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(NAME) (PREPARED BY) KIM, CHAN SIK

(SIGN)

(DATE)

(Dep t) QA Engr

2006. 06. 27

SONG, CHANG HO (REVIEWED BY) KIM, PYONG GOO (APPROVED BY)

2006. 06. 27

LEVEL

2006. 06. 30

QAD MGR

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TABLE OF CONTENDS
PARA
1. 0 2. 0 3. 0 4. 0 5. 0 6. 0 7. 0 8. 0 9. 0 10. 0 11. 0 12. 0 13. 0

&

TITLE

PURPOSE REFERENCES PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION GENERAL REQUIREMENTS EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS EXAMINATION PROCEDURE ACCEPTANCE STANDARD RADIATION SAFETY REPAIR REQUIREMENTS EXAMINATION RESULTS EXHIBITS

ATTACHMENT 1 ATTACHMENT 2

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1.0 PURPOSE

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This procedure is to describe the minimum requirements for methods, techniques and acceptance standards to be used when performing the radiographic examination of materials and weldments for use in Code construction and welder and welding operator performance qualification. 2.0 REFERENCES 2.1 ASME Sec. V 2.2 ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 2.3 ASME B 31.1 2.4 ASME Sec. I 2.5 ASME Sec. IX 2.6 ASNT SNT-TC-1A 3.0 PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION QUALIFICATION This procedure shall be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the A.I and QC Dep't Manager of JIMC, before use. 4.0 PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION Personnel performing nondestructive examination shall be qualified in accordance with the KIE procedure "Personnel Certification Program" which meets the requirements of ASNT Recommended practice, SNT-TC-1A, and Section V of ASME Code. 5.0 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 5.1 Surface Preparation 5.1.1 Materials Surfaces shall satisfy the requirements of the applicable materials specifications, with additional conditioning, if necessary, by any suitable process to a degree that surface irregularities cannot mask or be confused with discontinuities. 5.1.2 Welds The weld ripples or weld surface irregularities on both the inside (where accessible) and outside shall be removed by any suitable process to such a degree that the resulting radiographic image due to any irregularities cannot mask or be confused with the image of any discontinuity. 5.1.3 Surface Finish The finished surface of all buttwelded joints may be flush with the base material or may have reasonably uniform crown, with reinforcement not to exceed that specified in Table1. 5.1.4 All surfaces requiring radiography shall be free of loose rust, scale, dirt, and oil / KIE - QR - A03 - 2(03. 02. Rev. 0) TEL:(02)598-2525 1998 Ed. with 1998 through 2000 Add. 1998 Ed. with 1998 through 2000 Add. 1998 Ed. with 1998 through 2000 Add. 1995 Ed. with 1995 through 2000 Add. 1998 Ed. with 1998 through 2000 Add. 1996 Ed.

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grease in the area of interest and extending approximately 4~6 inch on both sides of the weld edge or area of interest, both I.D and O.D. Table 1. Limitation on Reinforcement Material Nominal Thickness, in. Less than 3/32 3/32 to 3/16, in. Over 3/16 to 1/2, in. Over 1/2 to 1, in Over 1 to 2, in. Over 2 to 3, in. Over 3 to 4, in. Over 4 to 5, in. Over 5 Reinforcement of Girth and Longitudinal butt welds Maximum Thickness of Reinforcement for Design Temperature Thickness of Base Metal , in. (mm) > 750(400) in. Up to 1/8(3.0) incl. Over 1/8 to 3/16(3.0 to 5.0),incl. Over 3/16 to 1/2(5.0 to 13.0),incl. Over 1/2 to 1(13.0 to 25.0),incl. Over 1 to 2 (25.0 to 50.0),incl. Over 2 (50.0) 1/16 1/16 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 mm. 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 > 350-750(175-400) in. 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 mm. 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 < 350(175) in. 3/16 3/16 3/16 3/16 1/4 mm. 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 6.0 Maximum Reinforcement, in. Circumferential Joints in Pipe and Tubing 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 5/16 a) For pressure vessel 1/32 1/16 3/32 3/32 1/8 5/32 7/32 1/4 5/16 Other Welds

The greater of 1/4 in.(6mm) or 1/8 times the width of the weld in inches(millimeters).

NOTE : 1) For double welded butt joints, this limitation on reinforcement given above shall apply separately to both inside and outside surfaces of the joint. 2) For single welded butt joints, the reinforcement limits given above shall apply to the outside surface of the joint only. 3) The thickness of weld reinforcement shall be based on the thickness of the thinner of the materials being joined. 4) The weld reinforcement thicknesses shall be determined from the higher of the abutting surfaces involved.

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5) Weld reinforcement may be removed if so desired. b) For Power Piping 5.2 Back-Scatter Radiation Check A lead symbol "B", with minimum dimensions of 1/2 in. height and 1/16 in. in thickness, shall be attached to the back of each film holder during each exposure to determine if backscatter radiation is exposing the film. If a light image of the "B", appears on a darker background of the radiograph, protection from backscatter is insufficient and the radiograph shall be considered unacceptable. A dark image of the "B" on a lighter background is not cause for rejection. 5.3 System of Identification A system shall be used to produce permanent identification on the radiograph traceable to the contract, component, weld or weld seam, or part numbers, and repairs (R1,R2,etc) as appropriate. In addition, the manufacturer's symbol or name and the date of the radiograph shall be plainly and permanently included on the radiograph. In any case, this information shall not obscure the area of interest. 5.4 Monitoring Density Limitations of Radiographs Either a densitometer or step wedge comparison film shall be used for judging film density. 5.5 Radiographic Density 5.5.1 Density Limitations The transmitted film density through the radiographic image of the body of the appropriate hole penetrameter and the area of interest shall be 1.8 minimum for single film viewing for radiographs made with an X-ray source and 2.0 minimum for radiographs made with a gammaray source. The maximum density shall be 4.0. A tolerance of 0.05 in density is allowed for variations between densitometer readings. 5.5.2 Density Variation a) General If the density of the radiograph anywhere through the area of interest varies by more than minus 15% or plus 30% from the density through the body of the hole penetrameter within the minimum/maximum allowable density ranges specified in 5.5.1, then an additional penetrameter shall be used for each exceptional area or areas and the radiograph retaken. When calculating the allowable variation in density, the calculation may be rounded to the nearest 0.1 within the range specified in 5.5.1. b) With Shims When shims are used the plus 30% density restriction of (a) above may be exceeded, provided the required penetrameter sensitivity is displayed and the density limitations of 5.5.1 are not exceeded. KIE - QR - A03 - 2(03. 02. Rev. 0) TEL:(02)598-2525

