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Oil and Gas Production

Oil and Gas Industry Overview (UPSTREAM)

Source: Methane to Markets, Oil & Gas Industry Overview

Production Flow Diagram

Source: Oil & Gas Production Handbook , ABB

Separation

WELL FLUIDS & WELL CLASSIFICATION

Wells are generally classified according to the type of fluid they produce in the greatest quantity.

CLASS OF WELL FLUIDS IN RESERVOIR FLUIDS IN FLOW LINE PROCESSING STEPS WHICH MAY BE
CLASS OF WELL
FLUIDS IN
RESERVOIR
FLUIDS IN FLOW
LINE
PROCESSING STEPS
WHICH MAY BE
REQUIRED
GAS, POSSIBLY
GAS, POSSIBLY
SEPARATION, GAS
DRY GAS
WATER
WATER
DEHYDRATION
GAS, POSSIBLY
GAS CONDENSATE,
GAS CONDENSATE
WATER
POSSIBLY WATER
SEPARATION, GAS &
CONDENSATE
DEHYDRATION
CRUDE OIL
CRUDE OIL,
POSSIBLY GAS
POSSIBLY WATER
CRUDE OIL,
POSSIBLY GAS,
POSSIBLY WATER
SEPARATION, GAS
DEHYDRATION

Reservoir pressures are generally much higher than atmospheric pressure. As well fluids reach the surface, pressure on them is decreased. The liquid ability to hold gas in solution decreases, and the liquids begin to release 'Solution Gas'.

In summary, there are variables which aid in the separation of a fluid stream.

Temperature of the fluids.

Pressure on the fluids.

Density of the components.

Separator

A SEPARATOR is a vessel in which a mixture of immiscible fluids are separated;

e.g. Crude oil, Natural gas and Water. A separator may be a 'Horizontal', 'Vertical' or 'Spherical' vessel.

Fluid flow from a well can include gas, free water, condensable vapours (water or

hydrocarbons), crude oil, and solid debris (basic sediment). The proportion of each component varies in different well streams.

Although most separators are two -phase in design, separating the gas and total

liquids, three - phase vessels can be built to separate natural gas, oil or other liquid hydrocarbons, and free water.

SEPARATOR FUNCTIONS

A well stream separator must perform the following:

Cause a primary phase separation of the liquid hydrocarbon from those that are Gas.

Refine the primary separation by removing most of the entrained liquid mist from the gas.

Further refine the separation by removing the entrained gas from the liquid.

Discharge the separated gas and liquid from the vessel and ensure that no re- entrainment of one into the other takes place.

The main principles used to achieve physical separation of gas and liquids are: GRAVITY SETTLING and COALESCING Any separator may employ one or more of these principles, but the fluid phases must be 'Immiscible' (cannot mix), and have 'Different Densities' for separation to occur

Separation vessels usually contain four major sections, plus the necessary pressure and liquid level controls. These sections are:

1. Primary Separation Section

2. Secondary Separation Section

3. Mist Extraction Section

4. Liquid Accumulation Section

TYPES OF SEPARATOR

TYPES OF SEPARATOR GAS / LIQUID SEPARATORS- Vertical Source: http://articles.compressionjobs.com/articles/oilfield

GAS / LIQUID SEPARATORS- Vertical

TYPES OF SEPARATOR GAS / LIQUID SEPARATORS- Vertical Source: http://articles.compressionjobs.com/articles/oilfield
TYPES OF SEPARATOR GAS / LIQUID SEPARATORS- Vertical Source: http://articles.compressionjobs.com/articles/oilfield

TYPES OF SEPARATOR

GAS / LIQUID SEPARATORS- Horizontal

TYPES OF SEPARATOR GAS / LIQUID SEPARATORS- Horizontal Source: http://articles.compressionjobs.com/articles/oilfield
TYPES OF SEPARATOR GAS / LIQUID SEPARATORS- Horizontal Source: http://articles.compressionjobs.com/articles/oilfield

TYPES OF SEPARATOR

GAS / LIQUID SEPARATORS- Tangential or Cyclone

OF SEPARATOR GAS / LIQUID SEPARATORS- Tangential or Cyclone Source:

TYPES OF SEPARATOR

LIQUID / LIQUID SEPARATORS- Coalescer

TYPES OF SEPARATOR LIQUID / LIQUID SEPARATORS- Coalescer Source: http://articles.compressionjobs.com/articles/oilfield
TYPES OF SEPARATOR LIQUID / LIQUID SEPARATORS- Coalescer Source: http://articles.compressionjobs.com/articles/oilfield

Separation

Test Separators and Well test

Production separators (First Stage)

Second stage separator

Third stage separator

Coalescer

Electrostatic Desalter

Water treatment

Source: Oil & Gas Production Handbook , ABB

separator • Coalescer • Electrostatic Desalter • Water treatment Source: Oil & Gas Production Handbook ,

Gas Treatment and Compression

HEAT EXCHANGER

Heat transfer is a process by which internal energy

from one substance transfers to another substance.

