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CoroCAM IV+

Your Corona Detection Camera

User Manual
Issue 6 June 2004 Designed and manufactured by:

Inspection and Control CSIR

CoroCAM IV+ : User manual Issue 6

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 2 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................2 SYSTEM OVERVIEW ..............................................................................................2

2.1 FEATURES ....................................................................................................................3 2.2 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION ............................................................................................3 3 CONSTRUCTION OF THE COROCAM IV+ ..........................................................4 3.1 THE PHYSICAL COMPONENTS .......................................................................................4 3.2 THE FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS...................................................................................4 4 OPERATION..............................................................................................................6 4.1 USING THE COROCAM IV+ SYSTEM...........................................................................6 4.2 COROCAM IV+ SOFTWARE. .......................................................................................7 4.2.1 BUTTONS....................................................................................................10
4.2.1.1 Button combinations.......................................................................................................................... 10

4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4


4.2.4.1 4.2.4.1.1 4.2.4.1.2 4.2.4.1.3 4.2.4.1.4 4.2.4.2 4.2.4.2.1 4.2.4.2.2 4.2.4.2.3 4.2.4.2.4 4.2.4.2.5 4.2.4.2.6 4.2.4.3 4.2.4.3.1 4.2.4.3.2 4.2.4.4 4.2.4.5 4.2.4.6

MODES........................................................................................................10 DISPLAY......................................................................................................11 MENUS........................................................................................................12


Visible Menu ..................................................................................................................................... 13 Mirror menu....................................................................................................................................... 14 Colour menu ...................................................................................................................................... 14 Zoom menu........................................................................................................................................ 14 Focus menu........................................................................................................................................ 14 UV menu ........................................................................................................................................... 14 Gain menu ......................................................................................................................................... 14 UV Colour menu ............................................................................................................................... 15 UV Display menu .............................................................................................................................. 15 UV Window menu............................................................................................................................. 15 UV Mode menu ................................................................................................................................. 15 UV Integration menu ......................................................................................................................... 16 Settings menu .................................................................................................................................... 16 Editing the date and time ................................................................................................................... 16 Editing the title .................................................................................................................................. 16 Freeze menu....................................................................................................................................... 17 Stabilise ............................................................................................................................................. 17 Help menu ......................................................................................................................................... 17

4.3 ESSENTIAL PRECAUTIONS ..........................................................................................17 4.4 CHARGING THE BATTERY ...........................................................................................18 4.5 RECORDING IMAGES...................................................................................................18 5 6 MAINTENANCE .....................................................................................................19 SUPPORT .................................................................................................................19 System Specifications Spectral Irradiance of Corona and Solar Energy CoroCAM Applications Corona Types and How to Identify them CoroSOFT Features Warranty Typical Images obtained with CoroCAM IV+

APPENDIX A: APPENDIX B: APPENDIX C: APPENDIX D: APPENDIX E: APPENDIX F: APPENDIX G:

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1 Introduction
The CoroCAM (Corona Camera) family of ultraviolet viewers and imagers are a continuing development by the CSIR, South Africa, to inspect high-voltage equipment for corona. The monitoring of corona will assist the user in: identifying insulation problems identifying areas of high electrical stress identifying radio interference (RIV+) problem areas locating punctured insulators, defective arrestors, NCI with carbon tracks locating broken strands on transmission lines designing stress-relief rings (corona rings) and transmission line cable bundles monitoring flashover areas performing pollution research on insulators quantifying corona which allows for the scheduling and pre-failure replacement of insulators indicated defective with corona. More camera applications are listed in Appendix C. The CoroCAM System provides a video image of the corona spot. This information is sufficient to determine the exact position of the corona and its possible cause. Since the video provides a moving image, it is possible to determine the characteristics of the corona and identify the type in question (see Appendix D for corona types and how to identify them). The CoroCAM System complements the infrared scanner and telescope to provide a comprehensive inspection package for high-voltage equipment. Defects are easily located when the RAD provides conditions for corona development.

The CoroCAM system will assist the user in: reducing maintenance costs, for example by monitoring a corona source in its development and scheduling repairs before failure. improving safety, for example by inspecting NC insulators on transmission lines enhancing system reliability, for example by tracing RIV+ sources. The CoroCAM IV+ is a leading model in solar-blind or daytime corona detection and was specifically designed for the location of corona during daylight conditions.

