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CHAPTER1

Hans Oersted Relationship of magnetism and electricity that served as the foundation of theory for electromagnets Most important electrical effect is the magnetic effect Michael Faraday Theory of electromagnetic induction Current Carrying conductor would move when placed in a magnetic field James Maxwell Andre Ampere Kamerlingh Onnes Faradays Law Faradays 1st Law Faradays 2nd Law Coulumbs 1st Law Coulumbs 2nd Law Childs Law Wiedmann-Franz Law Curies Law Curie-Weiss Law Ewings theory of Ferromagnetism Amperes Theorem Right hand rule End Rule Helix Rule Unit Pole Magnetic Pole Magnetic Axis Dia Para Electromagnetic Theory of light Demonstrated that there are magnetic effects around every current carrying conductor and that these conductors act like a magnet Superconductivity Whenever a conductor cuts a magnetic flux, an emf is induced in it The magnitude of induced emf is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux linkages Whenever the flux linking a coil or current changes, an emf is induced in it Force between 2 magnetic poles is directly proportional to their strengths Force between 2 magnetic poles id inversely proportional to the distance between them Current in a thermionic diode varies directly with the three halves power of anode voltage and inversely with the square of distance between the electrodes Ratio of the thermal conductivity to the electric conductivity is directly proportional to the absolute temp for all metals The magnetic susceptibilities of most paramagnetic materials are inversely proportional to their absolute temperatures Law relating the M and E susceptibilities and the absolute temperature Theory of ferromagnetic phenomena which assumes each atom is a permanent magnet which can turn freely about its center under the influence of applied fields and magnets States that a current flowing in a circuit produces a magnetic field at external points equivalent to that due to a magnetic shell whose bounding edge is the conductor and whose strength is equal to the strength of current Also called corkscrew rule If looking at any one end of a solenoid, the direction of current is found to be clockwise then the end under observation is a south pole If a solenoid is held by the right hand with the fingers pointing to the direction of the current flow, the outstretched thumb will point to the north pole A pole which when placed in air from a similar and equal pole repels it with a force of 1/4pi newtons Point in a magnet where the intensity of the magnetic lines of force is max Straight Line passing through 2 poles of a magnet Ur<1 Ur>1 U<Uo ; air, H, bismuth, gold, antimony, copper, zinc, mercury, silver U>Uo ; aluminum, platinum, manganese, chromium, oxygen

Greatest % of materials Ferro 10^-10 m 10^-15 to 10^-16 m 1.1 x 10^-8 cm Permeance Coercivity Leakage Factor Intensity Magnetism Hysteresis Ferrites Air Gap Keeper Moving electrical charge Stationary Electrical Charges Uniform Current Carrying Wire Loop North revolution Domain Toroid Hall effect Ur>>1 U>>Uo ; cobalt Diameter of atom Diameter of atomic nucleus Diameter of Hydrogen Atom Reciprocal of Reluctance / Analogous to conductance Amount of magnetizing force to counter balance the residual magnetism Ratio of flux in iron to flux in air (iba iba yung tawag sa book at sa coaching) The flux density produced in it due to its own magnetism Lag between B and H Non metallic materials that have ferromagnetic properties Air space between magnets Used to maintain the strength of magnetic field Where all magnetic field originates from Magnetic field does not interact with this Magnetic field inside a solenoid Resembles the magnetic field of a bar magnet A current is flowing east along a power line. If the earths field is neglected, the direction of the magnet below it is When a wire loop is rotated in a magnetic field, the direction of the induced emf changes every Group of magnetically aligned atoms Electromagnet with its core is in the form of a close magnetic ring Small voltages generated by a conductor with current in an external magnetic field Effect which is generally used in the gaussmeter to measure flux density Edison effect Wiegand effect Wall Effect Bridgman effect Hydrogen Emission of e- from hot bodies Ability of a mechanically stressed ferromagnetic wire to recognize rapid switching of magnetization when subjected by a dc magnetic field Contribution to the ionization in an ionization chamber by e- from the walls Phenomenon when current passes through an aristropic crystal, there is an absorption of heat due to the non uniformity in current distribution Simples atom to exist; it is a diamagnetic material

