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AMPLASAREA OPTIM A DISPOZITIVELOR FACTS PENTRU A MBUNTII STABILITATEA STATIC A TENSIUNII OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF FACTS TO IMPROVE STATIC VOLTAGE

STABILITY
Mahdad BELKACEM*
* Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Biskra, Algeria. ** Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Oum El Bouaghi, Algeria. *Email: electrobelk@yahoo.fr, **Email: tbouktir@lycos.com

Tarek BOUKTIR**

Kamel SRAIRI*

Rezumat: Mai multe avarii majore de sistem, pretutindeni n lume, au fost asociate direct cu colapsul tensiunii; utilizarea dispozitivelor FACTS n sistemele electronergetice este realizat pentru controlul circulaiei de puteri, mbuntirea stabilitii, managementul tensiunii, corecia factorului de putere i reducerea pierderilor. Lucrarea investigheaz utilizarea dispozitivelor conectate n serie (TCSC) i a dispozitivelor conectate n paralel (SVC), din punctul de vedere al sensibilitii sarcinii i pierderilor de putere reactiv, pentru a crete stabilitatea tensiunii. Studiul a fost realizat pe sistemul test IEEE 30 pentru a verifica corectitudinea i eficiena metodei propuse. Lucrarea evideniaz faptul c dispozitivele FACTS amplasate optim n sistem mresc semnificativ limitele puterii i stabilitatea sistemului. Cuvinte cheie: Circulaie de putere, Stabilitate static a tensiunii, FACTS, SVC, TCSC, Bifurcaie, Vectori proprii.

Abstract: Several major blackouts throughout the world have been directly associated to the voltage collapse, the application of FACTS in electric power system is intended for the control of power flow, improvement of stability, voltage profile management, power factor correction, and loss minimisation. This paper investigates the use of the series device(TCSC) and the parallel device (SVC) from the point of load margin and reactive power loss sensitivity index to increase voltage stability. The study has been carried out on the IEEE 30 Test System to verify the validity and efficiency of the proposed method. It reveals that incorporation of FACTS devices with optimal location significantly enhance load margin as well as system stability. Keywords: Power flow, Static Voltage Stability, Facts, SVC, TCSC, Birufcation, Eigenvectors.

1. Introducere Scopul reelei de transport este conecteze centralele i centrele de sarcin pentru a alimenta sarcina cu o fiabilitate cerut i eficien maxim, la un pre sczut. Pe msur ce crete puterea transferat, sistemul electroenergetic poate deveni tot mai ncrcat i mai nesigur pentru circulaiile de puteri neprogramate i piederile mari. n acest context, a fost introdus un concept denumit sistem flexibil de transmitere a curentului alternativ. Conceperea dispozitivelor FACTS ca o filosofie de control total al reelei a fost introdus de ctre N.G. Hingorani [1] de la Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) din SUA n 1988, dei dispozitivele cu electronic de putere au fost folosite de muli ani n reeaua de transport. Dispozitivelor FACTS se folosesc n sistemele electroenergetice pentru controlul circulaiei de puteri, mrirea stabilitii, managementul tensiunii, corecia factorului de putere i minimizarea pierderilor. Problema colapsului tensiunii n sistemul electroenergetic a devenit una din cele mai importante pentru a fi rezolvat, mai multe avarii majore de sistem, pretutindeni n lume, fiind asociate direct cu acest fenomen. De altfel, datorit avariilor de sistem care au aprut n America i Canada n 2003, cercettorii ncearc s descopere metode alternative pentru a mri stabilitatea tensiunii. Stabilitatea regimului permanent se refer la rspunsul dinamic al sistemului la perturbaii mici care apar n mod curent n timpul funcionrii sistemului. Aceast problem poate fi studiat utiliznd ecuaiile dinamice liniarizate ale sistemului ntr-un punt de funcionare. Un sistem se afl n

