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UNIVERSITATEA MIHAIL KOGALNICEANU IASI

MIHAIL KOGALNICEANU UNIVERSITY IASI

SUPORT DE CURS

SEMINAR MATERIAL

ENGLEZA JURIDICA
DREPT AN II SEMESTRUL I + II

LEGAL ENGLISH
THE FACULTY OF LAW 2ND YEAR OF STUDY 1st AND 2nd SEMESTER

An universitar 2011 2012

Academic year 2011 2012

Titular: As. drd. CATALIN DRACSINEANU Lecturer: CATALIN DRACSINEANU, Univ.as. PhD. candidate

Cuprins
1. Introducere 2. Principalele caracteristici ale englezei juridice 3. Contractul de vnzare cumprare 3.1. Prile contractului/Formule introductive posibile 3.2. Obiectul contractului 3.3. Valoarea contractului/Preul contractului/Termeni de plat 3.4. Termene i condiii privind livrarea 3.5. Termene i condiii privind recepia/acceptarea 3.6. Obligaiile prilor 3.7. Garanii 3.8. Compensaii/despgubiri 3.9. Fora major 3.10. Rspunderea contractual 3.11. Pstrarea titlului de proprietate/ Transferul proprietii/ Riscurile 3.12. ncetarea/Anularea contractului 3.13. Drepturi de proprietate intelectual 3.14. Modificarea contractului 3.15. Confidenialitate 3.16. Divizare 3.17. Dispoziii finale/Diverse. 3.18. Legea aplicabil/Litigiile/Disputele/Soluionarea disputelor 3.19. Cesionare 3.20. Intuitu personae 3.21. Renunarea la drepturi 3.22. Non-transferabilitate 3.23 ncheieri posibile

Contents
1. Introduction 2. General Features of Legal English (legalese) 3. Contract of Purchase and Sale 3.1. Contracting Parties/Possible Introductory Statements 3.2. Object of the Contract 3.3. Value of the Contract/Price of the Contract/Payment Terms 3.4. Terms and Conditions regarding Delivery 3.5. Terms and Conditions regarding Reception/Acceptance 3.6. Obligations of the Parties 3.7. Warranties, Representations and Covenants of Seller 3.8. Indemnity 3.9. Force Majeure 3.10. Contractual Liability 3.11. Retention of Title/Property/Transfer of Property/Risk of Loss 3.12. Termination/Cancellation 3.13. Intellectual Property Rights 3.14. Modification 3.15. Confidentiality 3.16. Severability 3.17. Final Dispositions. Miscellaneous 3.18. Applicable Law/Litigation/Dispute/Settlement of Disputes 3.19. Assignments 3.20. Intuitu Personae 3.21. Waiver of Rights 3.22. Non-Transferability 3.23. Possible Endings

1. INTRODUCERE Scopul acestui capitol este acela de a familiariza cititorii cu termenii cheie ai englezei juridice. Dei limbajul contractelor se schimb n mod constant, att n Statele Unite ct i n Marea Britanie pe msur ce grupurile de afaceri i consumatori militeaz pentru utilizarea unui limbaj contemporan pentru a uura nelegerea contractelor pentru persoanele fr pregtire juridic contractele ntre firme nregistreaz un ritm sczut de schimbare. Este indicat prin urmare pentru profesionitii avansai (avocai, translatori sau manageri autodidaci) s depun eforturi pentru a nelege acest limbaj care devine din ce n ce mai puin comun. Cu ct mai mare este valoarea unui contract, cu att sunt mai devastatoare implicaiile unei traduceri proaste a unui contract de vnzare cumprare. Este aproape o sarcin imposibil s acoperim toate domeniile dreptului ntr-o singur carte i se poate s fie nevoie de ani de zile pentru a stpni toate conotaiile legale chiar i numai dintr-un singur domeniu. Dintre domeniile cheie ale dreptului dreptul penal, dreptul funciar, drept administrativ i drept constituional, dreptul familiei, dreptul muncii, etc., am ales pentru o analiz mai amnunit doar dreptul comercial sau dreptul contractelor (care acoper majoritatea situaiilor legate de engleza pentru afaceri), cu un accent special pe contractul de vnzare cumprare, un subdomeniu al dreptului care conine totui o mare varietate de fraze i termeni legali comuni tuturor documentelor juridice. Este dincolo de orice ndoial c studenii care doresc s lucreze n practica comercial trebuie s cunoasc limbi strine. Atunci cnd un cabinet de avocatur angajeaz tineri aspirani urmrete n general patru aspecte: educaia, personalitatea, experiena profesional i cunoaterea unei limbi strine. De vreme ce engleza este limba comunitii juridice

1. INTRODUCTION This chapter aims at familiarizing readers with the key terms of legal English. While the language of contracts is constantly changing, both in U.S. and in U.K. - as consumer and business groups campaign for more contemporary language so that the agreements are easier for people without a legal background to understand - contracts between businesses have been slower to change. It is therefore advisable for more advanced professionals (lawyers, translators, or even selfeducated managers) to make efforts to understand this type of language that is becoming less common today. The higher the contract value, the more devastating the implications of a poor interpretation/translation of sale and purchase agreements may prove. It is an almost impossible task to cover all fields of law in one single book and it might take years of experience to master all legal connotations of even one field. Out of the core subjects of law criminal law, land law, equity and trusts, administrative and constitutional law, tort law, family law, employment law, etc., we have therefore selected for a more detailed analysis only commercial or contract law (covering most situations related to Business English), with a particular emphasis on the sale and purchase agreement, which nonetheless contains a variety of legal terms and phrases common to all legal documents. It is an undeniable fact that for students wishing to work in a commercial practice knowledge of foreign languages is essential. When law firms hire new recruits, they generally look at four things: education, personality, work experience and language ability. Since English is the language of the international legal community, law firms increasingly expect graduates to have a good command of English.

internaionale, firmele de avocatur se ateapt din ce n ce mai mult ca studenii s aib cunotine temeinice de limb englez. n cadrul dreptului comercial un accent deosebit este pus pe contractul de vnzare cumprare. Acest document care produce efecte juridice conine clauze care se refer la bunurile care urmeaz a fi transferate, pre i structura plii, garaniile vnztorului, etc. Dei unele prevederi sunt comune tuturor contractelor (oferta i acceptarea, preul i aa mai departe), exist de asemenea prevederi particulare care se aplic n funcie de natura unui contract anume. Consultai un avocat pentru orice prevedere contractual i croii un model de contract n funcie de necesitile dumneavoastr particulare ntr-o anumit situaie. Deoarece un contract reprezint legea dintre pri, trebuie s analizai toate clauzele i s nelegei toate conotaiile i interpretrile legale. Nu v bazai pe paragrafele de mai jos pentru a crea un contract de vnzare cumprare i contactai ntotdeauna un avocat cu licen de practic n ara dumneavoastr. Credem c limbajul juridic nu poate fi scos din context. Exist o ofert extraordinar de bogat n ceea ce privete dicionarele juridice sau de afaceri i toate reprezint unelte indispensabile pentru orice cursant de limba englez. Cu toate acestea, deoarece numeroi termeni au nelesuri diferite n contexte diferite, este poate o idee bun s nu rupem cuvintele de contextul lor i iat de ce ne-a hotrt s v oferim nu doar unul, ci mai multe contexte posibile. Se nelege de la sine c de cele mai multe ori prevederile din prezentul capitol se exclud una pe cealalt. Scopul principal al acestui capitol NU este acela de a v ajuta s redactai un contract de vnzare cumprare (cerei ntotdeauna sfatul unui avocat specializat) ci de a v semnala cele mai importante interpretri lingvistice. Credem c o lectur atent a acestui capitol v va ajuta s v familiarizai cu cei mai dificili termeni i s folosii engleza juridic n mod profesionist.

A major focus in contract law is dedicated to the agreement of purchase and sale. This legally binding document contains clauses dealing with the assets to be transferred, purchase price and payment structure, warranties of the seller, etc. While there are certain provisions that are basically the same for all contracts (offer and acceptance, consideration and so on), there are also particular provisions that apply depending on the nature of a specific contract. Make sure you check with a lawyer any contract provision and tailor a sample contract to suit your particular needs in your particular situation. As a contract is the law between the parties, you need to thoroughly investigate all clauses and make sure you fully understand all connotations and legal interpretations. Do not rely on the paragraphs below to substitute your need for a sale purchase contract and always contact a lawyer licensed to practice law in your state. We believe that legal language cannot be taken out of context. There is an extraordinary rich offer in legal or business English dictionaries and they all are indispensable tools for any English student. However, as various terms may have various meanings in different contexts, it is perhaps a good idea not to sever words out of their context and that is why we have decided to provide you with not one but several contexts in which these terms might appear. It goes without saying that the provisions below exclude one another most of the times. The main purpose of this chapter is NOT to help you draw up a sale purchase contract (always get legal advice from a professional lawyer) but to signal to you the most important linguistic interpretations. We believe that a careful lecture of this chapter will help you familiarize yourself with some of the most challenging terms and also use legal English in a more professional manner.

