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u03d1 Elements of Theory - Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, Humanistic

Each school of thought is attributable to a theorist. Each theory has attributes that provide the distinction for the separation of schools of thought. For instance, Freud is considered to be the founding father of psychoanalysis. Theories of the unconscious mind and dream therapy are hallmarks of psychoanalysis. Referring to the text and two peer-reviewed journal articles, discuss the elements of psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology as they apply to your work.

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Like many movements within the history of psychology, Freudian psychoanalytical theory became both an intellectual stimulus in psychology as well as a point of contention. NeoFreudian analysts disagreed with psychoanalytical thought and redefined key Freudian concepts such as ego and id, suggesting ego possessed its own energy and functioned independently from id (Schultz & Schultz, 2008). Other alternative theories developed by social psychological theorists such as Adler and Horney, believed that human behavior was determined largely by social, cultural and environmental forces not biological. However, humanistic psychology became a school of thought that sought to replace behaviorism and psychoanalysis not revise them. Some of the elements of humanistic psychology include emphasis on human strength and potential, conscious experience, free will, and a holistic approach to understanding human nature. Theoretical forerunners such as James, Kulpe and Gestalt psychologists laid the groundwork for humanistic psychology and emphasized the study of conscious experience while opposing a mechanistic, reductionist approach to psychology. The Zeitgeist of the countercultural movement of the 60s was also influential in emphasizing a trend towards human potential and fulfillment, self disclosure and the priority of emotions over intellect. Maslows theory of self actualization became one of the hallmark features of the humanistic movement. Maslow believed the innate tendency to utilize abilities to develop and fulfill human potential or to self actualize may also be hindered by inadequate parenting (Schultz & Schultz, 2008). Carl Rogers further emphasized this into a cohesive viewpoint by theorizing that psychological health can only be achieved through unconditional positive regard or positive parental nurturing in childhood. Rogers person centered therapy was grounded in an emphasis on spontaneity, creativity, and a positive approach to human growth and potential. He initiated a strong belief in a clients ability and responsibility to consciously change thoughts and behavior. Although humanistic psychology did not have a profound academic effect on psychology, it helped to emphasize the study of consciousness and the ability of people to shape their own destiny. Jungs analytical psychology and work on dream analysis has helped therapists study the symptoms associated with trauma such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Van de Kemp (2005) discusses the ripple effect of PTSD, and the fact that the psychological damage from

communal disasters such as PSTD extends far beyond those who suffer direct physical or economic harm, wreaking havoc in the lives of people who are already existing at the edge of their coping abilities. Furthermore, Jung and Maslow helped advance the notion that some psychological states are opportunities for spiritual growth. Jung sought to bridge the gap between psychology and religion and Maslow concluded that there is a relationship between mysticism and human personality. Self-actualization involving mystical experience can occur in otherwise normal and well-adjusted individuals (Goretzki, Thalbourne, & Storm, 2009). According to Edge (2004), an approach based upon interconnectedness to reality invites exploration of phenomenological discoveries such as directed dissociation in search for transcendence and wholeness. As an expansion of Rogerian self actualization, directed dissociation is grounded in a preparadigmatic model that involves the ability to intentionally navigate and explore mystical and transcendent states within the realm of consciousness. In my view, Jung, Maslow, and Rogers laid important groundwork for the reuniting of spiritual truths and experiences with contemporary psychological theories. Psychologys emphasis on the scientific reductionism of the natural sciences void of any understanding of the human capacity for spiritual truth is one of the tragic legacies of the history of psychology. A more unified approach to understanding human nature and behavior from a sociocultural, biological and spiritual perspective is a welcome trend in the development future psychological schools of thought. Anthony Rhodes General Psychology Ph.D. References Edge, Linda W.. (2004). A Phenomenological Study of Directed Dissociation. Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 44, 155. Retrieved Jan 21, 2010 from Hendrika Vande Kemp. (2005). DREAMS AND RECOVERY FROM TRAUMA. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 33(4), 313-315. Retrieved January 28, 2010, from ProQuest Psychology Journals. (Document ID: 982391201). Goretzki, M., Thalbourne, M., & Storm, L.. (2009). THE QUESTIONNAIRE MEASUREMENT OF SPIRITUAL EMERGENCY. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 41(1), 81-97. Retrieved January 28, 2010, from ProQuest Psychology Journals. (Document ID: 1869983611). Schultz, D. P. & Schultz, S. E. (2008). A history of modern psychology (9th ed.). Belmont: CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. ISBN: 9780495097990.