attended the programme of study, in order to gain knowledge of the tools and techniques needed to facilitate change. The underlying questions running in this theme will be: to what extent has their pedagogy impacted upon the organisation? Their work-based projects should demonstrate the transfer of this knowledge into the workplace, and will be used as a valuable source of secondary data. However, due to time factors (the programme of study was completed 6 months ago), it is envisaged that little evidence of this may exist, not all fourteen managers may have had the opportunity to begin addressing the strategic objectives. This strand is therefore emergent. The paper presents a case study analysis of the RBP, adopting the methodology as developed by Yin (1994). Information is drawn from interviews (unstructured and semi structured), participant and non-participant observation, and extensive documentary analysis from various sources, such as the current RBP strategic plan, and the assessed work based projects. I have adopted a qualitative and interpretive approach, which is one that recognises that relationships and practices are organised through the ideas, values and interests of individuals and groups producing action and interaction (Seale, 1998:27). This approach will allow me to focus on peoples subjective experiences, and help me better understand how sharing meanings construct understandings of professional practice. Ultimately the case study will help understand how language and practices are embedded in the patterns of organisational behaviour thus informing the culture, a culture that needs to change rapidly in order for the RBP to function effectively within a Western European capitalist economy, rather than the former command economies of Eastern Europe A summary of the political and economic situation of Romania is presented. This provides necessary contextualisation in helping to understand the very difficult conditions and constraints in which the Romanian Border Police operate. Romania is one of the less economically developed countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CRANET Survey 2001). The Ceausescuian communist legacy left Romania with an
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unproductive economy dominated by inefficient (obsolete) state owned enterprises and collective farms (UK Foreign Office Country Profiles 2003). Progress since 1989 has been slow. Romanian governments have taken a gradualist approach to structural reforms, with disappointing results. The country experienced high levels of inflation, a slight increase in the GDP per capita, and a constant devaluation of the national currency (lei). However, by the year 2000, the GDP growth rate had increased after a three-year period of decline between 1996 and 1999. At the same time the strong currency reserves of the National Bank grew by $950 million, and those of other commercial banks by $290 million, thus demonstrating a more optimistic climate (Gurau, 2002 p. 289) much needed for the pending entry into the EU in 2007. However progress on structural reforms and privatisation has been slow. Parliament has now adopted legislation to accelerate the privatisation process. In the last 2-3 years there has been a massive increase in the volume of training undertaken by Romania, particularly the public sector. In Romanias National Development Plan (20002004), human resource development is one of the three areas of national importance, alongside environmental and sexual equality (Romanian National Observatory, 2000 p. 33). The Romanian Border Police The Romanian Border Police were established in 1999 as a result of the start of a comprehensive reform and modernisation programme. Part of this process was to merge the National Border Guard and the Border Police Directorate to form the RBP. To address the pending inclusion into the EU (2007) the RBP developed a strategy for the period 20032007. The main focus of the RBPs strategic document is that of border security, understandably as Romania is land locked by Hungary, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Moldavia. However, it also strongly identifies a drive in the training of staff in legislation, organisational development, human resource management, human resource development, and logistics (at this juncture it is necessary to point out that some of the words used in the RPB strategy are different from those used in this paper. This illustrates in the first instance the cultural language differences, which we need an awareness of when conducting research (Gilbert 2001). For example those we refer to as HRD specialists are called

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professors in Romania, and the concept of HRD is generally referred to as training by the Romanians). Hence in order to improve the RBPs training systems and function new headquarters were established, with the remit of coordinating the training function across all regions of the country. To facilitate the modernisation project the main HRD specialists (regionally based) were then given an opportunity of studying a postgraduate certificate in Human Resource Development at the University of Wolverhampton Business School. The preferred mode of attendance was the block or fast track programme. That meant that fourteen RBP senior managers would be in residence for five weeks including weekends. The period of five weeks is split into three parts, thus requiring the students to return to England on three separate occasions over a five-month period. The RBP managers were carefully selected by an independent organisation to attend the programme of study, which began in March 2003 and ended in August of the same year. The content of the programme consists of four main modules and is CIPD endorsed. The modules are: Managing Change through HRD, Managing the Learning Process, Managing the Training Function, and Employee Development. A work based project and a professional development journal is also required to complete the programme of study. The work-based projects will feature later, and will be used as a rich source of research material. In search of Romanian culture The first strand of this case study attempts to put some meaning to Romanian culture. During their programme of study the RBP managers were required to undertake a module entitled International Perspectives. The assessment of this is based on their ability to conduct a comparative analysis of their organisations HR strategy against a host organisation in a different country. The data from their findings has been used to examine the RBP culture. However, first it can be useful to contextualise an organisational culture by first examining the national culture, and to consider, and understand some of the major aspects impacting and influencing organisational culture. The RBP managers used Hofstede (1991) to make broad cultural comparisons. This may be viewed as unhelpful in as much that Hofstedes (1991) western

theory might not fit into the Romanian context. However, in Hofstedes work entitled Cultural consequences (2001) he writes at length about being first Dutch and secondly European. Hofstede (1991) claimed that in his studies his dimensions accounted for just half the differences. However, Hofstedes more recent work (2001) has ranked each of the main cultural factors of: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and masculinity against the country analysed to produce indices of countries. Romania was not included in the indices. Hence the building up of this cultural profile was original work done by the group, and stimulated much debate. The findings in Table 1 are based on a synthesis of the data collected form the group, and may help to rank Romania on Hofstedes indices. The findings presented in Table 1 require further analysis, but given the constraints of the word count a summary can only be presented. The findings are not a total surprise considering the organisation in question is military, hierarchical, and ex communist. One would expect to find such an organisation as having high power distance, high uncertainty avoidance and a high degree of collectivism, but somewhat surprising that the organisation is moving towards masculinity. Several of the items listed relate to recent changes in peoples behaviour, (such as being more competitive, and the acquisition of material wealth). Thus it invites the invocation of cultural scholars such as Schein and his work on corporate culture (1969), and Hofstede himself, who suggest that it takes a lot longer for an underlying culture to change than for a peoples behaviour. According to Searle (1998) changes in behaviour might easily be misinterpreted as signs of culture change. A further examination of this will be incorporated into a follow up paper. Having looked at the Romanian culture the group were then asked to look at their organisation culture. When the RBP managers were asked to conduct a cultural analysis of their own organisation they argued that in order to compare their organisational culture against a national culture the same model should be used to give consistency. It is widely known that Hofstedes (1991) model is used for a societal analysis, but given the managers request and their justification for this request they conducted an organisational analysis using the same model.

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Table 1. Sociocultural analysis of Romania (as analysed by the RBP managers) Cultural dimensions Observations and experience Hierarchical organisations High degree of autocratic leadership (legacy of Communist regime) Style of dress important i.e. uniforms displaying rank (status important) Personal style is warm, friendly and emotionally open Wide wealth differentials Lecturers, teachers, parents treated with respect High power distance Risk traditionally avoided but becoming more accepted Organisations tend to be strong bureaucracies Strict rules and policies Career stability important Uncertainty avoidance High emphasis now being placed on security (due to rise in corruption and gang warfare) Due to historical event Romanians want stability not uncertainty or ambiguity High levels of stress, alcoholism, low standards of public health Integration into the EU seen as bringing stability Organisations now keen to work in partnership outside Romania High uncertainty avoidance Importance placed on group loyalty Harmonious relationships within groups important Individualism/collectivism Strong emphasis on cohesiveness of family Group achievement more important than personal achievement High degree of collectivism National culture moving towards masculine traits Being more competitive (in the business world) Achievement oriented Acquisition of money and wealth becoming more important Masculinity/femininity More emphasis on buying houses, and owning home Quality of life and caring for others becoming increasingly more difficult to reconcile with the long working hours to achieve Improved life style and obtain luxury goods (cars, own home etc.) Growing importance placed on being successful Moving toward masculinity

Power distance

Their findings are recorded in Table 2 and reveal that the national culture is influencing organisational culture. Moreover, it was difficult to avoid duplication i.e. some of the observations, and subsequent comments made of the national culture were being repeated for their organisational culture. Table 2 represents a synthesis of their findings. This cultural analysis helped the RBP managers to make sense of the organisation in which they operate. They had never conducted such an activity prior to coming on the programme of study, and they felt the whole exercise gave meaning to some of the
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practices adopted in the workplace. It is worth mentioning at this point that Hofstedes (1991) cultural factors may be interpreted differently from our British/Western perspective. As RussEft and Hatcher (2003) point out, the notion of power distance may be construed as something quite different between cultures. For example, low power distance cultures hold that all should have equal rights whereas high power distance cultures hold that power holders are entitled to privileges. The ways in which two types of cultures interpret this may be quite different and may lead to the elimination of this particular principle because

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of lack of agreement. This was something experienced in the classroom, and needs to be

considered analyses.

when

reading

these

cultural

Table 2. Organisational cultural analysis of RBP (as analysed by the RBP managers) Cultural dimensions Observations and experience RBP officers have a strict attitude to dress, official uniforms and noticeable rank Hierarchical organisation Select for specific job and level RBP - 9 ranks in the hierarchical structure, 5 are senior officer ranks Clear vision and strategy Leadership is task specific Specific rules and policies Limited use of performance related pay Started setting appraisal targets Need to clear vision and goals to aim for High degree of formality Emphasis on security Group membership loyalty Group achievement more important than personal achievement Emphasis on teamwork and team competition Normative or moral employee relations Conscious we Work to live Relationships important Conciliation and compromise Acquisition of money and wealth becoming more important Moe emphasis on buying houses, and owning own home Increasingly becoming more competitive in the workplace Both masculine and feminine characteristics evident

High power distance

High uncertainty avoidance

Collectivism

Masculinity/femininity

The next stage was for the managers to examine their HR practices, being mindful of the cultures (national and organisational) influencing their practice. In order to capture the links between culture and HR practices Jacksons (2002) framework was used as a tool for analysis. The framework has developed two contrasting management perceptions of the value of people in organisations: instrumental and humanistic. These perceptions are evident in the way in which policy is formulated, and the subsequent HR practices coming from these policy orientations. The framework is called locus of human value. Jackson claims that the two loci of human value lie at the heart of international HRM and each approach is a product of cultural factures. According to Jackson (2002), global cultural interaction can bring these two loci of human value into conflict. This is a

situation facing the RBP currently. They are under increasing pressure to adapt their culture in order to align themselves with their EU counterparts. Hungary has recently been accepted into the EU by developing their processes and procedures to make EU laws meaningful. This has been done by using the well-educated workforce, and training them into effective HR professions (CIA country profiles 2003). Jackson (2002 p.470) argues however, managing globally goes further than simply adapting practices effectively from one culture to another. The RBP managers collectively agreed that their perception of the value of people in their organisation was humanistic, based on Jacksons framework. The following framework was indicative of the RBP links between culture and HRM practices.

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Table 3. RBP Locus of human value Cultural factors Humanistic The organisation should serve the ends of its people Quality of work & life Democracy People development People welfare Moral commitment People development

Loyal commitment People orientation Relations orientation Collectivism

Seeing people as an end in themselves

Worker participation Developing the person Social welfare Job commitment

Given the socio-cultural, organisational and HRM/cultural analysis, what HR strategy did the RBP need to develop in order to meet EU legislative demands? The RBP strategy reflects some of HR practices, which need development, and indeed those HR practices that have yet to be implemented. The strategy has been formulated on two plains: at inception and the final vision. It is the final part of the strategy, which is of more interest, and thus demonstrates how the programme of study has aided the process of HR strategic planning. The strategy taken by the Romanian Border Police towards integration into the EU The strengthening of border management and controls, in particular on the Eastern and Northern borders, is a key element of Romanias Accession Partnership with the European Union. Romania, as many other states in Central and Eastern Europe, is faced with a growing threat from illegal crossborder activity, which includes illegal immigration, drug trafficking, weapons smuggling and many other forms of organised criminal activity. Many organised criminal groups view Romania as a natural transit route as they seek to penetrate the European Union itself. The National Border Guard was a military organisation, in which conscripts made up the largest part of the personnel. The Border Police Directorate also had a military regime but without conscripts. After one year, the conscripts were ending their military probation and they had to be replaced with others, without any knowledge and skills regarding border management (surveillance of the borders). The training period over the first three months from their military probation had to be provided in order to equip them with the

necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes required to cope with growing threats of cross border crime. Moreover, due to the high potential of corruption within the conscripts, they were breaking the law by allowing some facilities to the offenders (smugglers, illegal migrants, traffickers of human beings, etc) in exchange with benefits. During the initial period, after these two large organisations were merged, it became clear there were vast cultural differences between the two organisations, and that the merger had presented many problems. The main task was to replace oldfashioned methods to manage the borders with a modern approach, in line with EU standards and best practice. This required the undertaking of a gap analysis, which would form the basis for a new strategy, as recommended by Beardwell (1995). The new management team therefore initiated a gap analysis, in order to establish the priorities as well as an Action Plan (Journey of transition). The gap analysis also accounted for the new work methods, methodologies and the strategic approach in the field of Human Resources, logistics, and European legislation. Thus, the scale of the task facing the RBP as it seeks to develop itself from a partly military, conscript organisation to a fully professional law enforcement agency is considerable, and addressing it places a severe strain on the countrys scarce resources. Consequently, external assistance through the European Funding Programme was required. HR strategic gap analysis It was only possible for the senior RBP managers to conduct a gap analysis since attending the University of Wolverhampton. Prior to that period the gap approach was unheard of. The Gap Approach was used as

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described by Walton (1999), and has been established on two levels. Inception level The strategic position of the RBP at the time of the exercise: military structure and regime ineffective structure, hierarchical with too many tiers, and no formal regional structures lack of communication both horizontally and vertically, therefore the necessity to establish a Communication Plan for the RBP no Human Resources Directorate in which the HRM and HRD areas are clearly defined no strategies and policies, especially in the HRD area lack of a training policy and function, high number of training centres, a legacy of the former regime when RBP had conscripts, the professors were trainers for the conscripts rather than real professors for the officers and sub officers the RBP Schools (Oradea and Orsova) have a lack of specialised personnel for delivering required training training delivered in a long established way: no interactive training, playing role, study cases etc lack of training for managers, as well as for the reserve of the personnel. Almost all managers had a military schooling and they had a military management lack of personnel trained in the HR area, especially in the field of employee development, managing change through HRD, organisational development, etc ineffective selection and recruitment system for the professional sergeants (hired based on personal contract, etc) who are replacing the conscripts within the professionalisation process out-of-date legal basis (not in accordance with EU requirements) as well as secondary border legislation lack of high level equipment for border surveillance and control and equipment out-of-date old fashioned methods and methodologies in operational areas (border surveillance at

the green (land) and blue (sea) border, control of the documents). Final level The Romanian Border Police strategic vision for 1st January 2007 (the proposed date for joining the EU) is: professional management structure: qualified professionals at all levels and in all functions (operational, logistics, HRM/HRD, juridical, international co-operation, financial) adequate equipment for border surveillance and control at the green and blue borders, as well as within Cross Border Points, in line with those within EU adequate training system and function, in line with the EU training function within similarly institutions; modern training centres and schools with required experts for training and developing the personnel adequate legal basis, in line with EU requirements, including the secondary border legislation methods, methodologies and work patterns according with those in use within the EU similarly institutions adequate selection and recruitment system for the personnel. The re-organisation process is ongoing, but the strategy proves that the Romanian Border Police are taking into account all the changes needed, and how the organisations personnel will be effected by the speed of change (i.e. how quickly change is implemented). Taking into account the tensions change can cause as observed by Jaffe (2003). The Postgraduate Course in HRD at Wolverhampton Business School made possible this new approach to organisational change and helped the Romanian Border Police on the path of EU integration, by assisting them to solve their own problems through the teaching of process consultancy (Schein 1969). Knowledge transfer The third theme of this case study is concerned with those involved in the process of change, to achieve the strategic HR objectives, i.e. the transition agents: those senior managers who attended the programme

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of study, in order to gain knowledge of the tools and techniques needed to facilitate change. Given the RBP strategic HR objectives do the managers now have the necessary knowledge to facilitate the changes? The underlying question will be: to what extent has their pedagogy impacted upon the organisation? The fact that a coherent strategy has been formulated is in itself a measure of success, but one of the key measures would be how the managers have
Table 4. The work based projects

demonstrated the transfer of skills and knowledge into the workplace. Their workbased projects should demonstrate the transfer of this knowledge into the workplace, and has been used as a valuable source of secondary data for this case study. Table 4 illustrates the nature of those work-based projects and indicates whether the programme assisted with their HR strategic objectives. The black dotted boxes illustrate where the manager felt the objective had been achieved.