2. Principalele caracteristici ale englezei juridice (cunoscut de 2. General Features of Legal English (also casually referred to asemenea ca legalez) as legalese or lawspeak): Chiar i cei mai avansai vorbitori de limba englez pot ntmpina dificulti atunci cnd trebuie s traduc documente juridice, deoarece acestea se dovedesc adesea foarte nclcite i cu neles neclar. Este adevrat c textele juridice ar trebui s fie pe nelesul tuturor dar, deoarece sistemul de drept motenit de rile vorbitoare de limb englez dreptul cutumiar se bazeaz pe tradiie i, deoarece pn nu demult nu a fost scris niciodat ci transmis prin practic, acestea conin un numr de caracteristici neobinuite legate n mare msur de terminologie, convenii lingvistice sau tehnice. Traductorul trebuie prin urmare s fie foarte atent atunci cnd utilizeaz unele cuvinte care au o anumit semnificaie n engleza de zi cu zi i o cu totul alt semnificaie n engleza juridic. Mai mult, numrul cuvintelor similare (aa numitele false friends) pare s creasc atunci cnd folosim o terminologie juridic. O traducere n englez a verbului a respecta poate fi alegerea corect atunci cnd traducem respect toi profesorii mei/ I respect all of my teachers dar poate trda slabe cunotine n domeniul juridic atunci cnd traducem cumprtorul nu respect clauzele contractului prin the buyer doesnt respect the contractual provisions, care ar trebui tradus prin the buyer fails to obseve/comply with the contractual provisions. n mod similar, cumprtorul este obligat s poate fi tradus cu the buyer is obligated to, dar versiunile preferate ar fi the buyer is bound to sau formele active the buyer binds to/undertakes to. Even most advanced students of English may have difficulties when it comes to translating/interpreting legal documents, as they often prove to be very dense and obscure. It is true that legal texts should be made understandable to everybody but, as the system of law inherited by the English-speaking countries the common law is based on tradition, and, until not very long time ago it was never written down but passed down in actual practice, it contains a number of unusual features largely related to terminology, linguistic conventions or technical conventions. The interpreter/translator should therefore pay extreme care when using certain words that have a particular meaning in plain, everyday English and quite another one in legal English. Note furthermore that the number of so-called false friends increases as legal terminology is used. An English translation from the Romanian a respecta, which is to respect in English may be the right choice in translating respect toi profesorii mei/I respect all of my teachers but may be indicative of a poor legal background when translating cumprtorul nu respect clauzele contractului, which should be translated by the buyer fails to observe/comply with the contractual provisions. Similarly the buyer is obligated to for the Romanian cumprtorul este obligat s may be acceptable but the preferred versions would be the buyer is bound to or the active form the buyer binds to/undertakes to.

Among the most important characteristics of legalese are the Printre cele mai importante caracteristici ale limbajului following: juridic se numr: - the presence of Latin words and phrases. As Alcaraz - prezena unor cuvinte i expresii latineti. Dup cum pointed out in his bookvii, it was inevitable for English law

Alcaraz sublinia n cartea sai, dreptul britanic nu putea scpa de influena limbii latine, sprijinit de puterea bisericii romane n Europa pe de o parte i care era, pe de cealalt parte, limba universal a cunoaterii. O list cuprinztoare a acestor latinisme poate fi gsit pe internetii, dar iat cteva cuvinte i fraze latineti frecvent folosite: de facto, bona fide, actus reus, prima facie, etc. utilizarea arhaismelor, care dau un sentiment de formalism documentelor juridiceiii. Cei mai muli autori contemporani prefer formele nvechite precum pe spezele n loc de pe cheltuiala, diligene pentru eforturi sau defunct pentru decedat. Pe lng formalism, utilizarea conservatoare a acestor termeni arhaici asigur att siguran ct i un grad de convenien. O dat cu folosirea repetat, unii din aceti termeni au ctigat n timp o interpretare autoritar i folosirea altor termeni ar prezenta un risc. Este principiul descris de Crystal i Davy n 1986: ceea ce a fost testat i gsit potrivit nu trebuie schimbativ. o redundan expresiv, care se poate observa cel mai bine n perechi de cuvinte folosite de avocai pentru a evita ambiguitatea. De cele mai multe ori aceste cuvinte provin din limbi diferite i n timp au devenit un fel de obinuin lingvistic. (unii autori consider c aceast dublare nu este dect o simpl tradiie n redactarea documentelor juridicev). Astfel de dublete lingvistice (de cele mai multe ori pleonasme in limbajul comun) sunt: nul i neavenit, de i ntre, direct i nemijlocit, definitiv i irevocabil. Exist de asemenea o repetiie lexical n ceea ce privete subiectul, deoarece avocaii evit utilizarea pronumelor refereniale pentru nu conduce la confuzii. -

to escape the influence of Latin which was supported by the power of the Roman Church over Europe on one hand and which was widely used on earth as a language of learning and literature, on the other hand. A comprehensive list of Latinisms can be found on the internet, but here are some commonly used Latin words and phrases: de facto, bona fide, actus reus, prima facie, etc. the use of archaisms, which give a flavor of formality to the legal documentviii. Most contemporary authors still prefer old forms such as fortwith as a substitution for right away, to inquire rather than to ask or the eth ending for the third person singular of the present tense as an alternative for the modern es: (witnesseth instead of witnesses). Beside formality, the conservative use of these rather old terms conveys both safety and convenience. With repeated use, some of these terms have acquired in time an authoritative interpretation and therefore altering them may come with a risk. Its the principle described by Crystal and Davy in 1986: what has been tested and found adequate is best not alteredix. an expressive redundancy which can be best seen in pairs of words used by lawyers to avoid ambiguity. Most of the times these words come from different languages and in time they became a sort of linguistic habit (Some authors believe that this is merely a tradition when drafting legal documents.x). Such linguistic doublets are: will and testament, lands and tenements, have and hold, represents and warrants, null and void, any and all, by and between etc. There is also a lexical repetition with respect to the subject, as lawyers avoid the use of

Comparai: cumprtorul va plti bunurile Vnztorului la sediul su, ceea ce creeaz confuzie i ambiguitate, forma preferat fiind cumprtorul va plti bunurile vnztorului la sediul vnztorului. utilizarea arhaic a verbului modal shall n limba englez. n textele juridice legiuitorii prefer adesea shall deoarece atrage cu sine o datorie sau o obligaie, opus funciei sale comune de a exprima viitorul. Comparai: Supplier will deliver the goods (la un anumit moment dat n viitor, exprim o aciune viitoare) i Supplier shall deliver the goods (care exprim o obligaie de a livra i nu doar o indicaie a unei aciuni ulterioare). prezena n limba englez a unor mixaje din elemente deictice (here, there i where) cu anumite prepoziii: of, under, by sau after. Cteva exemple: hereinafter, hereunder, thereto, thereafter, folosite pentru a evita repetiia unor nume sau obiecte din document: anexat aici este mai scurt dect anexat la prezentul contract. utilizarea n limba englez juridic a unor verbe cu prepoziii joac un rol mai important dect n engleza de zi cu zi, deoarece acestea sunt folosite ntr-un sens cvasitehnic: a semna un contract to enter into a contract, a anula datorii to write off debts, a redacta documente to draw up documents, a opune/revendica aciuni n instan to set off claims, a formula prevederi to set forth provisions, etc. utilizarea unor cuvinte obinuite n contexte neobinuite:

referential pronouns because legal English is highly concerned with the exactness of reference. Compare for instance: The Buyer shall pay for the goods to the Supplier at his office which creates confusion and ambiguity with the more redundant, but more accurate The Buyer shall pay for the goods to the Supplier at the office of the Supplier. the archaic use of modal shall in legal English. In legal text draftsmen usually prefer the modal shall because it carries out an obligation or a duty as opposed to its common function of expressing futurity. Compare Supplier will deliver the goods (at a certain point in time, expressing a future action) and Supplier shall deliver the goods (expressing an obligation to deliver and not a mere reference to a future action). the presence of a mixture of deictic elements (here, there and where) with certain prepositions of, under, by, after, etc. By way of illustration: hereinafter, hereunder, thereto, thereafter, used as a way of avoiding repetition of names or things in the document: annexed hereto is shorter than annexed to this contract. the use of phrasal verbs plays a significantly larger role in legal English than in plain English as these are often used in a quasi-technical sense: the parties enter into contracts, write off debts, draw up documents, set off claims, set forth provisions, etc. use of ordinary words in apparently peculiar contexts: construction of a contract refers to the interpretation of a

n limba englez, termenul construction of a contract se refer la interpretarea unui contract, termenul consideration se refer la preul pltit n timp ce title este un termen legal care se refer la o serie de drepturi asupra unei proprieti n care o parte are un interes legal sau echitabil. utilizarea unor cuvinte tehnice. Ca orice alt domeniu, engleza juridic are un vocabular specific format din termeni tehnici. Unii din aceti termeni nu au aplicabilitate dect n sfera legal: ipotec, nchiriere, renunare la un drept, decret, n timp ce altele au dezvoltat un neles specific n context juridic (vezi mai sus). -

contract, the familiar term consideration refers to a promise by one party to a contract that constitutes the price for which the promise of the other party is bought (a definition from the Oxford Dictionary of Law) while title as a legal term refers to a bundle of rights in a piece of property in which a party may own either a legal interest or an equitable interest. the use of technical words. Just like any other field, legal English has its own specific vocabulary made up of purely technical terms. Some of these terms are only applicable in the legal sphere and nowhere else: mortgage, lease, waiver, promissory estoppel, decree, while others have developed a particular meaning in a legal context (see consideration or title above).