2 System Overview
This chapter describes the features, the principle of operation and the system components of the CoroCAM IV+. The CoroCAM IV+ is a member of the CoroCAM family of Ultra-violet imaging systems. The camera includes the latest daylight technology for inspecting high Copyright,2001 CSIR South Africa

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voltage transmission components in service. CoroCAM IV+ is portable, highly automated, easy to use, and will work during daylight or, with the help of artificial light, at night. CoroCAM IV+ is a quick diagnostic tool. It illustrates areas of high voltage electrical stress and RIV sources and allows for monitoring of potential flashover areas in all conditions. 2.1 Features

The following are features of CoroCAM IV+: It can operate in daylight or at night (with the help of artificial light). It produces a video image of the corona superimposed on the test object. This allows the user to determine the exact location of the corona. It is portable, ie it fits into a carry-case and is powered by a clip-on rechargeable battery lasting approx 4 hours/charge. It is a pick up and go device requiring little or no assembly on removal from its carry-case. Its output can be connected to a suitable portable video recorder that allows for the recording of results on site. It has the option of a durable battery belt, with battery charger, instead of mounting the battery on the camera. Principle of operation

2.2

Corona is a phenomenon that results from the ionising of air due to a high electric or electrostatic field. These fields often form as a result of poor electric field distribution and/or choosing incorrect parameters during design and/or environmental pollution deposits during operation. During this ionisation, the electrons in the gases continuously gain and release energy. When the electrons release the energy, light and sound waves are radiated. The CoroCAM system detects and produces images of the light-waves generated by the corona. The light/sound waves are directional, requiring line-ofsight visibility to be inspected. The frequency of this light falls in a spectrum that is specific to the gas being ionised. In air, it is mainly nitrogen gas, and its spectrum mainly falls within that of ultra-violet (UV) light, i.e. between = 280-400 nm. There is, however, a small portion of the energy that is below 280nm. This wavelength falls into the solarblind spectrum and is used in the detection of corona in the CoroCAM IV+. No solar radiation occurs between 240-280 nm, due to the ozone layer surrounding the earth stopping the suns energy, so only terrestrial radiation is detected. The spectral irradiance of corona and solar energy is illustrated in Appendix B. There are many man-made sources of ultraviolet light including arc welding, electric corona and flames. These UV sources can also reflect from water droplets in the air and appear like a snowstorm. Copyright,2001 CSIR South Africa

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In the CoroCAM system, a sophisticated lens and filter system projects the UV light onto an electro- optical device (one image converter and monochrome camera). The monochrome camera, with the help of a spectrum converter (converting radiation from one particular wavelength to another one), is used for the detection of corona in the solar blind spectrum. The normal image is projected through an optical device onto a colour camera. The two resultant images are combined and presented as one colour image to the user. The image can be observed in the viewfinder in real time. Images can be transferred to a monitor or video recorder and/or computer for later analysis.

3 Construction of the CoroCAM IV+


3.1 The physical components CoroCAM IV+ Camera o Camera body containing: - The colour day light camera for background image - The UVc channel camera for the corona image o Viewfinder Lens cap and hood Pistol grip handle for camera Video output cable for recording Clip-on battery pack Battery belt , power cable and charger Battery charger cable Remote control box and cable (if fitted) The functional components

3.2

The functional components refer to all the components of the CoroCAM IV+ system that the user needs to know about in order to operate the camera correctly. Lens The lens is a 110 mm quartz refractive lens. The lens aperture should be kept clean and protected with a lens cap when not in use. Focussing for the daylight channel is automatic and for the UVc channel is motorised. Cameras The system includes a monochrome hi-resolution camera and a sophisticated colour camera. The video output is in standard PAL (or optional NTSC) format, and can be viewed or recorded with anything that is PAL (or optional NTSC) compatible.

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Viewfinder The viewfinder is pivot mounted on top of the CoroCAM housing. The focus ring is located immediately behind the eyepiece. Power Switch There is one switch on the side of the camera (illustrated as main switch) for switching on the camera.