Did the module managing change help with linking your work-based project to the HR strategy?

Did the module managing the training function help to link your project with the HR strategy?

Title of work based project The new curriculum for training the border police agents Management of the externally provided training for the Romania border police Training of the county inspectorate of border police: Giurgiu personnel in the field of communication Improvements of the staff appraisal system in the border police HQ (360 degree appraisal) The bureau against documentary fraud Communication systems with the mass media Analysis, demands and perspectives of Bucharest-Otopeni border cross point Training and evaluations methods in the Constanta border police directorate Professional training of Romanian border police - Hungarian border Improving HR systems at the Romanian border police Teaching English classes to the Romanian border police Analysis of management styles in the Romanian border police Training in the filed of international cooperation at the borders Legislative considerations in fulfilling the requirements of the EU

The overall picture is one of success with only a few unmarked boxes, thus illustrating areas where the programme of

study had not made a contribution in helping with the HR strategy. From the table we can see the least effective modules taught on the

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Overall has the programme helped your organisation focus its HR strategy on EU integration?

Did the module employee development help link your project with the HR strategy?

Did the module international perspectives help link your project with the HR strategy?

Has the programme of study enhanced your professional practice?

Does your project link into the general organisational strategy?

Did the module design and deliver training help to link your work based project to the HR strategy?

Does your project link into the HR strategy?

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programme, in terms of helping the organisation formulate strategy and help facilitate the change process is employee learning and development, and the design and delivery of training. Ongoing dialogue with the managers revealed that these areas of the programme were least helpful because of the vast differences traditionally between training, learning and development in Britain as compared with Romania. The most helpful area was the managing change module. However all managers stated that their work based projects were based on real work situations and helped with the development and improvement of the HR processes, systems and formulation of strategic objectives. Interviews of the managers will take place later this year, as part of this ongoing research, in an attempt to reveal whether their individual plans for transferring the knowledge and skills acquired has continued, and if so how this has been achieved. Summary This paper has attempted to capture a snapshot of an organisation preparing for accession into the EU. The case study presented national and organisational culture, and then linked the HR strategy to the culture. It then looked at the RBPs strategic objectives, and presents as analysis of how the programme of study at the University of Wolverhampton Business School has helped managers start to achieve those objectives. The purpose of this case study however, was not to find answers to how this organisation should prepare itself for EU integration, but rather, to present an account of significant preparatory events over a ten month period, as seen through the eyes of the change agents. They have faced significant changes. It is inconceivable that any organisation can hope to achieve change on this scale without ensuring that those involved in the change process are suitably trained with the requisite knowledge and skills to enable them to do this. What the training did, in addition to giving them the requisite knowledge and skills, was to change their mindset i.e. their attitudes towards training. Human resource development is now viewed as a much more powerful tool than previously, and a means for achieving organisational change and development. This raises questions as to why training and development was not valued

before. The most interesting aspect of this research will be to see how this is used between now and 2007.
Rezumat n acest an zece ri europene vor adera la Uniunea European, ceea ce va modifica nu doar mrimea, dar i natura acesteia. Europa a devenit un spaiu mult mai diversificat, cu variaii imense la nivelul bunstrii statelor membre. Romnia, una din rile mai puin dezvoltate ale Europei, depune eforturi pentru integrare n urmtoarea faz din anul 2007. Acest articol prezint o organizaie care se pregtete pentru intrarea n UE n anul 2007, Poliia Romn de Frontier, ncercnd s realizeze o imagine ct mai realist a incidentelor aprute pe parcursul unei scurte perioade (zece luni), la nceputul procesului de dezvoltare i implementare a strategiei de resurse umane. Aceast cercetare este focalizat asupra unui grup de senior manageri din domeniul dezvoltrii resurselor umane i asupra impactului pe care acetia l-au avut asupra dezvoltrii i implementrii planului strategic. Pentru a facilita proiectul de modernizare, principalilor specialiti n domeniul resurselor umane (pe baz regional) li s-a oferit oportunitatea de a participa la studii postuniversitare n cadrul Departamentului de Resurse Umane al University of Wolverhampton Business School. Aceast cercetare ncearc s evidenieze dac managerii au acum cunotinele necesare pentru a facilita schimbrile, i cum pot fi aceste cunotine transferate n mediul de munc.

References Beardwell, I. & Holden, L. (1995) Human Resource Management (London: Pitman). Brewster, C., Communal, C., Ferndale, E., Hegewisch, A., Johnson, G., & van Ommeren, J. (2001) The HR healthcheck: benchmarking HRM practice across the UK and Europe. London: FT Prentice Hall. Brewster, C., Communal, C., Farndale, E., Hegewisch, A. & van Ommeren, J. (2000) Cranet Survey: executive report. Cranfield Network on European HRM: Cranfield School of Management. CIA Country Profiles web site available at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications Gilbert, K. (2001) In search of Russian culture: the interplay of organisational, environmental and cultural factures in Russian-Western partnerships, University of Wolverhampton Business School Working Paper Series 003/01.

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Guru, C. (2002) Online banking in transition economies: the implementation and development of online banking systems in Romania International Journal of Bank Marketing 20(6),285-296. Harris, H., Brewester, C. & Sparrow, P. (2003) International resource management. London: CIPD. Hofstede, G. (1991) Culture and organisations: software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill. Hofstede, G. (2001) Cultural Consequences, 2nd edition. London, thousand oaks. Iles, P. & Yolles, M. (2003) International HRD alliances in viable knowledge migration and development: the Czech Academic Link Project Human Resource Development International 6(3) 301-324. Jackson, T. (2002) International HRM: a cross cultural approach. London: Sage. Jaffe, D. (2003) Organisation theory tension and change. London: McGraw-Hill. Jick. T. & Peiperl, M. A. (2003) Managing change: cases and concepts. London: McGraw-Hill.

Lawrence, P. & Edwards, V. (2002) Management in western Europe. London: Macmillan Press. Romanian National Observatory (2000) Modernization of vocational education and training in Romania http://www.etf.eu.int/etfweb.nsf/pages/download bycountryfiles/$file/romania2000.pdf Russ-Eft, D. & Hatcher, T. (2003) The issue of international values and beliefs: the debate for a global HRD code of ethics Advances in Developing Human Resources 5(3) 296-307. Schein, E. (1969) Corporate culture. London: Longman. Searle, C. (Ed) (1998) Researching society and culture. London: Sage. UK Foreign Office Country Profiles web site at http://www.fco.gov.uk (2003). Walton, J. (1999) Strategic HRD. London: Prentice Hall. Yin, R.K. (1994) Case study research: design and methods 2nd edition. London: Sage.

Teste psihologice
Testele psihologice se supun dreptului de copyright. n conformitate cu standardele i legile internaionale, precum si cu legile speciale emise de statul roman cu privire la protecia drepturilor de autor, utilizarea n orice scop, publicarea sau comercializarea neautorizat a acestor teste se consider a fi furt calificat i se sancioneaz penal. V indicm dreptul de comercializare n Romnia a unor instrumente de evaluare psihologic care pot fi achiziionate sub licen precum i distribuitorii acestora:

INVENTARUL PSIHOLOGIC CALIFORNIA (CPI), VERSIUNILE CPI-462, 434, 260 D&D Consultants, Bucureti (www.ddconsultants.ro)

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BATERIA DE TESTE PSIHOLOGICE DE APTITUDINI COGNITIVE (BTPAC) COGNITROM, Cluj Napoca (www.cognitrom.ro)

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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM): IMPLEMENTATION AND COMMON PITFALLS


Darrell W. Bother* Middle Tennessee State University, USA Thomas Li-Ping Tang Middle Tennessee State University, USA
Abstract

This paper examines the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM), various implementation procedures, and common pitfalls. TQM means that the organizations culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques, and training. TQM can be regarded as a continuous, customer-centered, employee-driven improvement and is embedded in the organizations culture. If not implemented properly, TQM often leads to the alienation of the workforce and decreased customer satisfaction. We also examine issues related to the quality of products and services, employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, and creating a win-win situation for the organizations stakeholders.
Key words: Total Quality Management (TQM), Pitfalls, Customer Satisfaction, Employee Satisfaction
*

Introduction

More than two decades ago, in 1980, NBC aired a television documentary titled: If Japan cansWhy Cant We? This was the wake-up call for many large corporations in the US, those in electronics and automobile industries, in particular. Thanks to the Total Quality Management (TQM) movement, the quality of much of what we buy in stores today in the US is significantly better than in the past. The underlying principles of TQM are also applicable to the significant growth of both Ebusiness on the Internet and the overall service economy. Definition. Before we discuss the notion of Total Quality Management, we need to define the term quality. What is quality? According to W. Edwards Deming (2000a), a product or a service possesses quality if it
Autorii doresc s i mulumeasc domnului Horia D. Pitariu pentru sprijinul i ncurajrile acordate. Ambii autori au contribuit n mod egal i numele lor sunt aranjate alfabetic. Adresa la care poate fi trimis corespondena este: Thomas Li-Ping Tang, Box 516, Department of Management and Marketing, Jennings A. Jones College of Business, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA. Telefon: (615) 898-2005, Fax: (615) 898-5308 e-mail: ttang@mtsu.edu. (TQMBooher.doc: 12/16/2003, re-submitted 12/6/2004).
*

helps somebody and enjoys a good and sustainable market. Trade depends on quality (p. 2). Quality can be defined as the ability of a product or service to reliably do what its supposed to do and to satisfy customer expectations. On the one hand, regarding product quality, there are several dimensions of quality. They may include: performance, features, flexibility, durability, conformance, serviceability, aesthetics, and perceived quality. On the other hand, when we consider service quality, we may include the following dimensions: timeliness, courtesy, consistency, convenience, completeness, and accuracy. What is TQM? Experts provide the following statement: TQM means that the organizations culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques, and training. This involves the continuous improvement of organizational process, resulting in high-quality products and services (Sashkin & Kiser, 1993). It can be regarded as a continuous, customer-centered, employee-driven improvement and is embedded in the organizations culture. The TQM concept focuses on the customer and promotes the idea of satisfying customers needs by creating better products and services at a competitive price (Leonard & McAdam, 2002). There is an important
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purpose, also: Better products and services lead to more satisfied customers and, in turn, lead to more customers which would, in turn, bring more profits for the company. Most of us are in business to make money from our customers. The equation is supposed to be: More satisfaction equals more customers and more customers equal more money (Hoare, 1994: 5). Money, after all, is the goal of why these philosophical concepts were born. According to Allan Sloan (2002), News Weeks Wall Street Editor, Americans have always loved money. De Tocqueville traced love of wealth to the root of all that Americans do (see also Tang & Chiu, 2003; Tang & Weatherford, 2004). The principles of TQM were well established by W. Edwards Deming and other pioneers such as Joseph Juran, Genichi Taguchi, and Philip B. Crosby (Deming, 2000a, 2000b; Hellsten & Klefsjo, 2000; Lau & Anderson, 1998). Deming was credited for Japans post-World War II quality revolution. He continued to promote TQM till his death at age 93 in 1993. Demings 85-15 rule, one of the most enduring lessons for managers, suggests that when things go wrong, there is a roughly an 85% change the system (e.g., management, machinery, and rules) is at fault. Only about 15% of the time is the individual employee at fault. Productivity depends on people and operations variables. Deming also has identifies the following four common TQM principles: 1. Do it right the first time to eliminate costly rework and product recalls. 2. Listen to and learn from customers and employees. 3. Make continuous improvement an everyday matter. 4. Build teamwork, trust, and mutual respect. According to Deming (2000b), the importance of quality is related to profits mentioned earlier (Hoare, 1994). For example, it pays to keep the customers satisfied: if a car owner likes his car, hes apt to buy four more cars of the same make over the following twelve years. The customer is also likely to spread the good news to eight other people. But woe to the car company that delivers a shoddy product, an angry car buyer will tell his troubles to an average of sixteen people (Car and Driver, 1983, August, p. 33, cited in Deming, 2000b: 122). The happy customer that comes back for more is worth 10 prospects. He comes without advertising or
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persuasion, and he may even bring in a friend (cited in Deming, 2000b: 122). In todays world market, organizations in the US attempt to implement various concepts of quality improvements such as Six Sigma, reengineering, and Total Quality Management (London, 2002). These philosophical concepts have become the business buzzwords heard in most board rooms today. Nearly all employees have heard these terms in one form or another. Unfortunately, to most of them, these terms represent the latest fad that management is trying to make them buy-in-to in order to reestablish the business superiority. Brief History. The TQM concept originally came about in the US but was met with indifference and a great reluctance by US companies to implement it (Lau & Anderson, 1998). So the original pioneers took their idea to Japanese and transformed the statement Made in Japan from meaning cheap and poor in quality into meaning more value for the dollar (London, 2002; see also Davenport & Tang, 1996; Rhody & Tang, 1995). After the oil crisis in 1973, Japanese companies began to dominate the worlds business markets especially in the automotive industry. Companies in the US were forced to become more competitive or continue to lose business and eventually face bankruptcy and business failure. Japanese companies had employed the techniques of TQM to create large transfer of wealth to their companies since the 1980s and early 1990s (James, 2002). The basic idea of worker participation was effectively used in the US in the 1940s. In 1949, a Quality Control Sub-Committee was organized within the Union (Society) of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE). This sub-committee later developed into the QC Research Group and introduced quality control to Japan. In September, 1951, the first Quality Control Conference was held in Japan and the Deming Prize was awarded for the first time. In the early 1970s, the US began to study Japanese businesses to find out how Japan had seemingly taken over the worlds markets overnight. In reality, while US businesses were sleeping, Japanese businesses had been involved in a long and continual process of developing manufacturing processes which greatly improved their products. The same concept that the US had rejected previously had now become the Japanese way of doing things right. All the