Germanium Atomic Mass Atomic Number 72.6 28.09 # of protons Copper Metallic bonding Motor Action Flux linkages Electron Volt (eV) Joule, Watt-sec, KW-h KW-h Ion Thermionic emission Amber Plasma Exclusion Principle Pauli Exclusion Principle Radio Freq Ohms Law Crystalline Solid Amorphous Permits mechanical Clearance Van der Waals Bond Atomic Packing Factor Madelung Constant Creepage Aurora 1.15 to 1.25 Astrionic Air Soft iron Using material with narrow hysteresis loop Silicon steel Unlimited Ohm-m Siemens / Mhos Siemens/m Resistivity Temperature 2 Wb/m^2 insulators

32p+, 32e- and 40n = 72Ge32 = (AtomicWeightGeAtomicnumber) Sum of proton and neutrons (di ko sure pero eto nakalagay e) # of protons or # of electrons Ge exact atomic weight Si exact atomic weight at 300K Determines the atomic # of an element 34n Atom bonding due to the force of attraction between groups of + ion and ion Physical motion resulting from the forces of magnetic field = flux x # of turns Customary energy unit in atomic and nuclear physics Units of electrical energy Practical unit for electrical energy An atom or group of atoms carrying a net electrical charge Evaporation of e- from a heated surface Greek word for electron Charged Gases Principle that states that each e- in an atom must have a different set of quantum numbers Principle that states that only 2 e- with differebt spins are allowed to exist in a given orbit Common application if an air-cored choke For linear circuits (AC,DC) One of the solid structures in which the position of the atoms or ins are predetermined Solid with no defined crystal structure; also called non-crystalline Reason for air gaps between rotor and stator Formed when there exist distant electronic interaction between opposite charges present in the neighboring atoms or molecules Measures compactness of crystal = atom volume/cell volume Corrects the electrostatic forces of the more distant ions in an ionic solid Conduction of electricity across the surface of a a dielectric Corona discharge Leakage coef for electrical machines Science of adapting electronics to aerospace flight Has straight BH curve passing through the origin BH curve not straight Reduces hysteresis loss Least hysteresis loop area # of compounds in nature SI unit for specific resistance SI / CGS for conductance SI for conductivity For Conductors Typical saturation flux density for most magnetic materials Temp coefficient of resistance is NEGATIVE; Temp coefficient of resistance is directly proportional to T; R is inversely proportional to T Temp coefficient resistance is NEGATIVE Temp coefficient resistance is POSITIVE; Temp coefficient of resistance is inversely proportional to T; R is directly proportional to T Dependent on nature and temp of material Tells how much the R changes for a change in T Manganin, Tungsten Filament Electrolytes, carbon Temp coef of resistance of pure gold Temp coef of resistance of silver Temp coef of resistance of lead Eurekas Temp coefficient resistance Ohms law cannot be applied to this material Hot R = ___x Cold R A body under ordinary conditions Another name for relative permitivitty Another name fore Dielectric Strength (V/mil) Another name for permeability Relationship of Eo and Uo and c (light velocity)

semiconductors conductors

Temp coefficient resistance + temp coef - temp coef .0034 .0038 .0039 Almost 0 Silicon Carbibe 10x Neutral Dielectric constant or Specific Inductive Capacity Breakdown Volatage Magnetic conductivity 1/(oo) = c2