3. Contractul de vnzare cumprare Un contract comercial ncepe de obicei cu propria descriere, de exemplu PREZENTUL CONTRACT, dup care urmeaz prile contractului i data. Apoi pot urma definiiile unor cuvinte folosite n mod frecvent n contract i textul introductiv care prezint detalii privind istoricul sau scopul contractului. WHEREAS sau WITNESSETH pot fi folosite n acest context pentru a introduce informaiile privind tranzacia pe care cele dou pri doresc s o ncheie. 3.1. Prile contractante Formule introductive posibile:

3. Contract (Agreement) of Purchase and Sale/ Sale and Purchase Contract A commercial contract usually begins with its own description, for example THIS AGREEMENT, followed by the parties and the date. Next usually come the definitions of words used repeatedly in the contract and then recitals, giving details of the history or purpose of the contract. WHEREAS or WITNESSETH may be used in this context to introduce the information about the transaction that the two parties want to enter into. 3.1. Contracting parties Possible introductory statements:

1. Prezentul CONTRACT DE VNZARE CUMPRARE 1. THIS AGREEMENT OF PURCHASE AND SALE (Contract) este ncheiat astzi _______, de i ntre __________ (Agreement) is made as of this ____ day of ____, by and (Vnztor) i _______ (Cumprtor). between ______ (Seller) and the _____ ("Buyer"). Whereas/Witnesseth: Unde: n baza prevederilor prezentului contract prile sunt de In consideration of and in reliance upon the covenants acord ca: herein contained, and for other good and valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of which are hereby acknowledged, the 2. Prezentul CONTRACT DE VNZARE DE BUNURI parties agree as follows este ncheiat astzi _____ de i ntre _________ o [corporaie/partneriat/persoan fizic autorizat/persoan fizic] 2. This CONTRACT FOR SALE OF GOODS is made din [statul de reedin], cu sediul principal n [adresa complet], this __ day of ________ by and between _________, a [state of or residence] [corporation/partnership/sole (Vnztor) i ___________ o [corporaie/partneriat/persoan organization fizic autorizat/persoan fizic] din [statul de reedin], cu proprietorship/resident], with its principal place of business at sediul principal n [adresa complet], (Cumprtor) pentru [complete address], (Seller) and ___________, a [state of achiziionarea bunurilor descrise mai jos. organization or residence] [corporation /partnership/sole proprietorship/resident], with its principal place of business at

3. Acesta este un CONTRACT din data _____ ntre ______ o companie cu sediul n ________, din _______, i _____ cu sediul n ______. Prezentul contract va intra n vigoare de la data semnrii i va fi valabil pe o perioad de ____ ncepnd cu _______ care se ntinde pn cnd cantitile livrate n conformitate cu prezentul contract ating suma de _______ (dac nu se aduc modificri conform articolului _____) sau pn la data de (dac nu se aduc modificri conform articolului _____), care are loc mai nti.

[complete address] (Buyer) for the purchase of the goods described below. 3. This is a CONTRACT dated _______ between ______________, a corporation with offices at ________in _______, and ________ with offices at _______ This Contract shall be in effect from its date and for a performance period of ____ beginning ______ and extending until the quantities delivered hereunder equals ______, (unless revised pursuant to article ____) or _______ (unless extended pursuant to article ___), whichever occurs first.

4. Vnztorul, cu sediul social n _______, oraul ______, 4. Seller, whose business address is ______, in the city of judeul ______, avnd obiectul principal de activitate ______. ____, county of _______, is in the business of _____________. Cumprtorul, cu sediul social n _______, oraul ______, judeul Buyer, whose business address is __________, in the city of ______, avnd obiectul principal de activitate ______. ________, state of _________, is in the business of _______. 5. Acest CONTRACT este ncheiat astzi, _____, ntre 5. AGREEMENT made this ____________ day of [specificai vnztorul] (numit n continuare Vnztor), o companie din [specificai statul] cu sediul n [specificai adresa], ______________, between [specify seller] (hereinafter referred [specificai cumprtorul] (numit n continuare Cumprtor), o to as "Seller"), a [specify state] corporation having its offices at companie din [specificai statul] cu sediul n [specificai adresa], [specify address], [specify buyer] (hereinafter referred to as i [specificai garantul] (numit n continuare Garant), o "Buyer"), a [specify state] corporation having its offices at [specify address], and [specify guarantor], (hereinafter referred to companie din [specificai statul] cu sediul n [specificai adresa]. as "Guarantor"), a [specify state] corporation having its offices at 6. Prezentul Contract este ncheiat de i ntre __________, [specify address]. o persoan fizic cu adresa n _______ (Vnztor) i ______, o 6. This Agreement is entered into by and between persoan fizic cu adresa n ______ (Cumprtor). n baza prevederilor agreate de comun acord i cu intenia de a respecta _________, an individual with an address of _____ ("Seller"), legea, Vnztorul i Cumprtorul sunt de acord dup cum and _____, an individual with an address of ____ ("Buyer"). In consideration of the mutual covenants contained herein and other urmeaz: valuable consideration received, and with the intent to be legally bound, Seller and Buyer agree as follows:

ntre: 1. SC _________ cu sediul n ________, tel. ________ fax ________, e-mail ______ cod fiscal ______, cont (IBAN) _______, cod SWIFT ________ banca _____ prin reprezentant legal _______ (in baza procurii nr. ______ din data ________) denumita in continuare Cumprtor. i SC ________ cu sediul n ________, nregistrat la Oficiul Registrului Comerului sub nr. ____, tel. __________, fax: __________cont _______ , numr de TVA _________ reprezentat prin ________ n calitate de administrator; denumita n continuare Vnztor/Furnizor. 2. ________________ persoan juridic, nregistrat n conformitate cu legile din / existnd i funcionnd potrivit legislaiei statului _______, cu sediul la _____________ (numit n continuare "Vnztor"), reprezentat de _________ pe baza __________, pe de o parte i

Between: 1. SC _____ with the headquarters/social address in/located at ____ phone: ____ fax: ______ e-mail: _____ tax identification number (U.S.)/ taxpayer identification number (U.K.) _____bank account (IBAN) ____, SWIFT code _____ bank _____ legally represented by / through its duly authorized representative ________ (duly authorized), (on the basis of proxy no: ______ from ______) hereinafter referred to as Buyer/Purchaser. And SC _____ with the social address in ________, registered at the Trade Register under no. ____, phone _____, fax _______, bank account _______, sales tax number (U.S.)/ VAT registration number (U.K.), ______represented by ____________ as administrator, hereinafter referred to as Vendor/Seller/Supplier. 2. ________ legal entity/ legal person /juristic person, registered/incorporated under the laws of/a company organized and existing under the laws of _______, with the headquarters/registered office in/at _______ (hereinafter referred to as Seller), legally represented by _________ on the basis of _______, on the one hand

_________________ persoan fizic, identificat cu CI And nr._______ seria_______ eliberat de ____________, la data de ______________, numit n continuare Client, pe de cealalt ___________ individual/natural person, identified with IC no parte. ______ series ______ issued by ______, on _______, hereinafter referred to as Client/Customer, on the other hand.

IBAN = numr de cont bancar internaional Rolul su este de a standardiza identificarea conturilor bancare. Contul IBAN a plecat, n formarea sa, de la numerele iniiale de cont bancare, existente anterior introducerii IBAN, la care s-au adugat anumite caractere de identificare internaional. Dup introducerea codificrilor conturilor IBAN, numerele IBAN au devenit suficiente in realizarea transferurilor financiare tot teritoriul Uniunii Europene. Cod SWIFT Cunoscut i sub numele de SWIFT-BIC sau BIC - este un format standard al codurilor de identificare bancar aprobate de ISO (International Organization for Standardization) i reprezint un cod unic de identificare al unei anumite bnci. Acest cod este folosit la transferul de bani ntre bnci, n special la transferul internaional, precum i la schimbul de mesaje ntre bnci. 3.2. OBIECTUL CONTRACTULUI Clauze posibile:

IBAN: International Bank Account Number Its role is to make the identification of bank accounts standard. The IBAN account originated from the initial bank accounts prior to the introduction of IBAN, to which certain characters for national identification were added. After the introduction of IBAN accounts, the IBAN numbers were sufficient to make financial transfers on the whole territory of the European Union. SWIFT code Also known as SWIFT-BIC or BIC code is a standard format of Bank Identifier Codes approved by the International Organization Standardization (ISO) and it represents the unique identification code of a particular bank. These codes are used when transferring money between banks, particularly for international wire transfers as well as for the exchange of other messages between banks. 3.2 OBJECT OF THE CONTRACT Possible provisions:

1. Obiectul prezentului contract l constituie trecerea din 1. The object of the hereby contract is the transfer from the proprietatea vnztorului n proprietatea cumprtorului, dup ce Sellers property to the Buyers property, upon payment by the acesta din urm va plti preul cuvenit, a produsului _______ latter of the due price, of the product _______ 2. Obiectul prezentului contract l reprezint vnzarea bunurilor la 2. The object of the hereby contract is the sale of the goods in the calitatea i cantitatea prevzute n anexe. quality and in the amount stipulated in the annexes. 3. Obiectul prezentului contract l constituie cumprarea de la 3. The object of the hereby contract is the purchase from the Vnztor de ctre Cumprtor a ______, avnd descrierea tehnic Seller by the Buyer of _______, having the technical description menionat n Anexa ___ la contract. mentioned in Annex ____

4. Obiectul prezentei convenii l constituie cumprarea de la Vnztor de ctre Cumprtor de bunuri avnd denumirea comercial nscris n comanda ferm parte integrant a prezentului contract i caracteristicile tehnice conform ofertei. 5. Vnztorul se oblig s vnd, iar cumprtorul se oblig s cumpere _______ (bunurile prevzute n anexa numrul _____ care cuprinde descrierea acestora, cantitile, calitatea, preurile, termenele de livrare i valorile aa cum au fost negociate i convenite de pri.) 6. Vnztorul se angajeaz s furnizeze iar Cumprtorul s achiziioneze echipamentul _____ n conformitate cu specificaiile, termenii i condiiile care sunt specificate n clauzele de mai jos i n Seciunea ___ anexat la prezentul Contract.

