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SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON

DEVELOPMENTS IN POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION

9 - 12 April 2001

ORGANISERS
The Conference is being organised by the Institution of Electrical Engineers in association with ClGRE - British National Committee EUREL Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers - UKRl Section Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers - Power Engineering Society 1E.E Benelux (Centre) SociCtt de lElectricit6, de IElectronique et des Technologies de Ilnformation et de la Communication VDE Association for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies

VENUE
RA1 International Exhibition and Congress Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

ORGAN1SING COMMITTEE Dr P A Crossley UMIST, UK Professor R Aggarwal University o f Bath, UK Mr P G Beaumont Toshiba International (Europe), UK Mr K Brewis VATech Reyrolle, UK Dr A Cruden University o f Strathcl-vde, UK Mr B Gwyn National Grid, UK Mr J W Evans Merz and McLellan, UK Dr S Lemmei- Siemens AG, Germany Eur Ing A J h4ackrell ABB Power T&D Ltd, UK Dr P J Moore University o f Bath, UK Mr M A OKeeffe ALSTOM T&D Protection and Control, UK Dr M A Redfern University of Bath, UK Professor M 13achdev University of Saskatchewan, Canada Dr J V H Sanderson Power Engineering Consultants, UK CORRESPONDING MEMBERS Mr Abd.Hali m bin Abu Bakar Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Malaysia Dr N F Chin ALSTOM T&D Protection & Contro?Ltd, Hong Kong Dr P F Gale ,Yathaway Corporation, UK Professor F Gubina University o f Ljubljana, Slovenia Mr G Hensman Yorkshire Electricity, UK Mr L Hossenlopp ALSTOM T&D Protection and Control, France Dr V LeitlofEDF, France Professor T Lobos Wroclaw University of Technorlogy, Poland Professor J R. McDonald University of Strathclyde, UK Professor P PdcLaren Universiv o f Manitoba, Canada Dr D Peck A BB Power Automation AG, Switzerland Dr M M Saha ABB Automation Products AB, Sweden Mr J Theunissen GPU PowerNet Pty Ltd, Australia Professor J Thorp Cornell University, USA Mr G Topham ESKOM, South Africa Mr T Tsukui Toshiba Corporation, Japan Dr B Xu Kehui Electric, China Professor Q Yang Hathaway Si Fang Protection and Control Co. Ltd, China

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Published by the Institution of Electrical Engineers, London ISBN 0 85296 732 2

ISSN 0537-9989

This publication is copyright under the Beme Convention and the Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved. Apart from any copying under the U.K. Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, Part 1 , Section 38, whereby a single copy of an article may be supplied, under certain conditions, for the purposes of research or private study, by a library of a class prescribed by The Copyright (Librarians and Archivists) (Copying of Copyright Material) regulations 1989: SI 1989/1212, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior pemiission of the copyright owners. Permission is, however, not required to copy abstracts of papers or articles on condition that a full reference to the source is shown. Multiple copying of the contents o f the publication without permission is always illegal.

02001 The Institution of Electrical Engineers


Printed in Great Britain by Formara Ltd., Southend-on-Sea, Essex SS2 5FLX

...
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CONTENTS
The Institution of Electrical Engineers is not, as a body, responsible for the opinions expressed by individual authors o r speakers

Page No.

INTEGRATION OF PROTECTION AND CONTROL


1 The protective relay as a node in the substation control network W J Ackerman ABB Automation Inc., USA Development of a strategy for the integration of protection & control equipment J Stokoe and J Gray ScottishPower, UK
A comprehensive approach for nuimerical relay system evaluation and test H Sato, T Takano, S Inoue, S Oda, T Anzai and N Kusano Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Japan

13

Optimized system operation transformers H-J Henmann and A B Muller Siemens A G , Germany J Schmid Trench AG, Germany

with

low-power

instrument

17

Experience with co-ordinated substation control in China Q Yang and H Luo Beijing Hathaway-Sifang Ltd., P R China P F Gale Hathaway Systems, UK

TESTING OF PROTECTION
21

kle a n i n gfu 1 testing of n u meri c a 1 m u 1ti fun cti on protection schemes J Gosalia Doble Engineering Company, USA

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CONTENTS
Page No.