1 and 10 Mica Porcelain Earphones Motors + to - to + W VAR VA Power factor Reactive factor Voltage Magnification Factor Current Magnification Factor Voltage Resonance Current Resonance Ionization Current ELI ICE ELI by exactly 90 deg ICE by exactly 90 deg ELI by less than 90 deg ICE by less than 90 deg Reactance = 0 0.707 Gang Capacitor Trimmer Capacitor 55 ohm-cm 60 ohm-cm 55 ohm-cm Leading or Lagging Leading pf Lagging pf Separation of the half power points Effective Value Faradic current Stray Capacitance 1.73 Triangular Wave Independent to each other Appliances have different current ratings Sinusoidal Square wave Ideal Current Source (parallel r) Ideal Voltage Source (series r) Ideal Ammeter (in series to the circuit) Ideal Voltmeter (in // to the circuit) Resonance Curve Reactance Chart Edge Effect The narrower the passband Internal Heating Phase 3.7K It has a varying magnetic field Exponential Law Sinewaves

Dielectric constant of most materials Insulating material used in an electric ion Insulating material used in voltage transformers Uses permanent magnets Uses temporary magnets

CHAPTER2
Conventional Flow Electron Flow P true power Q reactive power S apparent power Cos = P/S Sin = Q/S Q Factor of Series resonant circuit Q factor of // Resonant Circuit Series Resonance Parallel Resonace Results from free electrons Series Resonace / Acceptor Circuit Parallel Resonance / Rejector Circuit Pure inductance Pure capacitance RL RC If I and V are in phase for an AC circuit Current is ____ times the max current at half power points of a resonance curve Variable Capacitor which the C is varied by varying the plate area A variable capacitor in which C is varied by changing distance between plates Specific resistance of pure Ge Resistivity of pure Ge under standard conditions Specific resistance of pure Si Power factor of series RLC at its half power points Capacitive Load Inductive Load Meaning of BW in series RLC Most important value of a sinewave An intermittent and non symmetrical alternating current like that obtained from the secondary winding of an induction coil Capacitance that exists not through design but because 2 conducting surfaces are relatively close to each other Peak factor of a triangular wave Peakiest waveform Reason for // connection of appliances in homes Reason why not in series connection of appliances in homes Most popular waveform Most common non sinusoidal waveform Infinite internal resistance Zero internal conductance Zero internal Resistance Infinite internal conductance R is 0 R is infinite Frequency VS Current Estimates the resonant freq and to find the reactance at any freq for any value of C or I Refers to the outward curving distortion of the lines of force near the edges of 2 // metal plates that form a capacitor (For Series RLC), the higher the Q Leakage resistance in a capacitor results to The_____ of an alternating quantity is defined as the fractional part of a period or cycle through w/c the quantity has advanced from a selected origin Metal tin becomes a superconductor at this temp Reason why AC can induce voltage Charging of capacitor through a resistance obeys _______ The factor 0.707 for converting peak to rms applies only to _____

Joule Breakdown Voltage Blocks DC current 47 ohms Electrolytic capacitor

Term to express the amount of electrical energy stored in a electrostatic field Refers to the lowest voltage across any insulator that can cause current flow Capacitor Preferred value of resistor (among the choices which are 520, 43K and 54K) Most suited for dc filter circuits; Highest cost per uF; Only Capacitor used in DC circuits; Used in Transistor amplifiers Used air dielectric Also called ceramic Max voltage that can be applied across a capacitor for a short period of time It is used as the reference phasor for // AC circuits Disadvantage of wirewound resistors Most common material for wirewound Indicated by the first band for a 5band method of capacitor color coding Determines the magnitude of an electric current Means that the energy stored in the magnetic field of the coil is 10x the energy wasted in the resistance Neon lamp ionizes at approx _____ Switch designed to have low capacitance between terminals when open Resister wound with a wire doubled back on itself to reduce inductance Fusion of elements without chemical action between them Used in calculating max instantaneous power Used in calculating Vave Happened when movable plates of gang capacitor overlaps the fixed plates Used for analysis of Vacuum tubes Rotating vector whose projection can represent either current or voltage

