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31 vizualizări6 paginiFault Calculation of AC System Interconnected .pdf

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Chunguang Yu, Qing Chen, Zhanjun Gao, Zhaofei Li

converter model is emphatically introduced, which is based on the switching functions method and sequence components method. And then the expressions for control characteristics are given. The way of integrating HVDC system into AC system fault calculation is discussed. HVDC system is equivalent to injection current sources, which are represented by functions of AC bus voltages and DC control characteristics. A complete calculation procedure is given to show the application of the proposed model. II. HVDC CONVERTER MATHEMATICAL MODEL The HVDC converters are the typical switching elements. Great many different converter models have been discussed in early research reports to incorporate HVDC system into load flow solutions, stability programs and harmonic calculations [1]-[8], including electromagnetic transient model, quasi-steady model, improved quasisteady model considering the negative impedance of DC system, and models based on the switching functions for harmonic analysis and so on. These modeling methods have done important exploratory works. However, the models for analyzing AC system faults in the AC/DC hybrid systems have received little attention and are underdeveloped, especially for asymmetric faults. Therefore an equivalent model of converter under asymmetric fault conditions is put forward in this paper on the basis of above models. A. Switching Function Model A three-phase six-pulse converter is shown in Fig.1. From the switching functions method [5], [7], the voltages and currents at the AC and DC sides of the converter can be expressed as follows:

AbstractConventional fault analysis algorithms may not be suitable for the AC/DC hybrid systems. To solve this problem, a mathematical model for HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) system, which is suitable for analyzing faults in AC system, is presented in this paper. Firstly, based on the switching functions method and sequence components method, an equivalent model of HVDC converter under the asymmetric AC system is put forward. The unique advantage of the converter model lies in that it has taken harmonic characteristics into account and can improve the calculation accuracy significantly. Secondly, response performances of HVDC control system in cases of AC faults are analyzed and expressions for the control response characteristics are discussed under 3 modes. Finally, a general algorithm is developed to incorporate the proposed HVDC model into the conventional AC short-circuit calculation algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed HVDC model and algorithm has been verified by simulation studies and by comparing the results with those obtained from the EMTDC simulations. Index TermsAC/DC Hybrid Systems, Fault Calculation, AC System Fault, HVDC System Model, Converter, Harmonic Characteristics

I. INTRODUCTION

ault behaviors in AC system interconnected by twoterminal HVDC transmission links cannot be studied by conventional fault algorithms because of the nonlinear HVDC converters. The effect of the HVDC system is often neglected for the sake of analytical simplicity. However, the short-circuit power provided by the HVDC system cannot be ignored in some cases, especially a weak AC system is connected. It is evident that the interaction of AC and DC system can influence the fault features of AC system during AC system faults, but no explicit conclusions have been drawn. Time domain simulations can obtain the correct values of the currents and voltages of the hybrid systems under fault conditions, but it cannot tell how and why the systems are behaving in such a particular way. It is therefore necessary to develop a mathematical model which can provide theoretical analysis and numerical calculation for fault studies. In this paper, a fault analytic model for AC system interconnected by HVDC system is presented. For analysis of AC system, an equivalent model for HVDC system is developed. As a key element in HVDC system, the

ud

Where:

= u a s ua + u b s ub + u c s uc i a = i d s ia ib = id s ib ic = i d s ic

(1)

sua , sub and suc are the voltage switching functions; sia , sib and sic are the current switching functions. They are

decided by the conduction states of valves in the converter and are expressed in terms of Fourier series.