25

Event driven maintenance based on protective relays data A P Apostolov ALSTOM T&D, USA S Richards ALSTOM T&D, UK Integrated solution for simulation, setting and testing of protective relays, with improved parameter determination, taking into account the aspect of CT saturation H Griinert OMICRON Electronics Deutschland GmbH, Germany Advanced engineering tools for protective relay engineers M Kezunovic and Z Galijasevic Texas A&M University, USA Organized, automatic registration and analysis of performance and fault processes J Dopjera and S ToEcik VUJE Trnava, Inc. - Engineering, Design and Research, Slovak Republic End-to-end relay testing using GPS-synchronized injection , M E Agudo and B Kasperek WAPA, USA S I Thompson AVO International, USA secondary

29

33

37

42

46

Simulation knows no bounds: digital real-time simulation for closed-loop testing of numerical communication relays V Hem, R Krebs, S Lemmer and N Schuster Siemens AG, Germany Distance protection application test using a real time digital transient network analyser G Nimmersjo, M M Saha and L-G Andersson ABB Automation Products AB, Sweden J C Gaudio TRANSENER S.A., Argentina

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CONTENTS
Page No.

54

New relay testing platform X Dong and J Z Liu Tsinghua University, P R China X Yu Y Zhang and X Guo Guodian Nanjing Automation Co. Ltd., P R China Y Ge Xian Jiaotong University, P R China Using a real time digital simulator to simulate multiple CTs for testing relays in current differentiall protection systems 4 D Parker and P T Birchenough 4LSTOM T&D Protection and Control, UK P G McLaren and M Yu RTDS Technologies Inc, Canada .4utomated testing for electromechanical overcurrent relays IF Steinhauser OMICRON Electronics GmbH, Austria , ]Protection relay testing with variable compliance voltage

58

62

66

I U Kramer
KoCoS Messtechnik AG, Germany

]EMBEDDEDGENERATION
70
COROCOF: Comparison of
rate

of

change

of

frequency

protection. A solution to the detection of loss of mains (2 G Bright Powergen, UK


74

lrotection of an embedded generator shaft system from an instantaneous voltage sag r Funabashi, H Otoguro and T Tanabi: Meidensha Corporation, Japan I< Yokoyama Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan

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CONTENTS
Page No.

78

Analysis of the operation of a distance relay during an unbalanced arc fault and verification by model tests T Fujimoto and M Furuse Meidensha Corporation, Japan T Ohta Sojo University, Japan H Kuribayashi and T Sasano Kyushu Electric Power Co., INC., Japan New loss of mains detection algorithm for embedded generation using rate of change of voltage and changes in power factors S K Salman and D J King The Robert Gordon University, UK G Weller ALSTOM T&D, UK Relaying problems in the conriection of a dispersed generating plant to the 132kV network L Caciolli Gestore della Rete di Trasmissione Nazionale, Italy G lnvernizzi and P F Lionetto Foster Wheeler Italiana, Italy Detecting loss of earth for embedded generation M A Redfem, D Brown and M G Bartlett University of Bath, UK

82

86

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COMMUNICATIONSI N PROTECTION AND CONTROL


94

Digital communications for power system protection: security, availability and speed E 0 Schweitzer 111, K Behrendt, T Lee and D A Tziouvaras Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc., USA Design of a protection relay incorporating UCA2/MMS Communications M Adamiak, D Baigent, R Moore, B Kasztenny and J Mazereeuw GE Power Management, USA

98

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CONTENTS
Page No.