4. The object of the hereby agreement is the purchase from the Seller by the Buyer of the goods with the commercial name indicated in the firm order made a part hereof - and with the technical characteristics as per the offer. 5. The Seller binds to sell and the Buyer binds to purchase ________ (the goods mentioned in annex no. ______ which comprises their description, quantities, quality, price, delivery terms and values as negotiated and agreed upon by the parties) 6. The Seller undertakes to supply and the Buyer undertakes to purchase the equipment ______ in conformity with the specifications, terms and conditions specified in the provisions below and in Section____ annexed hereto.

7. The technical and quality parameters for the merchandise which constitutes the object of the hereby contract are mentioned 7. Parametrii tehnici i de calitate, pentru marfa ce face obiectul in Section ____ annexed hereto. prezentului contract, sunt cei menionai n anexa _____ la prezentul contract. 8. Seller is hereby selling and Buyer is hereby purchasing the following assets ("Assets") of Seller at the price, terms and 8. Vnztorul vinde iar Cumprtorul cumpr urmtoarele conditions hereinafter set forth. bunuri (Bunuri) ale Vnztorului la preul, condiiile i termenii stabilii n prezentul contract.

Cuvintele valabil, executoriu, operativ i n vigoare produc confuzie uneori. Un permis de munc sau un permis de edere poate fi valabil, adic are tampilele corecte pe el sau nu a expirat. Un contract de munc poate fi operativ, adic este n curs de desfurare i are nsemntate legal. Ca angajat, se poate s am anumite drepturi sau pretenii fa de un angajator care sunt executorii, adic m pot adresa tribunalului i pot cere satisfacerea drepturilor i preteniilor mele. Un contract fr baz legal deoarece, de exemplu, una din prile contractante a acionat sub constrngere sau deoarece obiectul clauzei este ilegal este nul. O lege precum i orice alt document legal care nu a fost nc abrogat/revocat/anulat este nc n vigoare.

The words valid, enforceable, effective and in force sometimes cause confusion. A work permit or residence permit can be valid, i.e. it has the correct stamps on it or hasnt expired. A contract of employment can be effective, i.e. it is in use and has legal relevance. As an employee, I might have certain rights or claims with respect to an employer that are enforceable, i.e. I can go to court and ask the court to ensure that my rights are respected or my claims met. A contract that has no legal basis because, for example, one of the contracting parties acted under duress or because the object of the clause is unlawful is void. A law as well as any other legal act - that hasnt been abrogated/revoked/cancelled is still in force.

3.3. VALOAREA CONTRACTULUI/PREUL 3.3 VALUE OF THE CONTRACT/PRICE OF THE CONTRACTULUI/CONDIII DE PLAT CONTRACT/PAYMENT TERMS Clauze posibile: Possible provisions:

1. n absena unui acord special, preurile vor fi considerate ca 1. In the absence of any special arrangement, prices shall be taken fiind Ex Works. Preurile nu includ rata taxei pe valoare as being Ex Works. Prices shall not include the prevailing adugat curent. statutory value added tax. 2. Cambiile i cecurile sunt acceptate doar pentru a uura plata; 2. The acceptance of bills of exchange and checks shall only be to costurile de ncasare aferente vor fi suportate de partea care face facilitate payment; the costs of any discounting and collection comanda bunurilor. shall be borne by the party ordering the goods. 3. Dac partea care face comanda bunurilor ntrzie la plat, 3. If the party ordering the goods falls into arrears with payment, Vnztorul are dreptul s perceap penaliti de ntrziere de the supplier is entitled to charge default interest of _____ %. The ___%. Vnztorul are dreptul de a furniza probe ale unor daune supplier is entitled to provide evidence of higher damage in the mai extinse n funcie de caz. Obligaia de a plti penalitile de

ntrziere se aplic de asemenea n cazul plilor ealonate.

individual case. The obligation to pay interest also applies in the case of deferred payments.

4. Cumprtorul nu are dreptul de a reine o plat pe motivul unor cereri reconvenionale ce pot fi invocate de furnizor sau de a 4. The Buyer is not entitled to withhold payments on the grounds compensa aceste pli. of any counterclaims which may be disputed by the supplier or to set these off against the claims of the supplier. 5. Dac Vnztorul nu a convenit n mod diferit n confirmarea comenzii, preurile sunt n EURO i sunt exprimate EXW 5. Unless otherwise agreed by Seller in the order confirmation, conform versiunii relevante a Incoterms. Preurile nu includ TVA prices are quoted in EURO and are effective Ex Works(EXW) care - dac este obligatorie va fi nscris separat pe factur la according to the respectively relevant version of Incoterms. Prices rata curent la data facturrii. do not include value added tax which if mandatory will be declared separately on the invoice at the rate effective at the date 6. n cazul unor creteri substaniale, neobinuite a costurilor dup of the invoice. semnarea prezentului contract, de ex. n costurile Vnztorului sau a furnizorilor Vnztorului privind materialele, energia sau 6. In case of unusual, substantial increases in costs after transportul i dac aceste creteri duc la o modificare substanial conclusion of the contract, e.g. in Sellers or Sellers suppliers a preurilor de cumprare sau a preului materiilor prime ale costs for material, energy or freight, and shall these rises lead to a Vnztorului, acesta are dreptul de a cere s poarte negocieri cu considerable increase of Sellers purchase prices or raw material Cumprtorul n vederea ajustrii imediate a preurilor. costs, Seller is entitled to demand negotiations with Purchaser for price adjustment immediately. 7. Dac prile nu au convenit altfel, sumele de peste ____ EURO vor fi facturate n dou rate de 50% fiecare din valoarea 7. Unless otherwise agreed, ordering amounts of more than ____ comenzii. n acest caz, i n lipsa unui alt acord, livrarea nu va fi EURO will be invoiced in two installments of 50% of the order efectuat dect dup ce prima rat a fost pltit. Cea de a doua value each. If so and unless otherwise agreed, delivery will not be rat este scadent dup livrare. Cambiile si cecurile sunt performed until receipt of the first installment. The second acceptate doar n urma unui acord explicit. n cazul ntrzierii installment is due after delivery. Bills of exchange and cheques plii, se aplic prevederile statutare. n mod particular, (Commonwealth and Ireland)/ checks (U.S.) are only accepted on Cumprtorul trebuie s plteasc penaliti cu ___% peste rata explicit agreement. In case of late payment, statutory provisions de baz curent a Bncii ______ la cererea Vnztorului. apply. Particularly, Purchaser has to pay interest at ___% above the current base rate of the ______ Bank on Sellers claim. 8. Cumprtorul nu are dreptul s compenseze lipsa plii cu cereri reconvenionale dect dac acestea sunt confirmate legal, 8. Purchaser is not entitled to set off with counterclaims unless nu sunt n litigiu i au fost acceptate de Vnztor. Preurile said claims are legally confirmed, undisputed or have been

