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What are the symptoms of a melanin deficiency?

Not Medical advice:Melanin deficiency symptoms are loss of skin color or skin lightening, presence of whirled hypochromic skin lesions Read more Vitamin E supplements are good for melanin deficiency

milk products like dahi, paneer, cheese, etc. Fortified breakfast cereals like cornflakes are a useful source.

Top 10 Foods Highest in Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

2361 277 215 113 Share11218 Vitamin B-12, or Cobalamin, is the largest and most complex vitamin currently known to man. A slight deficiency of vitamin B-12 can lead to anemia, fatigue, mania, and depression, while a long term deficiency can cause permanent damage to the brain and central nervous system. Vitamin B12 can only be manufactured by bacteria and can only be found naturally in animal products, however, synthetic forms are widely available and added to many foods like cereals. Vitamin B12 can be consumed in large doses because excess is excreted by the body or stored in the liver for use when supplies are scarce. Stores of B12 can last for up to a year. Below are the top 10 foods highest in vitamin B12, click here for an extended list of vitamin B12 rich foods, and here for other foods high in vitamin B. #1: Clams, Oysters, and Mussels

Shellfish are a great source of vitamin B12 and can be eaten raw, baked, steamed, fried, or made into chowder. In addition to vitamin B12 shellfish are a good source of zinc, copper, and iron. Clams provide the most vitamin B-12 with 98.9g per 100g serving, accounting for 1648% of the DV. That is 84g (1401% DV) per 3 ounce serving, and 187.9g (3132% DV) in 20 small clams, or 9.4g (156.6 %DV) in one small clam. Mussels and oysters are also good sources of B12 providing 600% DV and 400% DV per 100 gram serving. Click to
see complete nutrition facts.

#2: Liver

Often appearing on the culinary scene as pt, liver can also be prepared steamed or fried with onions and herbs. The liver of most any animal is packed with vitamin B-12, the highest on the list are: Lamb, beef, veal, moose, turkey, duck, and goose respectively. Lamb liver provides 85.7g (1428% DV) of vitamin B12 per 100g serving, or 72.85g (1214% DV) in a 3 ounce serving. Click to see complete nutrition facts. #3: Caviar (Fish Eggs)

Caviar and fish eggs are most often eaten as a garnish or spread. The eggs of whitefish contain the most vitamin B-12 with 56.4g (940% DV) per 100g serving. Caviar contains a third of that with 20g (333% DV) of vitamin B12 per 100g serving, 5.6g (93% DV) per ounce, and 3.2g (53% DV) per tablespoon. Chicken eggs, by comparison, only offer 1.29g (22% DV) of vitamin B-12 per 100g serving, or 0.65g (11% DV) per egg. Click to see complete
nutrition facts. Buy Caviar from

#4: Octopus

Popular in Mediterranean, Japanese, and Hawaiian cuisine, octopus is a vitamin b12 rich food. Cooked octopus provides 36g of vitamin B-12 per 100 gram serving accounting for 600% of the DV. That is 30.6g (510% DV) per 3 ounce serving, or 10.2g (170% DV) per ounce. Raw octopus provides about half as much vitamin b12 with 20g (333% DV) per 100 gram serving, 17g (283% DV) in a 3 ounce serving, and 5.67g (94.33% DV) per ounce. Click
to see complete nutrition facts.

#5: Fish

Known for their omega 3 fats and for being a high protein food, fish are also a good source of vitamin B12. Mackerel provides the most vitamin B-12 with 19g per 100g serving (317% DV), followed by Herring (312% DV), Salmon (302%), Tuna (181%), Cod (167%), Sardines (149%), Trout (130%), and Bluefish (104%).
Click to see complete nutrition facts. Canned Fish Highest in Vitamin B12.

#6: Crab and Lobster

Crab and lobster are most commonly served baked, steamed, or in bisque. A 100g serving of crab contains 11.5g of vitamin B12 (192% of the DV), that is 15.4g (257%DV) per leg (134g). Lobster will provide 4.04g(67% DV) per 100g serving, or 6.59g (110% DV) in an average whole lobster (163g).
Click to see complete nutrition facts.