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5.6 Geometric Unsharpness

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Geometric unsharpness of the radiograph shall be determined in accordance with :

Ug = F.d/D
where Ug = geometric unsharpness F = source size : the maximum projected dimension of the radiating source (or effective focal spot) in the plane perpendicular to the distance D from the weld or object being radiographed, in. D d = distance from source of radiation to weld or object being radiographed, in. = Distance from source side of weld or object being radiographed to the film, in. Table 2] Geometric unsharpness Material Thickness, in. Under 2 2 through 3 Over 3 through 4 Greater than 4 Ug Maximum, in. 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.070

Geometric unsharpness of the radiograph shall not exceed the following.

Note : 1. For ASME Sec. I, When it is impracticable to use a combination of radiography parameters such that a geometric unsharpness of 0.07in. will not be exceed. 2. For ASME B 31.1, The above requirements are to be used as a guide but not for the rejection of radiographs unless the geometrical unsharpness exceeds 0.070 in. 5.7 I.Q.I Selection 1) Image Quality Indicator Design Penetrameters shall be either the hole type or the wire type and shall be manufactured and identified in accordance with the requirements or alternates allowed in SE-142 or SE-1025 (for hole type) and SE-747 (for wire type).and Appendices. 2) Material IQIs shall be selected from either the same alloy material group or grade as identified in SE-1025 or from an alloy material group or grade with less radiation absorption than the material being radiographed. 3) Size The designated hole IQI or essential wire shall be as specified in Table 4. A thinner or thicker hole type IQI may be substituted for any section thickness listed in Table 5, provided equivalent IQI sensitivity is maintained. See para.5.8 2). a) Welds with Reinforcements KIE - QR - A03 - 2(03. 02. Rev. 0) TEL:(02)598-2525

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The thickness on which the IQI is based is the nominal single wall thickness plus the estimated weld reinforcement not to exceed the maximum permitted by the referencing Code Section. Backing ring or strip is not to be considered as part of the thickness in IQI selection. The actual measurement of the weld reinforcement is not required. b) Welds without Reinforcements The thickness on which the IQI is based is the nominal single wall thickness. Backing rings or strips are not to be considered as part of the weld thickness in IQI selection. 5.8 I.Q.I Sensitivity 1) Required sensitivity Radiographic shall be performed with a technique of sufficent sensitivity to display the designated hole IQI image and the 2T hole, or the essential wire of a wire IQI. The radiographs shall also display the IQI identifying numbers and letters. If the designated hole IQI image and 2T hole, or essential wire, do not show on any film in a multiple film technique, but do show in composite film viewing. 2) Equivalent Hole-Type Sensitivity If a thinner or thicker hole-type IQI than listed in table 4 was substituted, an equivalent IQI sensitivity, as sepecified in table 5, shall have been mailtained as well as all other requirements for radiographiy having been met. Table 3] Wire IQI Designation Set A
Wire Diameter, in. Wire Identity Wire Diameter, in.

Set B
Wire Identity Wire

Set C
Wire Identity Wire Diameter, in.

Set D
Wire Identity Diameter, in.

0.0032 0.004 0.005 0.0063 0.008 0.010 TABLE

1 2 3 4 5 6

0.010 0.013 0.016 0.020 0.025 0.032

6 7 8 9 10 11

0.032 0.040 0.050 0.063 0.080 0.100

11 12 13 14 15 16

0.100 0.126 0.160 0.200 0.250 0.320

16 17 18 19 20 21

4] MATERIAL THICKNESS, PENETRAMETER DESIGNATIONS, AND ESSENTIAL HOLES Penetrameter Nominal single-wall Source Side Film Side Material Thickness Hole Type Wire-Type Hole Type Wire-Type Range, in. Up to 0.25, incl Designation 12 Essential Wire 5 Designation 10 Essential Wire 4

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15 17 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 80 100 120 160 200

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Over 0.25 through 0.375 Over 0.375 through 0.50 Over 0.5 through 0.75 Over 0.75 through 1.00 Over 1.00 through 1.50 Over 1.50 through 2.00 Over 2.00 through 2.50 Over 2.50 through 4.00 Over 4.00 through 6.00 Over 6.00 through 8.00 Over 8.00 through 10.00 Over 10.00 through 12.00 Over 12.00 through 16.00 Over 16.00 through 20.00

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 18 20

TABLE 5] DIAMETER OF WIRE PENETRAMETER CORRESPONDING TO HOLE TYPE(1T, 2T, 4T) Equivalent Hole Type Designation Hole Type Designation 2T Hole 10 12 15 17 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 80 100 120 160 200 1T Hole 15 17 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 80 120 140 160 240 280 4T Hole 5 7 10 12 15 17 20 25 30 35 40 60 70 80 120 140