Vnztorului se aplic gamei de performan i livrare agreat de accepted by Seller. Sellers prices apply for the scope of ctre pri. Performanele suplimentare sau speciale vor fi taxate performance and delivery that has been agreed. Additional or special performances will be charged separately. separate. 9. Plile vor fi efectuate n termen de _____ zile de la data facturrii, n cazul n care nu se specific diferit n oferta Vnztorului i/sau acceptarea comenzii. n cazul livrrilor pariale Vnztorul are dreptul de a factura separat. ntr-un contract de vnzare, obligaiile minime sunt ca vnztorul s livreze bunurile i cumprtorul s plteasc preul. Prile stabilesc de obicei preul n contract aceasta este situaia cea mai simpl i des ntlnit. Evident, prile pot fixa preul n mai multe feluri (pre global sau unitar de exemplu). Cu toate acestea, exist de asemenea posibilitatea de a lsa preul s fie fixat de o manier agreat prin contract. O astfel de posibilitate ar fi evaluarea fcut de o ter parte, n timp ce prile pot fi de acord de asemenea ca preul s fie fixat printr-un acord ulterior (o manier comun dar potenial periculoas). Nu este nicio problem dac prile nu cad de acord asupra unui pre, dar pot apare dificulti n caz contrar.vi. 10. Plile se vor face exclusiv n unul din conturile Vnztorului i vor fi scutite de comisioane la data scadenei fr nicio deducere. Comisioanele, cheltuielile sau alte taxe diverse suportate de Vnztor ca urmare a acceptrii cambiilor sau cecurilor conform acordului special dintre Vnztor i Cumprtor vor fi suportate de Cumprtor. Data scadenei va fi determinat de data de facturare sau de notificarea disponibilitii de livrare. Data ndeplinirii tuturor obligaiilor de plat va fi data la care suma pltit este la dispoziia Vnztorului. 9. Payments shall be made within ___ days from the date of invoice, unless otherwise stipulated in Sellers offer and/or acknowledgment of order. In case of partial shipments Seller shall be entitled to issue invoices in part accordingly. In a contract of sale, the irreducible minimum of obligations is for the seller to deliver the goods and the buyer to pay the price. The parties usually fix the price in the contract this is the simplest and probably most common situation. Obviously, the parties may fix the price in a number of different ways (global or unit price for instance). However, there is a also the possibility to leave the price to be fixed in a manner agreed by the contract. One such manner would be third party valuation while the parties may also agree that the price shall be fixed by agreement between them later (a common but potentially dangerous course). There is no problem if the parties do not agree on a price, but difficulties arise if they do notxi. 10. Payments shall be made exclusively to one of Seller's accounts and shall be exempted of charges at the date due without any deduction. Fees, expenses or sundries incurring to Seller by accepting bills or cheques upon specific agreement between Seller and Buyer shall be at Buyer's expense. Determination when payment becomes due shall be in respect of the date of invoice or notice of readiness for dispatch. The date of fulfillment of all kind of payments shall be that on which the sum paid is actually at Seller's disposal.

11. Preul total de vnzare (inclusiv valoarea oricror obligaii sau 11. The total purchase price (including the value of any liabilities

datorii ale Vnztorului asumate de Cumprtor n conformitate cu prezentul contract) care trebuie pltit de Cumprtor ctre Vnztor pentru Bunurile Dobndite este de ______ (numit n continuare Pre de vnzare). Preul de vnzare const din plata n bani lichizi a sumei de _____ care trebuie efectuat nainte sau n ziua execuiei prezentului contract i din obligaiile Vnztorului asumate de ctre Cumprtor n valoare de ______ (numite n continuare Obligaii asumate). 12. Ataat i parte integrant la prezentul contract este o list a tuturor contractelor de nchiriere, acorduri sindicale, contracte de munc i orice alte contracte, angajamente sau obligaii ale Vnztorului de natur permanent. Cumprtorul nu va asuma n nici un mod i nici nu va fi rspunztor pentru astfel de angajamente i obligaii iar prevederea de scutire de obligaii din Art. ____ din prezentul contract se va aplica i n acest caz.

or debts of Seller assumed by Buyer under this agreement) to be paid by Buyer to Seller for the Acquired Assets is ______ (hereinafter Purchase Price). The Purchase Price consists of a cash payment in the amount of ______ to be made on or before the execution of this agreement and liabilities of Seller to be assumed by Buyer in the amount of _______ (hereinafter Assumed Liabilities) 12. Annexed hereto and made a part hereof is a list of all leases, union agreements, employment agreements and any other contracts, commitments or obligations of Seller of a continuing nature. Buyer shall in no way assume or be responsible for any of said commitments and obligations and the indemnity provision of Article ___ hereof shall apply thereto. 13. All expenses, including legal fees, incurred by Seller in the process of collecting outstanding amounts from the Purchaser will be charged to Purchaser for immediate payment. Seller may charge to Purchaser, and Purchaser agrees to pay, interest on any amounts outstanding past the due dates set forth in Section ___ at a rate not exceeding the maximum rate allowed by applicable law.

13. Toate cheltuielile, inclusiv taxele legale, suportate de Vnztor n procesul de ncasare a sumelor restante de la Cumprtor vor trece n contul Cumprtorului n vederea plii imediate a acestora. Vnztorul poate percepe Cumprtorului, iar acesta se oblig s plteasc, penaliti la oricare din sumele restante care depesc datele scadente stabilite n Seciunea ____ 14. Time shall be of the essence and failure by the Buyer to pay la o rat care nu depete rata maxim admis de legea aplicabil. the price of any installment thereof in due time shall entitle the Seller to treat such failure as a repudiation of the whole contract 14. Respectarea strict a termenilor este esenial iar neplata by the Buyer and to require the Buyer to make immediate oricrei rate de ctre Cumprtor la scaden va da dreptul payment of all monies due or to become due and to recover from Vnztorului s o interpreteze ca o reziliere a ntregului contract the Buyer damages for such breach of contract and/or (at the din partea Cumprtorului i s cear Cumprtorului s Seller's option) to charge interest at either __% per annum or efectueze de ndat plata tuturor sumelor scadente sau care devin __% per annum above the Base Rate of ____Bank, which ever scadente i s recupereze de la Cumprtor daune pentru o astfel shall be greater, from the due date until payment. The right to de nclcare a contractului i/sau (la alegerea Vnztorului), de a claim more extensive losses due to default remains thereby percepe penaliti de ___% pe an sau de ___% pe an peste rata de unaffected.

baz a Bncii ____, care din ele va fi mai mare, de la data scadenei pn la efectuarea plii. Dreptul de a cere daune mai 15. If the customer falls in arrears of payment of more than __ extinse ca urmare a neefecturii plii rmne neatins. days, we shall be entitled to make due all claims arising from the entire business relationship, even in so far as deferment or 15. Dac cumprtorul ntrzie plata mai mult de ___ zile, vom installment payments have been agreed, and to collect the total avea dreptul de a cere scadena tuturor restanelor aprute de-a balance. We shall be entitled to hold back further outstanding lungul ntregii relaii de afaceri, chiar n msura n care amnarea deliveries and services. The commitment to delivery dates within plilor sau plata n rate a fost agreat, pentru colectarea ntregii the scope of the overall business relationship shall lapse. balane. Vom avea dreptul de a suspenda orice livrri i servicii restante. Angajamentul fa de datele de livrare cu privire la 16. Our field sales staff is not authorized to accept payments. ntreg spectrul relaiei de afaceri i va pierde valabilitatea. 17. Incoming payments shall be offset firstly against any incurred 16. Personalul nostru de teren nu are dreptul de a accepta pli. expenses, next against interest, then against claims for any ancillary services and finally against the oldest respective 17. Plile primite vor fi folosite mai nti pentru acoperirea purchase price/service wage. oricror cheltuieli suferite, pentru acoperirea penalitilor, apoi pentru servicii auxiliare i n fine pentru cel mai vechi pre de 18. The price of the goods is the equivalent in _____ of _____ EURO without VAT and import duties. The total price is vnzare/serviciu respectiv. indicated in the proforma invoice issued by the Seller, annexed 18. Preul bunurilor este echivalentul n ____ a _____ Euro fr hereto, made a part hereof. TVA i fr taxe de import. Preul total este nscris n factura proform emis de Vnztor, parte integrant a prezentului 19. The total price of the equipment is the equivalent of _______ contract. EURO + VAT. The Buyer shall pay the Supplier the amount of ________ EURO + VAT within ___ days from the receipt of the 19. Preul total al utilajului este echivalentul a ________ Euro + following documents: signed copy of the sale purchase contract, TVA. Cumprtorul va plti Furnizorului suma de ____________ invoice, technical documentation and declaration of conformity. Euro + TVA la ___ zile dup primirea Contractului de cumprare semnat, a facturii, a prezentrii documentaiei tehnice i a declaraiei de conformitate.

Grammar Simple Present We normally use simple present: - when we talk about permanent situations: I live in Iasi. - about things that happen regularly: I go to work by car. - to express general truths or common knowledge: The Danube flows into the Black See. We also use simple present in demonstrations, commentaries, instructions or stories: Go straight on to the traffic lights and then turn right. Jameson shoots and its a goal! So I open my eyes and I see the lion right in front of me and I say When adding s to the 3rd person singular, affirmative, there are some changes in spelling: - verbs ending in s(s), -sh, -ch, -x and o add -es: He crosses/washes/watches - verbs ending in y preceded by a consonant change the y into I and receive -es: He tries/cries (but he plays/enjoys) - have changes to has. 20. Valoarea total a mrfii vndute este de _______ USD. Preul, defalcat pe sortimente de produse, este cel menionat n anexa nr. _____ la prezentul contract. Preul include cheltuielile de transport pn la _________

Grammar Present Tense in Legal English In legal English avoid using present tense continuous as the situations are deemed to be permanent: The Buyer binds to pay NOT The Buyer is binding to pay. The Seller delivers the goods and the Buyer makes the payment NOT The Seller is delivering the goods and the Buyer is making the payment. The negative forms dont/doesnt are generally avoided in legal English. Here are some alternative suggestions: The Seller doesnt warrant The Seller makes no warranties If the Buyer doesnt pay on due time Unless the Buyer pays on due time If the Seller doesnt deliver If the Seller fails to deliver If the parties dont reach an agreement Should the parties fail to reach an agreement

20. The total value of the sold merchandise is of ________ USD. The price, broken down into various product ranges, is mentioned in Annex no.______ annexed hereto. The price includes transportation expenses to __________

21. Cumprtorul se oblig s plteasc preurile aa cum sunt 21. The Buyer binds to pay the prices as negotiated, agreed upon

negociate, convenite i prevzute n anexa numrul _________ la and stipulated in Annex no. _________ annexed hereto. contract. 22. The payment is made on the basis of the invoices issued by 22. Plata se va face pe baza facturilor emise de vnztor i the Seller and signed by the Buyer. The corresponding value semnate de cumprtor. n preul mrfurilor a fost inclus i taxa added tax has been included in the price of the merchandise. pe valoarea adugat aferent. Pentru a traduce avans, sau plat n avans n limba englez este bine s reinei urmtoarele aspecte: Down payment: sum pltit n avans fr garanii pentru cumprtor sau pentru cel care mprumut. Advance payment: plat care atrage o serie de rspunderi. Cumprtorul sau cel care mprumut primete o serie de garanii din partea vnztorului sau a persoanei care d cu mprumut. In order to translate a payment made in advance you should pay attention to the following distinction: Down payment: a sum paid in advance with no warranties for the buyer or for the borrower. Advance payment: a payment that implies a series of liabilities. The buyer or the borrower receives certain warranties from the seller or the lender.