102

A new approach to the implementation of intranet-based measurement and monitoring K Hamamatsu, H Watanabe, K Sekiguchi, R Tsukui, K lgarashi and P Beaumont 'roshiba Corporation, Power Systems & Services Company, Japan

106

Unit protection utilising Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) communication systems - why a new design approach is necessary [ J Hall 'Vational Grid Company PIC,UK :S Potts .4LSTOM T&D Protection and Control Ltd., UK Communication standards and their impact on the functional integration of protection and control B M Buchholz and G Lang :Siemens AG, Germany

110

INTEGRATION OF PROTECTION AND CONTROL


114 Integration of protection and control for railway power systems

'r Einarsson and M M Saha

.4BB Automation Products AB, Sweden L Henning Balfour Beatty Rail, Sweden
118 New approach to an integrated telecontrolled compact distribution Iswitchroom 7 S Sond Schneider Electric, UK 7 0 Gray ScottishPower, UK

122

Substation information project - field experience with internet technologies 7 V Hughes, J E Fitch and R W Silversides National Grid Company plc, UK
A new proposal to the implementation of substation integrated systems for protection, control and information D D Jones and J A Aspinall National Grid Company, UK

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Page No.

130

Opto-Electronic sensor new concept for analogue measurements in electrical substations R Hughes and E Legrand ALSTOM T&D Protection & ContrGle SA, France An enhanced decentralised numerical busbar protection relay utilising instantaneous current values from high speed sampling H Watanabe, I Shuto and K Igarashi Toshiba Corporation, Japan P Beaumont and K Okuno, Toshiba International (Europe) Ltd, UK

133

RELAY DESIGN AND NEW PROTECTION PRINCIPLES


137 Adaptive non-communication protection scheme for power lines Z Q Bo, S Potts, G C Weller, N F Chin and D Montjean ALSTOM TD Protection & Control Ltd, UK X 2 Dong Tsinghua University, PR China Single phase fault detection technique based on transient current and its application in non-solid grounded network

141

B Xu
Shandong Institute of Engineering, PR China Y Xue Xi 'an Jiaotong University, PR China J Li and Y Chen Kehui Electric Ltd., PR China 145 A new project for motor fault detection and protection X H Zhang, Y N Cao and Y L Li Tianjin University, P R China A fast adaptive digital distance protection S Jamali Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran A fault transient comparison technique distribution feeders H Y Li UMIST, UK Z Q Bo, B Caunce and S Potts ALSTOM T&D Protection and Control Ltd, UK for multi-ended

149

153

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Page No.

157

Detection and location of low-level arcing faults in metal-clad electrical apparatus T Sidhu, M Sachdev and G S Sagoo University of Saskatchewan, Canada Implementation of an adaptive data window technique in a distance relay M S Sachdev, T S Sidhu and D S Ghotira University of Saskatchewan, Canada The multifunctional numerical transformer protection and control sjstem with adaptive and flexible features J Wang, Z Gajic and S Holst ABB Automation Products AB, Sweden
A review of techniques to detect downed conductors in overhead distribution systems L Li and M A Redfern University of Bath, UK

161

165

169

173

A new approach to high-speed protection for transmission line based on transient signal analysis using wavelets L Shang, G Herold and J Jaeger FI-iedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Siemens AG, Germany Modern trends in line and network protection systems J W Dzieduszko ABB Power T&D Company, USA New magnetizing inrush restraining transformer protection A Kulidjian, B Kasztenny and B Campbell GE Power Management, Canada algorithm for power

177

181

185

Validation of a novel unit protection superimposed fault currents D 1 W P Thomas, C Christopoulos and 71' Tang The University of Nottingham, UK P Gale H athaway Instruments Ltd, UK

scheme

based

on

CONTENTS
Page No.

189

Boundary protection of EHV transmission lines using multichannel frequency comparison technique Z Chen De Montford University, UK Z Q Bo, G C Weller and N F Chin ALSTOM T&D Protection & Control Ltd, UK F Jiang Singapore Polytechnic, Singapore
A new directional relay for distribution network protection using transient comparison technique P Fitzgerald, P Bishop, Z Q Bo, L Denning, G C Weller and M O'Keefe ALSTOM T&D Protection & Control Ltd, UK

193

197

Application of wavelet transform in transient protection---Case study: busbar protection F Jiang Singapore Polytechnic, Singapore Z Q Bo and G C Weller ALSTOM T&D Protection & Control Ltd, UK M A Redfern ' University of Bath, UK Z Chen De Montfort University, UK X Z Dong
Tsinghua University, PR China

201

Design and evaluation of an overcurrent relay suitable for operation with measurement current transformers T Bunyagul and P A Crossley UMIST, UK P F Gale Hathaway, USA

TESTING OF PROTECTION SYSTEMS


205 New algorithms to test distance relays A Dierks Alectrix, South Africa D Kehrberg, ESKOM, South Africa

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CONTENTS
Page No.

