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models

How to choose a queueing model


All models in this workbook are Poisson arrivals, infinite population, and FCFS. The models differ by (1) the service time distribution (exponential, constant or general) (2) the number of servers (single server or multiple servers) (3) waiting room capacity (unlimited waiting room or limited waiting room buffer)

M/M/1

M/D/1

M/G/1

M/M/s

Service time distribution Exponential Number of servers Single Waiting room capacity Unlimited

Constant Single Unlimited

General Single Unlimited

Exponential Multiple Unlimited

The Erlang Loss Model is a special case of M/M/s/b model where the waiting room capacity (b) is zero. The following models assume exponential distribution of service time: M/M/1, M/M/s, M/M/s/b The following models assume constant service time: M/C/1 The following models assume generally distributed (such as normal) service time: M/G/1 The following models assume a single server: M/M/1, M/C/1, M/G/1 The following models assume multiple servers: M/M/s, M/M/s/b The following models assume unlimited waiting room capacity: M/M/1, M/C/1, M/G/1, M/M/s The following models assume limited waiting room capacity: M/M/s/b

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models

M/M/s/b

Exponential Multiple Limited

acity (b) is zero.

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M-M-1
Model 1 (M/M/1 Queue): Single server, Infinite population, Poisson arrivals, FCFS, Exponential service time, Unlimited queue length Yellow cells need user inputed values

Inputs
Units of time Arrival rate (lambda) Service rate (mu) hour 8 cusomters per hour 10 cusomters per hour

Outputs
Direct outputs from inputs Mean time between arrivals Mean time per service Traffic intensity Summary measures Utilization rate of server Average number of customers waiting in line (Lq) Average number of customers in system (L) Average time waiting in line (Wq) Average time in system (W) Probability of no customers in system (P0) Distribution of number of customers in system n (customers) 0 Distribution of time in queue t (time in queue) 0.25 0.125 hour 0.1 hour 0.8

80.0% 3.2 4 0.4 0.5 20.0%

customers customers hour hour (this is the probability of empty system)

P(n in system) 0.200000

P(wait > t) 0.485225

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M-M-1

Unlimited queue length

24 30

ity of empty system)

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M-D-1
Model 2 (M/C/1 Queue): Single server, Infinite Population, Poisson Arrival, FCFS, Constant Service Time, Unlimited Queue Length Yellow cells need user inputed values

Inputs
unit of time Arrival rate (lambda) Service rate (mu) minutes 16 customers per minutes 20 customers per minutes

Outputs
Direct outputs from inputs Mean time between arrivals Exact time per service (no variability) Traffic intensity Summary measures Utilization rate of server Average number of customers waiting in line (Lq) Average number of customers in system (L) Average time waiting in line (Wq) Average time in system (W) Probability of no customers in system (P0) 0.063 minutes 0.05 minutes 0.8

80.0% 1.6 2.4 0.1 0.15 20.0%

customers customers minutes minutes

6 9

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M-D-1

Unlimited Queue Length

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M-G-1
Model 3 (M/G/1 Queue): Single server, Infinite Population, Poisson Arrival, FCFS, General Service Time, Unlimited Queue Length Yellow cells need user inputed values

Inputs
Unit of time Arrival rate (lambda) Average service rate (mu) Service time standard deviation minute 0.6 customers per minute 1.2 customers per minute 0.3 minute

Outputs
Direct outputs from inputs Mean time between arrivals Mean time per service Traffic intensity Summary measures Utilization rate of server Average number of customers waiting in line (Lq) Average number of customers in system (L) Average time waiting in line (Wq) Average time in system (W) Probability of no customers in system (P0) 1.667 minute 0.833333333 minute 0.5

50.0% 0.406656 0.906656 0.67776 1.511093333 50.0%

customers customers minute minute

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M-G-1

imited Queue Length

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Model 4: Multiple servers with infinite waiting room

Model 4 (M/M/s Queue): Multiple servers, Infinite population, Poisson arrival, FCFS, Exponential service time, Unlimited waiting room Yellow cells need user inputed values

Inputs
Unit of time Arrival rate (lambda) Service rate (mu) Number of identical servers (s) hour 16 customers per hour 20 customers per hour 2 servers

Outputs
Direct outputs from inputs Mean time between arrivals Mean time per service Traffic intensity Summary measures Average utilization rate of server Average number of customers waiting in line (Lq) Average number of customers in system (L) Average time waiting in line (Wq) Average time in system (W) Probability of no customers in system (P0) Probability that all servers are busy Probability that at least one server is idle Distribution of number of customers in system n (customers) 1 Distribution of time in queue t (time in queue) 0.333333333 0.063 hour 0.05 hour 0.4

40.0% 0.15238 0.95238 0.00952 0.05952 0.42857 22.9% 77.1%

customers customers hour hour (this is the probability of empty system) (this is also the "percentage who wait in queue") (this is also the "percentage who don't wait in queue")

P(n in system) 0.342857

P(wait > t) 0.000077

Model 5: Multiple servers with finite buffers

Model 5 (M/M/s/b queue): Multiple servers, Infinite population, Poisson arrival, FCFS, Exponential service time, Limited buffer (b) Yellow cells need user inputed values

Inputs
Unit of time Arrival rate (lambda) Service rate (mu) Number of identical servers (s) Buffer (waiting room) size hour 10 4 4 50 customers per hour customers per hour servers customers (The maximum number in system is equal to number of servers plus waiting room size)

Outputs
Direct outputs from inputs Mean time between arrivals Mean time per service Traffic intensity Summary measures Average utilization rate of servers Average number of customers waiting in line (Lq) Average number of customers in system (L) Average time waiting in line (Wq) Average time in system (W) Probability of no customers in system (P0) Probability of rejecting a customer (balking rate) Effective arrival rate 0.100 hour 0.25 hour 0.625

62.5% 0.5331 3.0331 0.0533 0.3033 0.0737 0.00% 10

customers customers hour hour (Probability of empty system) (Reject rate) (Entering rate)