Power in from Battery belt


Video out

Control cable out

Remote Control Box

Hood The hood is collapsible and lightweight. It must always be fitted onto the front of the lens to protect it from stray light. The camera will function better with the hood. Handle The handle screws into the rear camera mount on the bottom of the camera. Tripod support mount

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The camera can be supported on a lightweight tripod or a monopod. The tripod can be connected to the standard tripod mount n x 20 NC tapping on the bottom of the camera, where the handle is connected. Make sure that the mounting screw does NOT exceed a length of 4 mm because longer lengths may not secure the camera on the tripod Cables Three cables are supplied with the camera: - a power cable which connects the camera to an external 14 V-battery belt (part of the battery belt). - a mains power cable for the battery charger. - a video cable which connects the cameras video output to a video recorder or any other video device. Battery The battery is a Nickel Metalhydride battery with a fuel gauge available world wide from any Anton Bauer representative. See the web site www.antonbauer.com It has a 50WH capacity that is good for approximately 4 hours operation. For more details, see the battery operating instructions supplied by the manufacturer. Battery-belt The adjustable battery-belt can be placed around the waist or slung over the shoulder of the user. Charger The charger is purpose made to charge the Ni-Mh batteries as required. It has several functions that are described in the operating instructions manual. The charger unit input voltage range is 90 Vac to 240 Vac. The charger can simultaneously operate the camera as well as charging the battery. Remote control The remote control box and cable allow the camera to be controlled from a distance. The Remote control cable plugs into the socket on the bottom of the control button block on the side of the camera. The remote control functions duplicate those on the camera, which can still be used when the remote control is fitted, except for the Gain control that is over-ridden by the Remote control box gain when switching on the camera on the remote control box. The power cable that connects the camera to an external 14 V-battery belt also plugs into the Remote control box.

4 Operation
4.1 Using the CoroCAM IV+ System

The CoroCAM IV+ is a very user-friendly system and is easy to operate. Use the following steps when setting up the camera with gain control feature: Copyright,2001 CSIR South Africa

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1. Remove the camera from the case. 2. Mount camera handle or mount to a tripod. 3. Connect the charged battery to the camera housing or into the belt and connect the belt to the camera (bottom connector). 4. Connect the video cable if video recording is required. 5. Remove the lens cap and deploy the hood in order to prevent stray light from entering the lens. 6. Switch on the camera using the Power switch on the left-hand side of the camera 7. Point the camera to the object under investigation and observe the background image and the corona image. Remember that the default focus position for the background image (colour) camera is automatic. Therefore it is not required to make any focus adjustment for the daylight camera. 8. Adjust the corona focus position until the observed corona is in focus at the viewfinder. Start the focussing process by placing the UVc focussing mechanism on infinity, i.e. press the front focus button for 5 seconds so that the UVc channel focus is on infinity and then move the focus position closer. If the corona image is blurred and there are many white speckles around the suspect area press the rear focus button until the corona source is well defined and there are less white speckles. 9. Adjust the eyepiece on the viewfinder to ensure the object is projected in focus at the users eye. 10. Adjust the gain on the control box until the corona is observed, 0% no gain and 100% setting maximum gain. Notes: Maximum gain setting is usually not the best setting because most of the time there would be too much additional corona noise seen and the actual cause of the corona is then hidden by the noise. It is suggested that the gain is set at 80% initially and then adjusted until the corona is just visible. If the user wishes to see either minute corona discharges or only the corona image then select the UV colour menu option and scroll through until the UV only screen is selected. For best viewing results get as close as possible to the object but adhere to the prescribed safety standards. Note that the UV light decreases in a squared function with distance. If you hear the corona but dont see it remember the source could be obscured by the physical structure and therefore it is recommended to try an alternative observation position Always use a tripod for making quality recordings 4.2 CoroCAM IV+ Software. The CCIV+ software has the following functions:

UV photon noise reduction. Corona sensitivity enhancement. Photon counting. Copyright,2001 CSIR South Africa

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Title editing/display. Video freeze function. Date/Time editing/display. UV gain indication (software and hardware gain). Visible (colour) image processing. Visible image zoom. Corona colour setting (some opaque, some transparent). UV processing window size selection

The software performs three main functions: 1) UV Image integration. The basic operation of the integration software is to perform a moving average of a number of video fields. This serves to remove the UV noise photons which are much more random (in time) than corona photons. It is done by summing (integrating) the most recent x image fields (number specified by user) and dividing by the number of summed fields. By decreasing the dividing factor (also user selectable), the averaging operation becomes more of a summing operation thus increasing the sensitivity of the instrument. Due to the length of the average sample (64 video frames) the integrated image can take up to 10 seconds to update when the camera is moved. The averaging process may be envisaged as follows (for x=4 and divide factor=4): Input Video Frames: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

4 4
Etc ...