Variable Capacitor Barium Strontium Titanite Dielectric Surge Voltage Voltage It has reactance in radio freq circuits Manganin Temp coef Rate at which electrons pas a given point Q of 10 770V Anticapacitance Switch Bifilar Resistor Alloy Vpeak Vrms Maximum capacitance Thevenins Theorem Phasor 1 8 e32 p+ More slowly Intrinsic semiconductor Extrinsic semiconductor 2mV/C Piecewise Linear Model Diffusion and drift Diffusion Drift Current Carrier Drift Zener and Avalance Effects Zener Breakdown Avalanche Breakdown

CHAPTER3
# of e- in 4th orbit of copper atom Each atom in a Si Crystal has _____ in its valence orbit Silicon Atom has ____ e- in the largest orbit travel _______ than the e- in smaller orbits Pure Semiconductor Doped semiconductor; 2 Ohm-cm = resistivity For Ge or Si diodes, the barrier potential decreases _____ A diode modeling circuit which considers the threshold voltage, Rave and switch as the diodes equivalent 2 mechanisms by which holes and electrons move through a Si crystal Random motion due to thermal agitation in the movement of h+ and e- in a Si crystal Happens when charges are forced to move the electric field of a potential difference Mechanism for carrier motion in semicon Two possible breakdown mechanism in PN jxn diodes Electric field in the depletion layer increases to the point where it can break covalent bonds and generate electron-hole pairs (In semiconductors) this takes place when the reverse bias exceeds a certain value; Happens when the minority carriers that cross the depletion region under the influence of the electric field gain sufficient KE to be able to break covalent bonds in atoms Occurs are higher reverse voltages Is the forward bias capacitance of a diode Amount of time between the creation and disappearance of a free electron Annihilation of e- and h+; Merging of e- and h+ Time taken by e- or h+ to pass from emitter to collector Time taken by a diode to operate in the reverse to forward condition; Time it takes to turn off a FB diode; = storage time + transition interval from F to R bias At room temp, silicon acts like a ______ Gallium Arsenide, Alluminum Arsenide and Gallium Phosphide are classified as ______Purpose of adding impurities Silicon doped with trivalent impurity; Holes are majority carriers Silicon doped with pentavalent impurity; Electrons are majority carriers

Avalance effect Diffusion or Storage Capacitance Lifetime Recombination Transit time Reverse recovery time

Insulator Compound Semicon Increase electric conductivity Ptype semicon Ntype semicon

Trivalent Atom Pentavalent Atom N type P Type PN crystal

Acceptor Atom; Boron, Indium, Gallium, Donor Atom; Phosphorus, Arsenic, Antimony, Bimsuth Forms when the # of free e- in a doped semiconductor is increased; Forms when pentavalent atom is added Forms when the # of free e- in a doped semiconductor is reduced Forms when trivalent atom is added Other name for Jxn Diode; Commonly rated by its PIV and max forward current; Max forward current is limited by Jxn Temperature Each pair of + and ions at the jxn is called _____ Inversely proportional to temp Creation of free electrons through a zener effect Zener effect depends on this Most impt diode parameter which gives the current value a diode can handle without burning Maximum reverse voltage that can be applied before current surges Tunnel Diode; Principal char is that it has negative resistance region; Widely used in oscillators, switching networks and pulse generators Most impt application is digital computers No depletion layer Sum of the P and N regions resistances; rB = (V-VT)/I Are transient suppressors Also known as epicap, varicap, voltage-variable capacitance, voltacaps; Used for tuning the Receivers and is normally operated at reverse biased Used metal cat whiskers as its anode; Classified as hot carrier diode Used in RF switches, attenuators and other phase switching devices If doping increases, ___________ Lightly doped semiconductors have ____ Typical bulk resistance of rectifier diodes The reverse bias diode capacitance is termed as ______ Equivalent to a optocoupler ; Typical operating current is 10mA; Voltage drop is 1.5V; Constructed using Gallium Arsenide; Gives light when FB A photodiode which conducts current only when FB and is exposed to light; Also called photodiode Solid state GaAs devices that emit a beam of radiant flux when FB Also known as optoisolator (for diodes) an equivalent ckt of a diode in which it is represented as a switch series with barrier potential (for diodes) an equivalent ckt of a diode in which it is represented as a switch in series with a resitance Needed for PMP voltage divider bias Halfwave signal (1/60Hz) Fullwave signal (1/120Hz) Max rectification efficiency of HW Max rectification efficiency of FW Highest Zin; Sometimes called Insulated Gate FET Has least noise level; Has higher Zin compared to BJT due to its input which is reverse biased Typical leakage current in a PN jxn Resistance of a FB PN jxn Shown on a data sheet that tells how much you have to reduce the power of a device Or Photodiffusion effect; The creation of voltage in a conductor or semicon by illumination of one surface Effect that occurs within the entire bilk of a semiconductor material rather than a localized jxn Increases the resistance of wires at high frequencies A cold cathode glow-discharge diode having a copper anode and a large cathode of sodium or other material A microwave diode in which the carriers that transverse the drift region are generated by minority carrier injection from a FB jxn instead of being extracted from the plasma of avalanche Multiple terminal solid state device similar to transistor that generates frequencies up to avout 10,000 Mhz by injecting e- or h+ into a space charge layer