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US companies wanted to convert to the Japanese Way and began implementing it right away. In 1974, Quality Circles (QCs) were reintroduced back to the US. The Lockheed Missiles and Space Company began the very first pure quality circle program (QC) on the Trident Naval Program. A quality circle (QC) is a group of workers from the same work area who voluntarily meet on a regular basis to identify, analyze, and solve various workrelated problems (e.g., Tang & Butler, 1997; Tang, Tollison, & Whiteside, 1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1996). There has been a long history of research in the literature that is related to quality circles (QCs). QC programs in the US became very popular in the 1980s and beyond (Griffin, 1988; Marks, Mirvis, Hackett, & Grady, 1986; Tang, Tollison, & Whiteside, 1987, 1989). It was estimated, at that time, that over 90% of the Fortune 500 companies used QC programs (Lawler & Mohrman, 1985) involving approximately 200,000 workers in the US (Lawler, 1986). This QC movement has been expanded to the TQM movement. The buzzword, TQM, creates a great expectation. Everyone talks about the great thing that will bring back lost business and make the business world all right again in the US. Life will once again be grand and US workers will be gainfully employed with a more secure employment future (Anschutz, 1995). However, somewhere along the way, the TQM implementation went wrong, and TQM actually appeared to be the cause of some business failures. TQM Pitfalls Total Quality Management (TQM) is one of the ways to improve quality. The organizations attempts to regain lost business have met with varying results due to the misunderstandings of the TQM implementation processes (Alter, 2000). As more and more companies attempt to implement TQM, a greater understanding of what went wrong can be gained through the empirical research. Our new knowledge in this area may improve future TQM programs. Research has provided solutions to some of the common problems of TQM and pointed out some common pitfalls. In a study of attributions of quality circles problem-solving failure, Tang and Butler (1997) identified the following reasons: lack of top management support, lack of QC members commitment, lack of problem-

solving skills, QC members turnover, the nature of the QC task/project, lack of support from staff members, and lack of data and time. Following the same line of research, some reasons for the failure of the TQM system are: lack of implementation plans, lack of leadership, lack of effective feedback, lack of measurement and reward systems, and lack of employee empowerment (Elmuti & Kathawala, 2002; Emery, Summers, & Surak, 1996). We will provide brief discussion regarding the causes of TQM implementation failure below. Change. Perhaps one of the greatest initial obstacles to overcome in implementing any new program is change. Change is often very slow in coming. People resist change because of the fear and uncertainty change brings. People cling to the familiar. People want things to be left alone; they want life to go on as it was. Besides, change involves additional work. People want to take the easiest path available, so they have a great reluctance to change. In a world filled with uncertainties, it is easier to hold on to the familiar than doing something new. Change would require great effort on everyones part. TQM as a Separate System. A great misunderstanding by upper management has taken place. Firms believe that the TQM concept is something that can be bought and installed similar to a piece of machinery. They believe that TQM can be brought in and, with minor adjustments in the machinery, their firm will be up and running with little effort. They fail to understand that TQM is a long-term business strategy with many troughs and peaks (Dale & Cooper, 1994: 22). That is, TQM can not be treated as a separate or a parallel system in an organization. It has to be totally integrated into the mission statement and the whole system of an organization. For TQM to be successful, it has to have top level managements full and enthusiastic support (Tang, Tollison, & Whiteside, 1989). Management has to show employees through their actions and the firms commitment to TQM goals instead of words alone. Telling employees My way or the highway would not be sufficient. That attitude just wouldnt fly. Top Management Support. TQM is a way of doing things. The way includes commitment, participation, influencing by example, fair treatment, taking responsibility, motivating, driving out fear, continuous learning, and caring about the customer (Babbar & Aspelin, 1994: 34). All of these things are dependent upon top management
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commitment. To be successful, top management need to (1) focus on customers, (2) base decisions on facts, (3) focus on processes, (4) improve continuously, and (5) let everybody be committed (Hellsten & Klefsjo, 2000: 240). The sole responsibility of implementing TQM is the top management. Top executives need to ensure their companys short- and long-term strategies revolved around the TQM philosophy. Management has to be committed to the continual process of TQM from the chief executive officer (CEO) down through middle managers to the employee (Lau & Anderson, 1998: 89). All levels of management need to become trained and more than familiar with the ideas of the TQM philosophy so that they are able to implement TQM and measure TQM improvements as benchmarks. Without realistic goals and tangible measurements of success, all their work in implementing TQM will be fruitless. The firm will be lost in its own desire to achieve quality without knowing what quality is. Often TQM will fail because of the lack of upper managements understanding, dedication, and involvement. For instance, instead of TQM being first on their meeting agendas, TQM may be presented as an almost by the way subject after other more important issues had been presented. The importance of TQM was ranked low on the totem pole. This off-handed approach in dealing with the subject of TQM may inadvertently indicate to middle managers that TQM will be just another fad which will pass away with time (Dale & Cooper, 1994: 21). Their attitude will be to humor their boss until he came upon the next fad. Middle Management Support. Oftentimes this middle manager roadblock proves to be a stumbling stone which results in the failure of TQM to be successfully implemented. The process of filtering the concepts from top managers to the lower echelons becomes plugged at the middle manager levels. This resistance results in little of the TQM concepts reaching the employees and misunderstanding and confusion about TQM. Because the middle managers do not buying into the TQM program, the employees, then, start to see TQM as a fancy way of getting rid of employees, blaming employees for poor products, etc. (Babbar & Aspelin, 1994). Because middle managers have used their knowledge and skills to rise to their
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current employment level, they often feel threatened and only try to preserve their status by resisting TQM implementation (Feinberg, 1998). In addition to the pressures of mergers and acquisitions and stockholders demands, it becomes a survival maneuver for middle management to maintain their power and value to the firm by not sharing information with others (Lau & Anderson, 1998). Instead of using employees to help solve problems of quality, managers call in experts to study the problem giving rise to the idea that employees are responsible for the problem. Continuous improvement through greater effort and through the acquisition of skills and knowledge only makes the individual more valuable to the organization (Babbar & Aspelin, 1994: 35). The lack of effective communication with employees and a lack of proven recognition and reward systems present some formidable barriers in implementing a TQM system successfully (Elbo, 2001). Deming and Jurans messages state the same thing: management must take charge of quality and emphasized the importance of managements responsibility by stating that quality must come even before profit (Elbo, 2002). Implementation Plans. Lack of implementation plans and lack of leadership usually are the result of misunderstanding of the concepts behind TQM. Managers often delegate responsibilities of implementing the TQM plan to underlings and then require periodic reports be presented to them. This undermines the process by not recognizing that TQM is the most important part of the firms mission and leads to its survivability or failure in the future. This delegation also gives the appearance that TQM is not very important to the company, so employee commitment will not be great. Combined with the confusion and managements lack of understanding of TQM, mixed signals may be sent from the upper levels of the company to the lowest levels. Without clear goals and direct leadership, chaos and fear rule the company: fear about losing jobs, fear about doing more with less, etc. No one knows what to expect. Measurement and Feedback. The lack of effective feedback usually occurs because no one wants to be the one who rocks the boat. Management just wants to hear how successful TQM is and not that things are not working. Fear of reprisals becomes a great concern. So going through the motions becomes commonplace.

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Measurements may be designed without any real basis for tangible measurement. Imaginary goals are achieved that will not reflect anything of value. On paper, things always appear to look great, but the real goal of increasing customer satisfaction is not being measured. If it is attained by means of customer satisfaction surveys, the information may not be disseminated to the employees. No measurable results are learned, and therefore no actions can be taken to achieve greater customer satisfaction. Only meaningless goals of how well TQM is being implemented are reported. TQM becomes the Albatross around the companys neck. Somewhere, somehow they have lost the way (Hoare, 1994). Quality Standards. As the values of TQM become more apparent, benchmarks and standards are established to help correct the earlier erroneous ones that have no real measuring capabilities. To ensure that the company is providing quality to its customers, companies turn to quality measurement tools such as the Six Sigma and ISO registrations. Six Sigma. Motorola popularized the use of stringent quality standards more than 30 years ago. Six Sigma is a quality standard that establishes a goal of no more than 3.4 defects per million units or procedures. In fact, most people will learn this concept in a statistics course. Sigma is the Greek letter that defines one standard deviation from the mean under the normal curve. At One Sigma, it covers twothirds of the area under the normal bell-shaped curve. At Six Sigma, it shows the highest quality standard for organizations to achieve. The ISO 9000. The ISO benchmark is a registration process that measures manufacturing and environmental practices. ISO stands for the Switzerland-based International Organization for Standardization program (Savastano, 2002; www.iso.ch). ISO set uniform guidelines for process to ensure that products conform to customer requirements. The ISO 9000 standards are the internationally recognized standards for evaluating and comparing companies in the global marketplace and are the prerequisite for doing business globally. At present, there are only a few such benchmarks by which to compare. As time progresses, more and more benchmarks will be developed that will assist in a tangible measurement of quality provided to the customer. Employee Empowerment. The most overlooked and underutilized emphasis is employee empowerment (Tang & Crofford,

1995/96). Employee empowerment doesnt mean giving free reign to the employees to do what they think best, but rather a utilization of employee skills and knowledge to guide them and the companys growth toward fulfillment of the TQM concept: customer satisfaction. Management must carefully guide and encourage their employees through training, recognition, and rewards so as to not alienate them and bring about a decline in morale. With the proper training, recognition, and rewards systems in place, a company is well on its way to successful TQM implementation. Employee empowerment spells the difference between success and failure in the quest for TQM (Gatchalian, 1997). Know your employees and their abilities. Your company hired them for a reason. Find out what that reason is. Use the personnel files of your company to find out about your employees. Their personal backgrounds, education levels, military background and training, technical training, and on-the-job training are right there for your perusal. Get to know your employees personally. Find out what interests and hobbies they have. There are cases where employee suggestions resulted in substantial savings for the company in improved methods of doing a task by reducing wasted time, effort, and resources. Knowing your employees will help you determine the strengths of your employees and place them in better positions for greater empowerment within the company. The expression You are only as strong as your weakest link still holds true today. A company is only as strong as its employees. Training. Teamwork is a result of successful empowerment of people within the organization. Human resources are the major assets of the organization and their skills and brain power must be effectively honed and harnessed through training and participation in the development of companys mission/vision/plans (MVP) (Gatchalian, 1997: 431-432). Your employees are the ones who do the job and often have suggestions for doing the job better. Use their knowledge, skills, and experiences to find new ways of improving quality and thereby increase customer satisfaction. Empowerment means just that - empower your employees, dont hold them back! A foundation of training in skills and knowledge is essential in all aspects of the business. Skill training is evident to success of the business. Training, behind TQM concepts, is essential for employees understanding of
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the organizations mission statements. To better integrate the concept of team empowerment, the employee must first understand what it is they are attempting to do. Without a clear focus on the mission, it becomes easy to lose your way towards achieving the goals you set for yourself. Regular and periodic training seminars prove to be essential to maintaining a straight course toward the goals. It is all too easy to become confused and distracted along the way as problems arise without regular reinforcement through training. The training seminars are also an excellent means to share problems with others and solutions for problems others have found. The whole goal of empowerment is in the sharing of knowledge. With the best of intentions, we can make an error of judgment. Not to benefit from the error would be to add negligence to the charge (Hoare, 1994: 6). Recognition and Reward. With these problems of successfully implementing TQM into the workplace comes the problem of motivation. Use your personal human relations skills as well as referent and expertise power, not company position power, in achieving your goals. Motivation should allow voluntary willingness instead of dictatorial force. But not all employees may be willing to change, so occasionally these situations may require a more forceful approach - perhaps a dismissal or firing. Disagreement is valued, but destructive and disruptive behavior and attitudes can derail the TQM process. It is important that all are willing to put forth effort to implement the changes. Directors and managers have the opportunity to facilitate pride and joy in work (Hoare, 1994: 5). Recognition and awards play a large part in the motivation of employees, but can be undermined by simple seemingly unimportant things. Imagine an upper level manager handing out a reward to an employee he (or she) doesnt know, mistakenly refers to the employee as someone else while presenting the award, and has little or no knowledge of the purpose of this award. Simple things like these can kill motivation quickly. The importance of knowing your employees and what they do for you and your company can not be stressed enough. Along with recognition and awards come rewards and responsibilities. As people prove themselves time and again, rewards and responsibilities become necessary. One of the goals of the company is to increase profits and
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maximize shareholders wealth. Rewards come in various forms, more commonly as monetary rewards. The most common shareholders are those that have invested money in the company in stocks and bonds, but the company employees are also stakeholder of the organization. They may also have invested part of their pay in company stocks and bonds through retirement savings programs. More importantly, these employees have invested their work lives in the company. They should be rewarded by sharing the profits they help generate. Profit sharing plans and employee suggestion rewards are but some of the ways companies use to show value for their employees. The reward of increased responsibilities can vary from advancement in employment status to achieving a position with a title to include acquiring an office. Prestige is an important factor to consider in meeting employees expectations. Make sure that employees are valued for their work, thoughts, and ideas. The use of prestige can not be overemphasized. When you value your employees, they will value their company and their jobs within the company. The process of implementing TQM requires, in many cases, a trial and error process; especially as new ground is broken. The steps the company takes, along the journey, must be built on a strong foundation. The foundation must be built on top managements commitment, empathy, personal power, management by example, and fairness (Babbar & Aspelin, 1994: 36). As the process continues, reevaluation of these steps will become necessary. Steps such as recognizing the need for continuous improvement, accepting change and innovation as essential, developing a vision with a customer and quality focus, sharing the vision, eliciting total participation, restructuring and empowerment, educate and train, motivation, recognition and rewards, all lead to the celebration and revitalization of the company (Babbar & Aspelin, 1994: 36). But remember that after all this, the journeys just begun. The process is like continually being on a treadmill. The TQM process is indeed a long-term prospect. The journey wont be easy, but the rewards can be great if you persevere and keep trying. Senior managers need to develop a thorough understanding of TQM by committing time and reading books, articles, attending conferences and classes, and

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visiting other companies to view progress they have made in TQM (Dale & Cooper, 1994). This paper has only scratched the surface of the material available to managers on the subject of TQM and how to avoid the pitfalls along the way as it is implemented. Some of the common problems of TQM have been addressed, but as time goes along, further research will bring to light more solutions to these problems. The most important problem to address will continue to be that of the lack of top level managements involvement (Babbar & Aspelin, 1994: 36). Top level management is solely responsible for the implementation of the TQM process, and their efforts will determine the degree of success or failure that is achieved.
Rezumat Aceast lucrare examineaz conceptul de managementul calitii totale (MCT), variate proceduri de implementare i problemele ntmpinate. Prin MCT se nelege definirea culturii organizaiei prin sprijinul i efortul constant de satisfacere a clienilor printr-un sistem integrat de instrumente, tehnici i training. MCT poate fi privit ca o mbuntire continu, centrat pe client, impulsionat de angajai i este integrat n cultura organizaiei. Dac nu este implementat n mod adecvat, MCT poate conduce la nstrinarea forei de munc i descreterea satisfaciei clienilor. Articolul examineaz, de asemenea, aspecte legate de calitatea produselor i serviciilor, satisfacia angajailor, satisfacia clienilor i crearea unei situaii de tip ctig ctig pentru actorii organizaiei. References Alter, A.E. (2000). Trends that never died: TQM and re-engineering. Computerworld, 33. Anschutz, E.E. (1995). TQM - the public sector challenge. (Total quality management) (Excerpted from the book TQM America). National Productivity Review, 15, 1. Babbar, S., & Aspelin, D.J. (1994). TQM? Its as easy as ABC. The TQM Magazine, 6, 32-38. Dale, B.G., & Cooper, C.L. (1994). Introducing TQM: The role of senior management. Management Decision, 32, 20-26. Davenport, J.L., & Tang, T.L.P. (1996). Learning from Japanese companies and Japanese transplants in the United States. Employment Relations Today, 23 (1): 49-58. Deming, W.E. (2000a). The new economics (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Originally published in 1994.