1. Introduction The purpose of the transmission network is to pool power plants and load centers in order to supply the load at a required reliability and maximum efficiency at a lower cost. As power transfer grow, the power system can become increasingly more difficult to operate, and the system becomes more insecure with unscheduled power flows and higher losses. In this context, a concept called a flexible alternative current transmission system was introduced. The conception of FACTS as a total network control philosophy was first introduced by N.G. Hingorani[1]from the Electric power research institute (EPRI) in the USA in 1988, although the power electronic controlled devices had been used in the transmission network for many years before that. The application of FACTS in electric power system is intended for the control of power flow, improvement of stability, voltage profile management, power factor correction, and loss minimisation. The problem of voltage collapse in power system is now becoming one of the most important predicaments to resolve, as several major blackouts throughout the world have been directly associated to this phenomenon. Moreover, because of the blackout that occurred in America and Canada in 2003, researches are attempting to discover alternative methods to improving voltage stability. Steady state stability refers to dynamic system response to small disturbances that continuously occur during the operation of the system. This problem can be studied by looking at the linearized dynamic equations of system at an operation point. Thus , a power system is steady state stable

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regim stabil pentru o anumit condiie de funcionare, dac n urma unor mici perturbaii, el revine la regimul staionar [2]. Condiia de stabilitate se determin calculnd valorile proprii ale sistemului liniarizat; dac toate prile reale ale valorilor proprii sunt negative, sistemul este stabil; altfel, sistemul este instabil. Circulaia de putere pe o linie de c.a. este o funcie de modulul i faza tensiunii i impendana liniei. Consecinele lipsei controlului pentru oricare din aceste variabile sunt probleme cu stabilitatea, circulaii de puteri nedorite, circulaii de puteri reactive nedorite, pierderi mari, tensiune ridicat sau sczut, printre altele. Cu dispozitivele FACTS putem controla faza tensiunii, mrimea sa n nodul ales i impedana liniei [3]. Condensatoarele Serie Controlate cu Tiristoare (TCSC) i Compensatoarele Statice de Putere Reactiv (SVC) sunt cele mai populare dispozitive FACTS. Obiectivul principal al SVC este de a regla tensiunea ntr-un nod ales controlnd injecia de putere reactiv n locaia respectiv. Meninerea nivelelor tensiunii este important din punctul de vedere al consumatorilor. Valorile sczute ale tensiunii provoac dereglri ale performanelor sarcinilor cum ar fi motoare de inducie, lmpi cu incandescen etc., n timp ce valorile ridicate ale tensiunii provoac saturaie magnetic i genereaz armonici, precum i probleme cu izolaia. Aceste dispozitive sunt caracterizate printr-un rspuns rapid, domeniu mare de aplicare i fiabilitate ridicat. Compensarea capacitiv longitudinal este o alt metod pentru a mbunti limitele de stabilitate i de a crete capacitatea de transport. Puterea transportat pe o linie este invers proporional cu impedana de transfer. De exemplu, considernd ali parametrii constani, o compensare serie de 50 % dubleaz aproximativ puterea transmis n regim stabil, n timp ce o compensare serie de 75 % va crete puterea transportat aproximativ de patru ori. Din perspectiva unui regim stabil, structura dispozitivului este echivalent cu cea a unui FC-TRC SVC prezentat n figura 1.

for a particular operating condition if following any small disturbance, the system reaches a steady-state condition [2]. The stability condition is determined by calculating the eigenvalues of the linearized system, if all real parts of the eigenvalues are negative, the system is stable; otherwise, it is unstable. Power flow through an ac line is a function of phase angle, line and voltages and line impedance. The consequences of lack control over any of these variables are problems with stability, undesirable power flows, undesirable var flows, higher losses, high or less voltage, among the others, With FACT devices we can control the phase angle, the magnitude at chosen bus and line impedance [3]. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors (TCSC) and Static Var Compensators (SVC) are the most popular devices of the FACTS. The main functionality of the SVC is to regulate the voltage at a chosen bus by controlling the reactive power injection at the location. Maintaining the rated voltage levels is important for proper operation and utilization of loads. Under voltage causes deregulation in the performance of loads such as induction motors, light bulbs, etc., whereas overvoltage causes magnetic saturation and resultant harmonic generation, as well as equipment failures due to insulation breakdown. This devices are characterised by rapid response, wide operational range and high reliability. Series capacitor compensation is another approach to improve stability limits and increase transfer capabilities. The transmitted power through a line is inversely proportional to the transfer impedance. For example, considering other parameters constants, 50 % series compensation approximately doubles the steady-state transmitted power, whereas 75 % series compensation would increase the transfered power to about four times the original value. From a steady-state perspective, the structure of the device is equivalent to a FC-TRC SVC presented in figure 1. 2. Background review Some fundamental concepts behind voltage-stability analysis and FACTS controller area briefly discussed. A. Voltage Stability and Bifurcation Theory. Nonlinear phenomena, especially certain types of bifurcations, have been shown to be responsible for a variety of stability problems in power systems. In particular, the lack of post contingency equilibrium points, typically associated with saddlenode bifurcation (SNB) and certain types of limitinduced bifurcations (LIB), have been shown to be the main reason behind several voltage-collapse problems throughout the world. Detailed explanations and examples of these bifurcations in power systems and their association with voltage stability can be found in [11]. In general, bifurcation points can be defined as equilibrium points where change in the quantity and / or quality of the equilibria associated with a nonlinear set of dynamic equations occur with respect to slow varying parameters in the system. B. Principle of Compensation The power flow along the transmission line is directly proportional to the difference of the phase angle and inversely proportional to the magnitude of the reactance Series capacitors reduce the total reactance of the transmission line, which is often the main reason for their application. (1)

