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Atelier de Limba Englez

Verbs in English
1) Simple present tense (prezentul simplu) VERB + s/es (pers a 3a singular)

Cand se folosete i exemple


1. pentru a exprima adevaruri general valabile (nu poti sa le schimbi in viitor) The sun rises in the East. 2. pentru a exprima actiuni care se repeta in mod regulat (sau nu se repeta deloc si devin general valabile) --- I never drink beer./ I drink a beer every day. 3. in vorbirea directa pentru a marca ce a spus cineva He talks about his salary. 4. pentru a exprima actiuni planificate in viitor The school starts in september. 5. in modul conditional He tells me about his future when he takes a break. 2) Present tense continuous (prezentul simplu continuu) AM/IS/ARE + PRESENT PARTICIPLE

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. pentru o actiune ce are loc in prezent si e in progres (are loc chiar acum) We are learning English now. 2. pentru o actiune ce are loc in prezent si e in progres (dar care se va termina in viitorul mai departat) We are learning English. 3. pentru a exprima planuri in viitorul apropiat (are nuanta subiectiva; Prezentul Simplu in acest caz nu are nuanta subiectiva) When are you going to learn English? 4. pentru o actiune care se repeta regulat, frecvent He is constantly learning English. 3) The present perfect tense (prezentul perfect) Has/have + PAST PARTICIPLE februarie 2013- lecia 11

Atelier de Limba Englez

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. pentru o actiune trecuta cand nu se precizeaza timpul exact (dar se stie ca e in trecut) I have read that book three times. 2. actiunea din trecut are repercursiuni in present A terrible accident has happened. 3. actiunea e terminata in trecutul apropiat It has just rained. 4. cand actiunea e inceputa in trecut, continua in prezent si se folosesc FOR sau SINCE I have been at the library since four a clock. 5. in propozitiile care se folosesc adverbele YET (=INCA) si ALREADY (=DEJA) 4) Present Perfect Continuous Tense (Prezentul perfect continuu)

has/have + been + present participle

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. cand actiunea e inceputa in trecut, continua (FARA INTRERUPERE) in prezent si se folosesc FOR sau SINCE I have been working for two hours. 2. actiunea tocmai s-a terminat (si dorim sa subliniem asta) 5) Simple Past Tense (trecutul simplu) VERB + ed / verbe neregulate

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. actiunea e in trecut; timpul e definit cu exactitate (last week, last month, last year, that day, that week, that year, in 1990, on Thursday, 10 years ago) 2. pentru o actiune care era o obistuinta in trecut (acum nu mai e) We went to the country every year. 3. in fraze ce implica utilizarea lui "Future-in-the-Past" (cand actiunile viitoare fata de actiunea trecuta sunt simultane) - He promised me that we would go to Italy when he had time.

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Atelier de Limba Englez 6) Past Tense Continuous (Trecutul simplu continuu) WAS/WERE + PRESENT PARTICIPLE

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. pentru a exprima o actiune in progres la un anumit moment din trecut 2. pentru a arata ca o actiune trecuta a fost intrerupta de o alta I was calling her when she arrived. 3. folosind "Past Continuous Tense" pentru actiuni trecute sublinieaza ideea de paralelism, simultaneitate (se cunoaste timpul) - Last evening at 5 Pm, I was
studying while he was making dinner.

7)Past Perfect Tense (trecutul perfect) HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. exprima o actiune anterioara altei actiuni din trecut sau anterioara unui moment din trecut The man said he had seen an alien on the street 2. pot exprima o dorinta nerealizata I wish i had not miss the bus. 3. exprima o actiune anterioara unei actiuni a carui timp e "Future-in-thePast" - Tom said that he would go to England after he had learned English a little bit.

8) Past Perfect Continuous Tense ( Trecutul perfect continuu) HAD BEEN + PAST PARTICIPLE

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. exprima o actiune continua inainte unei actiuni situate in trecut They had been discusing about moving before I was here. 9) Simple Future Tense (Viitorul simplu) WILL + VERB februarie 2013- lecia 13

Atelier de Limba Englez

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


Viitorul simplu se foloseste in propozitiile simple si in cele subordonate care incep cu verbe ce exprima promisiunea, actiuni neplanificate, predictii. In aceste cazuri, de regula, in propozitia principala avem verbe precum: think, assume, expect, hope, doubt, belive, suppose, be sorry, wonder, be sure pentru a exprima opinii/ optiuni personale despre o actiune viitoare. 10) Future Continuous Tense (viitorul continuu) WILL BE + PRESENT PARTICIPLE sau

am/is/are + going to be + present participle (pentru "to be going to")

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. la un anumit timp in viitor actiunea e in desfasurare (incepuse inainte de acel moment/ timp) 11) Future Perfect Tense WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. Se foloseste pentru actiuni viitoare care se termina inaintea altei actiuni/ altui eveniment viitor He will have worked for this company for 20 years when he
retires.