Time

Output Video frames: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

2) Live UV image with photon counting. Photon counting simply counts the number of photons in each video frame, performs a moving average of this count and displays the result as a number at the top of the video image. This could be used to test or calibrate the instrument, as well as providing an indication of corona intensity. There are 2 counts displayed. The first number displays the

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accumulated photon count over a 1 second interval, updated every second. The second number displays the photon count per frame and is updated every 5th frame. Note: The software defaults to live photon-counting mode when switched on with the purpose of doing a quick scan before conducting an accurate examination of the troubled areas. 3) Visible (colour) image processing. The colour image processing assists the user in identifying the physical cause of corona generation (see appendix C).

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4.2.1 BUTTONS
Down Select Up

The three buttons at the front left of the camera control all software functions: 1. UP 2. SELECT 3. DOWN - The top button moves up through menus. - The middle button executes the selected function. - The bottom button moves down through menus.

4.2.1.1 Button combinations. Certain special button combinations are used for title and date/time editing (rather than using the normal menu system). This has been done to allow faster editing with only three buttons.

4.2.2 MODES
There are two UV modes: Live mode and integration mode. In the live mode no processing is performed on the UV image which passes straight through to the display. A photon count is displayed only in the live mode. In the integration mode a moving average of up to the previous 64 image fields is displayed. The mode may be set in the UV image menu.

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4.2.3 DISPLAY
The following two images show the positions of various indications on the video image. The first shows a typical integrated image and the second a typical live image.

UVc (corona) Visible image monochrome indication Menu UV gain indication UV display mode Menu Manual focus Freeze mode Software UV gain indication

Date/Time display UV colour indication

Fig 1. Typical integrating mode display. Title Photon count Colour (visible) image

Zoom indication

Fig 2. Typical live mode display.

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4.2.4 MENUS
The menu may be displayed by pressing any button. Once the menu is displayed, navigation is done with the UP and DOWN buttons while the SELECT button is used to execute the menu selection. If no button is pressed for a certain time the menu will automatically disappear. There is a maximum of three levels of submenus. A menu function that activates a sub-menu is indicated by a + sign at the beginning of the line. A previous menu is selected with the Exit at the last line of the menu. Depending on the current processing mode, certain menu options may be unavailable (for example the software UV gain cannot be adjusted while in the live mode). Unavailable menu options are crossed out. A help line for each menu selection is displayed at the bottom of the screen. SPECIFIC NOTE on INTEGRATION MODE: To enter Integration mode: 1. Select the UV sub-menu from the main menu 2. Select the UV mode from the UV sub-menu 3. Select the Integrate option from the UV mode sub-menu. This places the camera in Integration mode and the Integration and Gain bar graphs appear on the RH side of the screen. Initially the integration will be set to 100% and the Gain to 1%. These values may be adjusted from the +Integration and +S/W Gain submenus in the UV menu. The Gain is automatically decreased when decreasing the Integration when the Integration percentage falls below the Gain percentage. The Gain may later be manually adjusted to a higher value if desired. There is no Photon count in the Integration mode.

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The menu structure is as follows:


MIRROR Invert Normal Exit COLOUR Colour Monochrome Exit ZOOM Tele Wide Default Exit FOCUS Auto Manual Exit MAIN +Visible +UV +settings Freeze Stabilise Help Exit GAIN Up Down Exit UV DISPLAY Transparent Opaque Exit UV WINDOW Large Small Exit MODE Integrate Live+Count Exit INTEGRATION Increase Decrease Exit

VISIBLE +Mirror +Colour +Zoom +Focus Exit

UV +S/W gain UV Colour +UV Display +UV Window +UV Mode +Integration Exit

SETTINGS Date/Time Title Exit

4.2.4.1 Visible Menu The visible menu controls all aspects of the visible (colour) image. This includes the colour of the image as well as the zoom. These functions are useful in identifying the cause of corona.

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4.2.4.1.1 Mirror menu

The mirror menu allows one to invert the colours of the visible image. In certain situations this provides better contrast. In the inverted mode the text NEG.ART is displayed. The options are Invert and Normal.
4.2.4.1.2 Colour menu

The colour menu allows one to display the colour image as a monochrome image. This provides better contrast on monochrome displays (such as the eyepiece) and under low light level conditions. In the monochrome mode the text B&W (black and white) is displayed. The options are Colour and Monochrome.
4.2.4.1.3 Zoom menu

