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12th IFToMM World Congress, Besanon (France), June18-21, 2007

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Dynamic analysis of rolling bearing system using Lagrangian model Vs. FEM code
H. Rubio* University Carlos III Madrid, Spain J. C. Garca Prada University Carlos III Madrid, Spain C. Castejn University Carlos III Madrid, Spain E. Laniado University Carlos III Madrid, Spain

Abstract The rolling bearings dynamical behaviour analysis is a critical condition to determine the machine vibration response. The rolling bearing, with outer ring fixed, is a multibody mechanical system with rolling elements that transmit motion and load from the inner raceway to the outer raceway. In rolling bearing analytical formulation, the contact between rolling element and raceways is considered as nonlinear springs and their stiffness are obtained by using Hertzian elastic contact deformation theory. The contact model among the rolling element and the raceways will be detailed in the paper due to the great important in the vibration pattern analysis . In the work presented, the simulation of kinematics, dynamic and structural behaviours of the rolling bearings and their vibration response without faults will be presented, a analytical model using Lagrange formulation and a simulation model using Algor code (events simulation). To evaluate the suitability and compatibility among analytical and simulation models, the results from simulation will be applied to inner ring motion equations of analytical model to obtain a valuable error signal.

implemented as input data (rolling element position, inner race position, contact displacement) solution in the analytical model. The main goal of this work will consist of characterizing the error signal in the inner ring motion equations.

II. Analytical model Figure 1 shows the multibody mechanical system to simulate: the configuration of a motor connected to a rolling bearing, where the outer race is fixed.

Keywords: Rolling bearing, analytical model, simulation, multibody and rotor dynamics

Fig. 1. Multibody mechanical system

I. Introduction The rolling bearing dynamic behaviour analysis is a very important issue to know the system vibration response. This response is non-linear, mainly when the rolling element is a rolling element1 [4, 5]. On condition operating, rolling bearings generate some vibrations and noise related to the movement transmission characteristic of these mechanical elements where elastic properties have a great influence. In this work, in a first step, an analytical model is proposed by using Lagrange formulation [9, 10] besides a 3D rolling bearing simulation model is developed. Also, the vibratory signal, obtained from rolling bearing operation by means of a simulation program (Algor code), using the "event simulation" technique [1, 12], is
*E-mail: hrubio@ing.uc3m.es E-mail: jcgprada@ing.uc3m.es E-mail: castejon@ing.uc3m.es 1 Roller and ball

In rolling bearings, the rolling element-raceway contact is non-linear, it makes that the faults in the raceways or the rolling elements origin complex vibrations. For this, in the analytical model presented Lagrange formulation is applied to calculate the inner raceway and rolling elements positions (independent generalized coordinates) [10]. The motor-rolling bearing system motion equations will be calculated using:

d T T V + =F  dt p p p

(1)

where p is generalized coordinate vector, F is generalized loads (forces), T is total kinetic energy and V is the total potential energy. The coordinates used in the analytical model are referenced to the fixed outer race. Figure 2 shows the equivalent geometric model used: rolling element centre positions and the inner centre position related to the outer centre position. 1

12th IFToMM World Congress, Besanon (France), June18-21, 2007

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Also, figure 2 describes the non-linear contact rolling element-raceways. The kinetic and potential energies were obtained using Koenig kinetic theorem and Hertz contact theory. The total kinetic energy of the motor-rolling bearing system is the sum of the rolling elements, inner race and the motor:

And the curvature difference parameter is expressed as:

F () =

( A1 A2 ) + ( B1 B 2 )

(5)

T = Tin + Tball + Tmotor


j =1

Nb

(2)

The parameters rA1, rA2, rB1, rB2, A1, A2, B1 and B2 can be dependent on the inner and outer raceways as shows figure 3. If the inner raceway is considered, then:

The total potential energy of the motor-rolling bearing system is the sum of the rolling elements, inner race, the motor potential energy and the rolling elements-raceways elastic contact energy:

rA1 =

DB D D ; rA 2 = B ; rB1 = I ; rB 2 = rI 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 ; A2 = ; B1 = ; B2 = A1 = DB DB DI rI

(6)

V = Vin + Vball + Vmotor + Vcontact


j =1

Nb

(3)

Fig. 3. Geometry considered in the ball-raceway point contact.

If outer raceway is considered, they are given as:

rA1 =
Fig. 2. Geometric model of rolling bearing.