23. Dac cumprtorul nu pltete la scaden, va suporta 23. Should the Buyer fall into arrears with the payment, the Buyer penaliti de ntrziere n decontare de __________ % pe zi de shall be bound to pay default interest of ______% for each day of ntrziere, calculat la suma datorat. delay, calculated at the outstanding amount. 24. Instrumentul de plat agreat _____________________________. de vnztor este 24. The payment instrument the Seller agrees upon is ________________

25. Vnztorul poate majora preul mrfurilor n raport de 25. The Seller may increase the price of the merchandise ____________________ depending on _____________ 26. Preul utilajelor este cel nscris n oferta confirmat; oferta confirmat este parte integrant a prezentului contract. Scadenarul ce precizeaz termenele de plata i sumele ce urmeaz a fi achitate face parte din prezenta convenie. 26. The price of the machines is that indicated in the confirmed offer, annexed hereto and made a part hereof. The bills payable book indicating the payment terms and the amounts to be paid is a constituent part of the hereby agreement.

27. n absena unui acord special, condiia de livrare este ____ 27. In the absence of a special agreement, the delivery condition

(conform INCOTERMS 2000), la adresa indicat n comanda is _____ (according to INCOTERMS 2000) at the address ferm. Preurile nu includ TVA i nici taxe vamale. indicated in the firm order. The prices do not include VAT or customs duties. 28. n absena unui acord special, plile se vor face prin virament n contul furnizorului 28. In the absence of a special agreement, the payments will be made by bank transfer to the Suppliers account. 29. Dac partea care face comanda bunurilor nu face plata la termenul convenit, va fi obligat s achite penaliti de ntrziere 29. If the party ordering the goods fails to make the payment on n cuantum de _______ pe zi calculate asupra sumelor scadente. due time, the party at fault will be bound to pay late payment Penalitile curg de drept, fr a fi necesara punerea n interest in the amount of __________ per day, calculated on the ntrziere. Cuantumul penalitilor poate depi cuantumul outstanding amounts. The penalties are rightful, no legal action being required. The amount of the penalties may exceed the debt debitului asupra crora au fost calculate. used as basis for calculation. 30. Dac prile nu au convenit altfel, pentru a garanta plata preului, beneficiarul va deschide in favoarea furnizorului un 30. Unless the parties agree differently, the beneficiary will open acreditiv documentar irevocabil, netransferabil. Acreditivul for the Supplier a non-transferable, irrevocable letter of credit. documentar nu privete plata avansului. The documentary letter of credit should not be mistaken with the payment of the advance payment. 31. The Seller preserves the property right on the goods until the 31. Vnztorul pstreaz dreptul de proprietate asupra bunurilor full payment of the price as well as of the potential interests. pn n momentul ncasrii integrale a preului precum i a eventualelor penaliti. 32. The Buyer binds to take all necessary and legal steps to make the payment of the merchandise in agreement with the provisions 32. Cumprtorul se oblig s ntreprind tot ce este necesar i of the hereby contract. legal pentru a se efectua plata mrfii n conformitate cu 33. The payment shall be made on _____, in____________. The prevederile prezentului contract. documents used to make the payments are: ________. 33. Plata se va efectua la data de _______, n ______Documentele prin care se vor efectua plile sunt: ___. 34. The consideration shall be paid within ___ days from the moment the Company effectively cashes in any amounts under 34. Comisionul se va plti (plata se va face) n termen de ___ zile the present Agreement. de la momentul n care Compania ncaseaz oricare din sumele stipulate n prezentul Contract.

3.4. CONDIII I TERMENE PRIVIND LIVRAREA Clauze posibile

3.4. TERMS AND CONDITIONS REGARDING DELIVERY Possible Provisions

1. Condiia de livrare este EXW/CIP/DDU etc. (vezi mai jos), 1. The delivery conditions is EXW/CIP/DDU etc. (see below), (conform INCOTERMS 2000), la adresa _______. (according to INCOTERMS 2000), at the address ________. 2. Dup efectuarea formalitilor vamale de ctre Cumprtor, bunurile se vor transporta pe cheltuiala Vnztorului la adresa de destinaie indicat de Cumprtor la data semnrii prezentului contract. 2. After the completion of the customs formalities by the Buyer, the goods will be transported on the Sellers expense at the address of destination indicated by the Buyer on the date the hereby contract is signed.

3. Bunurile se vor livra la destinaia indicata la pct. ____ al 3. The goods will be delivered at the destination indicated at pct. prezentului contract, n termen de ______ zile de la data achitrii __________ of the hereby contract, within ____ days from the avansului. date of the advance payment/down payment. 4. Livrarea se va efectua cu respectarea condiiilor specificate de 4. The delivery will be carried out with the observance of the art. ______ al prezentului contract. specific conditions mentioned by art. _____ of the hereby contract 5. La livrare bunurile /utilajul /marfa va fi nsoit() de 5. Upon delivery, the goods/machine/merchandise will be urmtoarele documente n original: accompanied by the following documents in original: - factura comercial definitiv; - specificaia mrfii pentru fiecare colet; - scrisoarea de transport internaional (CMR); - certificatele de calitate i conformitate. final commercial invoice specification of the goods for each individual package letter of international transport (CMR) quality and conformity certificates

CMR Este o abreviere a titlului din francez (Convention relative au contrat de transport international de marchandises par route) a Conveniei Naiunilor Unite (titlul complet: Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road) semnat la Geneva n data de 19 mai 1956, care cuprinde o serie de aspecte legale privind transportul rutier al mrfurilor. Convenia a fost ratificat de majoritatea rilor europene i, pe baza ei, IRU (International Road Union) a dezvoltat un model standard pentru o acceptare i recunoatere mai uoar a documentului pe teritoriul Europei. Actul normativ care reglementeaz scrisoarea de trsur n Romnia: Ordonana nr. 1982/17 octombrie 2006 pentru aprobarea normelor legate de organizarea i efectuarea transportului rutier precum i alte activiti conexe. Traducerea n romn: scrisoare de trsur pentru transportul rutier

CMR It is an abbreviation from the French title (Convention relative au contrat de transport international de marchandises par route) of the United Nations Convention (full title: Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road) signed in Geneva on May 19th 1956, which comprises various legal aspects regarding the road transportation of goods. The Convention was ratified by most European countries and, based on it, the International Road Union (IRU) developed a standard CMR waybill for an easier acceptance and recognition throughout Europe. The normative act regulating the CMR waybill in Romania: Order 1982/October 17th, 2006 for the approval of the norms regarding the organization and conduct of road transport as well as other related activities. Romanian translation: scrisoare de trsur pentru transportul rutier

6. Livrarea utilajului se face intr-o singura tran/n mai multe 6. The delivery of the machine is to take place at once/partial trane. deliveries are allowed. 7. Termenele de livrare artate n ofert au caracter orientativ, fr a crea obligaii i fr a atrage rspunderea furnizorului. Vnztorul nu va rspunde pentru nerespectarea acestor termene. Termenul de livrare nu va ncepe sa curg mai nainte de confirmarea scris a comenzii. Termenul de livrare nu va ncepe s curg nainte ca partea care face comanda bunurilor s fi obinut toate documentele, orice autorizaie sau aviz, i nainte de primirea unei pli n avans stabilite anterior de comun acord. 7. The delivery terms indicated in the offer are merely for the Buyers reference and are not binding for the Seller. Seller will not be liable for failure to observe these terms. The delivery term shall not begin to run prior to the written confirmation of the order. The delivery term shall not start to run before the party ordering the goods has obtained all necessary documents, license or permit and after Seller has received a down-payment as mutually agreed upon by the parties.