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5.9 Use of Penetrameters to Monitor Radiographic Examination. 5.9.1 Placement of Penetrameter a) Pemetrameter Location for Welds - Hole penetrameters. The penetrameter(s) may be placed adjacent to or on the weld. The identification number(s) and, when used, the lead letter "F" shall not be in the area of interest, except for the conditions described in (1) or (2) below: 1) When geometric configuration makes it impractical to place the penetrameter(s) as outlined in 5.9.1 (a) ; or 2) When the weld metal is not radiographically similar to the base material (as categorized in SE-142, Annex A1) b) Penetrameter Location for Welds - Wire Penetrameters. The penetrameter(s) shall be placed on the weld so that the length of the wires is perpendicular to the length of the weld. The identification numbers and, when used, the lead letter "F" shall not be in the area of interest, except for the condition described in (a)(1) or (2) above. c) Penetrameter Location for Materials other than Welds. The penetrameter(s) with the penetrameter identication number(s), and, when used, the lead letter "F", may by placed in the area of interest. 5.9.2 Number of Penetrameters For components where one or more film holders are used for an exposure, at least one penetrameter image shall appear on each radiograph except as outlined in 5.9.2(b) below. a) Multiple Penetrameters If the requirements of 5.5 are met by using more than one penetrameter, one shall be representative of the lightest area of interest and the other the darkest area of interest ; the intervening densities on the radiograph shall be considered as having acceptable density. b) Special Cases 1) For cylindrical vessels where the source is placed on the axis of the object and one or more film holders are used for a single exposure of a complete circumference, at least three penetrameters shall be spaced approximately 120 deg. apart. Where sections of longitudinal welds adjoining the circumferential weld are radiographed simultaneously with the circumferential weld, an additional penetrameter shall be placed on each longitudinal weld at the end of each section most remote from the junction with the circumferential weld being radiographed. 2) For cylindrical vessels where the source is placed on the axis of the object and four or more film holders are used for a single exposure of a section of the circumference, at least three penetrameters shall be used. One penetrameter shall KIE - QR - A03 - 2(03. 02. Rev. 0) TEL:(02)598-2525

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be in the approximate center of the section exposed and one at each end. When the section of the circumference exposed exceeds 240deg., the rules of 5.9.2 (b) (1) apply. Additional film locations may be required to obtain necessary penetrameter spacing ; otherwise at least one penetrameter image shall appear on each radiograph. 3) For spherical vessels, where the source is located at the center of the vessel and one or more film holders are used for a single exposure of a complete circumference, at least three penetrameters shall be spaced approximately 120 deg. apart. For other welds radiographed simultaneously, one additional penetrameter shall be placed on each other weld. 4) For segments of spherical vessels where the source is located at the center of the vessel and four or more film holders are used for an exposure of a circumferential weld, at least three penetrameters shall be used. One penetrameter shall be in the approximate center of the portion exposed and one at each end. When the portion exposed exceeds 240 deg., the rules of 5.9.2(b)(3) above apply. Additional film locations may be required to obtain necessary penetrameter image shall appear on each radiograph. 5) When an array of objects in a circle is radiographed, at least one penetrameter shall show on each object image. 6) In order to maintain the continuity of records involving subsequent exposures, all radiographs exhibiting penetrameters which quality the techniques permitted in accordance with 5.9.2 (b)(1), (2), (3) or (4) above must be retained. 5.9.3 Shims Under Hole Penetrameters A shim of material radiographically similar to the weld metal shall be placed between the part and the penetramerter, if needed, so that the radiographic density throughout the area of interest is no more than minus 15% from (lighter than) the radiographic density through the penetrameter. The shim dimensions shall exceed the penetrameter dimensions such that the outline of at least three sides of the penetrameter image shall be visible in the radiograph and shimed penetrameter shall be placed so as not to overlap the backing strip or ring. 5.10 Location Markers Location markers (see Fig 1), which are to appear as radiographic images on the film, shall be placed on the part, not on the exposure holder/cassette. Their locations shall be permanently marked on the surface of the part being radiographed when permitted, or on a map, in a manner permitting the area of interest on a radiograph to be accurately traceable to its location on the part, for the required retention priod of the radiograph. Evidence shall also be provided on the radiograph that the required coverage of the region being examined has been obtained. Location markers shall be placed as follows. KIE - QR - A03 - 2(03. 02. Rev. 0) TEL:(02)598-2525

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5.10.1 Single-Wall Viewing a) Source Side Markers Location markers shall be placed on the source side when radiographing the following : 1) Flat components or longitudinal joints in cylindrical or conical components. 2) Curved or spherical components whose concave side is toward the source and when the "source-to-material" distance is less than the inside radius of the component; 3) Curved or spherical components whose convex side is toward the source. b) Film Side Markers 1) Location markers shall be placed on the film side when radiographing either curved or spherical components whose concave side is toward the source and when the "source-to-material" distance is greater than the inside radius. 2) As an alternative to source side placement in 5.10.1(a) (1)above, location markers may be placed on the film side when the radiograph shows coverage beyond the location markers to the extent demonstrated by Fig. 1(e). c) Either Side Markers Location markers may be placed on either the source side or film side when radiographing either curved or spherical components whose concave side is toward the source and the "source-to-material" distance equals the inside radius of the component. 5.10.2 Double-Wall Viewing For double-wall viewing, at least one location marker shall be placed on the source side surface adjacent to the weld (or on the material in the area of interest) for each radiograph. 5.10.3 Mapping the Placement of Location Markers When inaccessibility or other limitations prevent the placement of markers as stipulated in 5.10.1 and 5.10.2, a dimensioned map of the actual marker placement shall accompany the radiographs to show that full coverage has been obtained. 5.11 Verification of Source Size The equipment manufacturer's or supplier's publications, such as technical manuals, decay curves, or written statements documenting the actual or maximum source size or focal spot, shall be acceptable as source size verification.

