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Lesson 2: DISTANCE MEASUREMENT The distance between any two random points in three dimensional space is a spatial distance.

There are several methods of determining distance, the choice of which depends on the accuracy required, the cost, and other conditions. The methods in ascending order of accuracy are estimation, scaling from a map, pacing, odometer, tacheometry, taping, photogrammetry, and electronic distance measurement. METHODS OF MEASUREMENT Pacing Pacing consists of counting the number of steps, or paces, in a required distance. The length of an individuals pace must be determined first. Pacing furnishes a rapid means of approximately checking more precise measurements of distance. It is used on reconnaissance surveys and, in small-scale mapping, for locating details and traversing with the plane table. Pacing over rough country has furnished a relative precision of 1/100; under average conditions, a person of experience will have a little difficulty in pacing with a relative precision of 1/200.

Pace Distance = Pace Factor x No. of Paces Pace Factor = Known Length of Distance AB Mean Number of Paces for AB Mileage recorder, odometer, and other methods Distance maybe measured by observing the number of revolutions of the wheel of vehicle. The mileage recorder attached to the ordinary automobile speedometer registers distance to 0.1 mi and may be read by estimation to 0.01 mi. Special speedometers are available reading to 0.01 or 0.002 mi. The odometer is a simple device that can be attached to any vehicle and directly registers the number of revolutions of a wheel. With the circumference of the wheel known, the relation between revolutions and distance is fixed. The distance indicated by either the mileage recorder or the odometer is somewhat greater than the true horizontal distance, but in hilly country a rough correction based on the estimated average slope may be applied. Tacheometry Tacheometry includes stadia with transit and stadia rod; stadia with alidade, plane table, and rod; distance wedge and horizontal rod; and subtense bar and theodolite. Taping Taping involves direct measurement of the distance with steel tapes varying in length from 3ft (1 m) to 1000 ft (300 m). Graduations are in feet, tenths, and hundredths, or metres, decimeters, centimeters, and millimeters. The precision of distance measured with tapes depends upon the degree of refinement with which measurements are taken. On the one hand, rough taping through broken country may be less accurate than the stadia. On the other hand, when extreme care is taken to eliminate all possible errors, measurements have been taken with a relative precision of less than 1/1,000,000. In ordinary taping over flat, smooth ground, the relative precision is about 1/3000 to 1/5000. Electronic distance measurement Recent scientific advances have led to the development of electrooptical and electromagnetic instruments which are of great value to the surveyor for accurate

measurements of distances. Measurement of distance with electronic distance measuring (EDM) equipment is based on the invariant speed of light or electromagnetic waves in a vacuum. EDM equipment which can be used for traverse, triangulation, and trilateration as well as for construction layout is rapidly supplanting taping for modern surveying operations except for short distances and certain types of construction layout.

Choice of methods Most boundary, control, and construction surveys involving long lines and large areas can be performed most accurately and economically using modern EDM equipment. Where the distances involved are relatively short or specific construction layout requirements are present, taping the distances can be more practical. Stadia is still unsurpassed for small topographic surveys and preliminary surveys for projects of limited extent. Each of the methods mentioned in the preceding sections has a field of usefulness. On the survey for a single enterprise, the surveyor may find occasion to employ a combination of methods to advantage. Tapes Tapes are made in a variety of materials, lengths, and weights. Those more commonly used by the surveyor and for engineering measurements are the steel tapes, sometimes called the engineers or surveyors tape, and woven nonmetallic and metallic tapes. Errors in measurement of Distances 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Tape not standard length Imperfect alignment of tape Tape not horizontal Tape not stretch straight Imperfection of observation Variations in temperature Variations in tension

Mistakes in Measurement of Distances 1. 2. 3. 4. Adding or dropping a full tape length. Adding a cm., usually in measuring the fractional part of tape length at the end of the line. Recording numbers incorrectly, example 78 is read as 87. Reading wrong meter mark.

Correction applied for measurement of distances 1. Temperature correction: (To be added or subtracted) Ct=K (T2-T1) L1 K=0.00000645 ft. per degree F K=0.0000116 m. per degree C T1=temp. when the length of tape isL1 T2=temp. during measurement

2. Pull Correction: (to be added or subtracted) Cp= (P2-P1) L1 AE P2=actual pull during measurement P1=applied pull when the length of tape is L1 A=Cross-sectional area of tape E=Modulus of elasticity of tape 3. Sag Correction: (To be subtracted only) Cs=w2L3 24 P2 w=weight of tape in plf. or kg. m. L=unsupported length of tape p=actual pull or tension applied 4. Slope Correction: (To be subtracted only) Cs= h2 2S H=S Cs H=horizontal distance or corrected distance S=inclined distance h=difference in elevation at the end of the tape

5. Sea level correction: Reduction factor = 1 h R B1 = B (1- h) R B= horizontal distance corrected for temperature, sag and pull. B1 = sealevel distance h=average altitude or observation R=Radius of curvature

6. Normal Tension: It is the tension which is applied to a tape supported over two supports which balances the correction due to pull and due to sag. The application of the tensile force increases the length of the tape whereas the sag decreases its length, the normal tension neutralizes both corrections, therefore no correction is necessary. PN = 0.204 WAE PN P1 P= applied normal tension P1= tension at which the tape is standardized W= total weight of tape A= cross-sectional area of type E= modulus of elasticity of tape

Sample Problem No. 1: A line 100-m long was paced by a surveyor for four times with the following data: 142, 145, 145.5 and 146. Then a new line was paced for four times again with the following results, 893, 893.5, 891 and 895.5. a. Determine the pace factor. b. Determine the distance of the new line.

Sample Problem 2: A 50 m tape was standardized and was found to be 0.0042 m too long than the standard length at an observed temperature of 58:C and a pull of 15 kilos. The same tape was used to measure a certain distance and was recorded to be 637.92 m long at an observed temp. of 68 :C and a pull of 15 kilos. Coefficient of thermal expansion is 0.0000116 m/ :C. a. Determine the standard temperature. b. Determine the total correction. c. Determine the true length of the line.

Sample Problem 3: A line is recorded as 472.90 m long. It is measured with a 0.65 kg tape which is 30 m long at 20:C under a 50 N pull supported at both ends. During measurement, the temperature is 5 :C and the tape is suspended under a 75 N pull. The line is measured on 3% grade. E = 200 Gpa, cross-sectional area of tape is 3 mm2 and the coefficient of thermal expansion is 0.0000116 m/ :C. a. Compute the actual length of tape during measurement. b. Compute the total error to be corrected for the inclined distance. c. What is the true horizontal distance?