8. Perioada de livrare va fi extins n eventualitatea unor msuri care au legtura cu greve, ntreruperi tehnice ale fabricii i producerea unor circumstane neprevzute pentru care Vnztorul nu este responsabil, n msura n care aceste circumstane se dovedesc c influeneaz respectarea termenului de livrare al bunurilor comandate. Aceast extindere se va aplica de asemenea dac astfel de circumstane afecteaz subcontractorii. Aceste circumstane menionate mai sus nu vor fi imputate Vnztorului dac apar n perioada de livrare. nceputul i sfritul acestor circumstane va fi notificat de ctre Vnztor prii care face comanda bunurilor n cel mai scurt timp posibil. 9. Dac expedierea este ntrziat la dorina prii care face comanda bunurilor, Vnztorul are dreptul sa perceap costuri de depozitare lunare de ____ din totalul sumei facturate, pentru fiecare lun. Vnztorul are dreptul de asemenea, dup o perioad de graie de _____ luni, s livreze bunurile altui beneficiar i s onoreze comanda fa de partea care a comandat bunurile iniial ntr-o perioad de livrare extins n mod corespunztor.

8. The delivery period shall be extended in the event of occurrences related to strikes, factory technical breakdowns or unforeseeable circumstances independent from the Sellers actions, to the extent these circumstances are proven to influence the observance of the delivery period for the ordered goods. This extension shall also be applied in case such circumstances affect subcontractors. The above mentioned circumstances shall not be imputed to the Seller should they occur within the delivery period. The beginning and the end of these circumstances shall be notified by the Seller to the party ordering the goods as soon as possible. 9. If the dispatch is delayed at the wish of the party ordering the goods, the Seller shall be entitled, to charge monthly warehouse costs of ____ of the total invoiced amount. The Seller is also entitled, after allowing a reasonable period of grace of ____ months, to dispose of the goods elsewhere and to supply the party ordering the goods within a suitably extended delivery period.

10. The Seller binds to deliver the merchandise, at the address indicated by the Buyer, on _______, according to the Buyers 10. Vnztorul se oblig s livreze marfa, la adresa indicat de instructions. cumprtor, la data de _________ n conformitate cu instruciunile acestuia. 11. The Seller binds to dispatch the first batch on ________, according to the Buyers instructions. 11. Vnztorul se oblig s expedieze primul lot de marf, la data de ___________, n conformitate cu instruciunile cumprtorului.

Majoritatea contractelor internaionale de vnzare fac referire la INCOTERMS n ceea ce privete rspunderea privind transportul. Totui, nu este obligatoriu s folosii clauzele INCOTERMS, dar n acest caz trebuie s indicai numele transportatorului, locul exact i data de livrare, precum i partea care rspunde de costurile de transport, risc, asigurare, etc. Prevederile legate de livrare nu trebuie s omit cerinele speciale privind condiiile speciale de depozitare (precum indicaii extrem de importante legate de temperatur i umiditate) sau clauze speciale de siguran. Un alt aspect important este disponibilitatea de expediere, atunci cnd vnztorul notific cumprtorul c bunurile sunt gata de livrare. 12. Termenul de livrare a mrfii va fi cuprins ntre data de ________ i data de _________, dar nu mai trziu de data de _______________, termen n care sunt incluse condiiile: terminarea i reuita probelor de analiz sau de ncercare, deschiderea acreditivului, obinerea licenei de export/import etc.

Most of international sale contracts make reference to INCOTERMS as far as the liability for the shipment is concerned. However, it is not mandatory to use the INCOTERMS clauses, but in this instance you need to indicate the name of the carrier, the exact place and date of delivery, as well as who shall be liable for freight expenses, risk, insurance, etc. The provisions regarding delivery shouldnt omit special requirements regarding storage conditions (such as crucial indications of temperature or humidity) or special security clauses. Another important aspect is the readiness of dispatch, when the seller notifies the buyer that the goods are ready for shipment. 12. The delivery term of the merchandise shall run between ________ and ________, but not later than _______, conditioned by: the success of the analyses/test, the opening of the L/C, the obtaining of export/import license, etc.

13. With the written consent of both contracting parties, under the 13. Cu acordul scris al ambelor pri contractante, n condiiile conditions of the hereby contract, anticipated delivery is allowed. prezentului contract, se vor putea efectua i livrri cu anticipaie. 14. The Seller binds to pack the goods in proper packaging to 14. Vnztorul se oblig s ambaleze mrfurile n ambalaje allow the transportation of the goods in such a manner as not to adecvate care s permit transportarea mrfurilor de o asemenea cause damage for the Buyer. The merchandise is sold with the manier nct s nu-l pgubeasc pe cumprtor. Mrfurile se packaging which thus is transferred to the Buyers property. The vnd mpreun cu ambalajele care trec n proprietatea price of the packaging is included in the price of the merchandise. cumprtorului. n preul mrfurilor a fost inclus i contravaloarea ambalajelor. 15. The Seller binds to deliver clearly marked, labeled and 15. Vnztorul se oblig s predea mrfurile marcate, etichetate i stamped goods according to legal requirements and safety timbrate potrivit cerinelor legale i msurilor de siguran care measures related to the security of the goods, etc. se impun referitoare la securitatea mrfurilor, etc. 16. Unless otherwise agreed in writing, the delivery period shall

16. Dac nu se precizeaz diferit n scris, perioada de livrare va ncepe la ultima din datele urmtoare: (i) data la care comanda este confirmat; (ii) data la care Cumprtorul a ndeplinit toate cerinele tehnice, comerciale i de alt natur care cad n sarcina sa; (iii) data la care Vnztorul primete plata avansului sau a unei garanii nainte de livrarea bunurilor.

begin to run on the latest of the following dates: (i) date on which the order is confirmed; (ii) date on which Buyer has complied with all technical, commercial and other requirements that fall to Buyer's responsibility; (iii) date on which Seller receives a downpayment or a security payable before delivery of the goods.

17. The delivery period shall have been deemed as complied with 17. Perioada de livrare se presupune a fi respectat dac, nainte if, prior to its expiry, the goods ordered have left the works or de data expirrii sale, bunurile comandate au prsit fabrica sau readiness for dispatch has been notified. dac disponibilitatea de expediere a fost notificat Cumprtorului. 18. The party ordering the goods is entitled to withdraw from the agreement in case of delayed delivery or demand compensation if 18. Partea care comand bunurile are dreptul de a se retrage din the supplier is in default and if a reasonable deadline set by the contract n cazul unei livrri ntrziate sau s cear despgubiri party ordering the goods, combined with threat of refusal, has dac ntrzierea s-a produs din vina Vnztorului i dac o expired without results. perioad de graie rezonabil stabilit de Cumprtor, dublat de ameninarea unui refuz, a expirat fr niciun rezultat. 19. Unless expressly stated otherwise in Sellers Confirmation, all deliveries of Goods shall be Ex Works Sellers production facility 19. Dac nu se specific n mod diferit n Confirmarea or supplier production facility. The term Ex Works shall have the Vnztorului, toate livrrile bunurilor vor fi Ex Works de la meaning set forth in the latest version of INCOTERMS published fabrica Vnztorului sau locul de producie al furnizorului. by the International Chamber of Commerce at Paris, France, at Termenul Ex Works va avea semnificaia stabilit n ultima the time of Sellers Confirmation. Customer shall accept the versiune INCOTERMS publicat de Camera Internaional de Goods upon delivery. Comer, Paris, Frana, la momentul Confirmrii Vnztorului. Toate contractele comerciale trebuie s conin indicaii clare n ceea ce privete livrarea: locul de livrare, momentul livrrii, efectele ntrzierilor la livrare, regulile privind cantitile livrate, livrarea n trane precum i acceptarea bunurilor. All commercial contracts should contain clear indications with respect to delivery: place of delivery, time of delivery, effect of late delivery, rules as to quantities delivered, delivery by installments as well as acceptance of goods.

20. Dac nu se specific diferit n Confirmarea Vnztorului, 20. Unless expressly stated otherwise in Sellers Confirmation, datele de livrare ale Vnztorului sunt doar estimative i nu any times or dates for delivery by Seller are estimates and shall creeaz obligaii. Vnztorul are dreptul de a livra bunurile, dup not be of the essence. Seller is entitled to deliver the Goods as

cum se stipuleaz n Confirmarea Vnztorului, pe componente i poate factura separat. Vnztorul nu va fi rspunztor pentru nicio ntrziere n livrare, n nicio situaie. ntrzierile la livrarea oricror bunuri nu va exonera Cumprtorul de obligaia sa de a accepta livrarea. Variaii ale cantitilor bunurilor livrate fa de cele stipulate n Confirmarea Vnztorului nu vor da dreptul Cumprtorului de a nu accepta bunurile.

stated in Sellers Confirmation in parts and to invoice separately. In no event shall Seller be liable for any delay in delivery. Delay in delivery of any Goods shall not relieve Customer of its obligation to accept delivery thereof. Deviations in quantity of Goods delivered from that stated in Sellers Confirmation shall not give Customer the right not to accept the Goods.