To study the rolling element bearing structural vibration characteristics, the rolling element-raceway contact can be considered as a spring mass system, in which the outer race is fixed in a rigid support and the inner race is fixed rigidly with the motor shaft. Elastic deformation between raceways and rolling elements produces a non-linear phenomenon between force and deformation, which is obtained by Hertzian theory. The rolling element bearing is considered as non-linear contact spring as shown in figure 2. The application of the Hertzian classical theory of elasticity to the contact point problem between the raceway and ball develops a contact area with elliptical shape (as figure 3 shows). Some parameters about curvature at contact surfaces are needed in order to obtain the contact force. The curvature sum parameter is obtained from Harris [8] as:

D DB D ; rA2 = B ; rB1 = O ; rB 2 = rO 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 A1 = ; A2 = ; B1 = ; B2 = DB DB DO rO

(7)

DB is the ball diameter, DI is the inner raceway diameter, DO is the outer raceway diameter, rI is the inner groove radius and rO is the outer groove radius. Negative value denotes a concave surface. The relative approach between steel raceway and steel ball, in rolling bearings, is given by [8]:

= 2,79 x104 *Q 2 / 3 ( )

1/ 3

( mm)

(8)

in which * is a function of F(). Hence, the contact force (Q) is

Q = 2,15 x105 ( * )

3 / 2

( )

1/ 2

3/ 2

(N )

(9)

A1

+ A 2 + B1 + B 2

Also, it means a non-linear relation loaddeformation:

(4)

Q = K 3/ 2
2

(N )

(10)

12th IFToMM World Congress, Besanon (France), June18-21, 2007

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Where K is the load-deflection factor for the ball contact with the inner raceway and for the ball contact with the outer raceway is:
* K race = 2.15 105 ( race ) 3 / 2

j = f ( xin , yin , j , j )
or most clearly as:

(18)

( )

1/ 2 race

N (11) 3/ 2 mm

2 2 (19) j = xin + yin 2 j ( xin cos j + yin sin j ) + 2 j

race=(in,out)
1

The generalized coordinates j (j=1, 2,, N b , where N b is rolling elements number) , x in and y in are able to define the mechanical state of the system. We

0.8

0.6

 constant and the arc between centres of two consider in consecutive rolling elements is also constant. From figure 2, the expression (20) is obtained where the angular position of centres rolling element is localized:

0.4

j = f ( xin , yin , j ,in ) j +k = j k


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

0.2

2 Nb

k = 1, 2,..., ( N b 1)

(20)

F( )
Fig. 4. The influence of curvature difference parameter on factor *.
* is obtained from In equation (11), the parameters race the figure 4, based on the curvature difference parameter F ( )race .

For the generalized coordinate j , where j = 1 , 2,, N b , the equations of motion are:

 j + m j g sin j + m j j  j2 + 2 j + 1 mj ( kin ) [ in ]LZ j j +

In case of the steel roller-steel raceway contact, based on Harris [8], the process is simplified, so the loaddeflection factor is:

1 2 k [ in ]LZ in 2 j

1 2 k + [ out ]LZ out + ( kout ) [ out ]LZ = 0 2 j j = 1, 2,..., N b


For the generalized coordinate xin the equation is

(21)

K L = 7.86 104 L8 / 9

N 10 / 9 mm
(N )

(12)

And the contact force (Q) is:

Q = K L 10 / 9

(13)

in ( kin ) [ in ]LZ ( min + mR ) x


j =1

Nb

j xin

=0

(22)

As previously was considered, to obtain motion equations, the expressions of kinetic and potential energy for all mechanical components are calculated as:

For the generalized coordinate y in the equation is

yin + ( min + mR ) g ( min + mR )  ( kin ) [ in ]LZ


j =1 Nb

 in , y  in , Tin = f x in

Tball

Tmotor

)  , ) = f ( ,  ,y  , ) = f (x
j j j in in in

Vin = f ( yin )

j yin

Vball = f ( j , j ) Vmotor = f ( yin ) Vcontact = f ( in , out )

=W

(23)

(14)

And the relative approaches raceways-rolling elements, in and out (based on figure 2), is expressed as:

in = f ( j )

(15) (16)

The result is a system of (N b +2) second-order, non-linear differential equations. Then the algebraic equations (21) is necessary to calculate the centres rolling element angular position. The LZ (Load Zone) in these equations indicates if compression in the contact point exists or not. Then the deformation at the contact points will be calculated in (24) and (25) as:

out = f ( j )
It allows to calculate Vcontact as:

If j LZ If j LZ

in = f ( j ) in = 0

(24)

Vcontact = f ( in , out ) = f ( xin , yin , j , j )

(17)

in which the deformation of spring at inner raceway j (figure 2) is obtained as: 3

If j LZ If j LZ

out = f ( j ) out = 0

(25)

12th IFToMM World Congress, Besanon (France), June18-21, 2007

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The results obtained from the generalized coordinates bearing system. The results obtained from the generalized coordinates ( 1 , 2 , , Nb ) determine the load at the contact points (rolling element-outer raceway and rolling element-inner raceway).

