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COOKED IN A VACUUM BAG FOR 20 MINUTES

RAW

50C
(131F) (135F)

51C 53C

55C

57C

59C 60C 61C

63C

65C

67C
(153F)

69C
(156F)

71C
(160F)

(122F) (124F) (127F)

(138F) (140F) (142F) (145F) (149F)

(162F)

72C DRY

This piece of meat was photographed over a minute after it was cut. Notice how much redder it is than it was immediately after it was cut (see Above photo). This cherry-red bleed-out is a typical characteristic of sous-vide and low temperature cooking.

pre/post sear tests at 230C (450F)

increasing preference
pre-seared 45 seconds per side pre-seared one minute per side no pre-sear post-seared 30 seconds per side pre-seared 45 seconds per side post-seared 30 seconds per side

pre-seared 30 seconds per side

BACTERIA AND SAFETY


80 170 INHERENTLY SAFE PASTEURIZED ZONE. BACTERIA ARE KILLED ALMOST INSTANTLY IN THIS ZONE. TIME/TEMPERATURE ZONE. IN THIS ZONE BACTERIA ARE BEING KILLED; BUT NOT INSTANTLY. SAFETY IS DETERMINED BY A COMBINATION OF WHAT YOU ARE COOKING, HOW LONG YOU COOK IT, AND AT WHAT TEMPERATURE YOU COOK IT.

NOTES

Food code safe poultry temperature. Instantly safe. 70 Food code safe pork, ground beef, and eggs temperature. 15 seconds makes it safe. Food code safe roasts and steaks temperature. Safe in under a minute. 60 FDA minimum hot-holding temperature. FSIS bacterial kill zone begins. Pathogen growth stops.** 50 Bacterial spores germinate here on cooling.**

160

150

140

FSIS PO ULTRY C URVE FSIS BE EF CUR V E


0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 105 112 112

130

120

Cooking time in minutes once internal temperature is reached to safely pasteurize poultry and beef at a given temperature. The poultry curve represents a 6.5D pasteurization for salmonella. The beef curve represents a 7D pasteurization for E. coli.
Temperature data taken from the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)*.

110 THIS IS THE DANGER ZONE. BACTERIA ARENT BEING KILLED HERE. UNTIL YOU REACH 50C, THE HIGHER THE TEMPERATURE, TEMPERATURE THE FASTER BACTERIA GROW. ABOVE 50C, BACTERIAL GROWTH DECLINES AND STOPS. THIS IS THE REFRIGERATION SAFETY ZONE 32 0

Fahrenheit

Celsius

40

100

40

* http://www.fsis.usda.gov/oa/fr/95033F-a.htm and http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FSISNotices/RTE_Poultry_Tables.pdf ** Bruno Goussault

Celsius
40 50 60 70 80 90

n n 45-60min at 54.4-55C. Not pasteurized. Dont cook Tenderloin: o long -- texture will suffer. too a strip steak, k porterhouse steak: 1-6h at 54.4-56C. We Rib steak, C The longer r they cook, the more tender they get. use 55C. k steak: 45m m at 58C or 1-3h at 57C or 4-8h at 56C. Skirt Cooking too low o o or too short will make it unpleasantly chewy. g steak: 45m-1h m Hanger at 57C or 2-4h at 56C.

beef
Hard steaks: d sear finished n k 52-54.4C: a technique for cooking steaks at very low w temperatures s and finish n searing for a long time to develop a heavy crust. Not FDA approved. p Short ribs or osso buco: 57-65C. We use 48h at 60C C (or 56h at 57C or 36h at 62C). 24h at 60C has a skirt-steak texture. 72h at xt 60C is mushy. Hamburgers: u 56-60C. We do 2-6h at 56C.

forcemeats lamb

Forcemeats and meatballs: poultry based forcemeats a 64-65C. Pork based forcemeats 60C. Meatballs 1-4h at 58-60C. 6 Lamb loin l and chops: p 1-3h at 56C or 3-5h at 55C. Lamb shank: see short ribs above.

Turkey breast: 1-2h at 64-65C. Cooking too long compromises texture. Turkey legs and thighs: 1-3h at 65-66C. Some people o advocate as high as 70C for a long time. Chicken breast: 45-90 min at 63-64C. Cooking for too C long compromises texture. Chicken legs and thighs: 1-2,5h at 65-66C. Some e people cook higher. Duck u breast: 45-90m 5 at 57-58C. Tender ducks at 57C, chewy ducks at t 58C, ducks u to be served r cold at 58C. All manner n of c confit: 85-90C 0 till done. These temperatures and times are traditional. O t Only high temperatures give real confit texture. Squab b breast: 45min m at 56C.

poultry

Pork belly: 48-72h at 60-62C.

pork fish

Pork shoulder: 60-62C. See short ribs for timing. Some muscles s in the e shoulder will become stringy when cooked a long time. i Strip Striped ped bass: 57C 57 7C till done. Stripers are one of the few fish you can cook coo ok for a o while whi ile without breaking breaking down the flesh. classically Salmon: 12-20min 12-20 0min at t 41.5-43C for fo or super-low temp salmon, 12-20min at 50C for classica ally a salmon. These cooked salmo on. Thes o se times assume s assu ume portion cuts. You can cook cold-served salmon higher. u hi igher. Vegetables: e over 85C. They take a long time to cook in the bag.

vegetables eggs

Creme anglaise: e 15-20min 0 at 82C. 1 15 minutes is thin, 20 minutes is thick. Cooking o longer o than 30 3 minutes will give an off, eggy smell. Eggs: see the egg chart.

110

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130

140

150

160

170

180

190

Fahrenheit