The work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 50877405) Chunguang Yu, Qing Chen, Zhanjun Gao and Zhaofei Li are with school of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan city, 250061, Peoples Republic of China (E-mail: yuchunguang@mail.sdu.edu.cn; qchen@sdu.edu.cn; jacobgao@sdu.edu.cn ; lizhaofei0325@yahoo.cn).

id

ia

ib

ub

ua

ic uc

ud

s+ s s0

1 1 1 = 3 1

e e

j 2 3 j 4 3

j 2 e 3 1 e

j 4 3

sa s b sc

(2)

However, when asymmetric faults occur in AC system, the unbalanced supply would make the converter operating under unbalanced conditions so that the conventional switching functions cannot be used [3], [9]. To solve this problem, an improved switching function model for HVDC converter operated under unbalanced supply is presented by [3]. Considering the effects both of the variation of switching instants and unbalanced commutation overlaps, the switching function can be built up by the summation of 3 parts: the basic and balanced component; the switching instants modification component and the commutation component. Explanations and derivations can be found in [3]. This paper uses the improved switching function model, and extends it to be applied to fault analysis. The three phase voltage and current switching functions can be derived according to [3]. B. Converter Analysis in Sequence Components Method Usually, only the fundamental component in AC system and dc component in DC system are kept when modeling the power electronic devices. Harmonics are not considered. In view of ideal filters at the AC bus and large inductances in the DC circuit, the simplification can get enough accuracy if the converter operates under balanced conditions. However, in practical projects, when asymmetric faults occur in AC system, especially some severe conditions, the converters operated in unbalanced systems will introduce non-characteristic harmonics and cause distortion levels, higher than they cause in balanced systems [1], [9]. Ignoring harmonic components will affect the calculation precision greatly. Nevertheless, considering excessive harmonic components into calculation will increase mathematical difficulties. Therefore, ignoring unimportant harmonics and keeping those significant ones can find the best point of balance between accuracy and complexity of calculation. The following assumptions are made: 1) Only the fundamental component in AC system is considered. The generated third-order harmonic component is ignored. 2) Only the dc and second-order harmonic components in DC system are considered. 3) Only the fundamental and third-order harmonics in the switching functions are considered. Conventional fault analysis methods of power system are based on sequence components method. So, the converter analysis is also based on sequence components method for a unified solution [1], [5]. The three phase components of switching functions can be transformed into sequence components of switching functions using the sequence transform matrix:

Then, taking into account the above assumptions, for the converter operating under unbalanced conditions, substituting sequence components for three phase components in (1), and rearranging (1) after trigonometric transform, we finally get (3). Equation (3) is the desired converter expressions. As has been proved that the converter is an open circuit for zero sequence component in the supply AC voltages [9], we just consider the positive and negative components of the converter.

+ U d = F (U + , su (1) ) + F (U , su (1) ) + + + U d (2) = F (U + , su (1) ) + F (U , su (1) ) + F (U , su (3) ) + F (U , su (3) ) + + + I eq = F ( I d , si (1) ) + F ( I d (2) , si (1) ) + F ( I d (2) , si (3) ) + I = F ( I d , si (1) ) + F ( I d (2) , si (1) ) + F ( I d (2) , si (3) ) eq

(3)

Where: U + and U are the fundamental positive and negative sequence component of AC voltages (the interface bus + voltages); I eq and I eq are the fundamental positive and negative sequence component of the equivalent AC + currents; su(k ) (k = 1,3) is the fundamental and third-order Fourier coefficients of the positive sequence component in the voltage switching functions; su(k ) (k = 1,3) is the fundamental and third-order Fourier coefficients of the negative sequence component in the voltage switching + functions; si(k ) (k = 1,3) is the fundamental and third-order Fourier coefficients of the positive sequence component in the current switching functions; si(k ) (k = 1,3) is the fundamental and third-order Fourier coefficients of the negative sequence component in the current switching functions; U d and U d (2) are the dc and second-order harmonic components of DC voltage respectively; I d and I d (2) are the dc and second-order harmonic components of DC current respectively; The symbol F ( m, n ) represents the product form of the two variables

m and n , which is merely a simple formula describing of the modulation of AC voltages (DC currents) by the voltage switching functions (the current switching functions). It can be obtained based on trigonometric formulas. In addition, the calculation circuit of the second-order harmonic component is shown in Fig.2, which will add a new equation into (3). Where R d is the resistance of DC

line; Ld

capacitance of DC line; Lceq is the equivalent reactance of the converter at the other side and can be obtained according to the method in [9]; Z d (2) is the equivalent second-order harmonic impedance of DC system. From the circuit in Fig.2, we have:

U Id

Ld

(2 )

d d

(2 ) (2 )

Rd / 2

(4)

Ld

Lceq

Rd / 2

Ud (2)

Id(2)

C d

Z d (2)

Fig. 2.

large, the rectifier still controls the firing angle at its minimum limit. The inverter controls the DC current and VDCOL control (Voltage Dependent Current Order Limiter) is invoked. This can be observed in the rectifier characteristic C-D. The DC current is reduced along with the lowered DC voltage. There is linear relationship between the DC current and the DC voltage. Then, we can write down two independent equations under this control mode as ord = m in = 5 D and I d * = k 2 U dr * + b2 .

k2 and b2 are the coefficients of the linear expression.

III. MODELING THE HVDC CONTROL SYSTEM An HVDC transmission link is highly controllable. The HVDC control system has fast response to abnormal conditions. It is very difficult to describe the complicated transient nature of the responses. For this reason, only the final steady state control objectives are described. The adjustment of the converter transformers tap changer and the effect of harmonics at the DC side on the control system are not considered. From the switching function model and (3), we can see that two independent equations to solve for the variables

ord (the firing angle order) and I d should be derived based

3) When an asymmetric fault occurs in AC system at inverter side and the AC voltage magnitude reduction is small, the inverter is operating in the constant extinction angle (usually 15D ). The rectifier must control the DC current and the VDCOL control is invoked. This can be observed in the inverter characteristic E-F. There is linear relationship between the DC current and the DC voltage. We get the equation I d * = k 3 U di * + b3 . As Fig.3 shows the relationship between the DC current and voltage for the rectifier terminal, we obtain the desired equation for inverter terminal by combining with the formula of DC line I d * =

U dr * U di* Rd *

on the control system model. Considering the influence of AC voltage level on changes of the control modes, Fig.3 shows the basic and typical cooperation characteristic between the rectifier control and the inverter control (point A is the normal operation point) [2]. Fig.3 implies that the DC current I d can be regarded as a subsection function of the DC voltage U d .

linear expression. The difference between the control modes of inverter and rectifier is that the variable ord of the latter is known directly while that of the former should be determined by . The block diagram of the constant extinction angle controller is shown in Fig.4. Its working principle is to keep the minimum extinction angle measurement of the six valves (denoted as min ) as the desired order 0 . The error signal = 0 min is sent into PI (proportional integral) controller and the firing angle order for inverter is controlled. The regulating characteristic of the constant extinction angle controller can be expressed by: ord = K (5) Where: ord is regulating quantity;

K

is proportional

Fig. 3. Steady-state characteristics for the two-terminal HVDC system (for the rectifier terminal)

coefficient. However, there is not linear relationship in fact. To satisfy (5), an appropriate K must be introduced [11]. That is: when min < 0 , K > 1 is taken, which can cause

min to get rid of the drawback of too small value as soon

The expressions for control characteristics are discussed under 3 control modes. U dr * and U di* below represent the DC voltage (per unit) for rectifier and inverter terminal, respectively. 1) When an asymmetric fault occurs in AC system at rectifier side and the AC voltage magnitude reduction is small, the firing angle of the rectifier is at its minimum limit (usually 5D ). And the inverter controls the DC current. The characteristic of the rectifier is B-C. From Fig.3, it is found that the characteristic curve B-C is a straight line approximately and linear fitting method can be used. Then, we can write down two independent equations as ord = m in = 5 D and I d * = k1 U dr * + b1 . k1 and b1 are the coefficients of the linear expression. 2) When an asymmetric fault occurs in AC system at rectifier side and the AC voltage magnitude reduction is

min close to its desired value gradually. During the

computation process, min is calculated and judged. The value of ord is adjusted constantly according to (5) until the value of min meets the requirement. The other calculation steps for inverter are the same as that for rectifier if ord is known. The AC faults at inverter side will easily give rise to commutation failures. If the inverter experiences one commutation failure, the system may quickly recover from the commutation failure. The steady state control characteristics can still be described by the third mode.