209

Verification of utility requirements on modern transformer protection by dynamic simulation Z Gajic ABB, Sweden G Z Shen ABB, China J U Chen and Z F Xiang ECEPA, China

numerical

213

Implementation of dynamic distance relay scheme evaluation testing guidelines using analogue and real time digital simulators P Bishop, Z Q Bo, L Denning and M OKeeFfe ALSTOM T&D Protection and Control Ltd., UK X F Shen Electric Power Research Institute, P R China Improving site tests efficiency by real-time testing of a new communication link between sensors and a protection device 0 Huet, 0 Maugeard, 0 Chilard, L Popiel, F Klein and C Moreau EIIF R&D, France P Tantin EIIF RTE, France J IPemot ABB, France D Chatrefou A LSTOM, France Simulation
of

218

222

delta

connected current transformers

in

differential protection scheme

D Muthumuni, P G McLaren and W Cl-iandrasena University of Manitoba, Canada A D Parker ALSTOM T&D Protection & Control Ltd., UK M Yu RTDS Technologies Inc., Canada

IMPACT OF UTILITY CHANcGES O N PROTECTION


226
PI-otection design & management using global resources A S Klebanowski and J Theunissen SPI PowerNet, Australia

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CONTENTS
Page No.

230

The impact of energy storage devices used in conjunction with renewable embedded generators, on the protection and control system A Cruden and G J W Dudgeon University of Strathclyde, UK Strategy for the migration of Eskoms current substation protection and control architecture to the envisaged future architecture M H L Bower and A de la Guerre Eskom, South Africa G H Topham Technology Services Intemational, South Africa Unsymmetrical faults and their potential for nuisance tripping of embedded generators M Alshamali and B Fox Queens University of Belfast, UK Protection asset replacement - what business value? J M Nicholson, G 0 Hensman, A T Scott and P A Jones Yorkshire Electricity Group, UK

234

238

242

POWER QUALITY AND RELIABILITY


246

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Enhanced reliability and other benefits with online security assessment J Bertsch and M Kaba ABB Power Automation Ltd., Switzerland W Quaintance ABB Electric Systems Techology Institute, USA C Rehtanz ABB Corporate Research Ltd., Switzerland Geomagnetic induced current detection and monitoring T H Breckenridge and T Cumming , Scottish Power plc, UK J Merron Hathaway Systems Ltd., UK Optimal routine test intervals for pilot protection schemes using probabilistic methods K Kangvansaichol, P Pittayapat and B Eua-Arpom Chulalongkom University, Thailand

254

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Page No.

258

Simulating protection systems: effects on voltage dips and reliability, a case study G A Bloenihof KEMA T&D Power, The Netherlands V Leitloff EDF, France Quantifying the potential impacts o'f disturbances on power system ]protection :F Wang and M H J Bollen Chalmers University of Technology, !Sweden .4ppiication of disturbance rocorders as near real time information support for national control in ESKlOM ,4Bartylak IESKOM, South Africa

262

266

COMMUNICATIONS
270 !Standardised communications in substations 1 3 Shephard lkhneider Electric, UK IM C Janssen ICEMA T & D Power, The Netherlands 1-I Schubert FGH, Germany IProtocol requirements for remote operation of a substation on Abu IDhabi power system 1 3 Subramanian, H AI-Hosani' and A Samuel Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority, UAE
.

2 75

279

Optimum data speed for numericall current differential protection operating over public switched telephone networks 13 ,Y Li and P A Crossley IJMIST, UK : ; Potts &tom T&D P&C Ltd, LJK

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CONTENTS
Page No.

