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# 4.4 According to Equation (4.

## 8), we have IC = AE qDn n2 i eVBE /VT 1 NB WB 1 WB

We can see that if WB increases by a factor of two, then IC decreases by a factor of two .

## 4.11 VBE = 1.5 V IE (1 k) 1.5 V IC (1 k) (assuming 1) = VT ln IC IS

IC = 775 A VX IC (1 k) = 775 mV

4.12 Since we have only integer multiples of a unit transistor, we need to nd the largest number that divides both I1 and I2 evenly (i.e., we need to nd the largest x such that I1 /x and I2 /x are integers). This will ensure that we use the fewest transistors possible. In this case, its easy to see that we should pick x = 0.5 mA, meaning each transistor should have 0.5 mA owing through it. Therefore, I1 should be made up of 1 mA/0.5 mA = 2 parallel transistors, and I2 should be made up of 1.5 mA/0.5 mA = 3 parallel transistors. This is shown in the following circuit diagram. I1 I2

VB

Now we have to pick VB so that IC = 0.5 mA for each transistor. VB = VT ln IC IS 5 104 A 3 1016 A

## 4.15 VB VBE = IB R1 IC = [VB VT ln(IC /IS )] IC = R1 IC = 786 A

4.17 First, note that VBE 1 = VBE 2 = VBE . VB = (IB 1 + IB 2 )R1 + VBE R1 = (IX + IY ) + VT ln(IX /IS 1 ) 5 IS 2 = IS 1 3 5 IY = IX 3 8R1 VB = IX + VT ln(IX /IS 1 ) 3 IX = 509 A IY = 848 A

4.21 (a) VBE = 0.8 V IC = IS eVBE /VT = 18.5 mA VCE = VCC IC RC = 1.58 V Q1 is operating in forward active. Its small-signal parameters are gm = IC /VT = 710 mS r = /gm = 141 ro = The small-signal model is shown below. B + r v gm v C

(b) IB = 10 A IC = IB = 1 mA VBE = VT ln(IC /IS ) = 724 mV VCE = VCC IC RC = 1.5 V Q1 is operating in forward active. Its small-signal parameters are gm = IC /VT = 38.5 mS r = /gm = 2.6 k ro = The small-signal model is shown below. B + r v gm v C

## (c) IE = VCC VBE 1+ = IC RC VCC VT ln(IC /IS ) IC = 1+ RC

IC = 1.74 mA VBE = VT ln(IC /IS ) = 739 mV VCE = VBE = 739 mV Q1 is operating in forward active. Its small-signal parameters are gm = IC /VT = 38.5 mS r = /gm = 2.6 k ro = The small-signal model is shown below. B + r v gm v C

4.22 (a) IB = 10 A IC = IB = 1 mA VBE = VT ln(IC /IS ) = 739 mV VCE = VCC IE (1 k) 1+ (1 k) = VCC = 0.99 V Q1 is operating in forward active. Its small-signal parameters are gm = IC /VT = 38.5 mS r = /gm = 2.6 k ro = The small-signal model is shown below. B + r v gm v C

## (b) IE = 1+ VCC VBE = IC 1 k VCC VT ln(IC /IS ) IC = 1+ 1 k

IC = 1.26 mA VBE = VT ln(IC /IS ) = 730 mV VCE = VBE = 730 mV Q1 is operating in forward active. Its small-signal parameters are gm = IC /VT = 48.3 mS r = /gm = 2.07 k ro = The small-signal model is shown below.

B + r v

C gm v

(c) IE = 1 mA IC = IE = 0.99 mA 1+ VBE = VT ln(IC /IS ) = 724 mV VCE = VBE = 724 mV Q1 is operating in forward active. Its small-signal parameters are gm = IC /VT = 38.1 mS r = /gm = 2.63 k ro = The small-signal model is shown below. B + r v gm v C

(d) IE = 1 mA IC = IE = 0.99 mA 1+ VBE = VT ln(IC /IS ) = 724 mV VCE = VBE = 724 mV Q1 is operating in forward active. Its small-signal parameters are gm = IC /VT = 38.1 mS r = /gm = 2.63 k ro = The small-signal model is shown below.