However, the repeated commutation failures will eventually cause DC blocks and interruption of transmitted power.

+ I ieq

+ Is

0 =15D +

min

+ +

min

max

ord

Y filter

Ui+

+ Ih

+ + Us Uh

+ ZS

E s

ieq

Y filter

U i

Uh

ZS

I

0 Z tr

can be determined by The coefficients k1 ~k3 and b 1~b 3 computation of the coordinate of points on control characteristics curves for practical HVDC projects. Take CIGRE HVDC Benchmark Model as an example: k1 ~ k3 can take the values 1.26, 0.9 and 0.9 respectively; and b can 1 ~b 3 take the values -0.21, 0.09 and 0.19 respectively. The corresponding control mode and control equation should be selected according to the AC fault conditions. IV. INTERFACE OF HVDC SYSTEM TO THE AC SYSTEM AND FAULT CALCULATIONS The node admittance equation YU = I is the basal equation in the field of fault calculation with computers. Equation (3) gives the relationships between the interface bus (commutation bus) voltages and the equivalent AC currents of HVDC system. The equivalent AC currents can be treated as injection current sources. The effect of HVDC system can be represented in terms of injection current source. The derived injection current will be included in matrix I . An iteration based on Gauss-Seidel method is used because that the equivalent AC currents are nonlinear functions of the interface bus voltages. In order to reduce mathematical difficulties, a sequential method is required. That is to say, for HVDC system, AC system is equivalent to voltage sources at the interface bus; while for AC system, HVDC system is equivalent to the injection current sources. Take an asymmetric fault occurring in AC system at inverter side as an example. Supposing the node admittance matrix is reduced to generator node s , interface bus node i and fault node h . The sequence network is shown in Fig.5, where E s represents an ideal power source,

+ Is =

Y filter

0 Uh

0 ZS

0 Ih

Fig. 5. Equivalent circuits for positive, negative and zero sequence components

Y

+

U U U

+ s + i + h

I+ s+ = I ie q + Ih

Y

Y

U U

U

i h

0 h

I ie q = Ih

0 = Ih

(6)

When the equation YU = I is solved by the Gaussian elimination method, Y will change into upper triangular matrix. At the end of elimination process, the last element of the column matrix U has been derived directly. That is:

+ + + U + = f ( I s , I ieq , I h ) 1 h U h = f 2 ( Iieq , I h ) 0 0 U h = f3 ( I h )

(7)

+ 0 + 0 f 4 (U h ,U h , U h , I h , I h , I h ) = 0

(8)

( + , ,0) Uh and I h( +, ,0) can be obtained by simultaneously ( + , 0) solving (7) and (8). Then back substitute U h , and get:

(+,) Iieq

+ + + + Ui+ = f5 ( I s , I ieq , I h ,U h )

U i = f 6 ( I ieq , I h ,U h )

(9)

0

Y converter transformer.

According to above analysis, the iteration is conducted as following steps: 1) k = 0 , set the initial values U i( + , ) (0) , where U i (0) equals to zero.

(+,) 2) Determine Iieq (k + 1) from U i( + , ) (k ) . Calculate the

voltage and current switching functions from U i( + , ) (k ) and control variables ord and I d , and then calculate the dc and

second-order harmonic components of DC voltage; Solve the control equations for new ord and I d ; Calculate the second-order harmonic component of DC current

(+,) (k + 1) according to (3). according to (4); At last, get Iieq

( + , ,0) ( + , ,0) Uh (k + 1) and I h (k + 1) .