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Filmside unacceptable Filmside unacceptable Source side acceptable

Source side acceptable Filmside unacceptable

Source side acceptable

Flat com ponent or longitudinal seam[See para. 5.10.1 a) 1)] [See sketch (e) for alternate] (a)

Curved com ponents with radiation source to filmdistance less than radius of com ponent [See para. 5.10.1 a) 2)] (b)

Curved com ponent with convex surface towards radiation source [See para. 5.10.1 a) 1)] (c)

E ither side location m arker is acceptable D t

Source side unacceptable

Filmside acceptable

Mf

Curved com ponents with radiation source to filmdistance greater than radius of curvature [See para.5.10.1 b) 1)] (d) LEG END Radiation source Location m arker Com ponent center -

Source side m arker alternate Flat com ponent or longitudinal seam x = (t / D) (M f / 2) x = additional required coverage,in. beyond filmside location m arker t = com ponent thickness, in. M arker interval, in. f = filmside location m D = source to com ponent distance,in. [See para.5.10.1 b) 2)] (e)
Fig. 1 Location maker sketches

Curved com ponent with radiation source at center curvature [See para.5.10.1 c)] (f)

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5.12 Step Wedge Film and Densitometer 5.12.1 Densitometer Densitometer shall be calibrated at least every 90 days during use as follows: a) A national standard step tablet or a step wedge calibration film, traceable national standard step tablet and having at least 5 steps with neutral densities from at least 1.0 through 4.0, shall be used. The step wedge calibration film shall have been verified within the last year by comparison with a national standard step tablet. b) The densitometer manufacturer's step-by-step instructions for the operation of the densitometer shall be followed. c) The density step closest to 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 on the national standard step tablet or step wedge calibration film shall be read. d) The densitometer is acceptable if the density readings do not vary by more than wedge calibration film 5.12.2 Step Wedge Comparison Films Step wedge comparison films shall be verified prior to first use, unless performed by the manufacturer, as follows: a) The density of the steps on a step wedge comparison film shall be verified by a calibrated densitometer. b) The step wedge comparison film is acceptable if the density readings do not vary by more than 0.1 density units from the density stated on the step wedge comparison film. 5.12.3 Periodic Verification a) Densitometer Periodic calibration verification checks shall be performed as described in 5.12.1 at the beginning of each shift, after 8 hr of continuous use, or after change of apertures, whichever comes first. The densitometer is acceptable if the density readings are within 0.05 of the calibration readings determined in 5.12.1 c). b) Step Comparison Films Verification check shall be performed annually per 5.12.2. 5.12.4 Documentation a) Densitometer calibration readings required by 5.12.1 c) shall be recorded in an appropriate calibration log. b) Periodic verification reading required by 5.12.3 do not have to be recorded. 5.13 Direction of Radiation The direction of the central beam of radiation should be centered on the area of interest whenever practical. KIE - QR - A03 - 2(03. 02. Rev. 0) TEL:(02)598-2525 0.05 density units from actual density stated on the national standard step tablet or step

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5.14 Quality of Radiographs All radiographs shall be free from mechanical, chemical or other blemishes to the extent that they cannot mask or be confused with the image of any discontinuity in the area of interest of the object being radiographed. a) fogging b) processing defects such as streaks, water marks, or chemical stains c) scratches, finger marks, crimps, dirtiness, static marks, smudges, or tears d) loss of detail due to poor screen-to-film contact e) false indications due to defective screens 5.15 Radiographic sensitivity All radiographs shall be obtained the requirements of 5.5, 5.6, 5.8. To obtained the requirements of 5.5, 5.6, 5.8, vary the following factor. 5.15.1 Source size The maximum source size shall be determined to obtain 5.6, 5.8. To obtain the requirements of Ug, more than smaller source shall be used. 5.15.2 Source to object distance Minimum source to object distance shall be determined to obtain 5.5, 5.6, 5.8. To obtain the 5.5, 5.6, 5.8, take the longer source to object distance. 5.15.3 Source side of object to the film distance. The distance from source side of object to the film shall be decrease to obtain the radiographic sensitivity. 5.15.4 Film The type I or II film shall be used as described in 6.1. 6.0 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS 6.1 Film 6.1.1 Selection Radiographs shall be made using industrial radiographic film. The film brand and designated used are as follows. Type of industrial Radiographic Film TYPE KODAK 6.2 Screen Lead intensifying screen may be used in direct contact with the film. The front and back screens M, T, R AA FILM DESIGNATION AGFA D-4,D-5 D-7 FUJI #50, #80 #100

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shall be 0.005 inches or 0.01 inches thick. 6.3 Facilities for Viewing of Radiographs Viewing facilities shall provide subdued background lighting of an intensity that will not cause troublesome reflections, shadows, or glare on the radiograph. Equipment used to view radiograph for interpretation shall provide a variable light source sufficent for the essential penetrameter hole or designated wire to be visible for the specified density range. The viewing conditions shall be such that light from around the outer edge of the radiograph or coming through low-density portions of the radiograph does not interfere with interpretation. 6.4 Selection of Energy of Radiation 6.4.1 Radiation Gamma ray equipment such as Ir-192 or Co-60 may be used. The minimum thickness range used in gamma ray radiography shall be as specified in Table 6. Table 6] Minimum Thickness Material Steel Copper or High Nickel Aluminum 1) film selection 2) intensifying screen selection 3) geometric unsharpness 4) film density The maximum thickness for the use of radioactive isotopes is primarily dictated by exposure time; therefore, upper limit are not shown. The minimum recommended thickness limitation may be reduced when the radiographic techniques used demonstrate that the required radiographic sensitivity has been obtained. The minimum recommended thickness limitation of above table 6 (limitation for steel by Ir-192) was verified by demonstrate to obtaine the required radiographic sensitivity. 7.0 EXAMINATION 7.1 Radiographic Technique A single-wall exposure technique shall be used for radiography whenever practical. When it is not practical to use a single-wall technique, a double-wall technique shall be used. An adequate number of exposures shall be made to demonstrate that the required coverage has been obtained. 7.1.1 Single-Wall Technique In the single-wall technique, the radiation passes through only one wall of the weld KIE - QR - A03 - 2(03. 02. Rev. 0) TEL:(02)598-2525 Iridium 192 6mm 16.5mm 63.5mm Cobalt 60 38mm 33mm ...