283

TETRA radio in monitoring and control of secondary substations M Nordman and M Lehtonen Helsinki University of Technology, Finland J Takala VTT Energy, Finland E Suvinen and M Hyvarinen Helsinki Energy, Finland E Antila ABB Substation Automation Oy, Finland

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN PROTECTION AND CONTROL


287 Fault Identification of double circuit lines H B Elrefaie and A I Megahed Alexandria University, Egypt High speed directional element design and evaluation using neurocomputing technology M Sanaye-Pasand University of Tehran, Iran 0 P Malik University of Calgary, Canada Out-of-step protection with A1 methods W Rebizant Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland K Feser University of Stuttgart, Germany Transient protection of transmission line using wavelet transform M Solanki andY H Song Brunel University, UK S Potts and A Perks ALSTOM Protection & Control, UK Application of ANN methods for instrument correction in transmission line protection M M Saha ABB Automatic Products AB, Sweden J Izykowski, M Lukowicz and E Rosolowski Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland . transformer

291

295

299

303

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Page No.

307

Fuzzy Decision making applied to high impedance fault detection in compensated neutral grounded MV distribution systems F Ruz and J A Fuentes U niversidad Politknica de Cartagena, Spain
An ANN-based distance prolective relays of transmission lines Y L Li, B Li, X H Zhang and 9 L He Tianjin University, P R China Aldvanced signal processing methods interharmonics estimation T Lobos, Z Leonowicz and J Rezmer Wroclaw University of Technology, Polland H-J Koglin Sa~arland University, Germany of harmonics and

311

315

F,4ULT LOCATION
319 Cable automation for urban distribution systems A Newbould and L Hu Jacobsen elektro, UK K Chapman NIZDL, UK F m l t location method for MV Cable Network M M Saha A13B Automation Products, AB, Sweden F Provoost NlJON Technisch Bedrijf, The Netherlands E Rosolowski Wrocalw University of Technology, Poland Travelling wave fault locator trmsmission network P F Gale Hathaway, UK P V Taylor, P Naidoo and C Hitchin ESKOM Transmission, South Africa D Clowes HJ Test, South Africa experience on ESKOMs

323

327

331

Fault location using radio frequency emissions P .J Moore, E J Bartlett and M Vaughan University of Bath, UK

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CONTENTS
Page No.

335

A complete scheme for fault detection, classification and location in transmission lines using neural networks M Oleskovicz and D V Coury University of S5o Paulo, Brazil R K Aggarwal University of Bath, UK

POWER QUALITY & RELIABILITY


339 Disturbance analysis in TNB transmission system A H Abu Bakar Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Malaysia
A privatised utilitys response to protection reliability P K C Wong United Energy, Australia

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347

Risk analysis - new aspect on protection and local control design Y Aabo BKK, Norway R Goin Statkraft, Norway B Lundqvist ABB, Sweden Islanding protection system with active and reactive power balancing control for Tokyo metropolitan power system and actual operational experiences S Agematsu and S Imai Tokyo Electric Power Company, Japan R Tsukui, H Watanabe, T Nakamura and T Matsushima Toshiba Corporation, Power Systems & Services Company, Japan Improved voltage quality through advances in voltage control techniques V P Thornley VA TECH Reyrolle AcP, UK N J Hiscock Fundamentals Ltd, UK

351

355

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CONTENTS
Page No.

PROTECTION AND POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION


359
A model for simulating internal earth faults in transformers A I Megahed Alexandria University, Egypt

363

Implementation of a MOV computation method within a protection system simulation A Gopalakrishnan and D M MacGregor Electrocon International Inc, USA 1 Thor Svensa Kraftnat, Sweden Simulating the steady state and transient response of protective relays E d Poller and B Maier 1)lgSILENT GmbH, Germany A Dierks Mectrix, South Africa Investigation of the effect of the insertion of series capacitors in high voltage transmission lines on the settings of distance protection S K Salman and N Rajoo The Robert Gordon University, UK I? Leitloff EDF, France Adaptive reclosure using high frequency fault transients I, Youyi and G Yaozhong %an Jiantong University, P R China X Z Dong lsinghua University, P R China i! Q Bo and N F Chin ALSTOM T&D Protection and Control Ltd., UK A new principle of fault h e selection for distribution S Qianli, X Z Dong and S Shenxing Tsinghua University, P R China S Bin and HJiali Tianjin University, P R China

367

371

375

379

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Page No.