Usually from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower temperature.

to another substance. • Usually from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower

Source: Wikipedia

Modes of Heat Transfer

Conduction

Convection

Radiation

Source: Wikipedia

Heat exchangers are devices used to transfer heat energy from one fluid to another.

used to transfer heat energy from one fluid to another . • Types of Heat Exchangers:

Types of Heat Exchangers:

Shell and Tube

Plate Type

Double Pipe

Spiral

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

It is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes

Suited for higher-pressure applications.

As

(a

its

name

implies,

this

type

of

heat

exchanger

consists

of

a

shell

large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it.

One fluid runs through the tubes, and another fluid flows over the tubes (through

the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids.

The set of tubes is called a tube bundle, and may be composed by several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc.

Tube Bundle

Tube Bundle Source: Heat Exchangers, Types and Applications Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering

Source: Heat Exchangers, Types and Applications Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department

Baffle Arrangement

Baffle Arrangement Source: Heat Exchangers, Types and Applications Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical

Source: Heat Exchangers, Types and Applications Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department

PLATE AND FRAME HEAT EXCHANGER

A plate type heat exchanger, consists of plates instead of tubes to separate the hot and cold fluids. The hot and cold fluids alternate between each of the plates.

Baffles direct the flow of fluid between plates. Because each of the plates has a very large surface area, the plates provide each of the fluids with an extremely large heat transfer area.

Therefore a plate type heat exchanger, as compared to a similarly sized tube

and shell heat exchanger, is capable of transferring much more heat. This is due to

the larger area the plates provide over tubes.

Due to the high heat transfer efficiency of the plates, plate type heat exchangers are usually very small when compared to a tube and shell type heat exchanger with the same heat transfer capacity.

Plate type heat exchangers are not widely used because of the inability to reliably seal the large gaskets between each of the plates.

Because of this problem, plate type heat exchangers have only been used in small, low pressure applications such as on oil coolers for engines. However, new improvements in gasket design and overall heat exchanger design have allowed some large scale applications of the plate type heat exchanger

Source: Heat Exchangers, Types and Applications Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department

Source: Heat Exchangers, Types and Applications

Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department

Source: Heat Exchangers, Types and Applications Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department

Source: Heat Exchangers, Types and Applications Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department

Source: Heat Exchangers, Types and Applications Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department

Source: Heat Exchangers, Types and Applications Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department

SCRUBBERS & REBOILERS

SCRUBBERS & REBOILERS Source: Oil and Gas Production Handbook, ABB

Source: Oil and Gas Production Handbook, ABB

COMPRESSORS

A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.

Compressors are driven by gas turbines or electrical motors (for lower power also reciprocating engines, steam turbines are sometimes used if thermal energy is available). Often several stages in the same train are driven by the same motor or

turbine

TYPES OF COMPRESSORS

PARAMETERS

RECIPROCATING

SCREW

AXIAL BLADE

CENTRIFUGAL

COMPRESSORS

COMPRESSORS

COMPRESSORS

COMPRESSORS

Build

A piston and cylinder design with 2-2 cylinders

Two counter rotating screws with matching profiles provide

Axial blade and fin type Compressors with up to 15 wheels provide

Centrifugal compressors with 3-10 radial wheels, Pressure

positive

high volumes at

differential up to 10.

displacement and a wide operating range.

relatively low pressure differential (discharge pressure 3-5 times inlet

pressure)

Power (MW)

30 MW

up to several MW

 

Upto 80 MW

Synchronous Speed

500-800

3000/3600

5000-8000

6000 20000

(rpm)

(highest

for small size)

Pressure

5 MPa

2.5 MPA (25 bars)

 

Upto 50 bars

Used for

Lower capacity gas compression and high reservoir pressure gas injection

Typical use is natural gas gathering.

Air compressors and cooling compression in LNG plants

Larger oil and gas installations

Source: Oil and Gas Production Handbook, ABB

Reciprocating Compressor Centrifugal Compressors Source: Oil and Gas Production Handbook, ABB S c r e

Reciprocating Compressor

Reciprocating Compressor Centrifugal Compressors Source: Oil and Gas Production Handbook, ABB S c r e w

Centrifugal Compressors

Source: Oil and Gas Production Handbook, ABB

Compressors Source: Oil and Gas Production Handbook, ABB S c r e w C o m

Screw Compressors

Source: Oil and Gas Production Handbook, ABB S c r e w C o m p

Axial Blade Compressors

Performance Control

The object of the compressor performance control is to keep the operating point close to the optimal set point without violating the constraints, by means of

control outputs, such as the speed setting.

However gas turbine speed control response is relatively slow and even electrical motors are not fast enough since the surge response must be in the 100 mS range.

The anti surge control will protect the compressor from going into surge by

operating the surge control valve.

