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EEEB113 : CIRCUIT ANALYSIS 1

CHAPTER 1: BASIC CONCEPTS

1.1 Introduction

 2 fundamental theories in building all branches of electrical engineering; (i) electric circuit theory (ii) electromagnetic theory What is electric circuit? • An electric circuit is an interconnection of electric elements (i.e battery, wires, lamp). • Examples : Figure 1.1 (simple circuit), Figure 1.2 (complicated circuit). 1.2 Systems of units International system of units (SI) is used to represent all measurable quantities Basic SI units is shown in Table 1.1 Table 1.1 Basic SI units Quantity Basic Unit Symbol Length Mass Time Electric current Thermodynamic temperature Luminous intensity meter m kilogram kg second s ampere A kelvin K candela cd Prefixes is used to represent larger or smaller SI unit based on the power of 10 The SI prefixes and their symbols are shown in Table 1.2

Table 1.2 Prefixes

 Multiplier Prefix Symbol Multiplier Prefix Symbol 10 18 exa E 10 -1 deci da 10 15 peta P 10 -2 centi c 10 12 tera T 10 -3 mili m 10 9 giga G 10 -6 micro µ 10 6 mega M 10 -9 nano n 10 3 kilo k 10 -12 pico p 10 2 hecto h 10 -15 femto f 10 deka da 10 -18 atto a

1.3

Charge & current

Electric charge is the most basic quantity in electrical circuit. What is electric charge?

Charge, q is an electrical property of the atomic particles of which substance consists, is measures in coulombs, C. All substances are made of atoms. Each atom consists of;

Electron: carries negative charge (-1.602 x 10 -19 C)

Proton: carries positive charge (+1.602 x 10 -19 C)

Neuron: neutrally charge

Law of conservation of charge states that charge cannot be create or destroyed.

Electric current, i is the rate of change of charge, measured in ampere (A).

i =

dq

dt

Q

=

t

t

0

i dt

1 ampere = 1 coulomb/second

2 types of current

Direct current (dc) : current that remains constant with time

Alternating current (ac) : current that varies sinusoidally with time I
0
t

dc i
0

ac

t

Practice Problem 1.1 (textbook) Calculate the amount of charge represented by 2 x 10 6 protons.

Solution:

No. charge = No. of protons x No. of charge in each proton

= (

2

=

+

6

10

×

3.204

)

×

(

+

1.602

×

10

13

×

10

19

)

Practice Problem 1.2 (textbook)

If

(

10

e

2 t

)

mC, find the current at t=0.5s.

q

=

10

Solution:

i

=

dq

dt

=

At t=0.5s,

i =

20

e

2

d

dt

t

=

[(

10

10

e

20

e

2(0.5)

2

t

=

)

×

10

3

]

7.36 mA

=

20

e

2

t

×

10

3

A =

20

e

2

t

mA

Practice Problem 1.3 (textbook) The current flowing through an element is

i =

2

2

A

t

2

,

A

,

0

<

t

t

<

1

> 1

Calculate the charge entering the element from t=0 to t=2 s.

1.4

Solution:

Q

Voltage

=

t

t

0

i dt

=

t

t

= 1

= 0

2

dt

+

t

= 2

t

= 1

2

t

2

dt

=

[

2

t

]

t

t

= 1

= 0

+

2

3

t

3

t

t

= 2

= 1

=

6.667 C

Electromotive force known as voltage or potential difference is required to move electron in a particular direction The voltage between point A and B, v ab is equal to the energy a unit charge from a to b, ane measured in volt.

v ab =

dw

dq

1 volt = 1 joule/coulomb

w : energy in joules (J) q : is charge in coulomb (C) +
v ab
-

a

b

v ab can have positive or negative value,

+ve when point ‘a’ has higher potential than point ‘b’

-ve when point ‘a’ has lower potential than point ‘b’

Example 1 a
+
9 V
-
b Example 2
a
+
-9 V
-
b

=

= a
-
-9 V
+ b a
-
9 V
+ b

1.5 Power & Energy

Power is defined as the time rate of expending or absorbing energy, measured in watts (W)

p =

dw

dt

=

dw

dq

×

dq

dt

= vi

Power is a time varying quantity and is called instantaneous power. The power absorbed or supplied by an element is equal to the product of voltage across the element and the current that flows through it. Power can be positive or negative,

+ve : power is being delivered to or absorbed by an element

-ve : power is being supplied by the element (source)

Passive sign convention,

+ve : when current enters through positive terminal (p=+vi)

-ve : when current enters through negative terminal (p=-vi) Law of conservation of energy

+ power absorbed = - power supplied

Practice Problem 1.4 (textbook) To move charge q from point a to point b requires -30J. Find the voltage drop v ab if q=2C.

Solution:

v ab

 ∆ w − 30 = −15 V = = ∆ q 2

Practice Problem 1.5 (textbook) Find the power delivered to the element at t=5 ms if the current entering its positive terminal is

i = 5cos(60πt)A

and the voltage is

v

=

10

+

Solution:

p = + vi

5

t

0

i

dt

V

v

v

=

10

+

= 10 +

t

0

25

5

i

60

π

dt

=

10

+

sin 60

(

πt)

5

t

0

(

5cos 60

t

π

)

d

=

10

+

25

1

60

π

(

sin 60

t

π

)

t

0

At t=5 ms,

v =

i

=

10 +

25

60

5cos[60

π

π

sin[60

π

(5

×

10

3

(5

)]

×

=

10

3

)]

=

2.939 A

10.107 V

p = + vi = +10.107 × 2.939 = 29.7 W

Practice Problem 1.6 (textbook)

A stove element draws 15 A when connected to a 120 V line.

consume 30 kJ?

Solution:

p =

w

t

vi =

w

t

How long does it take to

120

×

15

=

30

×

10

3

t

t = 16.667 s

1.6

Circuit Elements

2 types of circuit elements,

Passive : does not able to generate energy (eg. Resistor, capacitor, inductor)

Active : capable of generating energy (eg. Generator, battery)

Voltage and current source are the most important active elements. 2 types of source,

Ideal independent source : active element that provides voltage or current that is completely independent of other circuit element

v +
-

+

V

- Independent voltage source

i Independent current source

Ideal dependent source : active element that provides voltage or current that is controlled by another voltage or current +
v
-
Dependent voltage source

i Dependent current source

Dependent source is useful in modeling transistors, op-amp and integrated circuits Practice Problem 1.7 (textbook) Compute the power absorbed or supplied by each component of the circuit.

+

5 V

- 2 V
8 A
I=5 A
+
-
3 A
P 2
P 1
+
P 3
0.6I
P 4
-

+

3 V

-

Solution:

P 1 : current enters through negative terminal P 1 = - vi = - 5(8) = -40 W

P 2 : current enters through positive terminal P 3 : current enters through positive terminal P 4 : current enters through positive terminal

supplied power

absorbed

power

P 2 = + vi = + 2 (8) = + 16 W P 3 = + vi = + (0.6 x 5)(3) = + 9 W P 4 = + vi = + 3(5) = + 15 W

Using law of conservation of energy,

+ power absorbed = - power supplied

+ ( 16 + 9 + 15 ) W = - (-40) W