Deming, W.E. (2000b). Out of the crisis (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Originally published in 1982. Elbo, R.A.H. (2001). In the workplace; creating a TQM program. Business World, 20, December 5. Elbo, R.A.H. (2002). In the workplace: Top management TQM involvement. Business World, 20, April 17. Elmuti, D., & Kathawala, Y. (2002) Summer-Fall. Business reengineering: revolutionary management tool, or fading fad? Business Forum, 29. Emery, C.R., Summers, T.P., & Surak, J.G. (1996). The role of organizational climate in the implementation of Total Quality Management. Journal of Managerial Issues, 8: 484. Feinberg, S. (1998). Why managers oppose TQM. The TQM Magazine, 10: 16-19. Gatchalian, M.M. (1997). People empowerment: The key to TQM success. The TQM Magazine, 9, 429-433. Griffin, R.W. (1988). Consequences of quality circles in an industrial setting: A longitudinal assessment. Academy of Management Journal, 31 (2), 338-358. Hoare, C. E. (1994). The TQM Albatross. Training for Quality, 2, 4-6. Hellsten, U., & Klefsjo, B. (2000). TQM as a management system consisting of values, techniques and tools. The TQM Magazine, 12, 238-244. James, D. (2002). Science tests the truth of TQM. Business Review Weekly (Australia), July 11, News and Features: 45. Lau, R.S.M., & Anderson, C.A. (1998). A threedimensional perspective of total quality management. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 15,85-98. Lawler, E.E. (1986). High-involvement management. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Lawler, E.E., & Mohrman, S.A. (1985). Quality circles after the fad. Harvard Business Review, 63 (1), 65-71. Leonard, D., & McAdam, R. (2002). The strategic placement of TQM in the organization: a grounded study. Managing Service Quality, 12: 43-53. London, S. (2002). London Edition,1. When quality is not quite enough: MANAGEMENT: Programmes such as Six Sigma and TQM are in vain unless top executives address their own shortcomings, writes . Financial Times (London), July 15, Inside Track: 9. Marks, M.L., Mirvis, P. H., Hackett, E.J., & Grady, J.F. (1986). Employee participation in quality

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circle program: Impact on quality of work life, productivity, and absenteeism. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 61-69. Rhody, J.D., & Tang, T.L.P. (1995). Learning from Japanese transplants and American corporations. Public Personnel Management, 24, 19-32. Sashkin, M., & Kiser, K.J. (1993). Putting total quality management to work. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, p. 39. Savastano, D. (2002). The importance of quality in todays business world. (Editors Desk). Ink World, 8: 6. Sloan, A. (2002),. The jurys in: Greed isnt good. News Week, June 24, 37. Tang, T.L.P., & Butler, E.A. (1997). Attributions of quality circles' problem-solving failure: Differences among management, supporting staff, and quality circle members. Public Personnel Management, 26: 203-225. Tang, T.L.P., & Chiu, R.K. (2003). Income, Money Ethic, pay satisfaction, commitment, and unethical behavior: Is the love of money the root of evil for Hong Kong employees? Journal of Business Ethics, 46, 13-30. Tang, T.L.P., & Crofford, A.B. (1995/96). Selfmanaging work teams. Employment Relations Today, Winter, 22 (4), 29-39. Tang, T.L.P., & Weatherford, E.J. (2004). Ethical decision making. Psihologia Resurselor Umane (Human Resources Psychology), 2 (1), 10-20. (English/Romanian). Tang, T.L.P., Tollison, P.S., & Whiteside, H.D. (1987). The effects of quality circle initiation on motivation to attend quality circle meetings and on task performance. Personnel Psychology, 40: 799-814. Tang, T.L.P., Tollison, P.S., & Whiteside, H.D. (1989). Quality circle productivity as related to upper-management attendance, circle initiation, and collar color. Journal of Management, 15: 101-113. Tang, T.L.P., Tollison, P.S., & Whiteside, H.D. (1991). Managers' attendance and the effectiveness of small work groups: The case of quality circles. Journal of Social Psychology, 131 (3), 335-344. Tang, T.L.P., Tollison, P.S., & Whiteside, H.D. (1993). Differences between active and inactive quality circles on attendance and performance. Public Personnel Management, 22: 579-590. Tang, T.L.P., Tollison, P.S., & Whiteside, H.D. (1996). The case of active and inactive quality circles. Journal of Social Psychology, 136: 5767.

DARRELL W. BOOHER (B.S., Middle Tennessee State University) has worked for Sverdrup Technology Incorporated, now a part of Jacobs Engineering, as an electrical technician for 15 years and was a supervisor at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) in Tullahoma, Tennessee where he assisted in the testing of rocket motors and jet propulsion engines. He has served six years in the US Navy as a submarine electrician and four years in the US Army as a multichannel communications equipment operator. He has recently returned from living in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil where he and his wife have stayed for nearly two years. He has completed his B.S. Degree in the Recording Industry Management program at Middle Tennessee State University in the Fall semester of 2003. His research interests in TQM evolve from actual working experiences while performing in numerous management positions in the military and in civilian life. THOMAS LI-PING TANG (Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University) is a Professor of Management in the Department of Management and Marketing, Jennings A. Jones College of Business, Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU), Murfreesboro, Tennessee USA. He has taught Industrial and Organizational Psychology at MTSU and National Taiwan University, Taiwan. His research interests focus upon the Money Ethic, the Love of Money, pay satisfaction, business ethics, quality circles, and cross-cultural issues. His research has appeared in Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Human Relations, Journal of Management, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Business Ethics, and many other journals. He has published more than 90 journal articles, presented more than 150 papers around the world, served on the editorial board of four journals and as an ad hoc reviewer for 24 journals. He is the winner of two Outstanding Research Awards and Distinguished International Service Award at MTSU. In 2003, Professor Tang received the Best Reviewer Award from the International Management Division of the Academy of Management in Seattle, WA.

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Total Quality Management (TQM): Implementation and Common Pitfalls


Darrell W. Bother* Middle Tennessee State University, USA Thomas Li-Ping Tang Middle Tennessee State University, USA

Abstract

This paper examines the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM), various implementation procedures, and common pitfalls. TQM means that the organizations culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques, and training. TQM can be regarded as a continuous, customer-centered, employee-driven improvement and is embedded in the organizations culture. If not implemented properly, TQM often leads to the alienation of the workforce and decreased customer satisfaction. We also examine issues related to the quality of products and services, employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, and creating a win-win situation for the organizations stakeholders.
Key words: Total Quality Management (TQM), Pitfalls, Customer Satisfaction, Employee Satisfaction
*

Introduction

More than two decades ago, in 1980, NBC aired a television documentary titled: If Japan cansWhy Cant We? This was the wake-up call for many large corporations in the US, those in electronics and automobile industries, in particular. Thanks to the Total Quality Management (TQM) movement, the quality of much of what we buy in stores today in the US is significantly better than in the past. The underlying principles of TQM are also applicable to the significant growth of both Ebusiness on the Internet and the overall service economy. Definition. Before we discuss the notion of Total Quality Management, we need to define the term quality. What is quality? According to W. Edwards Deming (2000a), a product or a service possesses quality if it

Autorii doresc s i mulumeasc domnului Horia D. Pitariu pentru sprijinul i ncurajrile acordate. Ambii autori au contribuit n mod egal i numele lor sunt aranjate alfabetic. Adresa la care poate fi trimis corespondena este: Thomas Li-Ping Tang, Box 516, Department of Management and Marketing, Jennings A. Jones College of Business, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA. Telefon: (615) 898-2005, Fax: (615) 898-5308 e-mail: ttang@mtsu.edu. (TQMBooher.doc: 12/16/2003, re-submitted 12/6/2004).

helps somebody and enjoys a good and sustainable market. Trade depends on quality (p. 2). Quality can be defined as the ability of a product or service to reliably do what its supposed to do and to satisfy customer expectations. On the one hand, regarding product quality, there are several dimensions of quality. They may include: performance, features, flexibility, durability, conformance, serviceability, aesthetics, and perceived quality. On the other hand, when we consider service quality, we may include the following dimensions: timeliness, courtesy, consistency, convenience, completeness, and accuracy. What is TQM? Experts provide the following statement: TQM means that the organizations culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques, and training. This involves the continuous improvement of organizational process, resulting in high-quality products and services (Sashkin & Kiser, 1993). It can be regarded as a continuous, customer-centered, employee-driven improvement and is embedded in the organizations culture. The TQM concept focuses on the customer and promotes the idea of satisfying customers needs by creating better products and services at a competitive price (Leonard & McAdam, 2002). There is an important

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purpose, also: Better products and services lead to more satisfied customers and, in turn, lead to more customers which would, in turn, bring more profits for the company. Most of us are in business to make money from our customers. The equation is supposed to be: More satisfaction equals more customers and more customers equal more money (Hoare, 1994: 5). Money, after all, is the goal of why these philosophical concepts were born. According to Allan Sloan (2002), News Weeks Wall Street Editor, Americans have always loved money. De Tocqueville traced love of wealth to the root of all that Americans do (see also Tang & Chiu, 2003; Tang & Weatherford, 2004). The principles of TQM were well established by W. Edwards Deming and other pioneers such as Joseph Juran, Genichi Taguchi, and Philip B. Crosby (Deming, 2000a, 2000b; Hellsten & Klefsjo, 2000; Lau & Anderson, 1998). Deming was credited for Japans post-World War II quality revolution. He continued to promote TQM till his death at age 93 in 1993. Demings 85-15 rule, one of the most enduring lessons for managers, suggests that when things go wrong, there is a roughly an 85% change the system (e.g., management, machinery, and rules) is at fault. Only about 15% of the time is the individual employee at fault. Productivity depends on people and operations variables. Deming also has identifies the following four common TQM principles: 1. Do it right the first time to eliminate costly rework and product recalls. 2. Listen to and learn from customers and employees. 3. Make continuous improvement an everyday matter. 4. Build teamwork, trust, and mutual respect. According to Deming (2000b), the importance of quality is related to profits mentioned earlier (Hoare, 1994). For example, it pays to keep the customers satisfied: if a car owner likes his car, hes apt to buy four more cars of the same make over the following twelve years. The customer is also likely to spread the good news to eight other people. But woe to the car company that delivers a shoddy product, an angry car buyer will tell his troubles to an average of sixteen people (Car and Driver, 1983, August, p. 33, cited in Deming, 2000b: 122). The happy customer that comes back for more is worth 10 prospects. He comes without advertising or
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persuasion, and he may even bring in a friend (cited in Deming, 2000b: 122). In todays world market, organizations in the US attempt to implement various concepts of quality improvements such as Six Sigma, reengineering, and Total Quality Management (London, 2002). These philosophical concepts have become the business buzzwords heard in most board rooms today. Nearly all employees have heard these terms in one form or another. Unfortunately, to most of them, these terms represent the latest fad that management is trying to make them buy-in-to in order to reestablish the business superiority. Brief History. The TQM concept originally came about in the US but was met with indifference and a great reluctance by US companies to implement it (Lau & Anderson, 1998). So the original pioneers took their idea to Japanese and transformed the statement Made in Japan from meaning cheap and poor in quality into meaning more value for the dollar (London, 2002; see also Davenport & Tang, 1996; Rhody & Tang, 1995). After the oil crisis in 1973, Japanese companies began to dominate the worlds business markets especially in the automotive industry. Companies in the US were forced to become more competitive or continue to lose business and eventually face bankruptcy and business failure. Japanese companies had employed the techniques of TQM to create large transfer of wealth to their companies since the 1980s and early 1990s (James, 2002). The basic idea of worker participation was effectively used in the US in the 1940s. In 1949, a Quality Control Sub-Committee was organized within the Union (Society) of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE). This sub-committee later developed into the QC Research Group and introduced quality control to Japan. In September, 1951, the first Quality Control Conference was held in Japan and the Deming Prize was awarded for the first time. In the early 1970s, the US began to study Japanese businesses to find out how Japan had seemingly taken over the worlds markets overnight. In reality, while US businesses were sleeping, Japanese businesses had been involved in a long and continual process of developing manufacturing processes which greatly improved their products. The same concept that the US had rejected previously had now become the Japanese way of doing things right. All the