This allows the user to closely examine and identify the potential physical cause of corona. Remember only the visible image is zoomed. This results in different scales for the visible and UV images. A default zoom position has been included at which point both the scales are equal. During zooming a slide bar showing the current zoom is displayed. The options are Tele (zoom in), Wide (zoom out) and Default (zoom to default zoom position). Also during zooming a small window is shown in the centre of the screen. This can be used to aim at the object being inspected to ensure that it remains in the screen view when zoomed. Note: At lower magnification the zoom is done optically. At high magnification the zoom is performed digitally which results in a slightly lower resolution image. The vertical divide in the middle of the bar indicates the change from Optical to Digital zoom.
4.2.4.1.4 Focus menu

Certain conditions may result in poor auto-focussing. A manual focus has been included to overcome this problem. Every time the SELECT button is pressed over the manual focus menu the camera will focus once and then remain at that focus. Manual focus mode is indicated by an icon of a hand. The options are Auto and Manual. 4.2.4.2 UV menu The UV menu controls all aspects of the UV (corona) image. This includes the software gain, colour, corona transparency, processing window size and processing mode.
4.2.4.2.1 Gain menu

The UV channel gain may be altered in the gain menu. The gain is set in steps to 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64. The gain setting is displayed on the right of the screen as a bar graph and a percentage figure. In the live mode the gain has no meaning and is not displayed. Increasing the gain increases the corona sensitivity as well as photon noise. Decreasing the gain decreases corona sensitivity as well as photon noise. The gain defaults to 1 at power on. The options are Up (increase gain) and Down (decrease gain).

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4.2.4.2.2 UV Colour menu

In certain conditions the corona and text may be difficult to see against the background visible image. To improve visibility the colour may be set to one of eight different colours: 1: invert 2: transparent purple 3: transparent red 4: transparent blue 5: Monochrome 6: transparent grey 7: solid black 8: solid white The colour is indicated at the lower centre of the image. The camera boots up in the solid white colour. The monochrome colour (number 5) completely hides the visible background image while displaying only the UV image in white. The colour is changed by repeatedly pressing the SELECT button over the UV Colour menu.
4.2.4.2.3 UV Display menu

This function has been deleted from the camera and is replaced by the solid colour and transparent colour selections in the UV colour menu
4.2.4.2.4 UV Window menu

There are two selectable windows (small and large) in which the UV image is processed. Selecting a smaller window speeds up the processing rate while decreasing the processed area and vice-versa. A smaller window is also useful in the Live (photon counting) mode where more noise photons can be rejected (those outside the window). The processing window is displayed as a rectangle in the centre of the screen. The camera boots up with a large window. The options are Large and Small.
4.2.4.2.5 UV Mode menu

There are two processing modes, Live and Integration. In the live mode, a live (unprocessed) UV video image is displayed together with the photon count. The photon count is averaged over a period of 1 second to provide a less noisy count value. Only those photons inside the displayed processing window are counted. The count value is displayed at the top of the screen. In the integration mode, the UV image is averaged over 64 video frames. This reduces photon noise while increasing corona sensitivity. A photon count is not displayed in this mode since it does not relate to the average image being displayed. The software boots up in live mode. The options are Integrate and Live+Count.

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4.2.4.2.6 UV Integration menu

The moving average function is performed by saving grabbed images in a circular buffer (i.e. the oldest grabbed image is over-written by the newest image). The length of the buffer is set in this menu. Selecting Increase doubles the length of the buffer while Decrease halves it. The buffer length can be set to 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 image fields. The software initialises at 64 fields. This setting is displayed in the form of a bar graph percentage (Int) at the right when in integration mode. Increasing the buffer length increases sensitivity (since more photons are captured). Decreasing the buffer length speeds up the processing resulting in faster reaction time to changes in the UV image. 4.2.4.3 Settings menu The current date, time and title line may be changed from the settings menu. Normally it should not be necessary to change the date or time unless the camera has not been used in over six months and the backup battery has discharged. The options in this menu are Date/Time and Title.
4.2.4.3.1 Editing the date and time

The top line of text on the window displays the new date and time in the following format (24 hour time is used): DD/MM/YY hh:mm where DD=Date, MM=Month, YY=Year, hh=Hour, mm=Minute. The cursor is displayed as a small rectangle around the current value. To change a value at the cursor use the UP (or DOWN) buttons. To move the cursor, press the SELECT button and while holding it in, use the UP (or DOWN) buttons to move the cursor right (or left). To end the cursor movement, release first the UP (or DOWN) button and then the SELECT button in that order. If the correct order is not observed then the time edit procedure will terminate. To exit the time edit mode and update the values (if any changes have been made), press the SELECT button.
4.2.4.3.2 Editing the title

The top line of text displays a user editable message (to describe the video). The cursor is displayed as a small rectangle around the current text character. To move the cursor, press the SELECT button and while holding it in, use the UP (or DOWN) buttons to move the cursor right (or left). To end the cursor movement, release first the UP (or DOWN) button and then release the SELECT button in that order. If the correct order is not observed then the title edit procedure will terminate. Once a character has been selected, use UP and DOWN buttons to alter the character.