2. Prezentarea problemei Se discut pe scurt unele concepte fundamentale referitoare la analiza stabilitii tensiunii i regulatorul FACTS. A. Stabilitatea tensiunii i teoria bifurcaiei Fenomenele neliniare, mai ales anumite tipuri de bifurcaii, s-au dovedit a fi responsabile de o varietate de probleme de stabilitate n sistemele electroenergetice. n particular, lipsa punctelor de echilibru postavarie n mod curent asociate cu punctele singulare de birfucaiile (SNB) i anumite tipuri de bifurcaii produse la limit (LIB), s-a dovedit a fi motivul principal al colapsului de tensiune. Explicaii i exemple detaliate ale acestor bifurcaii n sistemele electroenergetice i asocierea lor cu stabilitatea tensiunii pot fi gsite n [11]. n general, punctele de bifurcaie pot fi definite ca puncte de echilibru unde se schimb cantitatea i / sau calitatea echilibrului, asociate cu un sistem neliniar de ecuaii dinamice, n condiiile variaiei lente a parametrilor sistemului. B. Principiul compensrii Circulaia de putere pe o de transport este direct proporional cu diferena unghiului de faz i invers proporional cu mrimea reactanei. Condensatoarele serie reduc reactana total a liniei de transport. V1 V2 sin(1 2 ) P= X l X c

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Fig. 1. Componentele circuitului principal SVC Fig 1. SVC main circuit components

Fig. 2. Principiul compensrii condensatoare serie i unt Fig. 2. Principle of compensation - series and Shunt

3. Modelarea regulatoarelor FACTS B.1. Compensatoare statice de putrere reactiv nc din 1980, progrese n regulatoarele pentru sistemele flexibile de transport n curent alternativ (FACTS) n sistemele electronergetice au condus la utilizarea lor pentru a mri stabilitatea reelelor electroenergetice. n literatura de specializate s-au publicat mai multe studii analiznd utilizarea dispozitivelor FACTS pentru tensiuni i stabilitatea unghiului. Efectul regulatorului SVC asupra exploatrii economice i stabilitatea tensiunii reelei este principalul motiv n spatele ncorporrii SVC n diferite formule. Modelul pentru regimul stabil prezentat n [3] este folosit aici pentru a ncorpora SVC n problemele PF. Acest model este bazat pe reprezentarea regulatorului ca o impedan variabil, presupunnd o configuraie SVC cu un condensator fix (FC) i o bobin de reactan controlat cu tiristoare (TCR), dup cum este descris n figura 1. Trimind n acelai timp un impuls de poart tuturor tiristoarelor unui redresor, se comand redresorul s intre n conducie. El se va bloca aproximativ la trecerea prin zero a curentului, n absena semnalelor de amorsare. Deoarece elementul de control este redresorul cu tiristoare, tiristoarele sunt amorsate simetric, cu un domeniu de control al unghiului de 90 la 180 tensiunea condensatorului (bobinei). Legea de control a regimului stabil pentru SVC este o caracteristic tipic de curent tensiune, ilustrat n figura 2.

Fig. 3. Reprezentarea circuitului SVC pentru regim stabil Fig 3. SVC steady-state circuit representation.