Dipole Barrier Potential High field emission Intensity of electric field Forward current Reverse Breakdown Voltage Esaki Diode

Schotty Diode Shocklet Diode Bulk resistance VAristors Varactor Diode Point Contact diode PIN diode Bulk resistance decreases in semiconductors High Resistance Less than 1 ohm Transition region capacitance LED

LAD IR emitters Optocoupler Second approximation Third approximation Negative voltage supplies 16.7 ms 8.33 ms 40.6% 81.2 MOSFET FET uA Ohms Derating Factor Dember Effect Bulk Effect Skin Effect Anotron Diode BARITT Diode Spacistor

Zener Diode Voltage multiplier Photoconductive Cell Emitter Resistor Silicon % Ripple Ripple Voltage Holes

Principal char is that its voltage is constant under conditions of varying current; Used as a voltage regulator or reference voltage Converts AC to DC, where the DC output can be greater than the AC input Or Photoresitive device Most commonly used for biasing a bipolar jxn transistor Not a good conductor; Has the smallest leakage current = (Vac / Vdc) x 100 = (rZ / (rZ+rS)) x V As a general rule, _____ are found only on semiconductors; An incomplete part of an electron pair bond; Vacancy left by free electrons A nuclei with common # of p+ but different # of neutrons In power supplies, circuits that are employed in separating AC and DC components and bypass AC components around the load are called _______ Av is low and usually less than 1; Ai is High; input is in-phase with output; Employs 100% negative feedback; Used for impedance matching; Equivalent to CC amplifier Current controlled device; Largest region is the Collector Region Voltage controlled device; Has 5v pinch off voltage; FET transcoductance = IC/VGS ; Square Law Devices; At cut-off, the depletion layers are touching Converts DC power to AC power Made in large sized to disspate more heat Input is DC Converts DC power to AC power Equivalent if transistor at saturation in JFET is ______ Another name for MOSFET Easily damaged by static charges Used by FET (EMOSFET) to act as an amplifier Used by FET (EMOSFET) to act as a switch Coupling capacitor value in RC coupling; Coupling capacitor (Cc) must be high enough to prevent attenuation of low freq Point of intersection between a diode characteristic and a load line; Intersection of dc and ac load lines Measure of the ability of any LED to produce lumens per applied watt of energy Another name is Saturation Current A graphical representation in a transistor where the IE is plotted against the variable VEB for constant V CB A graphical representation in a transistor where the Ic is plotted against the variable VCB for constant IE Used in low level, low noise audio amplifiers to minimize hum pick up from stray magnetic fields Major advantage is permitting power to be transformed from the relatively high output impedance of the first stage to the relatively low input impedance of second stage From these conditions, it can be said that less # of electron-hole pair will be generated in Si than in Ge Electron mobility in silicon Invented feedback amplifier in 1928 Arrows in semiconductor symbols Conventional amplifier Structural category of a semiconductor diodes Turns on an enhancement-device Acts mostly as a FET; Can operate in D and E Can only operate in E Most important factor of a power transistor Most important consideration in power amplifiers Has a high frequency cut off due to its low inherent internal capacitance and low electron transit time Results when transistors are used as video amplifiers Break up of nuclei into nuclear fragments that are nuclei themselves Zero charge and zero mass Energy gap for insulators Energy gap for Si semiconductors