Note) Overal radigraphic sensitivity is primary influenced by factors such as:

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(material), which is viewed for acceptance on the radiograph. 7.1.2 Double-Wall-Technique When it is not practical to use a single-wall technique, one of the following double-wall techniques shall be used. a) Single-Wall Viewing For materials and for welds in components, a technique may be used in which the radiation passes through two walls and only the weld (material) on the film side wall is viewed for acceptance on the radiographic. When complete coverage is required for circumferential welds(materials), a minimum of three exposures taken 120 deg. to each other shall be made. b) Double-Wall Viewing For materials and for welds in components 3 1/2 in. or less in nominal outside diameter, a technique may be used in which the radiation passes through two walls and the weld (material) in both walls is viewed for acceptance on the same radiograph. For doublewall viewing, only a source side penetramenter shall be used. Care should be exercised to ensure that the required geometric unsharpness is not exceeded. If the geometric unsharpness requirement cannot be met, then single-wall viewing shall be used. 1) For welds, the radiation beam may be offset from the plane of the weld at an angle sufficient to separate the images of the source side and film side portions of the weld so that there is no overlap of the areas to be interpreted. When complete coverage is required, a minimum of two exposures taken 90 deg. to each other shall be made for each joint. 2) As an alternative, the weld may be radiographed with the radiation beam positioned so that the images of both walls are superimposed. When complete coverage is required, a minimum of three exposures taken at either 60 deg. or 120deg. to each other shall be made for each joint. 3) Additional exposures shall be made if the required radiographic coverage cannot be obtained using the minimum number of exposures indicated in (b) (1) or (b) (2) above. 8.0 PROCEDURE 8.1 Preparation Prior to Examination 1) Obtain procedure, drawing and other information. 2) Confirm the area to be examined with the drawings or any other informations. 8.2 Material and Equipment 1) Use following materials and equipment listed below, and record type or KIECO registered No. on the Examination Report. KIE - QR - A03 - 2(03. 02. Rev. 0) TEL:(02)598-2525

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a) X-Ray (or Gamma Ray) c) Screen e) Shim 8.3 Examined Areas

b) Film d) Penetrameter f) Other information (if necessary)

1) Confirm examined areas on the part, exposure number, and film number. 2) Mark film location line, film No. on inner and outer surfaces of weld examined. 3) Confirm film direction and film top side on inner and outer surface of weld examined. 8.4 Surface Preparation of Weld 1) Check on that the weld ripples or weld surface irregularities which mask or be confused with the images of any discontinuities had been remove. 2) Check on that weld reinforcements on both inner and outer vessel surface shall not over the specified in this procedure. 8.5 Identification Markers 1) Check all identification marker on each film. 8.6 Exposure Condition 1) The film density on examined areas shall be covered in 2.0 to 3.5 (min 1.8 to max 4.0 for X-Ray and max 2.0 to max 4.0 for gamma-Ray) 2) Determine exposure technique. 3) Determine SFD (F.F.D) 4) Determine exposure time using exposure chart (or calculator). 8.7 Placement of Penetrameter 1) Determine essential shim thickness so that the film density on penetrameter shall be equal to the examined area adjoining it. 2) One penetrameter shall be placed on the nearly center of the examined area and the other penetrameter with shim shall be placed on the opposite side of the penetrameter. 8.8 "B" Markers Attach "B" marker for checking the back scattered radiation on the back of the each film holder. 8.9 Processing 8.9.1 Mannual processing 1) The developer shall be maintained at a temperature of 68. Development time shall be adjusted if the temperature is changed more than 2. See manufactuler's recommendations. 2) Solutions shall be stirred prior to the start of processing. 3) Hanger shall be separated by at least 1/2 in. during processing. 4) Film shall be agitated at the start of developing to obtain complete even wetting of the film and remove any air bubbles. It shall also be agitated periodically during the development stage increasing to agitation every minute when the developer becomes KIE - QR - A03 - 2(03. 02. Rev. 0) TEL:(02)598-2525

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5) Manufacturer's recommendations for development time shall be followed. (This is usually 5 minutes. It is better to expose the film for the shorter development time.) 6) After the development is complete, rinse the film in water for a few seconds and plunge into the stop bath to halt the action of the developer. Agitate the film in the stop bath for the period of time recommended by the manufacturer. 7) Rinse the film in water for a few seconds and plunge it into the fixer. Agitate it for about 10 seconds. After about one minute agitate again. Normally 10-15 minutes is the fixing time. 8) The washing efficiency decreases rapidly with decreasing temperatures below 68. Washing time at 68 shall be 30 minutes increasing to 40 minutes at 68. For temperatures above 68 the washing time shall be decreased to about 20 minutes at 78. When the water temperature is above 68 the film shall be removed from the wash immediately following the wash cycle since the film gelatin softens in warm water. The water flow shall be sufficient to change the volume four times in one hour. 9) When the washing cycle is completed the film shall be agitated in a wetting agent. 10) Film shall be left on their hangers for drying. 8.9.2 Auto processing The essence of the automatic processing system is control. The processor maintains the chemical solutions at the proper temperature, agitates and replenishes the solutions automatically and transports the films mechanically at a carefully controlled speed throughout the processing cycle. Film characteristics must be compatible with processing conditions. It is, therefore, essential that the recommendations of the film processor, and chemical manufactures be followed. 8.10 Checking of Finished Film 1) Check on that the finished film are free of excessive chemical and processing defects. 2) Check on that the film density of the examined area are within 2.0 to 3.5, using densitometer. 3) Check on that the film density through the weld examined do not varies more than 15% or +30% from the density through the each penetrameter. 4) Check on that the image of "B" mark is not appeared on the each film. 5) Check on that the image of the identification markers were clealy appeared on the each film. Note : If the results of each description mentionded above could not be accepted, results shall be taken appropriately. 8.11 Film Checking Prior to Judgement 1) Check the film quality, image of identification with film cover sheet, image of "B" mark, film density limitation and variation through the each penetrameter. KIE - QR - A03 - 2(03. 02. Rev. 0) TEL:(02)598-2525