3. Modeling of FACTS controllers B.1. Static VAR Compensator Since the early 1980s, advances in flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) controllers in power system have led to their application in improving stability of power networks Several studies analyzing the application of FACTS controllers for voltage and angle stability have been reported in the literature. The effect of the SVC controller on the economic operation and voltage stability of the network is the principle motivation behind incorporating the SVC into various formulations. The steady-state model proposed in [3] is used here to incorporate the SVC on PF problems. This model is based on representing the controller as a variable impedance, assuming an SVC configuration with a fixed capacitor (FC) and Thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR) as depicted in figure 1. Applying simultaneously a gate pulse to all thyristor of a thyristor valve brings the valve into conduction. The valve will block approximately at the zero crossing of the ac current, in the absence of firing signals. Thus the controlling element is the Thyristor valve. the thyristors are fired symmetrically, in an angle control range of 90 to 180 with respect to the capacitor (inductor) voltage. The steady-state control law for the SVC is the typical current-voltage characteristic, illustrated in figure 2. V = Vref + Xsl I (2) Xsl are in the range of 0.02 to 0.05 p.u. with respect to Xsl sunt n domeniul 0.02 la 0.05 u.r. n raport cu baza SVC. Panta este necesar pentru a evita nclcarea limitelor. the SVC base. The slope is needed to avoid hitting limits. At La limitele tensiunii SVC este transformat ntr-o reactan the voltage limits the SVC is transformed into a fixed reacfix. Impedana total echivalent Xe a SVC poate fi repre- tance. The total equivalent impedance Xe of SVC may be zentat de represented by
Xe =XC

unde

/ kX sin 2 2 + ( 2 1 / k X ) where
kx = X C / X L

(3)

The SVC is usually connected to the transmission system SVC este conectat de obicei la sistemul de transport prin intermediul unui transformator cobortor, care este tratat through a step-down transformer, which is treated in a similar manner as other transformers in the system. ntr-o manier similar ca i alt transformator din sistem. Vref - XslVkBe + Vl = 0 (4) 2 V Qsvc - k Be = 0 (5)

X C X L Be + sin 2 + ( 2 X L / X C ) = 0

(6)

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unde

where Be = 1 / X e . Steady-state limits of the firing angle are 900 < < 1800, where partial conduction is obtained. Firing angles less than 900 are not allowed, as they produce unsymmetrical current with a high dc component. B-2. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors (TCSC) The main difference from SVC is that the TCSC is series connected to the transmission line, whereas the SVC is shunt connected to a bus. Another major difference is that TCSC is directly connected to the line, as opposed to the SVC which typically requires a step-down transformer.

Limitele de regim stabil ale unghiului de amorsare sunt 90 < < 1800, unde se obine conducia parial. Unghiurile de amorsare mai mici de 900 nu sunt permise, deoarece ele produc curent nesimetric cu o component continu ridicat. B.2. Condensatoare serie controlate cu tiristoare (TCSC) Diferena principal fa de SVC o reprezint faptul c TCSC este conectat n serie cu linia de transport, n timp ce SVC este conectat n unt ntr-un nod. O alt diferen major o reprezint faptul c TCSC este conectat direct la linie, iar SVC printr-un transformator cobortor.
0

Fig. 4. Caracteristicile pentru regim permanent V-I al SVC Fig. 4. Typical steady state V-I characteristics of SVC

Fig. 5. Componente circuitului principal al TCSC Fig. 5. TCSC main circuit components

Fig. 7. Impedana de frecven fundamental pentru un condesator conectat n serie comandat de tiristoare Fig. 7. Thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC) fundamental frequency impedance.

Fig. 6. Compensare serie a liniei Fig. 6. Series Compensator Line

Fig. 8. Circulaia de putere pe o linie de transport Fig.8. Power flow in a transmission line

4. Amplasarea optim a TCSC i SVC A. Amplasarea optim a TCSC A.1. Indicele de sensibilitate al pierderii de putere reactiv Unul din rezultatele importante ale compensrii serie este reducerea pierderilor de putere reactiv. Scopul este gsirea liniei pe care se va amplasa TCSC, determinnd indicii de sensibilitate ai pierderilor de putere reactiv n fiecare linie. Indicele de sensibilitate reprezint rata de schimbare n pierderi de putere reactiv datorit reactanei liniei. Dup acest indice poate fi gsit cea mai convenabil linie pentru cazul compensrii serie. Ecuaia pierderilor de putere pe linia dat n figura 6, poate fi scris astfel:

4. Optimal placement of TCSC and SVC A. Optimal placement of TCSC A.1. Reactive power loss sensitivity indexes One of the important results of series compensation is the reduction of the reactive power losses. The goal is to find the line to place the TCSC, by finding reactive power loss sensitivity indexes in each line. The index sensitivity is the rate of change in reactive power loss due to line reactance. By this index the most suitable line, from the reduction of reactive power losses point of view, for the series compensation can be found. Loss power equation of the line, given in figure 6, can be written as: (7)

unde

X R P + jQ = K + j 2 2 2 2 R +X R +X where
2 2 K = Vn + Vm 2Vn Vm cos( n m )

(8)

Apoi indicele de sensibilitate (SI) este SI = (

Then the sensitivity index SI is


Q R X2 )=K X (R 2 + X 2 )2
2

(9)

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B. Amplasarea optim a SVC B. Optimal placement of SVC Mai nti scriem ecuaia sistemului electroenergetic: First we can write equation of the power system like this: F(y, , p) = 0 (10) unde y reprezint vectorul variabilelor de stare, cores- where y represents the vector of state variables, correpunde vectorului puterilor reale i reactive ale sarcinilor i p sponds to the vector of real and reactive load powers and p reprezint orice parametru al sistemului care este direct means any parameter of the system that are directly controlcontrolabil, cum ar fi nivelele de compensare unt i serie. lable, such as shunt and series compensation levels. In any n orice regim stabil al aceast ecuaie este satisfcut. steady state of the system this equation is satisfied. Aceasta nseamn c la punctul de nceput al funcioThat means at the beginning point of the operating (y0, nrii (y0, Q0, p0) i punctul singular al nodului de bifurcaie 0, p0) and saddle node bifurcation point (yb, b, pb) there (yb, Qb, pb) sunt dou ecuaii: are two equations: F(y0, 0,p0) = 0 (11) F(yb, b,pb) = 0 (12) Aici exist o relaie ntre Q0 indicnd puterile active i Here there is a relationship between 0 indicating the real reactive la punctul iniial de funcionare i Qb indicnd cel and reactive powers at the beginning point of operating and singular al nodului de bifurcaie. n punctul singular al no- b indicating the saddle node bifurcation point. At the saddle node bifurcation point, the jacobian matrix dului de bifurcaie, matricea jacobian fy |b este singular. fy |b is singular. For a given set of controllable parameters p0, Pentru un set dat de parametrii controlabili p0, cderea tensiunii studiaz de obicei concentrat pe determinarea cderii voltage collapse studies usually concentrate on determining sau punctului de bifurcaie (yb, Qb), unde corespunde de the collapse or the bifurcation point (yb, b), where typically obicei nivelului maxim de sarcin sau coeficientului de corresponds to the maximum loading level or loadability siguran al ncrcrii. margin. 5. Analiza simulrilor Ambele TCSC i SVC sunt separat testate pe un sistem text cu 30 noduri IEEE i rezultatele folositoare sunt observate i discutate. A. Rezultate SVC nainte de inserarea dispozitivelor SVC, sistemul a fost mpins n punctul su de prbuire crescnd att sarcina activ, ct i reactiv direct folosind circulaia continu a sarcinii. n cadrul acestui sistem test conform rezultatelor obinute din circulaia continu a sarcinii, putem afla faptul c nodul 30 i 26 sunt cele mai bune locuri pentru amplasat (figura B1, B2, B3, B4). Pentru a confirma acest rezultat teoretic presupunem SVC cu valorile tehnice indicate n tabelul 3, instalate n noduri diferite. Figura B1 arat clar rezultatul su cu coeficientul de siguran al sarcinii n cel mai bun nod. Putem concluziona din rezultatele din tabelul 1, faptul c nodul 30 ar trebui s fie selectat. B. Rezultatele TCSC Pentru acest caz, n concordan cu ecuaia 9 care indic indicele de sensibilitate (SI), putem obine valoarea lui SI dup cum se indic n figura (A1, A2, A3). Se arat n linia [1-2], cantitatea SI atinge valoarea cea mai mare. Aceasta nseamn c n momentul n care reactana ramificaiei selectate se schimb va avea cel mai mare efect asupra performanei circulaiei puterilor. Prin urmare, liniiile [1-2] ar trebui s fie selectate prima dat pentru TCSC. Liniile (2-5), (1-3) vor schimba de asemenea mult sistemul. Liniile (3-6), (4-6) i (2-6) vor oferi o contribuie mic asupra performanei circulaiei de putere. Cnd instalm TCSC pe o linie diferit, folosind indicele de sensibilitate n condiii normale i folosind circulaia continu a sarcinii, valoarea numeric menionat n tabelul 2 arat clar faptul c ramificaia [1-2] cu 2.3137 n condiii normale i 2.9529 n condiii anormale (factor de ncrcare egal cu 1.1) reprezint locul optim de amplasare al TCSC. Indic de asemenea c aceast abordare bazat pe indicele de sensibilitate este o metod folositoare pentru a gsi locul optim de amplasare al TCSC. 5. Simulation analysis Both TCSC and SVC are separately tested on IEEE30 bus test system, and useful results are observed and discussed. A. SVC results Before the insertion of SVC devices, the system was pushed to its collapsing point by increasing both active and reactive load discretely using continuation load flow. In this test system according to results obtained from the continuation load flow, we can find that bus 30 and 26 are the best placement point (figure B1, B2, B3, B4). To affirm this theoretical result we suppose the SVC with technical values indicated in table.3 installed on a different bus. Figure B1 shows clearly its result with the load margin of the best bus. We can conclude from results in table 1, that the bus 30 should be selected. B. TCSC results For this case, according to equation 9 which indicate the sensitivity indexes SI, we can obtain the value of SI as indicated in figure (A1, A2, A3). It shows in line [1-2] that the quantity of SI reaches the greatest value. That means when the reactance of this branch selected is changed it will have the largest affect on the power flow performance. Therefore, lines [1-2] should be selected first for TCSC. Lines (2-5), (1-3) will also change the system greatly. Lines (3-6), (4-6) and (2-6) will provide small contribution to the power flow performance. When we put TCSC on a different line, using the sensitivity index in normal condition and using continuation load flow, the numerical value mentioned in table.2 shows clearly that branch [1-2] with 2.3137 in normal condition and 2.9529 in abnormal condition (Load factor equal 1.1) represent the optimal placement of TCSC. It also indicates that this approach based in sensitivity index is a useful method to find the optimal placement of TCSC.