383

A new technique for power transformer protection using discrete dyadic wavelet transform Z Yang, J Z Liu and X Dong Tsinghua University, P R China F Jiang Singapore Polytechnic, Singapore Z Q Bo and N F Chin ALSTOM T&D Protection and Control Ltd., UK Novel numerical algorithm for overhead lines protection and adaptive autoreclosure V V Terzija and H J Koglin Saarland University, Germany 2 M Radojevic University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia Practical use of a dynamic protection system modelling A M Carter and D C Humphreys The National Grid Company plc, UK A DySko and J R McDonald University of Strathclyde, UK

387

391

FAULT LOCATION
395 New multi-ended fault location design for two or three-terminal lines D A Tziouvaras, J B Roberts and G Benmouyal Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc., USA Fault location estimation based on matching the simulated and recorded waveforms using genetic algorithms M Kezunovic and Y Liao Texas A&M University, USA Fault location using the high frequency travelling waves measured at a single location on a transmission line M Aurangzeb and P A Crossley UMIST, UK P Gale Hathaway, UK

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403

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CONTENTS
Page No.

407

Nlew accurate fault location algorithm for parallel lines M M Saha and K' Wikstrorn A BB Automation Products AB, Sweden J lzykowski and E Rosolowski Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland

41 1

A fault location algorithm for lransmission line based on distributed parameter Z Chen, C Luo, J Su and X Wu Tsinghua University, P R China
A single ended fault location scheme D W P Thomas, C Christopoulos and Y Tang The University of Nottingham, UK P Gale Hathaway Instruments Ltd, UK A study on fault arc and its influence on digital fault locator performance T :Funabashi and H Otoguro Meidensha Corporation, Japan L Dub6 DEI Simulation Software, Canada M Kizilcay Fachhochschule Osnabruck, Germany A Ametani Doshisha University, Japan

414

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PROTECTION DESIGN TECHNIQUES


422

Wavelet transform in the accurate 'detection of high impedance arcing faults in high voltage transmission lines C1 3 Kim and H Kim Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea R I< Agganval and A T Johns University of Bath, UK
A new digital relay to provide protection against unbalanced fault coiidi tions 0 lJsta and M Ozdemir Istanbul Technical University, Turkey M Bayrak Saltarya University, Turkey

426

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Page No.

430

Novel algorithms for earth fault indication based on monitoring of shunt resistance of MV feeder as part of relay protection A Nikander and P Jarventausta Tempere University of Technology, Finland J Myllymaki ABB Substation Automation Oy, Finland Novel algorithm for accelerated second zone tripping of non-unit distance protection V Leitloff Electricitit de France, France P Bastard SupClec, France A technique for analysing artificial neural network based protection relays T S Sidhu, M S Sachdev and L Mital University of Saskatchewan, Canada

434

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INTEGRATION OF PROTECTION AND CONTROL


442

Trends in power system protection and control systems L P Cavero Power Systems Management Corp., USA J W Chadwick Consultant, USA Intelligent wide area back-up protection and its role in enhancing transmission network reliability J C Tan University of Manitoba, Canada P A Crossley UMIST, UK I J Hall National Grid Company, UK J Farrell Scottish Power, UK P Gale Hathaway, UK

446

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Page No.

450

System protection schemes in power networks: existing installations and ideas for future developments D Karlsson ABB, Sweden F Ilar ABB, Switzerland P A Crossley UMIST, UK Implementation of National Gritds strategy for substation in,formation, control and protection (SICAP) within a new operational substation C M Parker National Grid, UK A M Osiecki ABB Transmission Systems Division, 1JK New solutions for the automation of large industrial distribution n et w o r ks L Hossenlopp Alstom T&D Protection and Control, France

454

458

APPLICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTION


463
Numerical busbar protection benefits of numerical technology in electrical substation R Hughes and E Legrand ALSTOM T&D Protection & Control Ltd, UK Sletting constraints for distance protection on underground lines V Leitloff, X Bourgeat and G Duboc Electricit6 de France, France Remote-end overvoltage protection on Eskoms transmission lines N[ H L Bower Eskoni, South Africa G H Topham Technology Services International, South Africa[

467

471

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Page No.