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The above process may be repeated as often as required. To change characters rapidly the UP or DOWN buttons may be pressed and held in. To exit the title edit mode press the SELECT button. The following characters are available in the title mode:
(space) ! # $ % & ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ] ^ _ ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

4.2.4.4 Freeze menu The video may be frozen or captured so that the camera can be moved to a more suitable location for recording purposes. The freeze mode is indicated by the text CAPTURE at the top right of the screen. To exit from the freeze mode press the SELECT button. 4.2.4.5 Stabilise When using the zoom function the visible channel picture should be stabilised first which will reduce the shaking of the picture. Press the SELECT button to enter or exit the mode. It is recommended that the Stabilise function only be used at the higher end of the zoom range as it can result in mismatching of the UV image on the visible image if used at lower zoom. The hand at the bottom of the screen with the word OFF shows that the stabilised mode is off. When the stabilised mode is selected the hand disappears 4.2.4.6 Help menu A help file is displayed when the help menu is selected. The file may be scrolled up and down one page at a time with the UP and DOWN buttons. Pressing the SELECT button will exit the help display. 4.3 Essential precautions

The CoroCAM IV+ is a sensitive instrument and must be handled with care. Avoid exposing the system to extreme weather conditions, such as in enclosed vehicles during summer, as permanent damage can occur to filters and cameras stored or operated at temperatures exceeding 55 C.

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4.4

Never point the camera directly into the sun, as this will damage the colour camera. Turn off the camera when not being used. In order to ensure trouble-free hours of operation always use a fully charged battery. Only use the supplied battery. When a 12 V external supply is used, ensure that the polarity is correctly connected (pin 1 is ground and pin 4 is +ve) and that the supply is not more than 14 V or less than 10,5 V. Always fit the lens cap over the lens aperture after use. If the camera is placed on a tripod or other platform, use the correct standard mounting thread. The mounting screw should NOT extend more than 4 mm into the camera housing. Do not expose the camera to temperatures lower than -10 C. Charging the battery

A 220V/90Vac converter is supplied together with the battery belt. Connect the converter to mains and clip it to the battery belt for charging the battery. The battery will recharge in approximately 2 hours. The CoroCAM can be operated for approximately 4 hours on a fully charged battery. 4.5 Recording images

Use a RCA video cable to connect the camera to a PAL (optional NTSC) video recorder. Place the appropriate end of the video cable into the connector holder at the bottom of the camera. The other end can be connected to either a VCR or a monitor.

Make sure that the video cable is always firmly connected to prevent failed recordings. If necessary connect a monitor to the VCR video output to verify that there is a video signal.

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5 Maintenance
In normal usage, no maintenance is required. When the lens has dirt on its surface, remove this by applying synthetic alcohol sprinkled on a soft tissue and wipe the window surface.

6 Support
Contact numbers and Web address: Mr Roel Stolper Tel: Fax: Email: Web address: +27 12 841-2817 +27 12 841-4038 rstolper@csir.co.za www.corocam.com

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APPENDIX A: System Specifications


Optics: Field of View: Focus range: Detector sensitivity: Lifetime: Infinite under normal usage 8 Horizontal 2m to infinity 6 Vertical

Video camera output: Camera Resolution: Scanning Resolution: Physical Dimensions: Length: Width: Height: Weight: Viewfinder: Type: Mounting: Monochrome viewfinder (optional LCD available on request Positioned on top of the camera with an adjustable eye focus mechanism 310 mm 120 mm 170 mm approx. 3,6 kg excluding battery 460 (H) TV lines (NTSC / PAL) 525 lines EIA (NTSC) / 625 lines CCIR (PAL)

Battery Belt and charger: Power supply: re-chargeable Ni-Mh cells Battery operation time: approx 4 hours Charger power supply: 90V to 250VAC @ 50-60 Hz Temperature range: Storage temperature: - 5 to 50C Operating temperature: - 10 to 55C (at a humidity of up to 95% RH)

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APPENDIX B: Spectral Irradiance of Corona and Solar Energy

