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VL402 Electro Magnetic Interference & Compatibility in Design.

(common for M.Sc.(Tech.) VLSI Design and M.Sc.(Tech.) DSP & ESD)

EMI ENVIRONMENT: Sources of EMI, conducted and radiated EMI, Transient EMI, EMI EMC definitions and units parameters. EMI Coupling Principles conducted, Radiated and Transient Coupling, Common impedance Ground Coupling, Radiated Common Mode and Ground loop coupling , Radiated Differential mode coupling, Near field cable to cable to coupling, Power mains and power supply coupling. EMI SPECIFICATION/ STANDARDS / LIMITS : Units of specification, civilian standards Military standards. EMI MEASUREMENT: EMI Test Instruments, Systems, EMI test, EMI shielded chamber. Open Area test site, TEM Cell Antennas, Conductors Sensors / Injectors /Couplers, Military test methods and Procedures, Calibration Producers. EMI CONTROL TECHNIQUES : Shielding, Filtering,Grounding , Bonding, Isolation Transformer, Transient Suppressors, Cable Routing , Signal control, Component selection and Mounting. EMI DESIGN OF PCB : PCB Traces Cross Talk, Impedance control, Power Distribution Decoupling, Zoning Mother board Design and Propagation delay performance models.

REFERENCE BOOKS: 1.. Bernhard Keiser Principles of Electromagnetic Compatibility, Artech House, #rd Ed, 1986. 2. Henry W. Ott., Noise education Techniques in Electronic System, John Wiley and Sons, New York,1988. 3. V.P.Kodali, Engineering EMC Prnciples, Measurements and Technologies, IEEE Press,1996.


Department of System Design Andhra University

Chapter-1 EMI Environment

Source of EMI, Conducted and Radiated EMI, Transient EMI, EMI-EMC definitions and units of parameters, EMI Coupling Principles, Conducted, Radiated, and Transient Coupling, Common Impedance Ground Coupling, Radiated common mode and ground loop coupling, Power mains and power supply coupling.

By M. Hareesh Babu

EMI Environment

ntroduction: The electromagnetic environment is an integral part of the world in which we live. Various apparatus such as Radio and television broadcasting stations, communication transmitters, and other radar and navigational aids radiates electromagnetic energy during their normal operations. These are intentional radiations of electromagnetic energy into the environment. Many appliances, such as Automobile ignition systems and industrial control equipment systems used in everyday life also emit electromagnetic energy although these emissions are not an essential part of normal operations. The electromagnetic environment created by these intentional and unintentional sources, when sufficiently strong, interferes with the operation of the electrical and electronic equipment and systems. The interference from the electromagnetic environment began to gain recognition as a subject of practical importance in the 1920s. With the beginning of the radio broadcast transmission, the interference from radio noise (also called electromagnetic noise) was viewed with concern by the manufactures of electric power equipment electric utility companies in the United States. What is EMI: An electromagnetic disturbance is any electromagnetic phenomenon which may degrade the performance of a device, or an equipment, or a system. The electromagnetic disturbance can be in the nature of an electromagnetic noise, or an unwanted signal, or a change in the propagation medium itself. Electromagnetic interference is a disturbance that affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic conduction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source. (or EMI, also called radio frequency interference or RFI). The disturbance may interrupt, obstruct, or otherwise degrade or limit the effective performance of the circuit. The words electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio interference (RFI) are sometimes used interchangeably, this is not correct. Radio frequency interference is the degradation in the reception of a wanted signal caused by radio frequency disturbance, which is an electromagnetic disturbance having components in the radio frequency range.

PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES AND CONCERNS Today we use a greater variety and number of apparatus and appliances which generate EMI, these apparatus, appliances, and systems are also the victim of EMI. Also, the use of semiconductors and operate circuits and systems using lower power supply levels to electromagnetic interference, being susceptible to malfunction or burnout. The EMI is experienced in many new ways and situation. Some examples of practical experiences in the recent past are briefly described in the following. 1. Transmission Lines High-voltage electric power transmission lines are a source of electric and magnetic fields in the their immediate vicinity. Such power transmission lines usually carry voltages in excess of 100 kV and currents of more then 100A.

Above figure shows the electric field at ground level under a 525 kV power transmission line located about 10 m above the ground. It is seen from the data that high electric field intensities at midspan under electric power transmission lines carrying different voltages. High-intensity electric and magnetic fields also exist in the immediate vicinity of surface-to-submarine extremely low frequency communication stations and radio or television transmitters. Such high-

intensity fields can cause unintentional activation or explosion of electro explosive devices, apart from presenting radiation hazards to humans. 2. Switches and Relays The electric discharges associated with the make or brake operation of an electrical switch or a relay in telephone circuits or control instrumentation can cause electromagnetic interference. This is a real-life problem in telephone circuits and in radio telescope and other highsensitivity control and telecommand circuits, where ultra-low-level signals are handled. 3. Biological Effects The effects of electric and magnetic fields on biological systems and human beings are a subject of considerable concern and investigation. There are two types of concerns about the exposure of humans to high-intensity electromagnetic fields. One of these relates to the steady-state current induced in the human body as a result of its exposure to electric/magnetic fields for a long period of time. A second concern is about the surging of shock current through the body when a person located in a high-intensity field touches an insulated metallic object such as a motor vehicle which is also located in the same electric field. 4. Aircraft Navigation Most recently, gross navigational errors were observed in omega navigation instruments of a passenger airplane which was on a flight from Newark to Saint Marten. The reading of the instruments disagreed with each other and was inconsistent in time and heading with the last known position of the plane. Subsequent investigation pointed to the source of error-causing EMI as a portable television set being watched by a passenger. In yet another incident, the operation of a laptop computer by a passenger was found to interfere seriously with the navigation equipment of the aircraft during takeoff and landing. 5. Integrated Circuits Integrated circuits, which are today extensively used in many instruments or apparatus, including information technology products, suffer the most from EMI. In extreme cases, EMI may cause burnout of such devices. In circuits involving digital signal, the effect of EMI could