B + r v

C gm v

4.31 IC = IS eVBE /VT IC,T otal = nIC = nIS eVBE /VT gm,T otal = IC VBE IS = n eVBE /VT VT IC n VT = ngm = n 0.4435 S 1 = IC,T otal IB,T otal VBE IC,T otal VT nIC VT
1 1

1+

VCE VA VCE VA

1+

IB,T otal

r,T otal = = =

## r n 225.5 = (assuming = 100) n ro,T otal = IC,T otal VCE

1

IC,T otal VA VA = nIC ro = n 693.8 = n The small-signal model is shown below. B + r,T otal v

## C gm,T otal v ro,T otal

4.32 (a) VBE = VCE (for Q1 to operate at the edge of saturation) VT ln(IC /IS ) = VCC IC RC IC = 885.7 A VB = VBE = 728.5 mV
(b) Let IC , VB , VBE , and VCE correspond to the values where the collector-base junction is forward biased by 200 mV. VBE = VCE + 200 mV VT ln(IC /IS ) = VCC IC RC + 200 mV IC = 984.4 A VB = 731.3 mV Thus, VB can increase by VB VB = 2.8 mV if we allow soft saturation.

4.34 VBE = VCC IB RB VT ln(IC /IS ) = VCC IC RB / IC = 1.67 mA VBC = VCC IB RB (VCC IC RC ) < 200 mV IC RC IB RB < 200 mV 200 mV + IB RB RC < IC 200 mV + IC RB / = IC RC < 1.12 k

4.41 VEB = VEC (for Q1 to operate at the edge of saturation) IB RB = VCC IC RC IC RB / = IC RC RB / = RC = RB /RC = 100

VCC

4.44 (a) IB = 2 A IC = IB = 200 A VEB = VT ln(IC /IS ) = 768 mV VEC = VCC IE (2 k) 1+ = VCC IC (2 k) = 2.1 V Q1 is operating in forward active. Its small-signal parameters are gm = IC /VT = 7.69 mS r = /gm = 13 k ro = The small-signal model is shown below. B + r v gm v C

(b) IE = VCC VT ln(IC /IS ) 1+ IC = 5 k IC = 340 A VEB = 782 mV VEC = VEB = 782 mV Q1 is operating in forward active. Its small-signal parameters are gm = IC /VT = 13.1 mS r = /gm = 7.64 k ro = The small-signal model is shown below. VCC VEB 5 k

B + r v

C gm v

(c) IE = 1+ IC = 0.5 mA

IC = 495 A VEB = 971 mV VEC = VEB = 971 mV Q1 is operating in forward active. Its small-signal parameters are gm = IC /VT = 19.0 mS r = /gm = 5.25 k ro = The small-signal model is shown below. B + r v gm v C

4.49 The direction of current ow in the large-signal model (Fig. 4.40) indicates the direction of positive current ow when the transistor is properly biased. The direction of current ow in the small-signal model (Fig. 4.43) indicates the direction of positive change in current ow when the base-emitter voltage vbe increases. For example, when vbe increases, the current owing into the collector increases, which is why ic is shown owing into the collector in Fig. 4.43. Similar reasoning can be applied to the direction of ow of ib and ie in Fig. 4.43.

4.53 (a) VCB 2 < 200 mV IC 2 RC < 200 mV IC 2 < 400 A VEB 2 = VE 2 = VT ln(IC 2 /IS 2 ) < 741 mV 2 IE 2 RC 1 + 2 2 1 + 1 IC 1 RC 1 + 2 1 IC 1 VBE 1 Vin < 200 mV < 200 mV < 396 A = VT ln(IC 1 /IS 1 ) < 712 mV = VBE 1 + VEB 2 < 1.453 V (b) IC 1 = 396 A IC 2 = 400 A gm1 = 15.2 mS r1 = 6.56 k ro1 = gm2 = 15.4 mS r2 = 3.25 k ro2 = The small-signal model is shown below. + vin r1 B1 + v1 E1 /E2 v2 + B2 C2 RC C1 gm1 v1

r2

gm2 v2 vout

## 4.55 (a) VBC 2 < 200 mV IC 2 RC ) < 200 mV

VBE 2 (VCC

VT ln(IC 2 /IS 2 ) + IC 2 RC VCC < 200 mV IC 2 < 3.80 mA VBE 2 < 799.7 mV 1 + 1 IC 1 = IB 2 = IC 2 /2 IE 1 = 1 IC 1 < 75.3 A VBE 1 < 669.2 mV Vin = VBE 1 + VBE 2 < 1.469 V (b) IC 1 = 75.3 A IC 2 = 3.80 mA gm1 = 2.90 mS r1 = 34.5 k ro1 = gm2 = 146.2 mS r2 = 342 ro2 = The small-signal model is shown below. + vin r1 B1 + v1 E1 /B2 C2 + r2 v2 E2 gm2 v2 RC vout C1 gm1 v1