(xin , yin) determine the vibrations of the motor-rolling

Mass of the inner ring and shaft: 0.078 Kg. Load in the centre of the inner ring: 2000 N. By processing simulation model the temporal evolution of the parameters which define the analytical model generalized coordinates is obtained. We mean: (xin , yin) Position of the inner ring centre, in X and Y (figure 6). j (j = 1 , 2,, N b ) Radial position of the roller centre.

III. 3D simulation model In order to test the analytical formulation presented, a simulation model of rolling bearing, using Algor code, has been developed. The software Algor uses the event simulation technique that combines finite element method FEM in time domain with dynamic events [1, 12]. The analysis and simulations of its kinematics, dynamic and structural behaviours, in different service conditions, are considered. Finally, the study will be applied in a rolling bearing model that contains all mechanical parameters: materials, friction factors, loads, contact elements, geometrical restrictions, etc. (see figure 5).
0.06

X(inner ring) (mm)

0.04 0.02 0 -0.02 -0.04 -0.06 -0.08 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

Time (s)
-0.08

Y(inner ring) (mm)

-0.1 -0.12 -0.14 -0.16 -0.18 -0.2 -0.22 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

Time (s)

Fig. 6. Inner ring centre position, in X and Y.

Data obtained from simulation model are processed and included in the analytical model developed. The distance between centres of two consecutive rollers is not considered as constant and the angular position of the rolling elements j (j = 1 , 2,, N b ) are included. In order to obtain partial derivatives of the generalized coordinates, the temporal sequences are derived (see figure 7).
23.08

(mm)

23.06 23.04 23.02 23 22.98 0 0.01

Load Zone
0.02 0.03 0.04

Load Zone
0.05 0.06

Time (s)

d() (mm/s)

Fig. 5. Rolling bearing Algor model in initial position.

400 200 0 -200 -400

The geometric model is designed with these characteristics: Number of bearing rollers: 13. Roller diameter: 10 mm. Roller length: 10 mm. Inner raceway diameter: 36 mm. Outer raceway diameter: 56 mm. Pitch diameter: 46 mm. Angular velocity of the inner ring: 4500 rpm. Mass of the roller: 0.006 kg. 4

0
6

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

Time (s)
x 10

dd() (mm/s 2)

-5 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

Time (s)

Fig. 7. Position, velocity and acceleration of the roller centre.

12th IFToMM World Congress, Besanon (France), June18-21, 2007

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To obtain the deformation at the contact point of roller-inner raceway and roller-outer raceway ( in and out), is calculated as:

3000

2000

1000

in = rin + rroller j out = rout rroller + j

(26) (27)

Fx (N)

-1000

-2000

where rin is the inner raceway radius, rout is the outer raceway radius and rroller is the roller radius.

-3000

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

Time (s)

Fig. 8. Error signal of first term eq. 22.

IV. Results and discussion Time domain vibration signals of good roller bearings obtained from Algor code have been considered to analyze and check the Lagrangian model of inner ring motion. Figure 6 describes the vibration components X e Y of inner ring. The corresponding equations of the inner ring motion are calculated based on the numerical simulation results obtained from Algor code. The time to reach steady state vibrations needs at least 300 hours of CPU simulation time which means more of two cycles of spindle. The model presented analyzes the different weight of energetic levels of rolling element and inner raceway kinetics and potential terms related with generalized coordinates. The Lagrangian model considers the Hertz contact theory without damping to obtain rolling element deformation on raceways. In figure 7, it presents radial position, velocity and acceleration of roller centre to outer ring centre related with level of contact deformation (inner or outer raceway roller). The magnitude of deformation at inner and outer contact can be seen. The elastic contact lets obtain the level of load at roller, we can see the load zone (LZ) variation vs. time, we detect over 6-7 rolling elements on load zone every time. Applying the kynematic data from Algor code to equations 22 and 23, a modulated error signal around 0 N, coordinate X, and another modulated error signal around 2000 N, level of initial load, coordinate Y. The damping and natural frequencies generate transient vibrations that must be considered in more complete models in order to study the error signal behaviour (balance equation 22 and 23). In figure 8 and 9, the unbalanced in equations 22 and 23 is presented. We obtain a unbalanced dynamic actuation forces involving inner ring rotational coordinates X, Y around 22 Hz. (figures 10 and 11), but the tendency is correct. The effect of the bearing cage has also not been considered, experimental evidence suggests that the cage contacts do not play a large role in the roller bearing, but the residual perturbations obtained with the simulated data makes necessary a new and more completed model to study the influence of geometry and material cage. 5

3000

2000

1000

W (N)

-1000

-2000

-3000

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

Time (s)

Fig. 9. Error signal of first term eq. 23.