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Value of index sensitivity SI

Value of index sensitivity SI

1.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Lines

Lines

Fig. A1. Indicele de sensibilitate n condiii normale Fig. A1. Index Sensitivity in Normal Condition
3 SI with 1.1%load Voltage

Fig. A2. Indicele de sensibilitate cu o cretere a sarcinii de 1.03 % Fig. A2.Index Sensitivity with 1.03 % load Incrementation
1.4 SI with 65%Serie Compensation Line 1-2 Voltage 1.2

Value of index sensitivity SI

2.5

Value of index sensitivity SI

0.8

1.5

0.6

0.4

0.5

0.2

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Lines

Lines

Fig. A3. Indicele de sensibilitate cu o cretere a sarcinii de 1.1 % Fig.A3. Index sensitivity with 1.1 % load Incrementation
3 SI with 65%Serie Compensation Line 2-5 Voltage

Fig. A4. Indicele de sensibilitate cu o compensare serie de 65 % pe linia [1-2] Fig. A4. Index Sensitivity with 65 % Serie Compensation in line [1-2]
3 SI with 65%Serie Compensation Line 2-6 Voltage

Value of index sensitivity SI

Value of index sensitivity SI


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

2.5

2.5

1.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

Lines

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Lines

Fig. A5. Indicele de sensibilitate cu o compensare serie de 65 % pe linia [2-5] Fig. A5. Index Sensitivity with 65 % Serie Compensation in line [2-5]
1.1

Fig. A6. Indicele de sensibilitate cu o compensare serie de 65 % pe linia [2-6] Fig. A6. Index Sensitivity with 65 % Serie Compensation in line [2-6]
0.25 0.2 0.15

SVC in BUS 30
v30 v26 v10 v14 v28

SVC in BUS 30 Bsvcmax

1.05

Voltage Magnitude [pu]

Qsvc and Bsvc [pu]

0.1 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15

QSVC BSVC

0.95

0.9

0.85

0.8
-0.2

0.75

0.5

1.5

2.5

-0.25

Bsvcmin
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

Loading coefficient

Loading coefficient

Fig. B1. Mrimea tensiunii cu continuitatea circulaiei de putere SVC n nodul 30 Fig. B1. Voltage Magnitude with load Fow Continuation SVC in bus 30