#7: Beef

In addition to being a vitamin B12 rich food, beef is also a good source of protein, zinc, and heme-iron. The amount of vitamin B-12 in beef depends on the cut, lean fattrimmed chuck contains the most vitamin B12 with 6.18g (103% DV) per 100g serving, 11.49g (103% DV) in a chuck steak, and 5.25g (88% DV) in a 3 ounce serving. Chuck is followed by sirloin (62% DV), rib-eye (60% DV), and ribs (58% DV).
Click to see complete nutrition facts.

#8: Lamb (Mutton)

Lamb is a common meat in the Middle East, Mediterranean, East Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and most of Europe. Lamb is a high cholesterol food so be sure to look for lean cuts which are higher in B12 anyway. Lamb also provides high amounts of protein, and zinc. The shoulder is the cut of lamb with the most vitamin B-12 providing 3.71g (62% DV) per 100g serving, 5.82g (97% DV) per pound, and 3.15g (53% DV) in a 3 ounce serving. The shoulder is followed by the foreshank and leg which provides 53% of the DV per 100g serving, and lamb chops which provide 51% of the DV for vitmain B12 per 100 gram serving. Click to see
complete nutrition facts.

#9: Cheese

Despite being a high cholesterol food, cheese is a good source of calcium, protein, and Riboflavin (Vitamin B2). The amount of vitamin B12 in cheese depends on type and

variety, Swiss cheese provides the most with 3.34g (56% DV) per 100g serving, followed by Gjetost (40% DV), Mozzarella(39% DV), Parmesan (38% DV), Tilsit (35% DV), and Feta (28% DV). Click to see complete nutrition facts. #10: Eggs

When it comes to chicken eggs the raw yellow has most of the vitamin B-12 with 1.95g per 100g serving (33%), however, this equates to 0.33g per yolk or just 6% of the DV. The eggs of other animals are higher with a goose egg providing 7.34g (122% DV) of vitamin B-12 per 100g serving, and a duck egg providing 3.78g (63% DV). Read more at

. Ready-to-Eat Cereals
Starting the day off with fortified cereals like Kellogg's Special K or General Mills' Total Raisin Bran have around 6.0 g of Vitamin B12 per cup. Look at your favorite cereal's label for nutrition facts. Choose cereals made from whole grains, and skip any with lots of added sugar.

Cereals and Pulses names in Tamil

Discuss here on Cereals and Pulses names in Tamil within the Miscellaneous Kitchen forums, part of the Cooking forum; Almonds - Badam Bengal gram (split) - kadalai paruppu Bengal Gram flour - Kadalai mavu Bengal gram - Kothukadalai Black ...

Cereals and Pulses names in Tamil

Almonds Badam Bengal gram (split) - kadalai paruppu Bengal Gram flour - Kadalai mavu Bengal gram - Kothukadalai Black gram (split) - Udaitha Ulutham paruppu Black gram - Ulutham paruppu Black-eyed pea - Karamani

Cashewnuts - Mundiri paruppu Chick peas - Kondai Kadalai Corn / Makka - Cholam Cow peas - Karamani Finger Millet - Kervezhagu / keppai Green gram (whole) - Pasipayir Green Gram/ Mung Bean - Pacha Payiru Green Peas - Pacchai pattani Groundnuts - Nilakkadala Horse gram - kollu Maize - Makka cholam Pearl Millet - Kambu Raw Rice - Pachha Arisi Raw Rice Flour - Pachha Arisi Maavu Red Gram - Thuvaramparuppu Red Lentils - Paasi Paruppu Rice - Arisi Sesame seeds - Ellu Wheat - Godhumai Wheat Flour - Godhumai Maavu