Basic strategy: to use distance between operating point and surge line to control the valve with a slower response time starting at the surge control line. Crossing the surge trip line will control a fast response opening of the surge valve to protect the compressor.

Compressor maintenance intensive:

Load management

Vibration

Speed governor

Source: Oil and Gas Production Handbook, ABB

Chemical & Additives

Wide range of chemicals used in various processes in production of crude oil.

Scale Inhibitors:

Well flow contains Contaminants like Salt, chalk, traces of radioactive elements precipitates due to the change in temperature and pressure and get stuck or clog up in the pipes, heat exchangers, values.

Helps in preventing the contaminants spreading out. Added on well heads & production equipments.

Emulsion Breaker :

The layer formed between oil and water is emulsion. We need to separate both and extract oil. Added to prevent the formation and breakdown of emulsion layer.

Sand and other particles will be absorbed by water.

Sources : Oil & gas handbook production ABB, Wikipedia

Antifoam

:

Foam is produced in the separator .This foam will cover the fluid surface and block the gas to escape, reduces the gas space inside the separator. Escapes through demister as mists & vapors.

Antifoam agent introduced in the upstream of separator to prevent or break down foam

formation.

agent introduced in the upstream of separator to prevent or break down foam formation. Source :Oil

Source :Oil & gas Handbook ABB

Methanol :

Injected in flow lines to prevent hydrates formation and corrosion

Hydrates are crystalline compounds that form in water crystalline structures as a function of composition, temperature and pressure.

Hydrates might form and freeze forming hydrate ice, that may damage pipes and

equipments.

Hydrates prediction model software can be used to determine when there is a risk of hydrate formation or to reduce methanol injection or delay pressurization

Drag Reducers :

In pipe lines oil flow near the pipe will be less and the flow at centre will be high ,causing turbulent bursts resulting turbulent eddies.

drag reduction polymers suppress the turbulent bursts, which

improves flow in

pipelines.

Sources : Oil & gas handbook production ABB, Wikipedia

GAS TREATMENT

When the gas is exported, many gas trains include additional equipment for further gas processing, to remove unwanted components such as hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. These gases are called acids and sweetening /acid removal is the process of taking them out. Natural gas sweetening methods include absorption processes, cryogenic

processes; adsorption processes and membranes. Often hybrid combinations are

used, such as cryogenic and membranes.

Source: Oil and Gas Production Handbook, ABB

Oil & Gas Storage, Metering and

Export

Oil and Gas Storage, Metering and

Export

The final stage before the oil and gas leaves the platform consists of

storage, pumps and pipeline terminal equipment.

The final stage before the oil and gas leaves the platform consists of storage, pumps and
The final stage before the oil and gas leaves the platform consists of storage, pumps and

Oil and Gas Metering

Fiscal Metering

Partners, authorities and customers all calculate invoices, taxes and payments based on the actual product shipped out. Often custody transfer also takes place at this point, means a transfer of

responsibility or title from the producer to a customer, shuttle tanker

operator or pipeline operator.

Sources: Oil and gas production handbook; ABB

http://www.standard.no/PageFiles/1224/I-SR-104r1.pdf

Metering System Contd.

Analyzer

The analyser instruments provides product data such as density, viscosity and water content. Pressure and temperature measurement is also included.

For liquid, turbine meters with dual pulse outputs are most common

The metering is split into several runs, and the number of runs in use depends on the flow.

Each run employs one meter and several instruments to provide

temperature and pressure correction Open/Close valves allow runs to be

selected and control valves can balance the flow between runs.

Sources: Oil and gas production handbook; ABB

Metering System

Metering System Sources: Oil and gas production handbook; ABB

Sources: Oil and gas production handbook; ABB

http://instrumenttoolbox.blogspot.com/2011/05/how-to-construct-instrument.html

Gas metering

Gas metering is similar, but instead, analysers will measure

hydrocarbon content and energy value (MJ/scm or BTU, Kcal/scf) as well as pressure and temperature.

The meters are normally orifice meters or ultrasonic meters. Different

ranges are accommodated with different size restrictions.

The pressure differential over the orifice plate as well as pressure and temperature is used in standard formulas to calculate normalized flow.

Larger new installations therefore prefer ultrasonic gas meters that

work by sending multiple ultrasonic beams across the path and

measure the Doppler Effect.

Sources: Oil and gas production handbook; ABB

multiple ultrasonic beams across the path and measure the Doppler Effect. Sources: Oil and gas production

LNG metering

LNG is often metered with massflow meters that can operate at the

required low temperature.

However recently Ultrasonic flow meters are being used, which offer the right technology and value proposition for custody-transfer

applications.

and value proposition for custody-transfer applications. Sources: www.isa.org

Sources: www.isa.org

http://www.standard.no/PageFiles/1224/I-SR-104r1.pdf

proposition for custody-transfer applications. Sources: www.isa.org http://www.standard.no/PageFiles/1224/I-SR-104r1.pdf