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Spelling trends

cial or tial, as in social and essential? Do we use cial as in social or tial as in essential? Rule: We use cial after a vowel as in social and tial after a consonant as in essential. Details: The cial and tial endings occur in approximately 36 words, and only 7 out of 36 words are exceptions. The word controversial contradicts all the rules because it is spelled with an s. cial in 11 words: facial official superficial crucial tial in 18 words: residential prudential existential referential substantial martial Exceptions: racial beneficial judicial social glacial artificial special

presidential confidential influential consequential circumstantial nuptial

credential potential essential sequential partial prenuptial

financial commercial initial spatial controversial f or ph or gh, as in font, nephew, tough?

provincial palatial

Do we spell the sound of f with f as in font or with ph as in geography or with gh as in enough? Rule: As in enough, the gh that sounds like an f occurs in approximately eight words. The letter f is not allowed in long words, and if a word is long (two or more syllables), then the f sound is spelled with a ph, as in geography. gh in 8 words: enough tough cough laugh trough sough ph in long words because f is not allowed in long words: 1 of 5 rough slough

geography philosophy biography autobiography apostrophe peripheral hyphenated nephew atmosphere euphemism physician Philadelphia Philippine amphibian amphitheater sophisticated graphics elephant pharmacist alphabet symphony emphasis emphases metaphor phonology phobic phonics phonetic phoneme phonemic photograph triumph paragraph ophthalmology pamphlet diphthong schizophrenia paraphrase Euphrates Read aloud to memorize these 21 exceptions of the f being in long words: refer prefer felony feminine fidelity infant fabulous facilitate fantasy fallacy famine comfort furious furniture tion or sion or cian, as in action, impression, musician? transfer finite fanatic family fantastic fugitive refugee

Do we spell with tion as in nation or sion as in expression or cian as in musician? Rule: As in musician, we spell with cian in approximately 18 words that describe a persons profession or hobby. We spell with sion in approximately 47 words. And 27 out of the 47 words end with ss as in expressexpression. Ten other words out of the 47 contain the word mission as in admission. The rest of such words are spell with tion as in action. cian in 18 words: musician physician mathematician optician patrician beautician sion in 47 words: expression depression magician politician logician pediatrician technician dietician electrician statistician arithmetician obstetrician theoretician cosmetician

impression repression 2 of 5

oppression progression

suppression egression procession excision profession discussion compassion concession intermission remission permission extensions comprehension mansion Exceptions: suspicion sion sound, as in vision

regression congressional succession obsession obsession concussion percussion mission transmission commission tension pretension pension expansion

aggression recession accession confession possession passion session admission emission commissioner extension apprehension dimension




Rule: The ending sion as in vision has a special sound, which is different from the sound of sion as in expression. When you hear yourself saying this special sound of sion as in vision, spell it with sion. The sion as in vision occurs in approximately 38 words and a few of these words have to do with seeing visual through the eyes as in television or through the mind as in supervision. sion in 38 words: vision television revision supervision decision incision collision confusion infusion transfusion inclusion exclusion intrusion illusion delusion explosion corrosion occasion evasion abrasion version aversion subversion submersion immersion excursion ege or age, as in college and cabbage? envision division precision diffusion conclusion preclusion elusion erosion invasion lesion inversion conversion [Persian]

Do we spell with ege as in college or age as in cabbage? 3 of 5

Rule: The ege as in college occurs in approximately three words and the age as in cabbage is in the rest of such words. ege in 3 words: college age in the rest: language mortgage manage salvage shortage footage cottage wreckage cartilage sausage passage hemorrhage courageous Three words have a silent d: knowledge e or a, as in hanger and beggar? privilege cortege

cabbage damage orphanage postage outage frontage advantage mileage bandage message usage courage carriages

baggage rummage savage hostage voltage heritage package village adage massage average discourage marriage



The e better than the a Theory The people who developed written English did not like the letter a and the e is better than the a in English. Verbs are always more important than nouns, and nouns are more important than adjectives: Verbs first, then Nouns, and then Adjectives. Therefore, when two words sound the same, English uses ee in verbs as in see and ea in nouns as in sea; furthermore, English uses ee in nouns as in week and ea in adjectives as in weak. Analyzing the meaning of the following words that contain ea as opposed to ee, one discovers that those who developed written English did not like the a and used ea in words that, to them, conveyed some type of a negative connotation: ea in words with negative connotations: cheap (of little value) freak (abnormal person) cheat (to deceive) rear (not the front) 4 of 5

leash (a restraining chain) fear (to be afraid) treason (betrayal) weak (not strong) sleazy (cheap) weasel (deceitful) repeat (nothing new) defeat (to be beaten) sneak (not being frank) smear (to stain) squeak (unpleasant sound) impeach (discredit) seal (mere animal) appear (not sure) appeal (to petition) reveal (to expose) squeal (to tell on friends) conceal (to hide) dream (not actual) scream (cry loudly) wean (give up milk) lean (sign of weakness) deceased, dead (not alive) disease (sickness) beat (to hit) leak (a leak of liquid) beast (brutal) ear (mere body part) See how steal, even though a verb, the ea was given to a verb with a negative connotation, but not to the noun steel. Apparently, food items and anything associated with eating were considered mundane and perhaps banal items. Thus, the ea was given to most words associated with food, as in eat, meat, feast, meal, veal, tea, peas, beans, peach, wheat, yeast, grease, etc. Examining the meanings of the many words that contain al, ar and an as opposed to el, er and en one can see that the a was associated with the vulgar and banal class of words. Analyze the meanings of some such examples: vulgar (banal) burglar (thief) singular (alone, not many) popular, familiar (too exposed) summary (not the whole thing) standard (basic) drunkard (mere drunkard) banal (vulgar) burial (related to death) decimal (very small amount) resistance (opposing force) assistant (not superintendent) dependant (needy) independent (not needy) beggar(jobless) liar (lieliar) similar (not the real one) caterpillar (a mere worm) secretary (not the boss) separate (by itself) lizard (mere lizard) scandal (public disgrace) trivial (of little importance) sufferance (pain) assistance (needing aid) servant (low ranking job) dependant (child in need)

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