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US companies wanted to convert to the Japanese Way and began implementing it right away. In 1974, Quality Circles (QCs) were reintroduced back to the US. The Lockheed Missiles and Space Company began the very first pure quality circle program (QC) on the Trident Naval Program. A quality circle (QC) is a group of workers from the same work area who voluntarily meet on a regular basis to identify, analyze, and solve various workrelated problems (e.g., Tang & Butler, 1997; Tang, Tollison, & Whiteside, 1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1996). There has been a long history of research in the literature that is related to quality circles (QCs). QC programs in the US became very popular in the 1980s and beyond (Griffin, 1988; Marks, Mirvis, Hackett, & Grady, 1986; Tang, Tollison, & Whiteside, 1987, 1989). It was estimated, at that time, that over 90% of the Fortune 500 companies used QC programs (Lawler & Mohrman, 1985) involving approximately 200,000 workers in the US (Lawler, 1986). This QC movement has been expanded to the TQM movement. The buzzword, TQM, creates a great expectation. Everyone talks about the great thing that will bring back lost business and make the business world all right again in the US. Life will once again be grand and US workers will be gainfully employed with a more secure employment future (Anschutz, 1995). However, somewhere along the way, the TQM implementation went wrong, and TQM actually appeared to be the cause of some business failures. TQM Pitfalls Total Quality Management (TQM) is one of the ways to improve quality. The organizations attempts to regain lost business have met with varying results due to the misunderstandings of the TQM implementation processes (Alter, 2000). As more and more companies attempt to implement TQM, a greater understanding of what went wrong can be gained through the empirical research. Our new knowledge in this area may improve future TQM programs. Research has provided solutions to some of the common problems of TQM and pointed out some common pitfalls. In a study of attributions of quality circles problem-solving failure, Tang and Butler (1997) identified the following reasons: lack of top management support, lack of QC members commitment, lack of problem-

solving skills, QC members turnover, the nature of the QC task/project, lack of support from staff members, and lack of data and time. Following the same line of research, some reasons for the failure of the TQM system are: lack of implementation plans, lack of leadership, lack of effective feedback, lack of measurement and reward systems, and lack of employee empowerment (Elmuti & Kathawala, 2002; Emery, Summers, & Surak, 1996). We will provide brief discussion regarding the causes of TQM implementation failure below. Change. Perhaps one of the greatest initial obstacles to overcome in implementing any new program is change. Change is often very slow in coming. People resist change because of the fear and uncertainty change brings. People cling to the familiar. People want things to be left alone; they want life to go on as it was. Besides, change involves additional work. People want to take the easiest path available, so they have a great reluctance to change. In a world filled with uncertainties, it is easier to hold on to the familiar than doing something new. Change would require great effort on everyones part. TQM as a Separate System. A great misunderstanding by upper management has taken place. Firms believe that the TQM concept is something that can be bought and installed similar to a piece of machinery. They believe that TQM can be brought in and, with minor adjustments in the machinery, their firm will be up and running with little effort. They fail to understand that TQM is a long-term business strategy with many troughs and peaks (Dale & Cooper, 1994: 22). That is, TQM can not be treated as a separate or a parallel system in an organization. It has to be totally integrated into the mission statement and the whole system of an organization. For TQM to be successful, it has to have top level managements full and enthusiastic support (Tang, Tollison, & Whiteside, 1989). Management has to show employees through their actions and the firms commitment to TQM goals instead of words alone. Telling employees My way or the highway would not be sufficient. That attitude just wouldnt fly. Top Management Support. TQM is a way of doing things. The way includes commitment, participation, influencing by example, fair treatment, taking responsibility, motivating, driving out fear, continuous learning, and caring about the customer (Babbar & Aspelin, 1994: 34). All of these things are dependent upon top management
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commitment. To be successful, top management need to (1) focus on customers, (2) base decisions on facts, (3) focus on processes, (4) improve continuously, and (5) let everybody be committed (Hellsten & Klefsjo, 2000: 240). The sole responsibility of implementing TQM is the top management. Top executives need to ensure their companys short- and long-term strategies revolved around the TQM philosophy. Management has to be committed to the continual process of TQM from the chief executive officer (CEO) down through middle managers to the employee (Lau & Anderson, 1998: 89). All levels of management need to become trained and more than familiar with the ideas of the TQM philosophy so that they are able to implement TQM and measure TQM improvements as benchmarks. Without realistic goals and tangible measurements of success, all their work in implementing TQM will be fruitless. The firm will be lost in its own desire to achieve quality without knowing what quality is. Often TQM will fail because of the lack of upper managements understanding, dedication, and involvement. For instance, instead of TQM being first on their meeting agendas, TQM may be presented as an almost by the way subject after other more important issues had been presented. The importance of TQM was ranked low on the totem pole. This off-handed approach in dealing with the subject of TQM may inadvertently indicate to middle managers that TQM will be just another fad which will pass away with time (Dale & Cooper, 1994: 21). Their attitude will be to humor their boss until he came upon the next fad. Middle Management Support. Oftentimes this middle manager roadblock proves to be a stumbling stone which results in the failure of TQM to be successfully implemented. The process of filtering the concepts from top managers to the lower echelons becomes plugged at the middle manager levels. This resistance results in little of the TQM concepts reaching the employees and misunderstanding and confusion about TQM. Because the middle managers do not buying into the TQM program, the employees, then, start to see TQM as a fancy way of getting rid of employees, blaming employees for poor products, etc. (Babbar & Aspelin, 1994). Because middle managers have used their knowledge and skills to rise to their
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current employment level, they often feel threatened and only try to preserve their status by resisting TQM implementation (Feinberg, 1998). In addition to the pressures of mergers and acquisitions and stockholders demands, it becomes a survival maneuver for middle management to maintain their power and value to the firm by not sharing information with others (Lau & Anderson, 1998). Instead of using employees to help solve problems of quality, managers call in experts to study the problem giving rise to the idea that employees are responsible for the problem. Continuous improvement through greater effort and through the acquisition of skills and knowledge only makes the individual more valuable to the organization (Babbar & Aspelin, 1994: 35). The lack of effective communication with employees and a lack of proven recognition and reward systems present some formidable barriers in implementing a TQM system successfully (Elbo, 2001). Deming and Jurans messages state the same thing: management must take charge of quality and emphasized the importance of managements responsibility by stating that quality must come even before profit (Elbo, 2002). Implementation Plans. Lack of implementation plans and lack of leadership usually are the result of misunderstanding of the concepts behind TQM. Managers often delegate responsibilities of implementing the TQM plan to underlings and then require periodic reports be presented to them. This undermines the process by not recognizing that TQM is the most important part of the firms mission and leads to its survivability or failure in the future. This delegation also gives the appearance that TQM is not very important to the company, so employee commitment will not be great. Combined with the confusion and managements lack of understanding of TQM, mixed signals may be sent from the upper levels of the company to the lowest levels. Without clear goals and direct leadership, chaos and fear rule the company: fear about losing jobs, fear about doing more with less, etc. No one knows what to expect. Measurement and Feedback. The lack of effective feedback usually occurs because no one wants to be the one who rocks the boat. Management just wants to hear how successful TQM is and not that things are not working. Fear of reprisals becomes a great concern. So going through the motions becomes commonplace.

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Measurements may be designed without any real basis for tangible measurement. Imaginary goals are achieved that will not reflect anything of value. On paper, things always appear to look great, but the real goal of increasing customer satisfaction is not being measured. If it is attained by means of customer satisfaction surveys, the information may not be disseminated to the employees. No measurable results are learned, and therefore no actions can be taken to achieve greater customer satisfaction. Only meaningless goals of how well TQM is being implemented are reported. TQM becomes the Albatross around the companys neck. Somewhere, somehow they have lost the way (Hoare, 1994). Quality Standards. As the values of TQM become more apparent, benchmarks and standards are established to help correct the earlier erroneous ones that have no real measuring capabilities. To ensure that the company is providing quality to its customers, companies turn to quality measurement tools such as the Six Sigma and ISO registrations. Six Sigma. Motorola popularized the use of stringent quality standards more than 30 years ago. Six Sigma is a quality standard that establishes a goal of no more than 3.4 defects per million units or procedures. In fact, most people will learn this concept in a statistics course. Sigma is the Greek letter that defines one standard deviation from the mean under the normal curve. At One Sigma, it covers twothirds of the area under the normal bell-shaped curve. At Six Sigma, it shows the highest quality standard for organizations to achieve. The ISO 9000. The ISO benchmark is a registration process that measures manufacturing and environmental practices. ISO stands for the Switzerland-based International Organization for Standardization program (Savastano, 2002; www.iso.ch). ISO set uniform guidelines for process to ensure that products conform to customer requirements. The ISO 9000 standards are the internationally recognized standards for evaluating and comparing companies in the global marketplace and are the prerequisite for doing business globally. At present, there are only a few such benchmarks by which to compare. As time progresses, more and more benchmarks will be developed that will assist in a tangible measurement of quality provided to the customer. Employee Empowerment. The most overlooked and underutilized emphasis is employee empowerment (Tang & Crofford,

1995/96). Employee empowerment doesnt mean giving free reign to the employees to do what they think best, but rather a utilization of employee skills and knowledge to guide them and the companys growth toward fulfillment of the TQM concept: customer satisfaction. Management must carefully guide and encourage their employees through training, recognition, and rewards so as to not alienate them and bring about a decline in morale. With the proper training, recognition, and rewards systems in place, a company is well on its way to successful TQM implementation. Employee empowerment spells the difference between success and failure in the quest for TQM (Gatchalian, 1997). Know your employees and their abilities. Your company hired them for a reason. Find out what that reason is. Use the personnel files of your company to find out about your employees. Their personal backgrounds, education levels, military background and training, technical training, and on-the-job training are right there for your perusal. Get to know your employees personally. Find out what interests and hobbies they have. There are cases where employee suggestions resulted in substantial savings for the company in improved methods of doing a task by reducing wasted time, effort, and resources. Knowing your employees will help you determine the strengths of your employees and place them in better positions for greater empowerment within the company. The expression You are only as strong as your weakest link still holds true today. A company is only as strong as its employees. Training. Teamwork is a result of successful empowerment of people within the organization. Human resources are the major assets of the organization and their skills and brain power must be effectively honed and harnessed through training and participation in the development of companys mission/vision/plans (MVP) (Gatchalian, 1997: 431-432). Your employees are the ones who do the job and often have suggestions for doing the job better. Use their knowledge, skills, and experiences to find new ways of improving quality and thereby increase customer satisfaction. Empowerment means just that - empower your employees, dont hold them back! A foundation of training in skills and knowledge is essential in all aspects of the business. Skill training is evident to success of the business. Training, behind TQM concepts, is essential for employees understanding of
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the organizations mission statements. To better integrate the concept of team empowerment, the employee must first understand what it is they are attempting to do. Without a clear focus on the mission, it becomes easy to lose your way towards achieving the goals you set for yourself. Regular and periodic training seminars prove to be essential to maintaining a straight course toward the goals. It is all too easy to become confused and distracted along the way as problems arise without regular reinforcement through training. The training seminars are also an excellent means to share problems with others and solutions for problems others have found. The whole goal of empowerment is in the sharing of knowledge. With the best of intentions, we can make an error of judgment. Not to benefit from the error would be to add negligence to the charge (Hoare, 1994: 6). Recognition and Reward. With these problems of successfully implementing TQM into the workplace comes the problem of motivation. Use your personal human relations skills as well as referent and expertise power, not company position power, in achieving your goals. Motivation should allow voluntary willingness instead of dictatorial force. But not all employees may be willing to change, so occasionally these situations may require a more forceful approach - perhaps a dismissal or firing. Disagreement is valued, but destructive and disruptive behavior and attitudes can derail the TQM process. It is important that all are willing to put forth effort to implement the changes. Directors and managers have the opportunity to facilitate pride and joy in work (Hoare, 1994: 5). Recognition and awards play a large part in the motivation of employees, but can be undermined by simple seemingly unimportant things. Imagine an upper level manager handing out a reward to an employee he (or she) doesnt know, mistakenly refers to the employee as someone else while presenting the award, and has little or no knowledge of the purpose of this award. Simple things like these can kill motivation quickly. The importance of knowing your employees and what they do for you and your company can not be stressed enough. Along with recognition and awards come rewards and responsibilities. As people prove themselves time and again, rewards and responsibilities become necessary. One of the goals of the company is to increase profits and
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maximize shareholders wealth. Rewards come in various forms, more commonly as monetary rewards. The most common shareholders are those that have invested money in the company in stocks and bonds, but the company employees are also stakeholder of the organization. They may also have invested part of their pay in company stocks and bonds through retirement savings programs. More importantly, these employees have invested their work lives in the company. They should be rewarded by sharing the profits they help generate. Profit sharing plans and employee suggestion rewards are but some of the ways companies use to show value for their employees. The reward of increased responsibilities can vary from advancement in employment status to achieving a position with a title to include acquiring an office. Prestige is an important factor to consider in meeting employees expectations. Make sure that employees are valued for their work, thoughts, and ideas. The use of prestige can not be overemphasized. When you value your employees, they will value their company and their jobs within the company. The process of implementing TQM requires, in many cases, a trial and error process; especially as new ground is broken. The steps the company takes, along the journey, must be built on a strong foundation. The foundation must be built on top managements commitment, empathy, personal power, management by example, and fairness (Babbar & Aspelin, 1994: 36). As the process continues, reevaluation of these steps will become necessary. Steps such as recognizing the need for continuous improvement, accepting change and innovation as essential, developing a vision with a customer and quality focus, sharing the vision, eliciting total participation, restructuring and empowerment, educate and train, motivation, recognition and rewards, all lead to the celebration and revitalization of the company (Babbar & Aspelin, 1994: 36). But remember that after all this, the journeys just begun. The process is like continually being on a treadmill. The TQM process is indeed a long-term prospect. The journey wont be easy, but the rewards can be great if you persevere and keep trying. Senior managers need to develop a thorough understanding of TQM by committing time and reading books, articles, attending conferences and classes, and

Studii i Cercetri

visiting other companies to view progress they have made in TQM (Dale & Cooper, 1994). This paper has only scratched the surface of the material available to managers on the subject of TQM and how to avoid the pitfalls along the way as it is implemented. Some of the common problems of TQM have been addressed, but as time goes along, further research will bring to light more solutions to these problems. The most important problem to address will continue to be that of the lack of top level managements involvement (Babbar & Aspelin, 1994: 36). Top level management is solely responsible for the implementation of the TQM process, and their efforts will determine the degree of success or failure that is achieved. Rezumat Aceast lucrare examineaz conceptul de managementul calitii totale (MCT), variate proceduri de implementare i problemele ntmpinate. Prin MCT se nelege definirea culturii organizaiei prin sprijinul i efortul constant de satisfacere a clienilor printr-un sistem integrat de instrumente, tehnici i training. MCT poate fi privit ca o mbuntire continu, centrat pe client, impulsionat de angajai i este integrat n cultura organizaiei. Dac nu este implementat n mod adecvat, MCT poate conduce la nstrinarea forei de munc i descreterea satisfaciei clienilor. Articolul examineaz, de asemenea, aspecte legate de calitatea produselor i serviciilor, satisfacia angajailor, satisfacia clienilor i crearea unei situaii de tip ctig ctig pentru actorii organizaiei.