3 x 10
10

Power Spectral Density

2.5

1.5

0.5

50

100

150

200

250

300

Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 10. Power spectrum of error signal of first term eq. 22.
2 x 10
7

Power Spectral Density

1.5

0.5

50

100

150

200

250

300

Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 11. Power spectrum of error signal of first term eq. 23.

V. Conclusions A model of the motion of roller bearing (roller bearings and inner ring) has been developed using Lagrange equations. Using the Lagrangian model we can calculate the radial position of the rolling elements and the central point of the inner ring, but a system of fifteen equations with nonlinear and partial differentials is needed to solve. Time domain vibration signals of good roller bearings obtained from Algor code have been considered to

12th IFToMM World Congress, Besanon (France), June18-21, 2007

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analyze and check the Lagrangian model of inner ring motion. Experimental data obtained using a simulation model agrees reasonably well with predictions. The application of the analytical model to obtain the centre coordinates of the spindle using the data signal from the Algor code satisfied the equations, but a unbalanced error force is detected at 22 Hz possible related with natural frequencies and damping phenomena at contact rolling element-inner raceway. The consideration of damping in the simulation study makes necessary a more detailed analysis in future models and studies. The model is general and available to other roller bearings types, as long as the corresponding FE model can be accurately constructed. The effect of damping has not been studied. When analyze the orbit of the spindle we observed a erratic evolution, we must increased the Lagrangian model to analyze the impact effect over natural or damping frequencies. Using the analytic model is possible study the influence of bearing faults at the inner or outer raceway and obtains the vibration effects at the spindle studying analytic model vs. FEM model, and the relative sliding between the bearing surfaces. The authors would thank the funds provided by the Spanish Government through the Project MCYT DPI2003-084790-C02-01.

[10] S. P. Harsha. Non-Linear dynamic response of a balanced rotor supported on rolling element bearings. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing. 19, 551-578, 2005. [11] R. Mitrovi. Anlisis of the influence of internal radial clearance on the static load rating of the rolling bearing. Facta Universitatis. Series: Mechanical Engineering. Vol. 1, No 8, pp.1039-1047, 2001. [12] C. C. Spyrakos and J. Raftoyiannis. Linear and Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis in Engineering Practice. ISBN: 09652806-2-4 Algor, Inc. Pittsburgh, 1997. [13] M. Tiwari, K. Gupta and O. Prakash.. Effect of radial internal clearance of a ball bearing on the dynamics of a balanced horizontal rotor. Journal of Sound and Vibration. 238(5), 723-756, 2000. [14] M. Tiwari, K. Gupta and O. Prakash.. Dynamic response of an unbalanced rotor supported on ball bearings. Journal of Sound and Vibration. 238(5), 757-779, 2000. [15] B. Vangrimde and R. Boukhili. Analysis of the bearing response test for polymer matrix composite laminates: bearing stiffness measurement and simulation. Composite Structures, 56, 359374 (2002).

References
[1] ALGOR. DocuTech. ALGOR guide. 1999. [2] S. Braun; D. J. Ewins and S. S. Rao. Encyclopedia of Vibration. Academic Press, 2001. [3] Braun S, Datner, B. Analysis of roller/ball bearing

vibrations. ASME paper 77-WA/DE-5 1977;18.


[4] Y. Cao, Y. Altintas. A general method for the modeling of spindle-bearing systems. Journal of Mechanical Design, 126, 1089-1104, 2004. [5] N. S. Feng, E. J. Hahn, and R. B. Randall. Simulation of vibration signals from a rolling element bearing defect. DSTO International Conference on Health and Usage Monitoring, Melbourne, Australia, 2001. [6] J. C. Garca-Prada, H. Rubio, et alt. Simulacin de defectos en elementos rodantes: aplicacin a rodamientos. Anales de Ingeniera Mecnica, XV CNIM, 1478-1583, 2003. [7] J. C. Garca-Prada, H. Rubio, C. Castejn. Analytical model of rolling bearing studying ball-race contact for predictive maintenance. Multibody Dynamics 2005, ECCOMAS Thematic Conference. Madrid, Spain, 2124 June 2005. [8] T. A. Harris. Rolling bearing analysis. John Willey & Sons, Inc. Fourth Edition, 2001. [9] S. P. Harsha, P. K. Kankar. Stability analysis of a rotor bearing system due to surface waviness and number of balls. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 46, 1057-1081, 2004.