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2) If the results of each description mentioned above could not be accepted, reshoot shall be taken. 8.12 Acceptance Standard 1) Evaluation shall be performed by Level II or III. 2) Acceptance standard shall be in accordance with Para 9.0 of this Procedure. 3) When any images that could interfere with proper interpretation of radiography appeared on, reshoots for performing proper interpretation shall be taken. 8.13 Report and Record 1) Report results and sign and date on the format with black ball-pen (when accepted) 2) Describe detail of Nonconformance and submit it to Q.C personnel. (when not accepted) 9.0 ACCEPTANCE STANDARD Welds that are shown by radiography to have any of the following types of discontinuities are unacceptable ; 9.1 ASME Sec. I 1) Any indication characterized as a crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration; 2) Any other elongated indication on the radiograph that has length greater than : (1) 1/4 in.(6mm) for t up to 3/4 in.(19mm) (2) 1/3 t for t from 3/4 in.(19mm) to 2 1/4 in.(57mm) (3) 3/4 in.(19mm) for t over 2 1/4 in.(57mm) 3) Any group of slag inclusions in line that have an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12 t, except when the distance between the successive imperfections exceeds 6 L where L is the length of the longest imperfection in the group. 4) Rounded indications in excess of that specified by the acceptance standards attached (See Attachment 1). 9.2 ASME Sec. 9.2.1 ASME Sec. Div. 1(Full Radiographic Examination) 1) Any type of crack, or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration. 2) Any elongated slag inclusion which has length greater than : a) 1/4 in. for t up to 3/4 in. b) 1/3 t for t from 3/4 in. to 2 1/4 in. c) 3/4 in. for t over 2 1/4 in. where ; t = the thickness of the weld 3) Any group of slag inclusions in line that have an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12 t, except when the distance between the successive imperfections exceeds 6 L where L is the length of the longest imperfection in the group. 4) Rounded indications in excess of that specified by the acceptance standards attached KIE - QR - A03 - 2(03. 02. Rev. 0) TEL:(02)598-2525

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(See ATTACHENT 1). 9.2.2 ASME Sec. Div 1(Spot Radiographic Examination) Spot radiographing of a welded joint is recognized as an effective inspection tool. The spot radiography rules are also considered to be an aid to quality control. Spot radiographs made directly after a welder or an operator has completed a unit of weld proves that the work is or is not being done in accordance with a satisfactory procedure. If the work is unsatisfactory, corrective steps can then be taken to improve the welding in the subsequent units, which unquestionably will improve the weld quality. Spot radiography in accordance with these rules will not ensure a fabrication product of predetermined quality level throughout. It must be realized that an accepted vessel under these spot radiography rules may still contain defects which might be disclosed on further examination. If all radiographically disclosed weld defects must be eliminated from a vessel, then 100% radiography must be employed. (a) Butt welded joints which are to be spot radiographed shall be examined locally as provided herein. (b) Minimum Extent of Spot Radiographic Examination (1) One spot shall be examined on each vessel for each 50 ft increment of weld or fraction thereof for which a joint efficiency. However, for identical vessels, each with less than 50 ft of weld for which a joint efficiency, 50ft increments of weld may be represented by one spot examination. (2) For each increment of weld to be examined, a sufficient number of spot radiographs shall be taken to examine the welding of each welder or welding operator. Under conditions where two or more welders or welding operator. Under conditions where two or more welders or welding operators make weld layers in a joint, or on the two sides of a double-welded butt joint, one spot may represent the work all welders or welding operators. (3) Each sot examination shall be made as soon as practicable after completion of the increment of weld to be examined. The location of the spot shall be chosen by the Inspector after completion of the increment of welding to be examined, except that when the Inspector has been notified in advance and cannot be present or otherwise make the selection, the fabricator may exercise his own judgment in selecting the spots. (c) Standards for Spot Radiographic Examination. Spot examination by radiography shall be made in accordance with the technique prescribed in this procedure. The minimum length of spot radiograph shall be 6in. Spot radiographs may be retained or be discarded by the Manufacturer after acceptance of the vessel by the Inspector. The acceptability of welds examined by spot radiography shall be judged by the following standards. KIE - QR - A03 - 2(03. 02. Rev. 0) TEL:(02)598-2525

