Sunteți pe pagina 1din 41

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Gusset Plate Research Update


Joey Hartmann FHWA Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center
Research that is Essential, Indispensable, and Connected to our Customers

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Incomplete design of U10 gusset plate prompted NTSB to issue interim Recommendation H-08-1 on 1.15.08

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

NTSB Interim Recommendation H-08-1


For all non-load-path-redundant steel truss bridges within the National Bridge Inventory, require that bridge owners conduct load capacity calculations to verify that the stress levels in all structural elements, including gusset plates, remain within applicable requirements whenever planned modifications or operational changes may significantly increase stresses.

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration

Technical Advisory 5140.29 January 15, 2008

Load ratings required according to the AASHTO Manual for Condition Evaluation of Bridges. The following supplemental actions are recommended:
New or replaced truss bridges check gusset plate capacity as part of the initial load rating. Existing truss bridges check gusset plate capacity when load rating after condition or load changes of the structure. Review previous load rating calculations for truss bridges that have undergone significant changes is stress levels previously in their service life.

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Nashville Meeting
Ed Wasserman, TN DOT Rick Crawford, TN DOT Firas Ibrahim, FHWA Bill Wright, FHWA Joey Hartmann, FHWA John Kulicki, M&M John Fisher, Lehigh Ted Galambos, U. of MN Joe Yura, UT Rob Connor, Purdue

Outcomes Insufficient research to support further refinement of the FHWA Guide. No clear consensus on what might typically govern gusset plate design.

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Gusset Plate Rating


The best available knowledge FHWA compiles Load Rating Guidance and Examples For Bolted and Riveted Gusset Plates in Truss Bridges

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

FHWA NCHRP Joint Study (Project 12-84)


Underway in late 2008 Expected completion in late 2010 Objective is to verify or create better knowledge...that can be used to revise (if necessary) or extend the FHWA Guide and result in AASHTO specifications

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

NCHRP Panel
Ed Wasserman, TN DOT Chair Wahid Albert, NYS DOT Ralph Anderson, IL DOT Matt Farrar, ITD Paul Liles, GA DOT Anne Rearick, IN DOT Kevin Western, MN DOT John Kulicki, Modjeski and Masters Dennis Mertz, University of Delaware Tom Everett, FHWA Liaison Stephen Maher, TRB Liaison Waseem Dekelbab, NCHRP Staff

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Research Team
Bill Wright, VaTech Don White, GaTech Roberto Leon, GaTech Justin Ocel, Turner-Fairbank Several GaTech and VaTech Grad Students Joey Hartmann, Turner-Fairbank

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Gusset Plate Research NCHRP 12-84


Task 1 Literature Review Task 2 Evaluation of Gusset Plate Configurations Task 3 Finite Element Methodology Task 4 Finite Element Results Task 5 Experimental Design Task 6 LRFD Calibration for Truss Bridges

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 2 Gusset Plate Configuration and Rating


Reviewed 20 truss plans from eight different states Spans ranged from 114 to 825 feet Designed between 1929 and 1990

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 2 Gusset Plate Configuration and Rating


Kootenai Highway, Moyie River Bridge I-474 Over Illinois River I-94 Over Little Calumet River SR 56-T Over Salt Fork Creek
SR 54-13 Over Cattaraugus Creek I-80 Over Clarion River Rt 23 Bridge, St Cloud I-35W Over Mississippi

I-64 Over Ohio River

I-40 Over French Broad River

Bridge Over Ohio River, Mauckport

SR 56 Over Caney Fork River SR 67 Over Watauga River

Station 0+09 Over Cumberland River SR 14 Over I.C.R.R. & Nonconnah Creek SR 375 Over Harrell Bridge

Bridge Over Ohio River, Cannelton


SR 100 Over Harpeth River

I-275 Over Ohio River

SR 24 Over Round Lick Creek

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 2 Gusset Plate Configuration and Rating


Gusset plate thickness ranged from 3/8 to 2-1/16, ~45% of these ranged from 1/2 1 Thick plates (>1-1/4) were shingled Plates used either grade ~30, 36, 50, or 100 material All fasteners were either 7/8 or 1 diameter rivets or A325 bolts Free edge slenderness under the compression diagonal ranged from 8.3 to 74.7

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 2 Gusset Plate Configuration and Rating


Selected four typical connections to be used for detailed finite element study

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 2 Gusset Plate Configuration and Rating


Bridge 40 selected for shingle plate detail

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 2 Gusset Plate Configuration and Rating


Bridge 23 selected for shallow entry angle of diagonals

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 2 Gusset Plate Configuration and Rating


Bridge 94 selected for steep entry angle and stand-off distance of diagonals

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 2 Gusset Plate Configuration and Rating


Bridge 80 this connection was modified for use as example in FHWA Guide

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 3 Finite Element Methodology


Analyze joints in a two panel truss configuration Use shell elements represent the joint locally, beam elements everywhere else

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 3 Finite Element Methodology


2-Step Analysis 1) Apply 1.25(DL) 2) Apply 1.75(LL + IM) and amplify until failure
PFEA 1.25( DL) AF 1.75( LL IM )

** Applied loading caused axial forces in compression diagonal and chord nearest to it to match construction plans, others were close. **

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 3 Finite Element Methodology


Shell elements used nonlinear material properties
80 70 60 50
Stress (ksi)

40 30 20 True stress&strain (Fy=50ksi) 10 0 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 Strain (in/in) 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 True stress&strain (Fy=36ksi)