BJT / transistors FET

Transistors Power Transistors Power amplifiers Oscillators Ohmic IGFET CMOS Saturation region Triode region and Saturation Region 10uF Qpoint / OperatingPoint Luminous Efficacy Scale Current Input Char Curve Output Char Curve RC coupling Transformer Coupling 1.12eV(Si) and 0.72eV(Ge) 0.135 m2/V-s Harold Black Always points to N and away from P CE circuit Junction and Point Contact Threshold Voltage DMOSFET EMOSFET Heat dissipation Collector Efficiency Drift transistor Poor frequency response Fission Neutrino EG => 5eV EG = 1.1eV

EG => 0.67eV Bound Electrons 25mV 8.62 x 10^-5 eV/K Voltage divider Bias VGS(OFF) = VGS(ON) Beta Alpha

Energy gap for Ge semiconductors Tightly holds the 8 eThermal Voltage at room temp; Thermal voltage causes holes in intrinsic semiconsuctors Boltzman constant Preferred form of biasing a FET For N-channel EMOSFET CE gain = IC/IB CB gain = IC/IE

CHAPTER5
Collector has reverse bias Gain-BW product Logic probe Logic analyzer Oscillators Biasing AF transformer Amplitude Distortion Frequency RC coupling Reason why a transistor amplifier has high output impedance Considered as an amplifier figure of merit In an oscilloscope, it is used to indicate pulse condition in digital logic circuit Used to sample and display systems signal Produces undamped oscillations Establishes a fixed level of current or voltage in a transistor It is shielded to prevent induction due to stray magnetic fields Or harmonic distortion Ear is not sensitive to this To separate bias of 1 stage to another stage; Used for voltage amplification; Av is constant over mid frequencies; Most economic type of coupling; Not used to amplify extremely low freq because electrical size of the coupling capacitor becomes very large; Type of coupling used in the initial stage of a multistage amplifier; Used in power amplifiers; Provides high freq because DC resistance is low; Used when load resistance is very low; Type of coupling used in the final stage of an amplifier; Introduces frequency distortion; Most expensive type of coupling; Provides high gain because it employs impedance matching; Can be used either in Voltage or Power amplifiers Best freq response; Used to amplify dc signals in multistage amplifier; Achieves minimum interference in freq response Used in order to produce freq in the microwave region Used for impedance matching; It is also used as the output transformer in power amplifiers Disadvantage of impedance matching Where the basic concept of electric wave filter originated Freq that produces highest noise factor The input capacitor in an amplifier AC load line slope is ____ then DC load line slope Used by multistage amplifier To obtain the frequency response curve of an amplifier Type of oscillator where the frequency is determined by the charge and discharge of RC networks used in conjunction with amplifiers or similar devices Instrument used to measure ones location in terms of coordinates Cutoff freq for constant-k high pass filter The better! Transistor should have a _____ to have more Av Its advantage is that it increases overall Beta Gain A feedback network is _______ of frequency They employ resistive networks Employed by Oscillators; Employed by amplifiers Reduces distortion; Reduces gain; Increases BW of an amplifier; The sacrifice factor is (1+A) Is always less than 1; = (1/Af) (1/A) = Vf / V