U i( + , ) (k + 1) and U i( + , ) (k ) is less than the given tolerance then U i( + , ) (k + 1) is considered as the solution of (9). Otherwise

go to step 5; 5) Update U i( + , ) (k ) by U i( + , ) (k + 1) and repeat step 2, 3and 4 until convergence is reached. V. EXTENSIVE SIMULATION STUDIES The effectiveness of the proposed fault analytic model for AC system interconnected by HVDC system is verified through comparisons of calculation results with simulation results obtained from PSCAD/EMTDC. CIGRE HVDC Benchmark Model is used for the test. Different shortcircuit fault conditions in AC system are calculated. Results of some typical examples are listed in this section. Fault positions are set at the rectifier side converter bus (point M ) and the inverter side converter bus (point N ). The fundamental positive and negative sequence components of the interface bus voltages, and the fundamental positive and negative sequence components of

the equivalent AC currents are listed in Table I where SLG, LL and 3L denote respectively single-line-to-ground fault (phase a), line-to-line fault (phase b and phase c) and symmetrical fault. As a contrast, ignoring harmonic components, and only the fundamental component in AC system and dc component in DC system are kept under the same asymmetric fault conditions. The results are shown in Table II. From Table II, it is clear that considering no harmonic components results in poor accuracy when calculating asymmetric faults, especially some sever conditions. The errors of negative sequence currents are bigger in Table II, while they are relative small if the presented converter model is used as in Table I. Table I shows: the calculation results have minor errors. When the convergence accuracy is 0.1, the iteration number is about 10. Factors like the short-circuit ratio of AC system, fault positions, fault types, the smoothing reactance and etc will influence the error. Extensive simulation results prove that the magnitude errors of node voltages and branch currents are within error limit of 10%, and the angle errors are within error limit of 10D even under extreme conditions. The results show that the proposed model is effective and convenient for fault studies of AC system.

fault position

fault resistor

/

sequence order positive negative positive negative positive positive negative positive negative positive

U / kV

I eq / kA

calculation

118.42-104.74 78.7669.79 161.25-122.58 50.38-69.40 69.58-155.72 127.66-69.82 5.43174.86 126.04-72.74 9.87-8.124 112.10-103.19

simulation

119.51-105.27 79.6069.43 160.43-122.94 49.81-69.75 69.54-155.73 126.14-69.90 5.31172.19 124.17-73.63 9.68-11.63 116.16-100.92

calculation

1.21-143.66 0.6121.48 1.63-151.40 0.40-115.99 0.86177.41 2.82142.61 0.07112.15 2.76141.88 0.12-74.30 2.64105.81

simulation

1.21-141.13 0.6120.34 1.65-151.19 0.40-116.60 0.86177.61 2.82143.77 0.07118.03 2.70143.64 0.12-67.04 2.73108.67

LL 3L SLG

LL 3L

fault position

fault resistor

/

sequence order positive negative positive negative positive negative positive negative

U / kV

I eq / kA

calculation

128.56-106.79 92.6668.45 162.14-121.63 61.79-78.90 128.13-69.77 6.82170.50 125.46-73.04 12.26-12.95

simulation

119.51-105.27 79.6069.43 160.43-122.94 49.81-69.75 126.14-69.90 5.31172.19 124.17-73.63 9.68-11.63

calculation

1.29-140.19 0.3555.02 1.63-149.60 0.24-84.88 2.82142.24 0.03163.28 2.73142.39 0.04-19.60

simulation

1.21-141.13 0.6120.34 1.65-151.19 0.40-116.60 2.82143.77 0.07118.03 2.70143.64 0.12-67.04

LL SLG

LL

VI. CONCLUSION The paper presents an equivalent model of HVDC system for analyzing AC system faults in the AC/DC hybrid systems, especially for asymmetric faults. The unique advantage of the model is that it takes harmonic characteristics of converters into account and can improve the calculation accuracy. Meanwhile, it is simple, flexible and can be easily interfaced to AC system. Computer test results prove clearly that the proposed model supplies an effective computing tool for fault analysis in the AC/DC hybrid systems. VII. REFERENCES