2. !!!! Construcii cu By next month/week/year 12) Future Perfect Continuous (viitorul perfect continuu)
WILL HAVE BEEN + PAST PARTICIPLE

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1. Se foloseste pentru actiuni viitoare care incep si NU se termina inaintea altei actiuni/ altui eveniment viitor - He will have worked for this company for 20
years when she retires.

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Atelier de Limba Englez

13) Future-in-the-past (Viitorul in trecut) WOULD + VERB sau WAS/WERE GOING TO + VERB pentru aciuni planificate

Cand se foloseste & Exemple


1) exprima o actiune viitoare unei actiuni trecute He promised me he would go to England when he had time.

!!!! Propozitiile (de timp) care incep cu before, when, while, after, as soon as, by the time, if, unless nu au verbul la viitor. Sequence of Tenses
I. PAST TENSE in the main clause (or any other past tenses) Changes from direct to indirect speech: 1. PRESENT -----------------> 2. PRESENT PERFECT, PAST TENSE ----------------> 3. FUTURE -------------------> II. Temporal Clause replace Future by februarie 2013- lecia 11. PRESENT 5 1. PAST TENSE 2. PAST PERFECT 3. FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST in the subordinate 1. PAST TENSE 2. PAST PERFECT 3. FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST

Atelier de Limba Englez 2. PRESENT PERFECT (dup ce...) III. Conditional Clause replace Future by replace Conditional Present by replace Conditional Past by (Subjunctive) PRESENT (Subjunctive) PAST TENSE (Subjunctive) PAST PERFECT

I. Past Tense in the main clause He said he knew, he was reading he had finished, he had been reading for hours he would come back soon II. Temporal Clauses 1. when I am free. 2. after I have finished. when he was free. after he had finished. Direct object clause when you will come. when you would come. till I ask you. (pn nu te rog) III. Conditional Clauses if I buy the house. if he had time. if he knew. if he had known. if you had brought me the book yesterday. if you did not always beat him februarie 2013- lecia 16

I shall come He said he would come He asks He asked When will you come? (adverb) Do not come

I shall come He said he would come He would come He would have come I should be reading now He would not have run away

Atelier de Limba Englez Use only past tenses (see the Subjunctive) what you wanted. (ce vrei) what you had done. (ce ai fcut) what you would do. (ce vei face) what you wanted. where you had been. who would help him. Direct object clause if/whether you would have come.

He would understand

if you told him

He would have come

if he had known.

He asks/asked I should have come (Veneam if I had known. dac tiam.)

Traducerea frazelor cu SEQUENCE OF TENSES n romnete Principal cu Past Tense/Past Perfect Completiv direct Temporal Traducere (n romn nu exist Sequence of Tenses) c o va face c a neles c se plimb de o or c va reveni when he found it . after he had published his poems. Orice subordonat c va cumpra cartea cnd o va gsi c va scrie romanul dup ce-i va publica poemele.

He said/had said

he would do it. he had understood. he had been walking for an hour. he would come back. he would buy the book he would write the novel

Principal

He would stay with you

Condiional cu Past Tense/Past Perfect (Subjunctive) if you told him

a witch was following you. you had lost your

dac i-ai spune c te urmrete o vrjitoare dac i-ai spune c i7

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Atelier de Limba Englez key and could not go in. you would tell everyone the truth. if he had been told who you were. what you had decided. when you would go to the Congo. Cteva fraze complexe: 1. If you told him when you came back from Venice that you did not want him to phone you, he would stop calling you up every five minutes. [Dac i-ai spune cnd te ntorci de la Veneia c nu mai vrei s te sune, nu te-ar mai chema la telefon din cinci n cinci minute.] 2. He stated he would come back home when I had finished painting it and if I told him whom I had been working with and when I would do it again, if this ever happened. [A declarat c se va ntoarce acas dup ce voi termina s-o zugrvesc i dac-i voi spune cu cine am lucrat i cnd o s-o fac din nou, dac aceasta se va ntmpla vreodat.] ai pierdut cheia i nu poi intra dac i-ai spune c vei spune tuturor adevrul dac i s-ar fi spus cine eti dac i s-ar fi spus ce ai hotrt dac i s-ar fi spus cnd o s te duci n Congo

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