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Experiment No: 1

Name of the experiment:


using Electromagnetic relay. Interfacing the Control of High Voltage Device

Objectives:
1. To learn about the basic concept of electromagnetic relay. 2. To learn about the basics of controlling high voltage devices.

Experiment Equipment: Relay Circuit, 1 Transistor, 1 Diode, 1 LED, 2 Resistance (1k ohm, 150ohm), connecting wire, Breadboard etc Theory:
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and retransmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor is called a contractor. Solid control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays".

Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. In a breadboard place a relay circuit in the board. 2. Diode, Resistance, Led must connect by wire in the breadboard as shown here in circuit diagram. 3. Before Connect all the equipment are specified here smoothly and carefully and supply power into the relay circuit.

4.

Then press the switch from breadboard and test it working or not.

5. From breadboard we use 12v and N-P-N transistor for this experiment.

Discussion:
1. 2. 3. 4. First of all collected the entire instrument from the Lab Attendance. Connected the circuit diagram, as given in the circuit diagram. In this experiment we lighted bulb to ensure the pressing the switch. During the if 150 ohms not using properly before led light it will be fused, Be careful about that. 5. When we first time set this circuit in the board it were not working properly because our diode was misplaced, then we change it and it works.

6. A diode is used in reverse direction to avoid destroying transistor. Conclusion: Basically this kind of relay circuit using in fan regulator or in electric
motor.

Experiment No: 2
Name of the Experiment: Interfacing Seven Segment Display for Hexadecimal Characters using switch from breadboard. Objectives: 1. To learn about the basics of 7 segment display how it works 2. To learn the concepts of input hardware and its function.

Experiment Equipment: 1 seven segment display, Multimeter, Connecting wire and Breadboard. Theory:
A seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot matrix displays.

Fig: External and internal view of 7 segment display

A seven segment is generally available in ten pin package. While eight pins correspond to the eight LEDs, the remaining two pins (at middle) are common and internally shorted. These segments come in two configurations, namely, Common cathode (CC) and Common anode (CA). In CC configuration, the negative terminals of all LEDs are connected to the common pins. The common is connected to ground and a particular LED glows when its corresponding pin is given high. In CA arrangement, the common pin is given a high logic and the LED pins are given low to display a number. Find out more information about a seven segment display and its working.

Digit Representation:

Hexadecimal encodings for displaying the digits 0 to F Digit gfedcba abcdefg a b c d e f g 0 03F 07E on on on on on on off 1 006 030 off on on off off off off 2 05B 06D on on off on on off on 3 04F 079 on on on on off off on 4 066 033 off on on off off on on 5 06D 05B on off on on off on on 6 07D 05F on off on on on on on

7 8 9 A b C d E F

007 07F 06F 077 07C 039 05E 079 071

070 07F 07B 077 01F 04E 03D 04F 047

on on on on off on off on on

on on on on off off on off off

on on on on on off on off off

off on on off on on on on off

off on off on on on on on on

off on on on on on off on on

off on on on on off on on on

Procedure: 1. First fixed the 7 segment display in the breadboard. 2. Before Connecting by wire and with power supply we have to check a, b, c,d,e,f,g point by using multimeter. 3. Then using breadboard switch we examine the display by turn on or off or by 1, 0.
Discussion: 1. Carefully select switch and putting value from switch 2. Sometimes in every 7segment display we never desire pin sequence, it sometime change position.

Conclusion: Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks, electronic


meters, and other electronic devices for displaying numerical information.

Experiment No: 3
Name of the experiment:- Understanding the operation of stepper motors and controlling it through switch from breadboard. Objectives: 1. To learn about basic operation about stepper motor. 2. To learn how to control stepper motor by using switch from breadboard and form PC Experiment Equipment: 4 Transistor [N-P-N], 4 Resistance [1k ohm], 4 Diode, Stepper Motor, Breadboard, Connecting wire etc. Theory:

Stepper motors are very different from a regular DC motors. Instead of spinning like DC motors do stepper motor steps at a specific resolution for each pulse. The motor that we are using needs 48 steps / pulses just to complete a single revolution! That should be enough to tell about its precision.

Fig: schematic diagram of circuit another advantage of stepper motors is the fact that their speed of rotation can be achieved almost instantly even if you change the spinning direction. Stepper motor consists of a rotor - the permanent magnet that rotates inside, and stator - four coils (north, east, south, and west) that are part of the case, and which don't move. Rotor can be moved by sequentially applying a pulsed DC voltage to one or two coils at a time.

Fig: stepper motor In able to move the rotor you will need a driver. Driver is a circuit that applies a voltage to any of the four stator coils. Driver can be built with IC such as ULN2003 (pictured on the circuit diagram), four darling ton transistors or four power transistors such as 2N3055. Unipolar motor should have five or six connections depending on the model. If the motor has six connections like the one pictured above, you have to join pins 1 and 2 (red) together and connect them to a (+) 12-24V voltage supply. The remaining pins; a1 (yellow), b1 (black), a2 (orange), b2 (brown) should be connected to a driver (ULN2003) as shown on the schematic.

Stepping Modes There are several stepping modes that you can use to drive the stepper motor. 1. Single Stepping - the simplest mode turns one coil ON at a time. 48 pulses are needed to complete one revolution. Each pulse moves rotor by 7.5 degrees. The following sequence has to be repeated 12 times for motor to complete one revolution. 2. High Torque Stepping - high power / precision mode turns ON two coils on at a time. 48 pulses are needed to complete one revolution. Each pulse moves rotor by 7.5 degrees. The following sequence has to be repeated 12 times for motor to complete one revolution. 3. Half Stepping - stepping is doubled and motor needs 96 pulses to complete one revolution. Each pulse moves rotor by approximately 3.75 degrees. Notice the mix of single stepping mode (lighter green) and high torque mode (darker green).

Index Coil a1 Coil b1 Coil a2 Coil b2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON

Procedure: 1. Set up all the equipment exactly shown in the circuit diagram as well as. 2. The Connect the stepper motor with the circuit. 3. Supply 12v into the motor, pressing switch it will works when it will get 1 in clock wise and when it will get 0 in clock reverse wise.

Result: After switch turn on from breadboard the stepper motor started working in clock wise format and kept going till turn off. But when we do our experiment our motor works in first spin but after this were not working properly because maybe some equipment misplaced in the circuit. Discussion: 1. In this experiment we have demonstrated the use of stepper motor. 2. During the execution of the program the motor ran in the clock wise order.