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Topic: Subject :

Epidemiology. Nursing Education & Communication.

Submitted to : Prof.(Ms) Celestina Francis.

Submitted on : Jan,


Submitted by : Rajni sharma Nursing Ist year Community health nursing C.O.N. CMCH.

A. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. a) b) c) d) 2. a) b) c) d) Q. Primary prevention includes which of the following :Health promotion and specific protection. Disability limitation. Early diagnosis and treatment. Rehabilitation.

Q. Descriptive epidemiology is the method of epidemiology, it includes:The alteration in the program of the disease. The relationship between the health status and other variables. The description of occurrence of disease in population. The comparison of the two groups data.

3. Q. Cross sectional design is used to measure the disease in population, it is the design that includes:a) Repetition of population in the same population over a prolonged period of time. b) Comparing the known indices. c) Single examination of a cross section of population at one point in time. d) Formulation of hypothesis. 4. a) b) c) d) Q. Incidence rate can be defined as :The number of all current cases of disease at one point of time in defined population. The number of new cases occurring in a defined population during a specified period of time. Frequency of all current cases existing during defined period of time. It is defined as number of exposed persons developing the disease within the range of incubation period following exposure to a primary case. Q. Epidemiology includes the measurement of which of the following:Measurement of the disease distribution. Measurement of the determinants of disease. Measurement of frequency of disease. All of the above. Q. epidemiological triad do not have the following component:Host. Agent. Health. Environment.

5. a) b) c) d) 6. a) b) c) d)

7. Q. An example of secondary prevention is _______. a) Disinfection . b) Clinical diagnosis and treatment. c) Environmental sanitation. d) Personal hygiene . *the answers key is given on the last page.

8. Q. the stress level and coping pattern are studied for one group of widows with interval of 3, 6 months. This type of study is called as :a) b) c) d) Retrospective study. Longitudinal study. Cross sectional study. Case control study.

9. Q. if incidence = 10 cases/ 1000 population / year and mean duration of disease is = 5 years . then prevalence would be :a) b) c) d) 0. 50. 1/10. 1/250.

10. Q. in modern epidemiology an endemic is defined as:a) b) c) d) An occurrence of a disease clearly in excess of normal expectation. An acute outbreak of chronic diseases. A chronically present disease. An acute outbreak of infectious disease.



1. Q. Pre pathogenesis is the process in which environment .. the onset of disease in man. 2. Q. The change in behaviour includes .. , . And . .

3. Q. .. Immunization is useful when exposure to infection has just occurred. 4. Q. Impairment is defined as any . Or 5. Q. Case control studies are also called as . Studies. 6. Q. Rates, ratios and .. are the tools of measurement. 7. Q. Experimental studies are of two types i.e. .. and . Trials. *the answers key is given in the end.

8. Q. PREMORDIAL concept has been emphasised in the prevention of disease. 9. Q. Disease is initiated whenever .. , .. and . Interact . 10. Q. Crude death rate, case fatality rate etc. are the measures describe ... and .. C. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

Q. Define epidemiology? Q. Write down the aims of epidemiology. Q. Define the various levels of prevention? Q. Briefly describe the epidemiological triad? Q. Enlist the various measure of epidemiology? Q. Describe importance of measuring morbidity? Q. Write down the intervention which contributes to health promotion as part of secondary prevention? 8 Q. Explain the web of causation? 9 Q. Differentiate retrospective and prospective studies? 10 Q. Write down the application of epidemiology in nursing? _________________________________________________________
ANSWERS KEY A. ANSWERS FOR MCQS B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. a. c. c b. d. c b. b. b. c.

ANSWERS Before. Awareness, motivation, action. Passive. Loss or abnormality. Retrospective. Proportions. Randomised, non randomised. Chronic. Agent, host, environment. Mortality rates, ratios.

C. ANSWERS 1. Epidemiology is derived from Greek word i.e. Epi means upon and demos means people. It is the study of spread of the diseases within population. Epidemiology deals

with causative organism, agent factors and the environmental factors influencing the spread and transmission of disease. 2. Aims of Epidemiology are:a. To determine the frequency and distribution of a disease in a population. b. To identify the aetiology to achieve control over the disease. c. To assess the economic effects of a disease and to analyse the costs and benefits of alternative control programme. d. To develop, plan and monitor health care policy for the disease control programme. 3. The various levels of prevention includes the following ones:a. Primordial prevention :- the concept of prevention which basically directs the actions of people towards adoption of healthy and harmless lifestyle. b. Primary prevention :- it includes the measures taken during the prepathogenesis phase, by improving the general health and well being. c. Secondary prevention:- it means the action taken to halt the progress of disease at its incipient stage and also the prevention of complications. d. Tertiary prevention:- it is defined as all measure available to reduce or limit impairments and disabilities, minimise sufferings caused by existing illness. 4. Epidemiological triad :- The traditional model of infectious disease causation. Includes three components: an external agent, a susceptible host, and an environment that brings the host and agent together, so that disease occurs. An interaction of all these three factors is necessary to initiate the disease process. In pre pathogenesis phase, the disease agent is already present but it has not entered man. The next phase is the Pathogenesis: this phase begins with the entry of disease agent into man. There are certain interval of time before the onset of clinical signs and symptoms of the disease. This period is called Incubation Period during this period the disease agent multiplies and induces tissue and physiological changes. Incubation period is followed by early pre pathogenesis. During this period, the signs and symptoms are not clear-cut. This is followed by late pathogenesis when there are clear-cut signs and symptoms. The final outcome of the disease may be recovery, disability or death. 5. Measure used in epidemiology I) Incidence Rate(IR). II) Crude Mortality Rate(CMR) III) Maternal Mortality Rate. IV) Age-Specific Mortality Rate. V) Proportional Mortality Rate. VI) Infant Mortality Rate . VII) Perinatal MR VIII) Noenatal MR IX) Postneonatal MR.

6. Web of causation A cause could be defined as a condition that plays a significant role in the occurrence of a disease. It is often difficult to find causes for health-related events or

chronic disease as they are multiple and heterogeneous. All these factors collectively form the web of causation, where every cause is interconnected. Occurrence of a disease in a population might be due to phenotypic similarities, micro-organisms, genetic abnormalities, social structure, behavioral patterns, environmental issues, working places and other associated factors. Exposure to different factors might generate different outcomes. Even different individuals within the same population might acquire a disease due to different causal pathways. 7.

incidence= 10 cases population/ year. 1000 Duration= 5years. Prevalence = incidence * duration = 10*5=50.