Fig. B2. Puterea reactiv injectat i susceptana cu continuitatea circulaiei de putere SVC n nodul 30 Fig. B2. Reactive Power Injected and Susceptance with load Fow Continuation SVC in bus 30

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SVC in BUS 26
v30 v26 v10 v14 v28

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SVC in BUS 26

1.1

0.25 0.2 0.15

Bsvcmax

1.05

Voltage Magnitude [pu]

Qsvc and Bsvc [pu]

0.1 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15

QSVC BSVC

0.95

0.9

0.85

0.8

-0.2
0.75 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

-0.25

Bsvcmin
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

Loading coefficient

Loading coefficient

Fig. B3. Mrimea tensiunii cu continuitatea circulaiei de putere SVC n nodul 26 Fig. B3. Voltage Magnitude with load Fow Continuation SVC in bus 26
1.05 1

Fig. B4. Puterea reactiv injectat i susceptana cu continuitatea circulaiei de putere SVC n nodul 26 Fig. B4. Reactive Power Injected and Susceptance with load Fow Continuation SVC in bus 26
0.25 0.2 0.15

SVC in BUS 10

SVC in BUS 10 Bsvcmax

Voltage Magnitude [pu]

Qsvc and Bsvc [pu]

0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7 0.65

0.1 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2

QSVC BSVC

v30 v26 v10 v14 v28

Bsvcmin
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

-0.25

Loading coefficient

Loading coefficient

Fig. B5. Mrimea tensiunii cu continuitatea circulaiei de putere SVC n nodul 10 Fig. B5. Voltage Magnitude with load Fow Continuation SVC in bus 10
1.05 1

Fig. B6. Puterea reactiv injectat i susceptana cu continuitatea circulaiei de putere SVC n nodul 10 Fig. B6. Reactive Power Injected and Susceptance with load Fow Continuation SVC in bus 10
0.25 0.2 0.15

SVC in BUS 28

SVC in BUS 28 Bsvcmax


QSVC BSVC

Voltage Magnitude [pu]

Qsvc and Bsvc [pu]

0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7 0.65

0.1 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2

v30 v26 v10 v14 v28

0.5

1.5

2.5

-0.25

Bsvcmin
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

Loading coefficient

Loading coefficient

Fig. B7. Mrimea tensiunii cu continuitatea circulaiei de putere SVC n nodul 28 Fig. B7. Voltage Magnitude with load Fow Continuation SVC in bus 28
SVC in BUS 14
1.05 1

Fig. B8. Puterea reactiv injectat i susceptana cu continuitatea circulaiei de putere SVC n nodul 28 Fig. B8. Reactive Power Injected and Susceptance with load Fow Continuation SVC in bus 28
0.25 0.2 0.15

SVC in BUS 14 Bsvcmax


QSVC BSVC

Voltage Magnitude [pu]

0.95

Qsvc and Bsvc [pu]

0.1 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15

0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7 0.65

v30 v26 v10 v14 v28

-0.2 -0.25

Bsvcmin
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

Loading coefficient

Loading coefficient

Fig. B9. Mrimea tensiunii cu continuitatea circulaiei de putere SVC n nodul 14 Fig. B9. Voltage Magnitude with load Fow Continuation SVC in bus 14

Fig. B10. Puterea reactiv injectat i susceptana cu continuitatea circulaiei de putere SVC n nodul 14 Fig. B10. Reactive Power Injected and Susceptance with load Fow Continuation SVC in bus 14

58

The 6 International Power Systems Conference

th

SVC in 30 SVC in 26 SVC in 10 SVC in 14 SVC in 28

Tabelul 1. Rezultatele principale ale sistemului cu 30 de noduri IEEE cu un TCSC instalat Table 1. Main Results of IEEE 30 Bus System With One TCSC Installation Load Incrementation 0% 5% 10 % 0% 5% 10 % 0% 5% B(pu) P Vmin 0.0777 0.0854 0.0933 17.8623 19.9781 22.2354 0.9689 0.9654 0.0690 0.0763 0.0838 17.8381 19.9534 22.2112 0.9638 0.9603 0.0934 0.1251 0.1572 17.8019 19.8790 22.0930 0.9511 0.9471 -0.0206 -0.0061 0.0086 17.9142 20.0211 22.2718 0.9467 0.9417 -0.1098 -0.0863 -0.0622 17.9859 20.0891 22.3316 0.9425 0.9381 Tabelul 2. Valoarea SI pentru diferite linii Table 2. SI Values for different lines Normal Abnormal Lines 1-2 2-5 1-3 3-4 4-6 2-6 1.03 * Sload 2.4924 0.6775 0.6308 0.5314 0.4901 0.3305

