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Lesson 2: INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING SURVEYING Surveying has to do with the determination of the relative spatial location of points on or near

the surface of the earth. It is the art of measuring horizontal and vertical distances between objects, of measuring angles between lines, of determining the direction of lines, and of establishing points of predetermined angular and linear measurement. Concomitant with the actual measurements of surveying are mathematical calculations. Distances, angles, directions, locations, elevations, areas and volumes are thus determined from data of the survey. Also, much information of the survey is portrayed graphically by the construction of maps, profiles, cross sections and diagrams. USES AND DIVISION OF SURVEY: a. Those for the primary purpose of establishing boundaries of land. b. Those providing information necessary for the construction of public and private works. c. Those of large extent and high precision conducted by the government and to some extent by the states. TWO TYPES OF SURVEYING 1. GEODETIC SURVEYING It is the type of surveying which takes into account the true shape of the earth. Surveys employing the principles of geodesy are of high precision and generally extend over large areas. 2. PLANE SURVEYING It is the type of surveying in which the mean surface of the earth is considered as plan, or in which its spheroidal shape is neglected. With regard to horizontal distances and directions, a level line is considered is considered as mathematically straight, the direction of the plumb line is considered to be the same at all points within the limits of the survey, and all angles are considered to be plane angles. OPERATIONS IN SURVEYING 1. Control Survey - consist of establishing the horizontal and vertical positions of arbitrary points. 2. Land, Boundary or Property Survey - performed to determine the length and direction of land lines and to establish the position of these lines on the ground. 3. Topographic Survey - is made to secure data from which maybe made a topographic map indicating the configuration of the terrain and the location of the natural and human-made objects. 4. Hydrographic Surveying - refers to the surveying bodies of water for the purposes of navigation, water supply, or subaqueous construction. 5. Mine Surveying - utilizes the principle for control, land, geologic, and topographic surveying to control, locate and map underground and surface works related to mining operations.

6. Construction Surveys - are perform to lay out, locate, and monitor public and private engineering works. 7. Route Surveying refers to those control, topographic, and construction surveys necessary for the location and construction of lines of transportation or communication, such as highways, railroads, canals, transmission lines and pipelines. 8. Photogrammetric Surveys - utilize the principles of aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, in which measurements made on photograph are used to determine the positions of photographed survey. Photogrammetric surveys are applicable in practically all the operations of surveying and in a great number of other sciences. PRECISION IN SURVEYING The degree of precision of a given measurement depends on the methods and instruments employed and upon other conditions surrounding the survey. It is desirable that all measurements be made with high precision, but unfortunately a given increase in precision is often accompanied by more than a directly proportionate increase in the time and effort of the surveyor. It therefore becomes the duty of the surveyor to maintain a degree of precision as high as can be justified by the purpose of survey. In order to achieve a precise measurement, the surveyor must have thorough knowledge of the ff: a. The sources and types of errors. b. The effect of errors upon measurements. c. The instruments and methods to be employed to keep the magnitude of th errors within allowable limits. d. The intended use of the survey data.

Field and office work for a complete survey is consists of the following: 1. Planning and design of the survey; adaptation of specifications; adaptation of map projection and coordinate system and of a proper datum; selection of equipment and procedures. 2. Care, handling, and adjustment of the instruments. 3. Fixing the horizontal location of object or points by horizontal angle distances. 4. Determining the elevations of objects or points by one of the methods of leveling. 5. Recording field measurements. 6. Field computation for the purpose of verifying the data. 7. Office computations in which data are reduced, adjusted, and filed or stored for current utilization or for the use in the near or distant future. 8. The setting of points in the field to display land property location and to control construction layout. 9. Performing the final as built survey, in which all structures built as part of the project are located with respect to the basic control network and / or established property lines.