21. Each delivery shall stand as a separate transaction and any 21. Fiecare livrare va fi considerat ca o tranzacie separat i failure to deliver shall have no consequences for other deliveries. nerealizarea unei livrri nu va avea nicio consecin asupra 22. If Purchaser defaults in payment in the context of other celorlalte livrri. contracts between Purchaser and Seller, Seller is entitled to detain 22. Dac cumprtorul ntrzie plata n contextul altor contracte delivery under this contract for the duration of default, prior dintre Cumprtor i Vnztor, Vnztorul are dreptul de a opri notice to Purchaser provided. This shall not apply in case of livrarea agreat prin prezentul contract pe durata ntrzierii, cu minor outstanding payment. condiia notificrii prealabile a Cumprtorului. Aceasta situaie nu se aplic n cazul restanelor minore la plat. 23. In case of a petition to open insolvency proceedings, Seller is 23. n cazul unei cereri de deschidere a procedurii de insolven, entitled to detain delivery until full payment has been made or Vnztorul are dreptul de a reine livrarea pn cnd se face plata until Purchaser furnishes appropriate security. Furthermore, Seller integral sau pn cnd Cumprtorul depune o garanie pe is entitled to claim full payment and after futile expiration of a msur. Mai mult, Vnztorul poate pretinde plata preului reasonable extension of time granted by Seller to withdraw from integral i dup scurgerea unei perioade rezonabile de timp the contract unless Purchaser furnishes adequate security on acordat de Vnztor poate rezilia contractul dac Cumprtorul Sellers demand. nu ofer o garanie satisfctoare la cererea Vnztorului. 24. Way of delivery and packaging type are at Sellers sole 24. Modalitatea de livrare si ambalarea sunt la alegerea discretion. Vnztorului. 25. Delivery shall be deemed as accepted if and to the extent of 25. Livrarea va fi considerat acceptat dac i n msura n care: which: - dup livrare Cumprtorul vinde articolele livrate sau permite - after delivery Buyer sells the delivery items to or lets them being utilizarea acestora de ctre tere pri; used by third parties, or - articolele livrate sunt folosite mai mult dect n scopul testrii de - the delivery items are used beyond simple testing by Buyer or

ctre Cumprtor sau tere pri sau dac third parties, or - Cumprtorul aprob procesarea articolelor livrate precum i - Purchaser approves processing of the delivery items as well as amestecarea lor cu alte articole. their mixing with other items. 26. n cazul n care Cumprtorul ntrzie acceptarea sau ncalc din vina sa alte obligaii contractuale, Vnztorul are dreptul de a cere compensaii pentru pierderile astfel cauzate, inclusiv costuri suplimentare posibile. 26. In case Purchaser may be in default of acceptance or culpably infringes upon other contractual duties of contribution, Seller is entitled to demand compensation of damage arising therewith, including possible additional expenditure.

27. Acceptarea va fi considerat ca final dup 30 zile de la 27. Acceptance shall be presumed conclusively to have occurred livrarea produsului ctre Cumprtor, dac Cumprtorul nu a thirty (30) days following delivery of product to Buyer, unless Buyer has accepted the product prior to that date. acceptat produsul anterior acestei date. 28. Ne rezervm dreptul de a modifica designul sau forma, cu condiia ca obiectul livrrii s nu fie schimbat de o manier inacceptabil pentru Cumprtor i cu condiia ca modificarea s aib la baz mbuntiri tehnice. 28. We reserve the right to modify the design and shape, provided that the subject matter of the delivery is not altered in a manner unreasonable for the buyer and that the modification is based on technical improvements.

The whole chapter, as well as other valuable information generically referred to as Business English (including, among others, information related to the set-up of a company in Romania/U.S./U.K, commercial correspondence, accounting or banking) can be found in A Comprehensive Business English Usage for Romanian Professionals, to be published in 2012.

Practice Based on the provisions above, find the right translations for the following Romanian words and phrases, commonly met in legal documents: numit n continuare a respecta clauzele contractului cumprtorul se oblig s la data scadent datorie restant a intra n vigoare a semna un contract prin derogare de la ataat() la prezentul contract a nclca obligaiile contractuale persoan fizic penaliti de ntrziere impozit/tax/comision acreditiv documentar n conformitate cu execuia contractului n termen de 3 zile cu acordul anterior scris al vnztorului nerespectarea de ctre cumprtor a termenului de plat pe rol Translate into English, paying attention to the use of simple or progressive present: 1. Ce se ntmpl cnd semnezi un contract fr s consuli un avocat? 2. Reducerea cheltuielilor pare o idee bun, dar nu ajut prea mult. 3. De ci bani ai nevoie? 100 euro sunt de ajuns? 4. Mi se ntmpl mereu s uit cuvinte de baz din limba englez. 5. Ascult tirile i m gndesc la viitorul firmelor mici i mijlocii din Romnia.

6. Nu este nicio problem, ajungem i acolo. 7. Nu lucrez nicieri n prezent, dar sper s m angajez n curnd. 8. Ct consum maina ta? 9. Lucrez la o firm de consultan n domeniul financiar-contabil. 10. Nu se ntmpl nimic dac ntrzii. 11. Cunotinele mele de francez sunt mai limitate dect acum 10 ani. 12. V asigurm garanie pentru 12 luni de la data achitrii integrale a produsului. 13. De ce nu ai mai mult grij cu documentele importante ale firmei? 14. Cum ajut ministerul firmele mici? 15. Nu mi se pare corect s muncesc mai mult dar s primesc mai puin dect ceilali angajai. Useful idioms: (to) bite the bullet: to make a difficult decision; to take a difficult step. (to) test the waters: to try something out before committing to it, to see what the response or outcome will be to an intended action. good call: a good decision tough call: a difficult decision, something difficult to predict. my gut tells me: my intuition tells me, I have a strong feeling that. (to) make it up to someone: to do something to compensate one for the trouble nothing ventured, nothing gained: if you dont try something, youll never succeed. (to) roll up ones sleeves: to get ready to start something, to prepare to do something. (to) give ones best shot: to make ones best efforts to get something done; to try to do something even though youre not sure of the success. out of touch with reality: unrealistic, not aware of whats really going on. Match the words below with the right sentence: defendant, plaintiff/claimant, affirms, find for, appeal, reverses, court of appeals (appellate court) 1. The person who brings an action in a court of law is called the ................ 2. A court which hears appeals from lower courts is called an ......... or a .............. 3. To bring a case before a higher court so that it can review the decision of a lower court is to ................... a case. 4. When a case is decided in favor of a certain party, the court ............... that party.

5. The person against whom an action is brought in a court of law is known as the ......... 6. When a court states that a judgment of lower court is true, it .......... that judgment. 7. When a court changes the judgment of a lower court to its opposite, it ....... that judgment. Use the correct prefix for the adjectives. Use any of the negative forms below -ir, -un, -in, -im, -dis -valid -complete -reasonable -satisfactory -correct -foreseeable -lawful -satisfied -reconciliable -affected -effective -partial -confirmed Pay attention to the translation of the term avocat in English. Fill in the gaps with the right choice: lawyer, attorney, attorney-at-law, solicitor, barrister ........is a general term which we use to refer to someone who has learnt the law and has a license to practice. In the U.S., lawyers are often called ..... or ....... In England and Wales, the legal profession is not unified, so a distinction between ....., who have rights of audience in only some courts, and ...... who specialize in advocacy (the art of presenting cases in court) and who have a right of audience in all courts. Generally, a .... will consult with his or her client and prepare a brief. This brief is then passed on to a ..... who will present the case in court.

Identify in the right column the legal version of the plain English words in the left column: 1. invalid 2. give back 3. in place of 4. promise 5. have the right to 6. agreement 7. holiday 8. terms 9. begin 10. length (of time) 1. surrender 2. undertake 3. be entitled to 4. provisions 5. inoperative 6. in lieu of 7. consent 8. duration 9. commence 10. leave

Fill in the gaps using the verbs below and then translate the text into Romanian: are tried is brought is committed is fined is punished is put is resolved was caused A crime is a wrong which ......against society. The wrongdoer .........: he or she ............... in prison or ......... a sum of money. A tort, on the other hand, is a wrong which ........ against an individual. The injured party can sue the wrongdoer and receive damages from the court. Criminal sanctions exist to make society safer and to keep people from committing certain acts. Tort remedies exist to make the injured party whole again for the harm which ...... by the wrongdoer. A key difference between the two is that a crime requires a criminal intent (mens rea), whereas a tort can result without intent to cause harm on the wrongdoers part. Crimes ..... in the criminal courts. An action ...... by a governmental body against the wrongdoer. A tort, conversely, ........in the civil courts: the injured party brings an action against the wrongdoer.

Alcaraz, E. & Hughes, B. Legal Translation Explained. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing, 2002, p. 5 Vezi de exemplu: http://bogdantodoran.wordpress.com/expresii-juridice-latine/ iii Tiersma, P. Legal Language, London, The University of Chicago Press, 1999, p. 95. iv Crystal D & Davy D. Investigating English Style, New York, Longman, 1986, p. 213. v Sabra, A. M. M. Translation of Contracts, The American University of Cairo, 1995, p. 31
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Furmston, Michael. Principles of Commercial Law, 2nd edition, Cavendish Publishing Limited, 2001, p. 18 Alcaraz, E. & Hughes, B. Legal Translation Explained. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing, 2002, p. 5 viii Tiersma, P. Legal Language, London, The University of Chicago Press, 1999, p. 95. ix Crystal D & Davy D. Investigating English Style, New York, Longman, 1986, p. 213. x Sabra, A. M. M. Translation of Contracts, The American University of Cairo, 1995, p. 31 xi Furmston, Michael. Principles of Commercial Law, 2nd edition, Cavendish Publishing Limited, 2001, p. 18
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