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APPENDIX C: CoroCAM Applications


1. Corona will always appear where the electrical field strength per square area of a surface is high enough to ionise the surrounding air. This ionisation process generates at certain frequencies - a radio influence signal (RIV-radio influence voltage). When this corona source is close enough to a residential neighbourhood it creates RI signals on TV sets. 2. A very important camera application is the detection of partial discharges around insulator rings, which indicate a potential flashover danger, resulting in a power failure. The amounts of discharge and corona on insulator surfaces indicate the rate of air pollution on the surface as well. This information will help the electricity supplier to determine at what time intervals the insulators should be washed. 3. The camera can detect loose strands on overhead transmission lines, which could generate RI signals to the neighbourhood. 4. The camera can easily detect spark gaps on 11 kV overhead distribution lines. Many RIV cases at distribution poles are caused by poor workmanship on clamping, bolting and finishing of wires, resulting in small air gaps with different voltage levels due to the leakage current along the pole. These gaps act as spark gaps and generate RIV. It is also possible for the wooden poles to catch fire. By scanning this particular problem pole, the spark gap can easily be seen by the camera. 5. Newly released high-voltage designs and products can be tested for corona performance by exposing them to the camera. 6. Corona audits on new substations can easily be carried out. The new installation can be checked for workmanship, finishing, etc. by scanning the installation with the camera. 7. The camera can be used as a preventive maintenance tool. In order to understand this type of application during a demonstration, compare the CoroCAM with the better-known IR-camera. The CoroCAM can detect the first signals of insulation breakdown between different voltage levels at an early stage. The IR-camera reveals poor connection problems and the CoroCAM reveals poor insulation problems. By using both cameras, the entire field of maintenance can be covered. 8. The recordings made with CoroCAM could be used to train line workers in quality standards of workmanship.

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APPENDIX D: Corona Types and How to Identify Them


This is a brief practical guide to assist in identifying types of corona when using CoroCAM. This guide is by no means complete, but it is a good starting point for those who have not had any experience with corona. Three corona/discharge types are discussed: 1. Negative flame like corona This corona typically occurs on a negatively charged conductor, i.e. during the negative half of the mains cycle. This type looks like a flame and it is variable, always changing its shape, direction and size. It is very sensitive to environment changes. It also has an audible (sound) pitch at roughly double the mains frequency (i.e. 100 Hz) or a multiple thereof. 2. Spark gaps Spark gaps typically form between two insulated but nearby metallic plates. The leakage current along the pole induces a voltages level across the plates, and there is a discharge between them. These discharges are normally hard to locate because they are not directly connected to the highvoltage supply. With CoroCAM, the spark gap will look small, constant and very bright. It has an audible pitch higher than that of the negative corona, and does not seem related to the mains frequency. Spark gaps typically cause a great deal of radio and television interference. (i.e. high RI) 3. Positive glow corona discharge The positive glow corona discharge forms on a positively charged conductor. (i.e. during the positive half of the mains cycle.) It is typically found on sharp points. The corona is small and looks like a glow around the point. It is a relatively weak corona source and emits very little audible sound. How serious is the corona/discharge in terms of RIV? Generally: All spark gaps cause severe RIV. If the corona is at all visible with the eye (at night), then it is causing severe RIV. (Use the CoroCAM to quickly locate all the corona sources and then try to see them with the naked eye.) A positive glow corona does not cause severe RIV.

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APPENDIX E:
CoroSOFT Features:

Introduction
This software has been developed to complement the CoroCAM camera by effectively managing corona, generating reports, and assists in predicting and locating potential failures. A number of functions aid the effective management of corona. These include: capturing the data, management of the data, a data reference book, image enhancement facilities, geometric analysis of the image, easy report generation Capturing image data is easy and flexible and of the highest quality. Images can be captured into the database from a variety of sources. These include video sources and other media such as scanners or other complementary software. This flexibility provides scope for creating a much more comprehensive database including all aspects of the problem. (e.g. Infrared images, Photographs, PD or Oscilloscope printouts, etc. can be imported into the database) Keeping track of the data is essential for any data capturing software. CoroCAM software provides the user with a number of labels (i.e. User, Place, Equipment, Date, Time, Comments, Markers) to help keep track of data and effectively manage it. The user can build up a Reference Book of good examples. This is useful for onsite comparisons or tutoring. An Image enhancement toolbox allows the user to achieve even better quality images for report generation. The enhancements available include pseudo colouring, snow reduction, image sharpening, etc.