be one of increasing the bit error rate or malfunctioning of the circuits. In case of analog signals, EMI increases the noise level and leads to a degrade operation of circuits and systems. SOURCES OF EMI The electromagnetic interference source may be any object, artificial or natural, that carries rapidly changing electrical currents, such as an electrical circuit, the Sun or the Northern Lights. (or) The source of electromagnetic interference is both natural and human-made. Natural sources include sun and stars, as well as phenomena such as atmospherics, lightning, thunderstorms, and electrostatic discharge. This electromagnetic interference is also generated during the practical use of a verity of electrical, electronic, and electromechanical apparatus. The below table gives a list of several source of electromagnetic interference.

Electromagnetic Noise
| --------------------------------------------------------| |

Equipment noise

Natural noise

( EMI in circuits & systems) _______|_______ | | | | Systems Circuits & components Terrestrial Celestial Communication Local oscillators Atmospherics cosmic/galactic Radar/navigation Switches Lightning noise Equipment Motors Electrostatic discharge solar noise Automobile ignition Filters Industrial equipment Relays Fluorescent tubes Non-linear ckt elements Home appliancesMagnetic armatures -Such as Logic & Digital gates Mixers, Electric shavers

Depending on mode of interference, EMI or RFI may be broadly categorized into two types. Source


Conducted Radiated EMI



Radiated EMI or RFI may be broadly categorized into two types; 1. Narrowband and 2. Broadband. Narrowband interference usually arises from intentional transmissions such as radio and TV stations, pager transmitters, cell phones, etc. Broadband interference usually comes from incidental radio frequency emitters. These include electric power transmission lines, electric motors, thermostats, bug zappers, etc Anywhere electrical power is being turned off and on rapidly is a potential source. The spectra of these sources generally resemble that of synchrotron sources, stronger at low frequencies and diminishing at higher frequencies, though this noise is often modulated, or varied, by the creating device in some way. Included in this category are computers and other digital equipment as well as televisions. The rich harmonic content of these devices means that they can interfere over a very broad spectrum. Characteristic of broadband RFI is an inability to filter it effectively once it has entered the receiver chain.

Conducted EMI Conducted Electromagnetic Interference is caused by the physical contact of the conductors as opposed to radiated EMI which is caused by induction (without physical contact of the conductors). Electromagnetic disturbances in the EM field of a conductor will no longer be confined to the surface of the conductor and will radiate away from it. This persists in all conductors and mutual inductance between two radiated electromagnetic fields will result in EMI. Celestial Electromagnetic Noise It is well know that celestial bodies like the sun, stars, and galaxy are at a very high temperature. The electromagnetic radiation from these bodies can be attributed to the random motion of charged ions resulting from thermal ionization at very high temperatures. These heated parts of the celestial bodies emit thermal noise. The characteristics of such emissions depend upon the temperature attained by these bodies. The sources of extraterrestrial emission have an approximately continuous as well as discrete distribution. Potential sources of discrete emission are the sun, moon, and Jupiter. They emit broadband as well as narrowband electromagnetic noise. Radiation from the sun changes drastically during solar flares and sunspot activity. Continuous sources like the galaxy normally emit broadband electromagnetic noise. A spectral distribution of celestial electromagnetic noise is shown in the below figure. The level of electromagnetic noise emitted by a cosmic source does not vary appreciably with time, unless the source itself undergoes a change which results in a corresponding variation in the emitted electromagnetic noise. However, the cosmic noise received at a given point on the earth varies with the time of the day because earth rotates around the sun and also revolves around its own axis.

Electromagnetic Compatibility Electromagnetic Compatibility is a the branch of electrical sciences which studies the unintentional generation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy with reference to the unwanted effects (Electromagnetic interference, or EMI). The goal of EMC is the correct operation, in the same electromagnetic environment, of different equipment which use electromagnetic phenomena, and the avoidance of any interference effects.
How to achieve this EMC

To achieve this, EMC pursues two different kinds of issues


related to the unwanted generation of electromagnetic energy by some source, and to the countermeasures which should be taken in order to reduce such generation and to avoid the escape of any remaining energies into the external environment . Susceptibility of Immunity: refer to the correct operation of electrical equipment, referred to as the victim, in the presence of unplanned electromagnetic disturbances. Principles and Types of Coupling Paths: These are Basically 4 types. 1. 2. 3. 4. Transmitter-to-Transmitter EMI (via Antenna) Coupling. Common mode or Common Impedance Ground Coupling. Differential Mode Coupling. Power Line Coupling.

Chapter 2