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(1) Welds in which indications are characterized as cracks or zones of incomplete fusion or penetration shall be unacceptable. (2) Welds in which indications are characterized as slag inclusions or cavities shall be unacceptable if the length of any such indication is greater than t where t is the thickness of the weld excluding any allowable reinforcement. For a butt weld joining two members having different thicknesses at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. If a full penetration weld includes a fillet weld, the thickness of the throat of the fillet shall be included in t. If several indications within the above limitations exist in line, the welds shall be judged acceptable if the sum of the longest dimensions of all such indications is not more than t in a length of 6t (or proportionately for radiographs shorter than 6t) and if the longest indications considered are separated by at least 3L of acceptable weld metal where L is the length of the longest indication. The maximum length of acceptable indications shall be 3/4in. Any such indications shorter than 1/4in. shall be acceptable for any plate thickness. (3) Rounded indications are not a factor in the acceptability of welds not required to be fully radiographed. (d) Evaluation and Retests (1) When a spot, radiographed as required in (b)(1) or (b)(2) above, is acceptable in accordance with (c)(1) and (c)(2) above, the entire weld increment represented by this radiograph is acceptable. (2) When a spot, radiographed as required in (b)(1) or (b)(2) above, has been examined and the radiograph discloses welding which does not comply with the minimum quality requirements of (c)(1) or (c)(2) above, two additional spots shall be radiographically examined in the same weld increment at locations away from the original spot. The locations of these additional spots shall be determined by the Inspector or fabricator as provided for the original spot examination in (b)(3) above. (a) If the two additional spots examined show welding which meets the minimum quality requirements of (c)(1) and (c)(2) above, the entire weld increment represented by the three radiographs is acceptable provided the defects disclosed by the first of the three radiographs are removed and the area repaired by welding. The weld repaired area shall be radiographically examined in accordance with the foregoing requirements of para. 9.2. (b) If either of the two additional spots examined shows welding which does not comply with the minimum quality requirements of (c)(1) or (c)(2) bove, the entire increments of (c)(1) or (c)(2) above, the entire increment of weld represented shall be rejected. The entire rejected weld shall be removed and the joint shall be rewelded weld shall be removed and the joint shall be rewelded or, at the KIE - QR - A03 - 2(03. 02. Rev. 0) TEL:(02)598-2525

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fabricators option, the entire increment of weld represented shall be completely radiographed and only defects need be corrected. (c) Repair welding shall be performed using a qualified procedure and in a manner acceptable to the Inspector. The rewelded joint, or the weld repaired areas, shall be spot radiographically examined at one location in accordance with the foregoing requirements of para. 9.2. 9.3 ASME B 31.1 1) Any type of crack, or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration. 2) Any other elongated indication which has a length greater than : (1) 1/4 in.(6.0mm) for t up to 3/4 in.(19.0mm), inclusive; (2) 1/3 t for t from 3/4 in.(19.0mm) to 2 1/4 in.(57.0mm) inclusive; (3) 3/4 in.(19mm) for t over 2 1/4 in.(57mm) where ; t = the thickness of the thinner portion of the weld 3) Any group of slag inclusions in line that have an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12 t, except when the distance between the successive imperfections exceeds 6 L where L is the length of the longest imperfection in the group. 4) Porosity in excess of that specified by the acceptance standards attached(See ATTACHMENT 1). 5) root concavity when there is an abrupt change in density, as indicated on the radiograph. 9.4 Welder and Welding Operator Qualification 1) Linear Indications a) Any type of crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration ; b) Any elongated slag inclusion which has a length greater than ; (1) 1/8 in. for t up to 3/8 in., inclusive (2) 1/3 t for t over 3/8 to 2 1/4 in., inclusive (3) 3/4 in. for t over 2 1/4 in. c) any group of slag inclusions in line that have an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12t, except when the distance between the successive imperfections exceeds 6L where L is the length of the longest imperfection in the group. 2) Rounded Indications a) The maximum permissible dimension for rounded indications shall be 20% of t or 1/8 in., whichever is smaller. b) For welds in material less than 1/8 in. in thickness, the maximum number of acceptable rounded indications shall not exceed 12 in a 6 in. length of weld. A proportionately fewer number of rounded indications shall be permitted in welds less than 6 in. in length. c) For welds in material 1/8 in. or greater in thickness, the charts in ATTACHMENT 2 represent the maximum acceptable types of rounded indications illustrated in typically clustered, assorted and randomly dispersed configurations. Rounded indications less than 1/32 in. KIE - QR - A03 - 2(03. 02. Rev. 0) TEL:(02)598-2525

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in maximum diameter shall not be considered in the radiographic acceptance tests of welders and welding operators in these ranges of material thickness. 10.0 RADIATION SAFETY 10.1 Personnel performing radiographic examination shall be trained by the Radiological Officer's License Holder. 10.2 Safety practice shall be applied as outlined in KIECO'S regulation approved by the Manistry of Science and Technology for control of radiation hazards. 11.0 REPAIR REQUIREMENTS REQUIREMENTS Repair shall be examined by the same procedure used for detection of the discontinuities. Acceptability of repairs shall be determined by the same acceptance standards. 12.0 EXAMINATION RESULTS Radiographic examination results must be reported on the attached form by the certified Level II or Level III certifying the results of the examination. 13.0 EXHIBITS 1) Radigraphic Examination Report ----- KIE - TR - R - 31 (03. 10. Rev.1) 2) Radigraphic Examination Report ----- KIE - TR - R - 32 (03. 01. Rev.0)

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ATTACHMEMT 1
ROUNDED INDICATIONS CHARTS ACCEPTANCE STANDARD FOR RADIOGRAPHICALLY DETERMINED REUNDED INDICATIONS IN WELDS
1. APPLICABILITY OF THESE STANDARDS These standards are applicable to ferritic, austenitic, and nonferrous materials. 2. TERMINOLOGY (a) Rounded Indications. Indications Indications with a maximum length of three times the width or less

on the radiograph are defined as rounded indications. These indications may be circular, elliptical, conical, or irregular in shape and may have tails. When evaluating the size of an indication, the tail shall be included. The indication may be from any imperfection in the weld, such as porosity, slag, or tungsten. (b) Aligned Ali gned Indications. Indications A sequence of four or more rounded indications shall be considered

to be aligned when they touch a line parallel to the length of the weld drawn through the center of the two outer rounded indications. (c) Thickness t . t is the thickness of the weld, excluding any allowable reinforcement. For

a butt weld joining two members having different thickness at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. If a full penetration weld includes a fillet weld, the thickness of the throat of the fillet shall be included in t. 3 . ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (a) Image Density. Density Density within the image of the indication may vary and is not a criterion

for acceptance or rejection. (b) Relevant Indications.(See Table 1 for examples) Only those rounded indications which

exceed the following dimensions shall be considered relevant. 1/10t for t less than 1/8in. 1/64 in. for t form 1/8 in. to 1/4 in., include. 1/32 in. for t greater than 1/4 in. to 2 in., include. 1/16 in, for t greater than 2 in. (c) Maximum Size of Rounded Indication.(See Table 1 for examples) The maximum permissible

size of any indication shall be 1/4t, or 5/32in., whichever is smaller, except that an isolated