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 3 Finite Element Methodology


Fasteners modeled with Abaqus Connector elements to avoid modeling holes Fasteners given nonlinear shear force/shear displacement relationship Fasteners have a radius of influence to spread out load from connector (i.e. head and nut diameter)
100 90
87.20 82.47

Fastener Force in Single Shear (kips)

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0
0.00 22.62 16.96 17.32 12.99 49.48 50.51

1" dia. bolts


65.98 63.14 66.76

7/8" dia. bolts 1" dia. Rivets 7/8" dia. Rivets

37.88 28.27 21.65 29.89 22.89

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Shear Displacement (inch)

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 4 Finite Element Results


In all four connections, the members failed (fully plastified) prior to the gusset plate. Therefore members were specified with elastic properties to force failure in gusset plate. In a one cases, the fasteners had to be assigned elastic properties to force gusset plate failure modes

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 4 Finite Element Results (Bridge 40, AF=2.98)


Von Mises Stress
80 ksi 72 ksi 64 ksi 56 ksi < ---- yield - 48 ksi - 40 ksi - 32 ksi - 24 ksi - 16 ksi - 8 ksi - 0 ksi

Shingle Plate Hidden

Shingle Plate Shown

Lesson Shingle plate may not attract as much load as assumed in design

Plastic Strain
- 40000 - 35000 - 30000 - 25000 - 20000 - 15010 - 10010 - 5009 - 10 - 0

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 4 Finite Element Results


Bridge 40
Live Load Amplification Factor (AF)
3.5

Ultimate Capacity (AF = 2.98)


3.0

2.5

2.0

"Failure" (AF = 1.92)


Compression Tension U8
si es pr m Co
Te ns io n

1.5

1.0

STRENGTH I (AF = 0.97)


L7

on

0.5

L9

0.0 0 1 2 3 4

Vertical Deflection at L9 (in)

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 4 Finite Element Results (Bridge 40, AF=2.98)


Plastic Strain
- 40000 - 35000 - 30000 - 25000 - 20000 - 15010 - 10010 - 5009 - 10 - 0

Lesson(?) Internal splice plates attract a lot of load

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 5 Experimental Design


Anticipating 12 connections will be tested Connections will have either 4 or 5 members framing into node point Only double gusset plate connections Members will be reused for all tests Vertical can be loaded in tension or compression One chord member can be loaded in tension or compression

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 5 Experimental Design Load Frame

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 5 Experimental Design Load Frame


Alternate jack positioning to load chord in tension

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 5 Experimental Design Load Frame

June 18, 2009

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 5 Experimental Design Load Frame

July 1, 2009

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 5 Experimental Design Test Matrix


C = 1.0 Thickness A307 A490
14 8

C = 4.5 L = Short L = Long

L = Short

L = Long

14

C 14.5 ~60

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 5 Experimental Design Test Matrix


Each specimen will be tested under a variety of equilibrium load combinations, elastically, to understand stress flow Elastic load combinations will be studied first without internal splice plates. Then with the internal splice plates. Specimen will be brought to failure with the internal splice plates in place

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 5 Experimental Design Instrumentation


Photostress camera will be used to monitor one of the gusset plates. This system provides complete strain field unlike discrete measurements typical with strain gauges

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 5 Fastener Characterization


Had a need to understand the single shear behavior of various fasteners types. Data in literature was primarily in double shear. The data would be used to calibrate non-linear behavior of Abaqus connector elements. Testing focused on 3/8 and 1/2 thick plates with either 1.5 or 3.0 edge distances. Will be testing A307 and A490 bolts, in addition to modern and in-situ rivets (if available).

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 5 Fastener Characterization

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 5 Fastener Characterization

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Task 5 Fastener Characterization


Fasteners Initially in Bearing
60
B307_1.5_3_0H776 B307_1.3_3_50815 B307_1.5_4_0H776 B307_1.5_4_50815 B307_3.0_3_0H776 B307_3.0_3_50815 B307_3.0_4_0H776 B307_3.0_4_50815 B490_3.0_3_ND031 B307_1.5_3_200Qty B307_1.5_4_200Qty B307_1.5_3_300Qty B307_1.5_4_300Qty B307_1.5_3_0H776_3bolt B307_1.5_4_0H776_3bolt B307_3.0_3_0H776_3bolt B307_3.0_4_0H776_3bolt

50

40

Load (kips)

30

20

10

0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Displacement (inch)

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Timeline
Interim report went to panel in April 2009 Comments responded to June 2009 Truss members are fabricated (delivery soon) Panel has indicated that it is satisfied with responsesspecimen fabrication to begin this month Testing targeted to begin in September Experimental results by AASHTO 2010

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER


PROJECT SCHEDULE
J A 2008 S O N D J TASK J 1) Literature Review 2) Gusset Plate Configurations 3) Define FEA Methodologies 4) Preliminary Gusset Plate Rating
Procedures

M A

2009 M J J

2010 M A M J

5) Expanded Work Plan & Test


Fixture Fabrication

6) Calibration of LRFD for Trusses 7) Interim Report 8) Execute Work Plan 9) Draft 1 Design & Rating
Recommendations

10) Discussion of Retrofit Strategies 11) Draft 2 Design & Rating


Recommendations

12) Recommendations for Optimal


Design Configurations

13) Final report

TURNER-FAIRBANK TURNER-FAIRBANK HIGHWAY HIGHWAY RESEARCH RESEARCH CENTER CENTER

Thank you for the time and attention.