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Abstract This paper deals with the implementation of a new chain of calibration for high voltage lightning impulses up to 400 kV. Firstly, the definition and the characterization of a reference measuring system were studied. Then, different methods and procedures have been dcvelopped. Finally, the implementation of a calibration test procedure is validated with a metrological point of view. Introduction
Lightning overvoltages can frequently occur in power transmission and distribution systems. So, high voltage (HV) apparatus must be tested to verify their behaviour under such stresses. However, measuring high voltage lightning impulses is a difficult task: the high voltage (several hundred of kilovolts). reaching its maximal value in 1 to 2 microseconds, must be reduced to a suitable level (a few hundred of volts) without distorsion. It should be noted that, if a disruptive discharge occurs, the frequency spectrum can estend up to 25 MHZ. As a consequence. the LCIE's objective was to ensure the traceability of measurements in the high voltage field by setting-up a new metrological chain. Firstly. a complete reference measuring system ( R M S ) for high voltage up to 400 kV has been developped. Its definition and its characterization were the first step in the implementation of a calibration test procedure. This paper shows the complexity and the originality of a new method to ensure the metrological traceability of the HV measuring iinpulse systems to national standards and to perform high accuracy measurements.

The reference divider is a resistive divider (23 kQ) with toroidal screens making the electric field linearly distributed (Fig 3). The dielectric withstand, the ability to withstand the temperature rise, the linearity over its voltage range, the constancy of the scale factor for the range of waveshapes or frequencies for which the divider is used are its principal characteristics. The high voltage connection is formed by a metallic tube (2,5 m long) on which a damping resistance (277 R) is screewed on the side of the HV source. The measuring instrument is a two-channel &gital recorder (10 bits. 100 Msamplesk, 100 M H z ) used with probes (10: 1). The recorder meets the requirements of IEC 1083.1 [ 11. The transmission system consists of a doublescreened coaxial cable (25 ni long) matched on each side with a 75 R impedance. The ground connection is made by short
(I50 cm) and large (2 30 cm) copper foil in order to

have the least inductive possible connection. The definition of a reference configuration was shown very important. Particular precautions had to be taken 10 define a configuration no susceptible to influence. For example. a minimal distance to the closest object of 3 m long is required.

Traceahilitv of the RMS to national standards

To characterize the RMS. lluee investigation means must be used. Although, their field of application must be clearly defined because of their growing complexity. nevertheless they remain complementary.

RMS for HV impulses

The RMS consists of a HV divider linked by a connection to the test circuit. a device to record tlie characteristics of the voltage shape, a transmission system and a ground connection (Fig 1).

- the

These three methods are: measurement of the voltage ratio at low voltage (1000 V-) the unit step response : the step response is obtained with a low voltage (300 V). The step voltage delivered is produced by a dc voltage generator whose terminals are short-circuited by a relay with mercuy-wetted contacts. the HV compurison tests: two dividers are connected in parallel. The one is supposed to be perfect. A series of HV impulses (full and chopped waves) is applied to the complete measurements systems. Details about these methods are given in [2].



Acceptance of the measuring svstcm as a RMS

Earth rdum

Figurs 1

The acceptance of the measuring system described above as a RMS sets upon the cliaracterization of the


divider in its reference configuration and the following verifications : the constitutive components and their characteristics are well known the response characteristic doesn't bring any distorsion between the high voltage input and the low voltage input for the range of waveshapes for which the divider is used the operating conditions are so well clearly defined that the high reproducibility can be ensured * the non-dependance of the divider on the applied voltage level has been proved for its whole voltage range the good agreement between all the measurement methods mentionned and their complementarity have been demonstrated the coupling effects. between two dividers connected in parallel, are negligeable because of the conception of the reference divider the measurement results meet the normative specifications the influence factors : HV lead length, proximity effects, nature and matching of the low voltage part, climatic conditions ... are perfectly get under control.

Such an analysis leads to an uncertainty less than 0,5 'YOfor crest value. 2 'YOfor time parameters, for the RMS * I ) (Table 1).
Errors ofdigtiur Scale factor

Full impulse Crest value I Front time 0 . 1% I ,3 s 0 ,

0.2 % 0.2% 02%

Interference ,OVERALLUNCERTAINTY Errors of digtiur Scale factor Interference Distonion due to bandulth

0.7% 1.0%
1,8 %

Chopped impulse (Tc=O,S ps) Crest value Front time Time to chopprng
0.4 % 0.2 % 0.2 %
0.8 % 0.9 */e

1.3 % 0.3% 0.6%

1.0% 1,8 * / a


0.8 % 0 . 5% 0.2 %
1.0% 1,4 %

Table 1

Calibration of a measuring svstem

Since the RMS is linked metrologically to the national standards and since the procedures are validated, the measuring systems can be, by comparison to this RMS. approved (according to IEC 60) or calibrated. The scale factor will be determined by the comparative method and will be validated by studying the step response. The calibration requires a rigourous test procedure [verification of probes and calibration of digitizer at the beginning and at the end of the tests, interference check, series of 2 s10 measurements per waveform (after the first series. the two recording systems are inverted).. ..]

Moreover, the results of the national and international intercomparisons tend to prove the validity and the good metrological qualities of the system [ 3 ] . In the characterization of the RMS, the implementation of a calibration test procedure is difficult and the main problem is how to achieve the connection to national standards. The proposed and investigated solution was to : (a) to interconipare two similar divider, @) to measure the voltage ratio at low voltage by means of an alternative voltage source and a voltmeter together calibrated, (c) to calibrate the digital recorders by means of a lightning impulse generator standard. Moreover, the H V results have been validated with

The problem of the traceability of the high voltage measuring systems to the national standard is solved. Now, the LCIE has succeeded, with a reference measuring system for high voltage lightning impulses up to 400 kV. to iniplement a new metrological chain of calibration.
As a result, the complementarity of methods and the metrological assessment tend to prove the rightness of the HV test procedure and this. in accordance with the revised draft standard.
111 IEC 1083.1 (1991):Digital recorders for measurements in high voltage impulse tests

a dynamic point of view by the analysis of the unit step

response (the different step response parameters and the criteria of interpretation are given in the draft standard [4])and with a metrological point of v i m by a complete evaluation of uncertainties .

[2] ABonamy-l.Blanc."High voltage impulse measurements", European Conference and exhibition of high voltage measurements and calibralion ERA ( h n d r e s 1992)
[3] F.Deschamps and al. "Calibrating HV impulse dividers in industrial laboratories". gh ISH, Yokohama (1993)
[4] IEC 12(Src)X2 (june 92) : High voltige test techniques - P u t 2 : Measuring systems (Revisal of IEC 60.3 and IEC 60.4)

A detailed uncertainty calculation has been perfor-

med for different waveshapes and for all parameters. This leads to say that the principal uncertainty components are related to the errors brought by the recorder (in particular, non-linearities), the determination of the scale factor, the distorsion of the chopped wave due to the limited bandwith. It should be mentionned that electromagnetic interferences can limit uncertainties if they are not controled.