References Alter, A.E. (2000). Trends that never died: TQM and re-engineering. Computerworld, 33. Anschutz, E.E. (1995). TQM - the public sector challenge. (Total quality management) (Excerpted from the book TQM America). National Productivity Review, 15, 1. Babbar, S., & Aspelin, D.J. (1994). TQM? Its as easy as ABC. The TQM Magazine, 6, 32-38. Dale, B.G., & Cooper, C.L. (1994). Introducing TQM: The role of senior management. Management Decision, 32, 20-26. Davenport, J.L., & Tang, T.L.P. (1996). Learning from Japanese companies and Japanese transplants in the United States. Employment Relations Today, 23 (1): 49-58.

Deming, W.E. (2000a). The new economics (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Originally published in 1994. Deming, W.E. (2000b). Out of the crisis (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Originally published in 1982. Elbo, R.A.H. (2001). In the workplace; creating a TQM program. Business World, 20, December 5. Elbo, R.A.H. (2002). In the workplace: Top management TQM involvement. Business World, 20, April 17. Elmuti, D., & Kathawala, Y. (2002) Summer-Fall. Business reengineering: revolutionary management tool, or fading fad? Business Forum, 29. Emery, C.R., Summers, T.P., & Surak, J.G. (1996). The role of organizational climate in the implementation of Total Quality Management. Journal of Managerial Issues, 8: 484. Feinberg, S. (1998). Why managers oppose TQM. The TQM Magazine, 10: 16-19. Gatchalian, M.M. (1997). People empowerment: The key to TQM success. The TQM Magazine, 9, 429-433. Griffin, R.W. (1988). Consequences of quality circles in an industrial setting: A longitudinal assessment. Academy of Management Journal, 31 (2), 338-358. Hoare, C. E. (1994). The TQM Albatross. Training for Quality, 2, 4-6. Hellsten, U., & Klefsjo, B. (2000). TQM as a management system consisting of values, techniques and tools. The TQM Magazine, 12, 238-244. James, D. (2002). Science tests the truth of TQM. Business Review Weekly (Australia), July 11, News and Features: 45. Lau, R.S.M., & Anderson, C.A. (1998). A threedimensional perspective of total quality management. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 15,85-98. Lawler, E.E. (1986). High-involvement management. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Lawler, E.E., & Mohrman, S.A. (1985). Quality circles after the fad. Harvard Business Review, 63 (1), 65-71. Leonard, D., & McAdam, R. (2002). The strategic placement of TQM in the organization: a grounded study. Managing Service Quality, 12: 43-53. London, S. (2002). London Edition,1. When quality is not quite enough: MANAGEMENT: Programmes such as Six Sigma and TQM are in vain unless top executives address their own

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shortcomings, writes . Financial Times (London), July 15, Inside Track: 9. Marks, M.L., Mirvis, P. H., Hackett, E.J., & Grady, J.F. (1986). Employee participation in quality circle program: Impact on quality of work life, productivity, and absenteeism. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 61-69. Rhody, J.D., & Tang, T.L.P. (1995). Learning from Japanese transplants and American corporations. Public Personnel Management, 24, 19-32. Sashkin, M., & Kiser, K.J. (1993). Putting total quality management to work. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, p. 39. Savastano, D. (2002). The importance of quality in todays business world. (Editors Desk). Ink World, 8: 6. Sloan, A. (2002),. The jurys in: Greed isnt good. News Week, June 24, 37. Tang, T.L.P., & Butler, E.A. (1997). Attributions of quality circles' problem-solving failure: Differences among management, supporting staff, and quality circle members. Public Personnel Management, 26: 203-225. Tang, T.L.P., & Chiu, R.K. (2003). Income, Money Ethic, pay satisfaction, commitment, and unethical behavior: Is the love of money the root of evil for Hong Kong employees? Journal of Business Ethics, 46, 13-30. Tang, T.L.P., & Crofford, A.B. (1995/96). Selfmanaging work teams. Employment Relations Today, Winter, 22 (4), 29-39. Tang, T.L.P., & Weatherford, E.J. (2004). Ethical decision making. Psihologia Resurselor Umane (Human Resources Psychology), 2 (1), 10-20. (English/Romanian). Tang, T.L.P., Tollison, P.S., & Whiteside, H.D. (1987). The effects of quality circle initiation on motivation to attend quality circle meetings and on task performance. Personnel Psychology, 40: 799-814. Tang, T.L.P., Tollison, P.S., & Whiteside, H.D. (1989). Quality circle productivity as related to upper-management attendance, circle initiation, and collar color. Journal of Management, 15: 101-113. Tang, T.L.P., Tollison, P.S., & Whiteside, H.D. (1991). Managers' attendance and the effectiveness of small work groups: The case of quality circles. Journal of Social Psychology, 131 (3), 335-344. Tang, T.L.P., Tollison, P.S., & Whiteside, H.D. (1993). Differences between active and inactive quality circles on attendance and performance. Public Personnel Management, 22: 579-590. Tang, T.L.P., Tollison, P.S., & Whiteside, H.D. (1996). The case of active and inactive quality

circles. Journal of Social Psychology, 136: 5767. DARRELL W. BOOHER (B.S., Middle Tennessee State University) has worked for Sverdrup Technology Incorporated, now a part of Jacobs Engineering, as an electrical technician for 15 years and was a supervisor at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) in Tullahoma, Tennessee where he assisted in the testing of rocket motors and jet propulsion engines. He has served six years in the US Navy as a submarine electrician and four years in the US Army as a multichannel communications equipment operator. He has recently returned from living in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil where he and his wife have stayed for nearly two years. He has completed his B.S. Degree in the Recording Industry Management program at Middle Tennessee State University in the Fall semester of 2003. His research interests in TQM evolve from actual working experiences while performing in numerous management positions in the military and in civilian life. THOMAS LI-PING TANG (Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University) is a Professor of Management in the Department of Management and Marketing, Jennings A. Jones College of Business, Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU), Murfreesboro, Tennessee USA. He has taught Industrial and Organizational Psychology at MTSU and National Taiwan University, Taiwan. His research interests focus upon the Money Ethic, the Love of Money, pay satisfaction, business ethics, quality circles, and cross-cultural issues. His research has appeared in Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Human Relations, Journal of Management, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Business Ethics, and many other journals. He has published more than 90 journal articles, presented more than 150 papers around the world, served on the editorial board of four journals and as an ad hoc reviewer for 24 journals. He is the winner of two Outstanding Research Awards and Distinguished International Service Award at MTSU. In 2003, Professor Tang received the Best Reviewer Award from the International Management Division of the Academy of Management in Seattle, WA.

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Managementul Resurselor Umane n Practic

Care e cea mai potrivit persoan pentru un post de munc?*


Psihologii iau n considerare noi modaliti de relaionare a diferenelor individuale cu succesul la locul de munc
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Rezultate

Testele psihologice i evalurile au fost utilizate n selecia de personal ncepnd cu primul rzboi mondial, dar pn n anii 80 s-a considerat c factorii care determin succesul variaz puternic de la un post la altul i de la o organizaie la alta. n mod particular, a fost larg rspndit convingerea c testele care constituiau predictori eficieni ai succesului ntr-un post sau organizaie s-ar putea dovedi inutile ca predictori ai succesului n alte posturi sau organizaii similare i c ar fi necesar s se construiasc teste pentru selecie n cazul fiecrui post sau organizaie. Dup cteva decenii de cercetare, psihologii Frank Schmidt i John Hunter au artat c aceast presupunere era incorect i c este posibil s se stabileasc legturi clare, simple i generalizabile ntre diferenele individuale, cum sunt abilitile cognitive generale sau trsturile de personalitate i succesul ntr-o varietate de posturi. Semnificaie Dou mari categorii de diferene individuale, abilitile cognitive i contiinciozitatea, par s fie relevante pentru performana n majoritatea posturilor studiate. Msurnd separat aceste dou variabile, este deseori posibil ca ele s explice 20-30% din variana n performana n munc, predictibilitatea fiind chiar mai mare pentru multe posturi cu complexitate crescut. De multe ori este posibil s se mbunteasc predicia prin adugarea unor predictori specifici pentru post, dar cei mai importani predictori rmn cei universali (psihologul
Acest articol a aprut original n limba englez ca Who is the Best Person for the Job la www.psychologymatters.org/personnelselect.html. Copyright American Psychological Association. Tradus i republicat cu permisiunea editorului. American Psychological Association nu este responsabil pentru acurateea acestei traduceri. Traducerea i materialul original nu pot fi reproduse sau distribuite n nici o form sau stocate ntr-o baz de date fr permisiunea scris anterioar a American Psychological Association.
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Malcolm Ree i colegii si sugereaz c influena abilitilor cognitive generale este att de puternic nct studierea abilitilor specifice care par relevante pe baza examinrii coninutului postului aduce un ctig redus). Ca rezultat al acestor cercetri, nelegerea noastr asupra modului n care diferenele individuale influeneaz performana n munc a trecut de la un model n care fiecare post i fiecare organizaie erau gndite ca fiind unice (ceea ce nsemna c orict de mult ai nva din studierea performanei ntr-un post ar avea puin relevan pentru nelegerea performanei n alte posturi) la un model n care ipotezele cu privire la relaiile dintre caracteristicile persoanelor i caracteristicile posturilor pot fi propuse i testate. De exemplu, cercetrile realizate de Schmidt i Hunter sugereaz c abilitile cognitive generale influeneaz semnificativ performana n munc prin rolul acestora n achiziia i utilizarea informaiilor cu privire la modul n care trebuie realizate activitile. Persoanele cu niveluri ridicate ale abilitilor cognitive achiziioneaz noi informaii mai uor i mai rapid, i sunt capabile s utilizeze aceste informaii ntr-o manier mai eficient. Pornind de la aceste rezultate, psihologul Kevin Murphy a sugerat c abilitile cognitive ar trebui s fie mai importante n cazul posturilor complexe, cnd persoanele ocup un post nou i cnd se produc n mediul de munc modificri care solicit angajailor s nvee noi modaliti de realizare a sarcinilor. Toate aceste predicii au fost testate i au obinut susinere. Aplicaii Cercetrile relaionnd concepte cum sunt abilitile cognitive i contiinciozitatea cu performana n numeroase posturi au modificat practica n domeniul seleciei personalului. Dei n trecut se considera necesar dezvoltarea unor teste pentru fiecare nou post sau organizaie, s-a dovedit c aceste teste sunt predictori relativ slabi pentru performana n munc. Cercetrile din domeniul psihologiei au condus la o abordare mai eficient a
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seleciei personalului, care ofer un punct de plecare excelent pentru prezicerea succesului viitor (candidaii cu un nivel ridicat al abilitilor cognitive i al contiinciozitii au anse de succes ntr-o arie larg de posturi). Testele pentru abilitile cognitive sunt utilizate extensiv att n sectorul militar ct i n cel civil, dar utilizarea acestora este des controversat datorit diferenelor ntre grupurile etnice la scorurile testelor. Inventarele de personalitate nu arat n mod tipic diferene ntre grupurile etnice i combinaii dintre testele cognitive i msuri ale factorilor de personalitate pot servi la creterea validitii deciziilor de selecie i reducerea diferenelor de grup care ar putea s apar la utilizarea testelor cognitive.
Cercetri citate Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta analysis. Personnel Psychology, Vol. 44, pp. 1-26. Murphy, K. (1989). Is the relationship between cognitive ability and job performance stable over time? Human Performance, Vol. 2, pp. 183-200.

Ree, M. J., & Earles, J. A. (1992). Intelligence is the best predictor of job performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 1, pp. 86-89. Ree, M. J., Earles, J. A., & Teachout, M. S. (1994). Predicting job performance: Not much more than g. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 79, pp. 518-524. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1981). Employment testing: Old theories and new research findings. American Psychologist, Vol. 36, pp. 1128-1137. Schmidt, F. L. & Hunter, J. E . (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 124, pp. 262-274. Tett, R. P., Jackson, D. N., & Rothstein, M. (1991). Personality measures as predictors of job performance: A meta-analytic review. Personnel Psychology, Vol. 44, pp. 703-742. Waters, B. K. (1997). Army alpha to CAT-ASVAB: Four-score years of military personnel selection and classification testing. In R. F. Dillon (Ed.), Handbook on testing (pp. 187-203). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Welsh, J. R., Kucinkas, S. K., & Curran, L. T. (1990). Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB): Integrative review of validity studies. Brooks Air Force Base.

D&D CONSULTANTS Str. Zambilelor nr.41, Bucureti Tel/Fax: 242 89 63 Distribuitori exclusivi in Romania pentru probe psihometrice consacrate la nivel internaional: CPI (462, 434, 260) LD (Leadership Descriptor) 16PF (editia a cincea) n curs de adaptare cultural i etalonare: Fleishman Job Analysis Survey (F-JAS) NPQ (Non-verbal Personality Questionnaire ) FFNPQ (Five-factor Non-verbal Personality Questionnaire) JVIS (Jackson Vocational Interest Survey) SWS (Survey of Work Styles) www.16pf.ro

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Figuri de Psihologi

Edwin A. Fleishman

Medalia de aur pentru o via dedicat aplicrii psihologiei

Fundaia american de psihologie recunoate prin acordarea Medaliei de aur realizrile deosebite n cteva domenii ale psihologiei. n anul 2004 Medalia de aur pentru o via dedicat psihologiei i-a fost acordat lui Edwin A. Fleishman. Dorothy W. Cantor, preedinte al Fundaiei americane de psihologie a prezentat Premiile Medaliei de aur la cea de-a o sut doisprezecea convenie anual a Asociaiei Psihologilor Americani din 31 iulie 2004, la ora 14 p.m. Membrii Comitetului implicat n acordarea premiilor pentru anul 2004 sunt: Dorothy Cantor, preedinte; Norman Abeles, secretar; Charles L. McKay, trezorier; Elisabeth R. Straus, vicepreedinte / director executiv; Norman Anderson; Camilla Benbow; Patrick H. DeLeon; Ronald E. Fox; William C. Howell; Steven E. James; Norine G. Johnson; Joseph D. Matarazzo; Martin E. Seligman; Richard M. Suinn; Philip G. Zimbardo.