Sources of Vitamin B12 in Your Vegetarian Diet

If you eat animal products, you get the nutrient vitamin B12 from them. Vegetarians who includes eggs, cheese, yogurt, cows milk, or other dairy products in their diets also have a source of vitamin B12. The other place youll find vitamin B12 is in the soil. Vitamin B12-producing microorganisms live in the soil in your garden and everywhere outdoors. If you raise vegetables, pick them, and eat them without first thoroughly washing them, its possible that you might ingest some particles of vitamin B12 in the soil still clinging to the food. These days, most Americans dont eat food that grown in backyard gardens. They eat fruits and vegetables that are picked from bins at the grocery store, shiny and clean without a hint of soil or vitamin B12 clinging to them. The following table lists some vegetarian food sources that do contain vitamin B12, even without soil attached. Vegetarian Food Sources of Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12 Content in Food (micrograms) 1 cup Wheat Chex 2.4 1 cup Fiber-7 Flakes (Health Valley) 0.6 1 cup Grape Nuts (Post) 1.5 1 cup Just Right, Fruit and Nut (Kellogg) 1.4 1 cup Mueslix, Apple and Almond Crunch (Kellogg)* 1.3 3/4 cup Nutri-Grain, Wheat (Kellogg) 1.5 1 cup Product 19 (Kellogg) 6.0 1 cup Raisin Bran (Kellogg) 1.6 1 cup Total (General Mills) 7.7 1 patty Harvest Burger (Green Giant) 1.5 2/3 cup Harvest Burger for Recipes protein crumbles (Green 1.0 Giant) 2 links Breakfast Links (Morningstar Farms) 3.6 1 patty Breakfast Patties (Morningstar Farms) 1.5 2 strips Breakfast Strips (Morningstar Farms) 0.1 1 patty BurgerBeaters (Morningstar Farms) 2.4 1 patty Chik Patties (Morningstar Farms) 0.9 1 patty Grillers (Morningstar Farms) 6.7 2 tablespoons Better Than Milk? dairy-free tofu beverage mix 0.6 8 ounces potato milk (Vegelicious) 3.0 8 ounces soy beverage (Edensoy Extra) 3.0 1 tablespoon T-6635+ Vegetarian Support Formula nutritional 2.0 yeast flakes (Red Star)

1 large whole egg 1 large egg white 1 ounce part-skim mozzarella cheese 1/2 cup ice cream 8 ounces skim milk 8 ounces plain, nonfat yogurt

0.5 0.1 0.2 0.3 1.0 1.5

Healthy Foods that Contain Vitamin B12

Posted By Dr. Ben Kim Healthy Eating Resources Vitamin B12 is also known as cobalamin. In most nutritional supplements, B12 comes as cyanocobalamin, which breaks down in a healthy body into two active forms of cobalamin: methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin. What Does Vitamin B12 Do in Your Body?

Helps to form myelin, which is a fatty cover that insulates your nerves. Helps to produce energy from metabolism of fat and protein. Helps to produce hemoglobin, which is the component of your red blood cells that carrys oxygen to your cells. This is why a vitamin B12 deficiency can cause fatigue. Reduces your homocysteine level, which lowers your risk of stroke, heart disease, cancer, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's disease, and many degenerative diseases. Regulates growth, maintenance, and reproduction of all of your cells

Here are some healthy, whole food sources of vitamin B12: Whole Food Sources Beef Liver, cooked Wild Salmon, baked Grass-fed beef, cooked Raw cow's milk Organic cheese Organic egg, hard boiled Organic chicken, cooked Organic turkey, cooked Serving 3 ounces 3 ounces 3 ounces 8 ounces 1 ounce 1 large 3 ounces 3 ounces Vitamin B12 (mcg) 68 2.4 2.0 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3

Signs of Deficiency

Chronic fatigue - macrocytic / megaloblastic anemia Unexplained numbness or tingling of arms or legs Anxiety and irritability Depression Digestive problems like a sore tongue, loss of appetite, and constipation Poor hair

Normally, B12 must be broken apart from food by acid and enzymes in the stomach. B12 must then be tied together with a protein called intrinsic factor, which is produced by cells that line your stomach. Intrinsic factor carries B12 across your intestinal wall into your blood, to be delivered to your cells. This journey across your intestinal wall requires the presence of calcium, which is suppled by your pancreas. Pernicious anemia is a condition that involves gradual destruction of cells that line your stomach, which decreases the ability to break B12 apart from food and decreases the availability of intrinsic factor to carry B12 into the blood. If you are deficient in B12 because you don't have enough stomach acid, enzymes, and/or intrinsic factor, you might have to receive injections of B12 directly into your blood via your muscles. Another option is to take high oral doses of vitamin B12, which can lead to a small percent being absorbed into your bloodstream without the help of intrinsic factor. An oral dose of 1000 mcg results in approximately 10 mcg entering your bloodstream.