10 % 0.9620 0.9567 0.943 0.9367 0.9337

Q ( ) X

1.1 * Sload 2.9529 0.7789 0.6197 0.6197 0.5621 0.3807

2.3137 0.6372 0.5894 0.4965 0.4612 0.3109

Model

Tabelul 3. Datele modelului SVC Table 3. DATA of the SVC Model Bi BLo 0.02 -0.25 FAi FAmin 140 90

BHi 0.25 Famax 180

6. Concluzii SVC i TCSC au fost modelate i au fost studiate efectele lor asupra stabilitii tensiunii. Testele realizate pe sistemul test IEEE 30 sunt pe deplin ncurajatoare i promitoare. Ambele dispozitive arat faptul c instalarea lor n sistemul electroenergetic pot eventual s creasc limita de putere, puterea transportat pe linie i capacitilor de ncrcare a reelei la fel ca i mrirea stabilitii sistemului. Totui, n practica pe scar larg a sistemelor de putere, se solicit studii mai aprofundate pentru a lua n considerare limitrile liniei i stabilitii generatorului.

6. Conclusions SVC and TCSC has been modeled and their effect on voltage stability are studied. For the SVC placement we are used a load margin sensitivity, and for TCSC placement a reactive power loss sensitivity index is implemented. The tests performed on the IEEE 30 test system are found to be quite encouraging and promising. Both devices exhibits the fact that insertion of these devices in power system can eventually increase the power limit, line power and loading capability of the network as well as enhancing the system stability. However, in the large power practical system, further studies are required to take in consideration line and generator stability limitation.

[1] N.G. Hingorani, High Power Electronics and Flexible AC Transmission System , IEEE Power Engineering review, july 1988 [2] Tarek Bouktir, Application de la programmation Oriente Objet loptimisation de lcoulement de puissance , thse de doctorat, Universit de Batna, 2004. [3] William D.Rosehart, Claudio A, Canizares, and Victor H.Quintana. Effect of detailed Power System Models in Traditional and Voltage Stability Constrained Optimal Power Flow Problems, , IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.18, NO 1, FEBRUARY 2003. [4] Ge Shaoyun, T S Chung, Coupled Active Dispatsh with FACTS Devices and Specified Power Flow Control Constraints , Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Advances in Power System Control, APSCOM 97, HONG KONG, November 1997. [5] M. Moghavvemi, M.O.Faruque, Effects of Facts Devices on Static Voltage Stability , IEEE 2000. [6] Mohammad A.S. Masoum, Marjan Ladjevardi, Akbar Jafarian, and Awald F.Fuchs, Optimal Placement, Replacement and Sizing Of Capacitor Banks in Distribution Networks by Genetic Algorithm, IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery, Vol 19, N4, October 2004. [7] Fernando L. Alvardo Solving Power Flow Problems with a Matlab implementation of the Power System Application Data dictionary , Proceeding of FACTS devices, Electrical Power and Energie Systems 2003. [8] Yunqiang Lu, Ali Abur, Static Security Enhancement via Optimal Utilization of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors, IEEE transactions on Power Systems, VOL 17, N2, May 2002. [9] Abdel-Moumen .M.A, Narayana Prasad Padhy, Pwor Flow Control and Transmission Loss Minimisation Model With TCSC for Practical Power Networks. 2003 IEEE. [10] R.J. Nelson, J.Bian, S.L.Williams, Transmission Series Power Flow Control, IEEE transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.10, N1, January 1995. [11] Claudio A. Canizares , Power Flow and Transient Stability Models Of FACTS Controllers for Voltage And Angle Stability Studies, 2000IEEE. [12] Mohammad A.S.Masoun, Marjin Ladjevardi, Akbar Jafarin, and Awald F. Optimal Placementn, Replacement and Sizing of Capacitor Banks in Distribution Networks by Genetic Algorithms , IEEE Transactions on power Delivery, Vol, 19, N04, October 2004.

References (Bibliografie)