Citaie Pentru contribuia sa semnificativ la dezvoltarea psihologiei la nivel teoretic i aplicativ, pe care a susinut-o de-a lungul ntregii sale cariere remarcabile. Cercetrile sale au avut o influen profund asupra modului n care nelegem capacitile fiinei umane, msurarea acestora, dezvoltarea i aplicarea lor n domeniul muncii. Munca lui a vizat probleme ale societii ce au o larg rspndire, furniznd concepte i metode pentru creterea generalizrii de la contexte de laborator la contexte de teren, realiznd o punte ntre psihologia teoretic i psihologia aplicat. A contribuit la conturarea profesiei noastre prin influena sa ca lider, ca preedinte al diviziei a treia a Asociaiei Psihologilor Americani. Nu n ultimul rnd, n calitate de excepional om de tiin, autor prolific, profesor, mentor i practician a influenat viaa a nenumrate persoane. Biografia Edwin A. Fleishman s-a nscut n New York la 10 martie 1927. Familia sa s-a mutat mai trziu la Baltimore, unde a urmat cursurile unor coli publice. A primit o burs la Colegiul ,,Loyola din Baltimore, unde a obinut diploma de chimist n anul 1945 la vrsta de 18 ani. La

sfritul celui de-al doilea rzboi mondial a activat n cadrul Marinei Statelor Unite n calitate de ,,consilier pe probleme de demobilizare pentru personalul aflat la nceputul tranziiei la viaa civil. A urmat apoi cursurile postuniversitare n cadrul Departamentului de psihologie al Universitii Maryland, unde s-a ntreinut ca instructor de laborator n cadrul Departamentului de Chimie, cu o burs de la GI Bill. n 1949 a obinut diploma de master n cadrul departamentului de psihologie, care pune un accent deosebit pe psihologia experimental, metodele cantitative i cercetarea aplicat. n 1949 Fleishman s-a cstorit cu Pauline Utman, liceniat n psihologie la Universitatea Maryland. Ei s-au ntlnit la o prelegere susinut de Walter Van Dyke Bingham. Au doi fii, Jeffrey i Alan, i dou nepoate, Sera i Ariana. n 1949 Fleishman a lucrat pentru cteva luni la Departamentul de Cercetare pentru Personalul Armatei unde a dezvoltat teste pentru variate specialiti ocupaionale. Expunerea la un program de cercetare aplicat la scar larg a fundamentat psihologia experimental i cantitativ, contribuind la ntrirea viziunii dezvoltat de Fleishman asupra naturii integrative a psihologiei teoretice i aplicate.

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Fleishman s-a mutat la Universitatea de Stat din Ohio , unde i-a obinut doctoratul n 1951. Coordonatorul su a fost Harold E. Burtt, care fusese studentul lui Musterberg la Harvard, care la rndul su fusese studentul lui Wilhelm Wundt. Fleishman apreciaz ideea c rdcinile sale n psihologie pot fi regsite la Wundt! n 1950 a obinut bursa de cercetare International Harvester pentru studiile interdisciplinare n domeniul leadership-ului desfurate n statul Ohio. Cu aceast burs a realizat studiile sale considerate acum clasice asupra modului n care ,,climatului leadershipului la nivelele superioare ale organizaiilor afecteaz comportamentul i atitudinile la nivelurile inferioare i cum astfel de climate interacioneaz cu efectele antrenamentului liderilor. Ei au dezvoltat metode de msurare a constructelor de aprecierea liderului i structur, care au fost traduse n cteva limbi i sunt nc larg utilizate n prezent. n 1951 Fleishman a acceptat un post n cadrul Centrului de cercetare n domeniu resurselor umane al Forelor Aeriene n San Antonio, Texas. A dezvoltat un program ce mbin metodele corelaionale i experimentale n studiul abilitilor perceptiv-motrice ca domeniu al abilitilor umane. Taxonomia rezultat reprezint nc un cadru de referin pentru descrierea diferenelor individuale n performanele perceptiv-motrice. El a artat de asemenea cum diferenele individuale la nivelul abilitilor ar putea fi exploatate pentru a obine informaii cu privire la procesele implicate n nvarea deprinderilor complexe. Aceast informaie a fost utilizat pentru a dezvolta teste pentru selecia piloilor i a altor categorii de personal. n 1956 Forele Aeriene i-au dat lui Fleishman oportunitatea de a face un tur de ase sptmni al centrelor de cercetare psihologic din Europa, unde a ntlnit civa din psihologii cunoscui din Europa (de exemplu, Bartlett, Eysenck i Broadbent n Anglia; Michotte i Nuttin n Belgia; Fraise n Frana; de Groot n Elveia; Ekman i Henricson n Suedia). n urma acestei vizite n Europa a fost realizat un raport ce a avut o larg circulaie, sprijinind interesul lui Fleishman de a ncuraja comunicarea ntre psihologii din diferite regiuni ale lumii. n luna ianuarie a anului 1957 Fleishman s-a mutat la Universitatea Yale unde a devenit membru al Departamentului administraiei industriale i Departamentul de psihologie. mpreun cu studenii i colegii a realizat studii asupra relaiei dintre lider i
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subordonat, factorii atitudinali i motivaionali n productivitatea muncii de grup, i factorii relaionai cu niveluri ridicate de nvare i retenie a deprinderilor. De asemenea, i-a extins munca ntr-un nou domeniu al abilitilor: stabilirea standardelor de fidelitate i validitate de construct. Examinnd practic toate testele existente pentru abilitile fizice, Fleishman a identificat ce msoar testele, a specificat testele cele mai relevante pentru fiecare abilitate i a dezvoltat norme naionale i curbele de dezvoltare pentru testele recomandate. Aceast activitate a culminat cu cartea sa din 1964 Structura i msurarea condiiei fizice) (cu cuvntul nainte de Stan Musial, pe atunci preedintele Consiliului pentru dezvoltarea condiiei fizice la tineri). n 1959 Fleishman a scris mpreun cu Robert Gagne o lucrare de introducere n psihologie, intitulat Psihologia i performanele umane:O introducere n psihologie, care surprinde natura integrativ a psihologiei fundamentale i aplicate. n 1961 a fost publicat prima dintre cele trei ediii ale lucrrii sale Studii n psihologia personalului i industrial. n timpul acestei perioade Fleishman a fost implicat n programul spaial al S.U.A., fiind coautor al unui raport susinut de Departamentul aprrii, intitulat ,,Ce trebuie fcut n legtur cu omul n spaiul cosmic. n 1960 Fleishman a fost unul dintre cei opt psihologi invitai de Asociaia Psihologilor Americani (APA) ntr-o vizit la institutele psihologice din Uniunea Sovietic pentru a afla mai multe despre statutul psihologiei de acolo. S-a ntlnit cu psihologi cunoscui cum ar fi Luria, Leontiev, Oshanin i Lomov. A vizitat de asemenea coli i zone industriale. Observaiile sale i ale celorlali membri ai grupului, care au fcut vizite separate, sunt raportate n cartea Cteva perspective asupra psihologiei sovietice, publicat n 1962. n 1962, Fleishman a primit o burs Guggenheim i o burs Senior Faculty de la Yale, i a petrecut un an ca profesor invitat la Institutul de tehnologie din Izrael, Haiafa. Din 1963 pn n 1975 Fleishman a fost director al Institutelor americane pentru cercetare, n Washington, unde a dezvoltat o organizaie incluznd numeroase institute i programe. Studiile realizate aici au inclus cercetri de laborator i de teren n domeniul performanelor umane, tehnologiei educaionale, comportamentului organizaional i programe internaionale n rile n curs de dezvoltare. Ultimele programe i-au ndreptat

Figuri de psihologi

atenia asupra aspectelor legate de colaborarea cu colegii din alte ri i aspectelor interculturale n aplicarea metodelor i modelelor n domeniul psihologiei. n timpul acestei perioade, Fleishman i colegii si au dezvoltat un program de cercetare asupra taxonomiilor din psihologie, n special din domeniul performanelor umane. Ei au examinat i au evaluat modalitile alternative de descriere a sarcinilor, a dezvoltat taxonomii provizorii, i a evaluat utilitatea lor pentru un numr de scopuri fundamentale i aplicate. O alt contribuie a fost dezvoltarea unor sarcini de laborator reprezentative pentru diferite categorii de performan i utilizarea acestor sarcini n studii asupra efectelor medicamentelor, zgomotului i a altor variabile independente. Din 1970 pn n 1976, Fleishman a fost editor la Journal of Applied Psychology. n 1974, a fost ales preedinte al Asociaiei de psihologie aplicat pentru o perioad de opt ani i a fost membru al comitetului executiv pentru 24 de ani. A fost responsabil pentru reorganizarea Asociaiei de psihologie aplicat n divizii reprezentnd majoritatea domeniilor de psihologie aplicat. n aceast perioad a participat activ la organizarea unor congrese internaionale la Montreal, Edinburgh, Ierusalim, Kyoto, Madrid i San Francisco. Din 1975 pn n 1976, Fleishman a fost profesor invitat la Universitatea Irvine din California. n timpul acestui an, Academia Naional de tiine i-a propus s fac parte dintr-un grup operativ reprezentnd S.U.A. la Moscova pentru a dezvolta primul program de tiine comportamentale cu psihologii de la Academia Sovietic de tiine. n 1976 Fleishman s-a rentors la Washington, ca preedinte fondator al Advanced Research Resources Organization, implicat n cercetarea performanelor umane, eficienei organizaionale i dezvoltrii resurselor umane. Conceptele taxonomice dezvoltate anterior au fost transpuse ntr-o metod de determinare a solicitrilor postului, numit acum Fleishman Job Analysis Survey (F-JAS). El i colegii si au extins de asemenea taxonomia la aria dimensiunilor echipei (vezi Fleishman & Zaccaro, 1992). n timpul acestei perioade au fost publicat lucrarea Taxonomiile performanei umane: Descrierea sarcinilor umane ( Fleishman & Quaintance, 1984) i setul de trei volume intitulat Performanele umane i productivitatea (volumul 1: Evaluarea capacitilor umane, realizat n colaborare cu Marvin Dunnette;

volumul 2: Procesarea informaiilor i luarea deciziilor, cu William Howell, i volumul 3: stres i eficiena performanelor, cu Earl Alluisi). n 1985 Societatea Japonez pentru Progres n tiin l-a invitat pe Fleishman s in timp de cteva luni prelegeri la universiti i centre de cercetare din Japonia. n 1993 a fost profesor invitat la Universitatea din Hong Kong. A fost invitat s in discursuri la trei conferine ale NATO asupra planificrii i utilizrii forei de munc, inute la Londra (1967), Lisabona (1973) i Paris (1994). A participat frecvent la congrese internaionale i a fost invitat s in prelegeri la mai mult de 25 de universiti diferite i centre de cercetare din ntreaga lume. n 1986 i s-a acordat titlul de ,,Distinguished University Professor la Facultatea de Psihologie din cadrul Universitii George Mason, unde a fondat Centrul de Studii Comportamentale i Cognitive. Aici a colaborat cu studeni i cu facultatea n studii asupra performanelor umane i leadership ului. n prezent Fleishman este consultant la numeroase organizaii, recent a completat dou capitole pentru noua Enciclopedie a evalurii psihologice (Fleishman, 2003) i este n continuare editor pentru ,,Series in Applied Psychology pe care a fondat-o pentru Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. La retragerea sa, Universitatea a stabilit acordarea anual a Premiului Edwin A. Fleishman pentru Disertaii pentru cea mai bun lucrare de psihologie experimental aplicat a unui doctorand. Fleishman este autorul a peste de 300 de articole, capitole de cri i rapoarte tehnice, i pe lng crile deja menionate, a fost coautor la crile Leadership i supervizare n industrie (1955), Dezvoltri actuale n studiul leadership-ului (1973), Abilitile umane (1992) i mai recent Un sistem informaional n domeniul ocupaional pentru secolul al XXI-lea: Dezvoltarea O*NET-ului (1999). Fleishman s-a implicat n Comitetul de Planificare i Reglementare al Asociaiei Psihologilor Americani, Consiliul editorilor, Comitetul de Relaii Internaionale n Psihologie, Comitetul tiinific de Premiere i a fost preedinte al Comitetului de Testare i Evaluare Psihologic al APA. A fost ales preedinte la trei divizii ale APA: Evaluare, msurare i statistic (Divizia 5), Societatea pentru psihologie industrial i organizaional (Divizia 14) i Psihologie experimental aplicat i psihologie inginereasc (Divizia 21). A fost consultant la Departamentul de stat al
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S.U.A., Departamentul de justiie, Departamentul de munc, Administraia securitii sociale, Consiliul prezidenial pentru dezvoltarea condiiei fizice la tineri, Biroul secretarului aprrii, Biroul general de medicin militar i la numeroase organizaii industriale. Distinciile primite includ Premiul Franklin Taylor acordat de Societatea de psihologie inginereasc (1974), premiul acordat de APA pentru Aplicaii n domeniul psihologiei (1980), respectiv pentru Promovarea psihologiei la nivel internaional (1999), un doctorat onorific din partea Universitii din Edinburgh (1982), Premiul pentru activitate profesional remarcabil (1983) i Premiul Scott Myers (1998, 2002) acordate de Societatea de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional, primul Premiu pentru psihologi recunoscui la nivel internaional al Diviziei de Psihologie Internaional din cadrul APA i Premiul James McKeen Cattell acordat de Societatea American de Psihologie (1993).

Bibliografie selectiv Fleishman, E. A. (1953). Leadership climate, human relations training, and supervisory behavior. Personnel Psychology, 6, 205222. Fleishman, E. A. (l954). Dimensional analysis of psychomotor abilities. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48, 263272. Fleishman, E. A. (l957). A comparative study of aptitude patterns in unskilled and skilled psychomotor performances. Journal of Applied Psychology, 41, 263272. Fleishman, E. A. (1960). Psychomotor tests in drug research. In J. G. Miller & L. Uhr (Eds.), Drugs and behavior (pp. 273296). New York: Wiley. Fleishman, E. A. (1965). Attitude versus skill factors in work group productivity. Personnel Psychology, 18, 253266. Fleishman, E. A. (1967). Performance assessment based on an empirically derived taxonomy. Human Factors, 9, 349366. Fleishman, E. A. (1972). On the relation between abilities, learning, and human performance. American Psychologist, 27, 10171032. Fleishman, E. A. (1975). Toward a taxonomy of human performance. American Psychologist, 30, 11271149. Fleishman, E. A. (1978). Relating individual differences to the dimensions of human tasks. Ergonomics, 21, 10071019.