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APPENDIX F:
Terms and conditions of guarantee for CoroCAM Systems 1. 1.1 Introduction The CSIR reserves the right at all times and without prior notice to change these terms and conditions. Such changes will not be applicable to CoroCAM Systems supplied prior to notice of the changes in the terms of the guarantee having been given to the other contracting party. In this guarantee, the singular shall incorporate the plural unless the context indicates otherwise. The Guarantee The CSIR warrants that CoroCAM Systems will be manufactured and/or produced in accordance with current specifications and that the systems are free from defects in the materials used, including defects in the software, and faulty workmanship. The guarantee shall accordingly apply to any failure in the operation of the CoroCAM System, supplied by the CSIR, which arises from a defect in materials used or workmanship. This guarantee shall apply for a period of one year from the date of delivery of the system. CSIR shall, in terms of this guarantee, remedy any failure by adjusting, repairing or replacing the system in question. The CSIR shall not be liable for any damage or failure of the CoroCAM System caused by another person or entity. The CSIR will not be liable for consequential damage arising as a result of a defect in or failure of the CoroCAM System. This exclusion shall not be limited in time. All decisions relating to the application of the guarantee as well as the appropriate remedy in terms of the guarantee shall be at the sole discretion of the CSIR. Conditions for the guarantee to apply: The CoroCAM System must be operated according to its specifications as well as any additional instructions issued by the CSIR, none of which may be exceeded even occasionally. The CoroCAM System must be used for the purpose for which it is intended and no other. Unless by written agreement with the CSIR, the CoroCAM System must not be mounted on any installation that does, or may, affect unfavourably the operation or life expectancy of the system or any of its parts. The CoroCAM System must be transported, unpacked, otherwise handled, installed and used by persons with knowledge and experience of such systems, and without negligence or recklessness.

1.2 2. 2.1

2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

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3.5 3.6 3.7

3.8

3.9 3.10

The CSIR must be afforded the opportunity to examine the CoroCAM System alleged to be defective, and if necessary, the CSIR must be given access to the equipment in which the CoroCAM System is installed. The CoroCAM System must not be tampered with in any way. After delivery and installation of the CoroCAM System, the consignee must conduct tests according to the instructions supplied by the CSIR to establish the condition of the system. In the event that the system fails the tests, the service report supplied with the system shall be completed and returned to the CSIR within seven days of the failure. If, after despatch of the CoroCAM System by the CSIR to the consignee, the system is or has to be stored for a period of three months or more for any reason whatsoever, the instructions relating to the maintenance of the CoroCAM System must be complied with. In the event of failure of the CoroCAM System the CSIR must be notified immediately and such notification shall be followed within seven days by a completed service report to confirm and describe the failure. If, at the time of the receipt of the CoroCAM System, there is manifest damage to the system the consignee shall immediately: 3.10.1 assess the extent of the damage insofar as the consignee is able to do so and prepare a written report of such assessment; 3.10.2 make a claim against the carrier, if appropriate; 3.10.3 notify the consignees insurers and make an appropriate claim for indemnity and/or compensation; 3.10.4 notify the CSIR and submit to it a copy of the report referred to above.

3.11

All records and reports relating to defects and/or failures in the CoroCAM System, as referred to in clauses 3.8, 3.9 and 3.10, must have been submitted to the CSIR within the time period stipulated. All information requested by the CSIR in response to such records and reports must also be supplied in a timely manner. Return of the CoroCAM System to the CSIR In the event that the CoroCAM System is returned to the CSIR, whether at the request of the CSIR or at the insistence of the consignee 4.1.1 the system shall be packed in the same manner employed by the CSIR and in the same materials used by the CSIR 4.1.2 the same method of transport as was employed in the despatch of the system shall be used

4. 4.1

4.2 4.3

The CSIR shall not be responsible for any damage arising during the transportation of the system. All transport and insurance costs arising from the return of the system to the CSIR are the responsibility of the consignee unless otherwise agreed in writing with the CSIR.

Copyright,2001 CSIR South Africa

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APPENDIX G:
Typical images obtained with CoroCAM IV+

Typical image from UV channel

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CoroCAM IV+ (live image recording)

CoroCAM IV+ Recordings (in integration mode)

Corona discharges on a steel bird guard structure on DC line (-375kV)

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CoroCAM IV+ Recording (in integration mode)

Corona discharges on a non ceramic insulator due to an internal carbon track and a punctured hole (132kV)

Copyright,2001 CSIR South Africa