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indication separated from an adjacent indication by 1 in. or more may be 1/3t, or 1/4in., whichever is less. For t greater than 2 in. the maximum permissible size of an isolated indication shall be increased to 3/8 in. (d) Aligned Rounded Indications. Indications Aligned rounded indications are acceptable when the summation of the diameters of the indications is less than t in a length of 12t. See Fig.1-1. The length of groups of aligned rounded indications and the spacing between the groups shall meet the requirements of Fig.1-2. (e) Spacing. The distance between adjacent rounded indications is not a factor in determining

acceptance or rejection, except as required for isolated indications or groups of aligned indications. (f) Rounded Indication Charts. Charts The rounded indications characterized as imperfections shall not exceed that shown in the charts. The chart in Figs.1-3 through 1-8 illustrate various types of assorted, randomly dispersed and clustered rounded indications for different weld thicknesses greater than 1/8 in. These charts represent the maximum acceptable concentration limits for rounded indications. The charts for each thickness range represent full scale 6 in. radiographs, and shall not be enlarged or reduced. The distributions shown are not necessarily the patterns that may appear on the radiograph, but are typical of the concentration and size of indications permitted. (g) Weld Thickness t less than 1/8 in. For t less than 1/8 in. the maximum number of rounded indications shall not exceed 12 in. a 6 in. length of weld. A proportionally fewer number of indications shall be permitted in welds less than 6 in. in length. (h) Clustered Indications. The illustrations for clustered indications show up to four times as many indicaitons in a local area, as that shown in the illustrations for random indications. The length of an acceptable cluster shall not exceed the lesser of 1 in. or 2t. Where more than one cluster is present, the sum of the lengths of the clusters shall not exceed 1in. in a 6in. length weld.

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Maximum Size of Acceptable Rounded Thickness t, in. (mm) Less than 1/8 (3.2) 1/8 (3.2) 3/16 (4.8) 1/4 (6.4) 5/16 (7.9) 3/8 (9.5) 7/16 (11.1) 1/2 (12.7) 9/16 (14.3) 5/ 8 (15.9) 11/16 (17.5) 3/4 to 2, incl. Over 2 Indication, in. (mm) Random 1/4t 0.031 (0.79) 0.047 (1.19) 0.063 (1.60) 0.078 (1.98) 0.091 (2.31) 0.109 (2.77) 0.125 (3.18) 0.142 (3.61) 0.156 (3.96) 0.156 (3.96) 0.156 (3.96) 0.156 (3.96) Isolated 1/3t 0.042 (1.07) 0.063 (1.60) 0.083 (2.11) 0.104 (2.64) 0.125 (3.18) 0.146 (3.71) 0.168 (4.27) 0.188 (4.78) 0.210 (5.33) 0.230 (5.84)

Maximum Size of Nonrelevatn Indication, in. (mm) 1/10t 0.015 (0.38) 0.015 (0.38) 0.015 (0.38) 0.031 (0.79) 0.031 (0.79) 0.031 (0.79) 0.031 (0.79) 0.031 (0.79) 0.031 (0.79) 0.031 (0.79) 0.031 (0.79) 0.063 (1.60)

0.250 (6.35) 0.375 (9.53)

NOTE : This table contains examples only.

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Sum of L1 to L X shall be less than t in a length of 12t.

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The Sum of group lengths shall be less than t in a length of 12t. Maximum Group Length L = 1/4 in. for t less than 3/4 in. L = 1/3 t for t 3/4in. to 2-1/4in. L = 3/4 in. for greater than 2-1/4 in. Minimum Group Spacing 3L where L is the longest

FIG.4-2 GROUPS OF ALIGNED ROUNDED INDICATIONS

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RANDOM

ROUNDED

Typical concentration and size permitted in any 6 in. length of weld

ISOLATED
Maximum size per Table 5

CLUSTER

FIG. 4-3 CHARTS FOR t EQUAL TO 1/8 in. to 1/4 in., INCLUSIVE

RANDOM

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Typical concentration and size permitted in any 6 in. length of weld

ISOLATED
Maximum size per Table 5

CLUSTER

FIG. 4-4 CHARTS FOR t OVER 1/4 in. to 3/8in.,

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Typical concentration and size permitted in any 6 in. length of weld

ISOLATED
Maximum size per Table 5

CLUSTER

FIG. 4-5 CHARTS FOR t OVER 3/8 in. to 3/4in.,

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RANDOM

ROUNDED

Typical concentration and size permitted in any 6 in. length of weld

ISOLATED
Maximum size per Table 5

CLUSTER

FIG. 4-6 CHARTS FOR t OVER 3/4 in. to 2in.,

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RANDOM

ROUNDED

Typical concentration and size permitted in any 6 in. length of weld

ISOLATED
Maximum size per Table 5

CLUSTER

FIG. 4-7 CHARTS FOR t OVER 2 in. to 4in.,

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RANDOM

ROUNDED

Typical concentration and size permitted in any 6 in. length of weld

ISOLATED
Maximum size per Table 5

CLUSTER

FIG. 4-8 CHARTS FOR t OVER 4

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ATTACHMEMT 2
ROUNDED INDICATION CHARTS

Typical quantity and size permitted in 6 in. length of weld 1/8 in. to 1/4 in. thickness

Typical quantity and size permitted in 6 in. length of weld over 1/4 in. to 1/2 in. thickness

Typical quantity and size permitted in 6 in. length of weld over 1/2 in. to 1in. thickness

Typical quantity and size permitted in 6 in. length of weld over 1in. thickness

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