Transformer coupling

DC coupling

Klystron Oscillator Step Down Transformer Gives distorted output Campbell and Wagner 10Khz Coupling Capacitor Bigger At least 2 transistors Generator Output level is kept constant Relaxation oscillator GPS 1/( 4(LC) ) The smaller the %VR Thin base Darlington Pair Independent Feedback Networks Positive Feedback Negative Feedback

Feedback factor ()

Approx gain of an amplifier with negative feedback (Af) (A) in negative feedback Power Again (Ap) Crossover network Armstrong circuit 10uF 50uF Re, re and Out of phase (180 deg) Zero Increase Av LC oscillator RC Oscillator Sine wave oscillator Hartley Oscillator Crystal Oscillator

Reciprocal of feedback factor; = 1/ Very much greater than 1 to obtain good gain stability = Av x Ai; Main consideration in the output stage of an amplifier A pair of filter common on a high fidelity system which separates audio freq band signals into 2 separate groups where one is fed to the tweeter and the other to the woofer Simplest variable freq sinusoidal oscillator Typical value of Coupling capacitor Typical value of emitter bypass capacitor in a CE multistage amplifier Input R of CE amplifier is affected by ________ Output is always _______ with the input signal in a CE amplifier Phase difference between collector voltage and signal voltage in CE amplifier Purpose of emitter bypass capacitor in CE amplifier is to _____ Used only in/for high freq Used only in/for low freq Composed of 1 or more amplifying devices with some freq determining networks introducing + feedback Used commonly in Radio Rx Used commonly in Radio Tx; Fixed frequency oscillator; Has fewer loses and will generate alternating emf longer than LC circuit when shock excited Operated in Class C; Used in Radio freq Frequency stability of the oscillator output is maximum ________; Employs both + and feedback; Used in signal generators in laboratories; A pulsating DC applied to the power amplifier causes ______ Important limitation of Crystal Oscillator Reason why crystal oscillator freq is very stable Typical Q of a crystal Commonly employed at the output stage of an amplifier Cutting perpendicular to end to end; Electrical axis; Connects the corners of the crystal Cutting perpendicular to face to face; Mechanical When crystal freq increases with temp When crystal freq decreases with temp When crystal freq doesnt change with temp Low efficiency of a power amplifier results in ______ Used for minimum loading and minimum mismatch If you move towards an oscillating circuit, its freq changes because of the ______ When transistor is at saturation When transistor is at cut-off In an LC circuit, when the Capacitor energy is at max, the inductor energy is _____ The operating point in a transistor amplifier moves along ______ when AC signal is applied Also called output stage in an amplifier At zero signal conditions, a transistor sees _____ load The current in any branch of a transistor amplifier that is operating is the _____ For an ideal differential amplifier The purpose of dc conditions in a transistor is _____ The purpose of an emitter capacitor is _____ The Poutput of a transistor amplifier is more than the Pinput due to the additional power supplied by _______ When a transistor feeds a load of low R, its Av is _____ Max collector efficiency of Resistance Loaded Class A power amp Max collector efficiency of Transformer coupled Class A power amp Class C amplifiers are used as Employs class A amplifiers Complementary-symmetry amplifier Negative voltage feedback Negative Current Feedback The Quiescent current of a FET amplifier is _____ The frequency response of the combined amplifier can be compared with an ______

Tuned Amplifier Wien Bridge Oscillator

Hum in the circuit Low Output High Q More than 10,000 Push Pull amplifer X axis

Y axis + temp coef - temp coef Zero temp coef More battery consumption Buffer Amplifier Hand capacitance Ic becomes maximum Maximum voltage appears across transistor At minimum AC load line Power stage DC Sum of AC and DC CMRR = infinity To set up an operating point To avoid drop in gain Collector Supply Low 25% 50% RF amplifiers Driver stage 1NPN, 1PNP transistor Increases Input Impedance, Decreases Output Impedance Decreases Input Impedance, Increases Output Impedance ID AND gate