475

Theory and practical performance of interlocked overcurrent busbar zone protection in distribution substations K Brewis and K Hearfield VA TECH Reyrolle AcP, UK K Chapman NEDL, UK Low impedance restricted earth fault protection P Bertrand, B Gotzig and C Vollet Schneider Electric, France Protection asset maintenance - what business value? A J Bower, A T Scott, G 0 Hensman and P A Jones Yorkshire Electricity Group, UK Improving UK power quality with arc suppression coils A Newbould Jacobsen elektro, UK K Chapman NEDL, UK

479

483

487

DESIGN OF PROTECTION SYSTEMS


491

Design and development of a digital multifunction relay for generator protection M V V S Yalla Beckwith Electric Co., Inc, USA Optimised overhead line maintenance on 25kV electrified railways using remotely monitored distance protection E Pudney and R Wales GT Railway Maintenance Ltd, UK Zero-sequence voltages in unit-connected generator for different methods of grounding generator neutral M Fulczyk ABB Corporate Research, Poland

495

499

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503

Non-differential protection of a generators stator utilizing fault transients Z Q Bo, S Potts, G Weller and N F Chin ALSTOM T&D Protection and Control Ltd, UK M A Redfern University of Bath, UK F Jiang Singapore Polytechnic, Singapore Introduction to modern generator protection A J Mackrell A.BB Protection and Control Products Ltd., UK D P Tiller Electrical Power Systems Ltd., UK Development of an improved multifunction high speed operating cuirrent differential relay for transmission line protection H Ito, I Shuto and H Ayakawa Toshiba Corporation, Power Systems &r. Services Company, Japan P Beaumont and K Okuno Toshiba International (Europe) Ltd, UK New principles to detect faults during power swing Q Yang, S Jiao and W Liu North China Electric Power University., China Z Bo AI stom T & D Protection and Control Ltd, UK
New developments in low voltage air circuit breaker technology T Craig Terasaki Europe Ltd, UK

507

511

515

519

RELAY DESIGN & PROTECTION PRINCIPLES


523
Modelling relays for use in power system protection studies M S Sachdev and T S Sidhu University of Saskatchewan, Canada Iniproving the protection of EHV teed feeders using local agents D V Coury University of S5o Paulo, Brazil J 13 Thorp, K M Hopkinson and K P Biirman Come11 University, USA

527

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Page No.

531

Object models of transmission line protection relays A P Apostolov ALSTOM T&D, USA K Hill ALSTOM T&D, UK Network protection based on fault generated transients M A Redfern University of Bath, UK ZQBo ALSTOM T&D Protection & Control Ltd, UK F Jiang Singapore Polytechnic, Singapore Protection of HV systems: is simple and cheap good enough? G A Bloemhof KEMA T&D Power, The Netherlands B 0 Wolters Essent Netwerk Noord NV, The Netherlands

535

539

DESIGN, APPLICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTION


543
Conventional directional overcurrent & earth fault protection not always straightforward P J Hindle PB Power Ltd,UK K Chapman NEDL, UK NGC requirements for commissioning - management & practice K Harker and H Habibollahi National Grid Company, UK Co-ordinated network protection: the way to the optimised power supply system N Friemelt, R Krebs, F Meisberger and K-J Stober Siemens AG- Germany Application of Mho and quadrilateral distance characteristics in power systems M J Domzalski, K P Nickerson and P R Rosen VA TECH Reyrolle ACP, UK

547

551

555

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559

'

Knowledge management and intellligent decision support for protection scheme design and application in electrical power systems S M Strachan, G M West, J R McDonald and A H B Duffy University of Strathclyde, IJK J Farrell Sc,ottishPower, UK B Gwyn National Grid Company, UK
0

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