[1] Wang Gang, Li Zhikeng, Li Haifeng, Li Xiaolin, Fu Chuang, "HVDC converter modeling and harmonic calculation under asymmetric faults in the AC system," in Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 2009. PES '09. IEEE, pp. 1-6. [2] P. Kundur, "Power system stability and control, " New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994. [3] Wang Gang, Li Zhikeng, Li Haifeng, Li Xiaolin,Fu Chuang, "Modeling of the HVDC convertor using dynamic phasor under asymmetric faults in the AC system," in Sustainable Power Generation and Supply, 2009. [4] J. Arrillaga, et al. "Fault studies in a.c. systems interconnected by h.v.d.c links", IEE Proc. IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distib., vol.127, pp. 15-19, Jan.1980. [5] Lihua Hu. "Sequence impedance and equivalent circuit of HVDC systems", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol.13, pp.354-360, May 1998. [6] Wu Hongbin, Ding Ming, Huang Kai, etal. "Modified quasi steady state model of converters in transient simulation of hybrid AC/DC systems ", Relay. vol. 31, pp. 37-40, Oct.2003. [7] Li.Hu, L.Ran. "Direct method for calculation of AC side harmonics and interharmonics in an HVDC system", IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., vol.147, pp.329-335, Nov.2000. [8] Qi Qingru, Jiao Lianwei, Chen Shousun, et al. "Modeling andsimulation of HVDC with dynamic phasors", Proceedings of the CSEE, vol. 23, pp. 28-32, Dec.2003. [9] Ma Yulong, et al. "Study on impedance frequency characteristic on HVDC converters", Proceedings of the CSEE, vol. 26, pp. 144-149, Jun.2006. [10] Lihua Hu, R.E.Morrison. "The use of modulation theory to calculate the harmonic distortion in HVDC systems operating on an unbalanced supply", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol.12, pp.973-980, May 1997.

[11] The power research group of Zhejiang University, "HVDC transmission, "Beijing: Water Resources and Electric Power publisher, 1985.

VIII. BIOGRAPHIES

Chunguang Yu was born in Yantai, Shandong Province, Peoples Republic of China on March 5, 1983. She received the B.Sc. Eng. degree 2006. As a Ph.D student in Electrical Engineering, She is currently studying in school of Electrical Engineering of Shandong University, Jinan, Peoples R China. Her areas of research are Power System Relay Protection, Fault Analysis and Short-circuit Models of the Components in Power System.

Qing Chen was born in Yixing, Jiangsu Province, China on July 19, 1963. She received the B.Sc. Eng. Degree, M.Sc Eng. degree and Ph. D degree from Shandong University in 1984, 1989 and 2002 respectively. She was appointed associate professor and professor in Electrical Engineering at Electrical Engineering school, Shandong University in 1997 and 2002 respectively. She has been a visiting professor at the University of Alberta, Canada from August, 2004 to February, 2005. Her areas of research include Relay Protection, Fault Analysis and the Application of Artificial Intelligent and Multi-media in Power System.

Zhanjun Gao was born in Jinan, Shandong Province, Peoples R China, on November 9, 1974. He received his B.S. degree and M.S. degree from Electrical Engineering College of Shandong University, Jinan in 1997 and 2000 respectively. Presently, he is teaching in Electrical Engineering College of Shandong University and works in the area of microprocessor-based protection and power system communication.

Zhaofei Li was born in Taian, Shandong Province, Peoples Republic of China, on January 29, 19 88. He received the B.Sc. Eng. degree 2 010. He is cu rrently working on the master degree in s chool of Electrical Engineering of Shandong University, Jinan, Peoples R China. His areas of research are Power System Relay Protect ion, Fault Diagnosis of Power System, Fault Analysis and the Applicati on of Artificial Intel ligent in Power System.