Fleishman, E. A. (1982). Systems for describing human tasks. American Psychologist, 37, 821 834. Fleishman, E. A. (1988). Some new frontiers in personnel selection research. Personnel Psychology, 41, 679701. Fleishman, E. A. (1999). Applied psychology: An international journey. American Psychologist, 54, 10081016. Fleishman, E. A. (2003). Cognitive abilities in work and organizational settings (pp. 228233). In R. F. Ballesteros (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychological assessment (Vol. 1). London: Sage. Fleishman, E. A., Costanza, D. P., & Marshall-Meis, J. C. (1999). Abilities. In N. G. Peterson, M. D. Mumford, W. C. Borman, P. R. Jeanneret, & E. A. Fleishman (Eds.), An occupational information system for the 21st century: The development of O*NET (pp. 175 196). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Fleishman, E. A., & Ellison, G. D. (1969). Prediction of transfer and other learning phenomena from ability and personality measures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 60, 300314. Fleishman, E. A., Mumford, M. D., Zaccaro, S. J., Levin, K., Korotkin, A. L., & Hein, M. (1991). Taxonomic efforts in the description of leader behavior: A synthesis and cognitive interpretation. Leadership Quarterly, 2, 245287. Fleishman, E. A., & Parker, J. F. (1962). Factors in the retention and relearning of perceptual-motor skills. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 215226. Fleishman, E. A., & Quaintance, M. K. (1984). Taxonomies of human performance: The description of human tasks. Orlando, FL: Academic Press. Fleishman, E. A., & Reilly, M. E. (1992). Handbook of human abilities: Definitions, measurements, and task requirements. Potomac, MD: Management Research Institute. Fleishman, E. A., & Zaccaro, S. J. (1992). Toward a taxonomy of team performance functions. In R. W. Swezey & E. Salas (Eds.), Teams: Their training and performance (pp. 3656). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

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Zlate Mielu (2004). Tratat de psihologie organizaional-managerial. Bucureti: Editura Polirom Volumul I din cartea Tratat de psihologie organizaional-managerial a profesorului Mielu Zlate aduce, n sfarit, o structurare teoretic n domeniul organizaional. Autorul i structureaz cartea pe trei mari pri i anume : Cadrul teoreticometodologic, Individul n organizaie i Grupul n organizaie. Capitolul 1 este structurat astfel nct cititorul fie el student, psiholog, economist sau manager s se familiarizeze cu terminologia aferent domeniului i principalele teorii prezentate cronologic care explic funcionarea resurselor umane n organizaii. Menionm ideea de cronologic pentru c autorul abordeaz atat primele teorii i probleme organizaionale (din anii de nceput ai psihologiei industrial-organizaionale), cat i cele mai recente care prezint problematici de studiu pentru cercettori i probleme serioase la care managerii trebuie s le fac fa zi de zi. Capitolul 2 ne familiarizeaz cu definiiile i clasificrile organizaiilor, pentru ca n capitolul 3 s fie aduse n discuie teoriile organizaiilor, iar n cel de-al patrulea i ultimul se discut eficiena, ca problem fundamental a psihologiei organizaional-manageriale. Dac pn n acest moment cititorul nu a fost cucerit, suntem convini c acest capitol final al primei pri va starni curiozitatea cititorului i mai ales a celor din management. De ce ? E simplu. Problema central a oricrei organizaii a fost i este eficiena acesteia, care nu se refer la supravieuirea pe pia, ci mai ales la profit. n fond, aici se reflect eficiena oricrei organizaii. Partea a doua a lucrrii, Individul n organizaie, aduce n discuie aspecte din domeniul managementului resurselor umane, cum ar fi recrutarea i selecia de personal i managementul carierei. Totui, nainte s intre n profunzimea acestor teme, autorul discut ideea omului organizaional. Interesant i util este abordarea problematicii compatibilitii vs. incompatibilitii dintre individ i organizaii, problematic des discutat, dar de cele mai multe ori n cadrul capitolelor dedicate recrutrii i seleciei de personal. Felicitm autorul pentru aceast viziune de ansamblu ; n fond, despre compatibilitate sau incompatibilitate nu poate fi vorba doar n cazul seleciei de personal. Un individ selectat n

baza principiului compatibilitii poate la un moment dat s devin incompatibil cu organizaia n care lucreaz. Nu vom insista asupra capitolelor legate de recrutarea i selecia de personal i cel de managementul carierei, acestea fiind tematici bine cunoscute specialitilor implicai n domeniul resurselor umane. Totui, inem s apreciem rigurozitatea tiinific i abordarea metodologic a acestora. Ultima parte a volumului aduce n discuie o problematic de mare actualitate n mediul organizaional i anume grupul n organizaie. Problematica grupurilor de munc este un aspect de mare interes organizaional ; n momentul de fa vorbim de echipe de proiect i echipe de lucru mult mai des dect n trecut. Autorul suprinde aici i principalele aspecte legate de dinamica i dezvoltarea grupurilor de munc. Ultimul capitol al prii a treia este dedicat comunicrii organizaionale ; practic acesta este un aspect care preocup majoritatea organizaiilor. Dei comunicarea organizaional ar trebui s devin din ce n ce mai rafinat datorit dezvoltrii tehnologice internet, intranet, teleconferine etc. acesta rmane un aspect problematic al organizaiilor, care de multe ori dac nu este bine utilizat poate duce la serioase perturbri ale activitii organizaionale. n final inem s aducem autorului aprecierile noastre sincere autorului pentru viziunea de ansamblu, angajamentul tiinific, spiritul metodologic i capacitatea de sintez de care a dat dovad i inem s-l asigurm c ateptm cu mare interes volumele II i III. Daniela Vercellino

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Constantin-Edmond Cracsner (2005). Istoria psihologiei militare romneti Bucureti: Editura Psyche Comandorul psiholog dr. ConstantinEdmond Cracsner i-a asumat prin lucrarea sa ,,Istoria psihologiei militare romneti ndatorirea, deloc uoar, de a prezenta drumul parcurs de psihologia militar romneasc spre fundamentarea ca tiin. Trebuie s precizm de la nceput c ne aflm n faa primei lucrri de istorie a psihologiei militare realizate n ara noastr. Structurat pe nou capitole, lucrarea prezint evoluia psihologiei militare ntr-o manier accesibil, putnd fi parcurs cu uurin chiar de cititori care nu dein cunotine solide n domeniul psihologiei sau al activitilor desfurate n mediul militar. Acest aspect constituie unul dintre atuurile lucrrii, ce poate fi astfel consultat att de psihologi, ct i de ali specialiti din mediul militar, pentru care contientizarea importanei activitii psihologice pentru domeniul n care activeaz este esenial. Primul capitol, ,,Introducere, ofer cititorului o imagine general asupra psihologiei militare ca disciplin teoretic i practic i asupra poziiei acesteia n cadrul psihologiei, dar i a tiinelor militare. Al doilea capitol, intitulat ,,O retrospectiv caleidoscopic asupra istoriei psihologiei realizeaz o sintez a apariiei i dezvoltrii psihologiei ca tiin, ncepnd cu ideile psihologice din filozofia antic, medieval, din iluminism i romantism i pn la paradigmele din cadrul psihologiei tiinifice, pe care o considerm deosebit de util pentru cititorul nefamiliarizat cu domeniul psihologiei. Merit s ne oprim mai atent asupra capitolului trei, ,,Evoluia ideilor psihologice i lupta armat la romni n cadrul cruia autorul se apropie mai mult de realitatea din psihologia romneasc: sunt discutate idei ce au influenat evoluia acestei tiine n ara noastr, dar n acelai timp i evoluia societii romneti, trecerea de la psihologia intuitiv la psihologia tiinific fiind realizat concomitent cu prezentarea unor etape importante din cadrul istoriei rii noastre, cum ar fi, de exemplu, perioada domniei lui tefan cel Mare, Mihai Viteazul, Dimitrie Cantemir, perioada rzboiului de independen, a celor dou rzboaie mondiale, perioada comunist i etapa de dup decembrie 1989. Acest capitol face trecerea la prezentarea, n cadrul celui de-al patrulea capitol, a procesului de

constituire a psihologiei militare romneti ca ramur distinct a psihologiei. Capitolul cinci, intitulat ,,Istoria unor structuri de psihologie din armata Romniei detaliaz procesul de dezvoltare a psihologiei romneti prin prezentarea evoluiei principalelor structuri care au desfurat activitate psihologic n cadrul armatei romne: structurile de psihologiei din cadrul Ministerului Administraiei i Internelor, Serviciului Romn de Informaii, Ministerului Aprrii Naionale, Serviciului de Protecie i Paz, Serviciului de Telecomunicaii Speciale. Urmrirea sistematic a principalelor obiective i atribuii ale acestor structuri, strns legate de evoluia social-politic din Romnia ultimelor decenii, ajut cititorul s i formeze o imagine asupra psihologiei militare desfurate n ara noastr. O atenie deosebit este acordat de autor evidenierii contribuiei aduse la dezvoltarea psihologiei militare romneti de specialiti din domeniul militar i psihologie. Sunt prezentate personalitile care s-au succedat la comanda diferitelor structuri, dar i angajai care au activat sau i desfoar n continuare activitatea n acest domeniu. Dei acetia apar amintii pe parcursul ntregii lucrri, autorul dedic ntregul capitol 7 , intitulat chiar ,,Personaliti din istoria psihologiei militare romneti, prezentrii acestora. Capitolul cuprinde biografiile a peste douzeci de psihologi i specialiti din domeniul militar, ntre care i amintim pe generalul Victor Anastasiu, psihologul Valeriu Ceauu, locotenent-colonelul tefan Odobleja, colonelul Gheorghe Perea, psihologul Paul Popescu-Neveanu, profesorul universitar Gheorghe Zapan. Dei este ludabil efortul autorului de a omagia toate aceste personaliti care i-au adus contribuia la dezvoltarea psihologiei militare romneti, o serie de informaii privind viaa i preocuprile acestora nu au o relevan direct pentru tematica acestei lucrri. n capitolul 8 ,,Modele de organizare a serviciului psihologic autorul detaliaz principiile i normele de organizare a unor structuri care desfoar activiti psihologice din cadrul sistemului militar i civil romnesc, dar i din cadrul sistemului militar din alte cincisprezece ri. Suntem de prere c prezentarea caracteristicilor organizrii sistemului militar n alte ri depete domeniul de interes al unei istorii a psihologiei militare romneti; dei autorul afirm c aceste caracteristici reprezint repere importante pentru dezvoltarea i reorganizarea

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activitii psihologice n cadrul Armatei Romne, nu ne sunt oferite totui direcii concrete privind asimilarea lor n cadrul activitii psihologice desfurate n mediul militar din ara noastr. Lucrarea se ncheie cu prezentarea, n cadrul capitolului 9, a unor consideraii cu privire la sistemul actual de activiti psihologice desfurate n cadrul Armatei Romne i expunerea, n linii foarte generale, a unor propuneri ale autorului viznd restructurarea activitii n domeniul psihologiei militare desfurate n ara noastr. Deoarece obiectivele principale urmrite de autor n cadrul acestei lucrri au fost evidenierea trecutului acestui domeniu i totodat omagierea personalitilor care i-au adus contribuia la dezvoltarea sa, putem nelege

accentul mai redus pus pe oferirea unor direcii de optimizare a psihologiei militare romneti. Totui, cum simpla cunoatere a trecutului unui domeniu tiinific nu poate constitui singurul punct de plecare pentru construirea viitorului su, nu putem s nu subliniem necesitatea dezvoltrii n continuare a unei metodologii care s eficientizeze practica n domeniul militar romnesc. Ne exprimm, asemeni autorului, sperana c aceast lucrare va fi urmat de apariia unui tratat care s aprofundeze problematica psihologiei militare romneti i considerm c ,,Istoria psihologiei militare romneti reprezint un reper extrem de util pentru materializarea, n viitorul extrem de apropiat, a acestui deziderat. Roxana Capotescu

CRI NOI DE PSIHOLOGIA MUNCII I ORGANIZAIONAL

Bogathy, Z. (2004) Manual de psihologia muncii i organiza ional . Iai: Polirom. Buzrnescu, t. (2004). Practica managerial. Bucureti: Editura Enciclopedic. Cureu, P., Boro S. (2004). Femeia manager. Cluj: ASCR. Herr, E.L., Cramer S.H. & Niles, S.G. (2004). Career Guidance and Counseling Through the Lifespan: Systematic Approaches. Boston, New York, San Francisco: Tearson Education. Ilu, P. (2004). Valori, atitudini i comportamente sociale. Teme actuale de psihosociologie. Iai: Polirom. Mitrofan, N., Mitrofan, L. (2005). Testarea psihologic. Inteligena i aptitudinile. Iai: Polirom. Mucchielli, A. (2005). Arta de a comunica. Metode, forme i psihologia situaiilor de comunicare. Iai: Polirom. Neculau, A. (2004) Educa ia adul ilor. Iai: Polirom. Neculau, A. (coord.), (2004). Manual de psihologie social (edi ia a II-a). Iai: Polirom. Pnioara, G., Pnioara, I.O. (2004). Managementul resurselor umane. Iai: Polirom. Pitariu, H.D. (2004). Ergonomie cognitiv: teorii, modele, aplicaii. Bucureti: Matrix Rom. Roco,M. (2004). Creativitate i inteligena emoional (ediia a II-a). Iai: Polirom. Rusu, S. (2004). Cariera ta: primii pai. Iai: Institutul European. Scott, W.R. (2004). Instituii i organizaii. Iai: Polirom. Todoran, D. (2004). Psihologia reclamei. Bucureti: Tritonic. Zamfir, C. (2004). O analiz critic a tranzi iei. Iai: Polirom. Zlate, M. (2004). Leadership i management. Iai: Polirom.

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INFORMAII

n data de 8 aprilie 2005 a fost convocat Convenia Naional a Colegiului Psihologilor din Romnia, n conformitate cu art. 26 (3) i (5) din Legea 213/2004 i hotrrea Comitetului Director din 30 octombrie 2004. Manifestarea a avut loc n Aula Magna a Universitii din Bucureti, n cldirea Facultii de Drept, B-dul M. Koglniceanu, nr. 64. Au participat delegaii i candidaii desemnai prin Conveniile Teritoriale. Ordinea de zi a cuprins: 1. Aprobarea urmtoarelor documente, conform art. 27, lit. a, din Legea 213/2004: Regulamentul de organizare i funcionare intern; Codul deontologic al profesiei de psiholog cu drept de liber practic; Codul de procedur disciplinar; Normele de avizare a metodelor i tehnicilor de evaluare i asisten psihologic. Alegerea preedintelui Colegiului i a membrilor Comitetului Director (membrii comisiilor aplicative precum i ai comisiei metodologice i de deontologie) conform art. 27, lit. b, din Legea 213/2004 pentru primul mandat de 4 ani. Comisiile Colegiului, rezultate n urma alegerilor, se vor ntruni n vederea alegerii biroului constituit din preedinte, vicepreedinte, secretar. n continuare vor rmne n sal Comitetul director (preedintele Colegiului i membrii comisiilor) precum i preedinii Comitetelor de Filiale. Convocarea primei adunri anuale a Consiliului Colegiului Psihologilor din Romnia. Adunarea Consiliului Colegiului are urmtoarea ordine de zi, conform art. 30 din Legea 213/2004: aprobarea cotizaiei anuale i nivelul taxelor necesare acoperirii costurilor de atestare i a altor servicii prestate; aprobarea structurilor administrative ale Comitetului director; aprobarea bugetului de venituri i cheltuieli al Colegiului.

2. 3.

4.

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Asociaia Psihologilor din Romnia i Facultatea de Psihologie i tiinele Educaiei Iai organizeaz Simpozionul Internaional EXIGENE I STANDARDE ALE PSIHOLOGIEI APLICATE. Manifestarea va avea loc n Cmpulung Moldovenesc (jud. Suceava) n perioada 7-9 octombrie 2005. Data limit de trimitere a rezumatelor comunicrilor i lucrrilor tiinifice este 1 iulie 2005 (detalii suplimentare la adresa de e-mail simp2005psy@yahoo.com).

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