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INTRODUCTION TO LAW Traducere 1.

Dreptul reprezint totalitatea regulilor, normelor de conduit stabilite sau sancionate de stat i care sunt puse n aplicare prin fora de constrngere a statului. The law represents the body of rules, conduct norms established or sanctioned by the state, which are enforced by the coercive power of the state. 2.Sistemul dreptului se mparte pe ramuri: drept penal, drept civil, drept constituional, drept administrativ, dreptul muncii, etc. The law system is divided into branches: criminal law, civil law, constitutional law, administrative law, employment (labour) law. 3.Dreptul civil este acea ramur a dreptului romnesc care reglementeaz att raporturi patrimoniale n care prile apar ca subiecte egale n drepturi, ct i raporturi nepatrimoniale ce privesc individualitatea persoanei. De asemenea, ea stabile te condiia juridic a persoanei fizice i a altor subiecte ce iau parte la raporturile juridice civile. Dreptul civil i are rdcinile n Codul civil din 1864. The civil law is that branch of the romanian law which regulates both economical relations, where the parties appear as subjects equal in rights, and noneconomical relations concerning the person as an individual. It also sets the legal condition of the natural person and other subjects taking part in civil legal relations. Civil law is rooted in the 1863 Civil Code. 4.Dreptul penal este o ramur a sistemului de drept ce apare ca subsistemul normelor juridice care reglementeaz relaiile de aprare social prin interzicerea, ca infraciuni, sub sanciuni specifice, a aciunilor sau inaciunilor ce pericliteaz valorile sociale, n scopul aprrii acestor valori, fie prin prevenirea infraciunilor, fie prin aplicarea pedepselor persoanelor care le svresc. Criminal law is a branch of the law system which appears as the subsystem of legal norms that regulates the social protection relations by prohibiting, as crimes, under specific penalties, the actions or inactions which jeopardize the social valors, for the purpose of protecting these valors, either by preventing crimes, or by inflicting punishments on persons who commit them. 5.Dreptul este o tiin, dar i o art. Law is a science, but also an art. 6.Nu cunosc circumstanele de drept i de fapt ale cauzei. I dont know the legal and factual circumstances of the case. 7.Multe tribunale administrative nu au reguli privind dreptul de a pleda. Many administrative courts dont have rules regarding the right to audience. 8.Statele trebuie s asigure protecia mpotriva nclcrii drepturilor omului. The states must ensure protection against the infringement of human rights. 9.Nu este suficient ca o lege s fie bun, ea trebuie aplicat corect. It is not sufficient that a law should be good, it must be inforced correctly. 10.Dreptul se mparte pe ramuri: drept civil, drept penal, drept constituional, dreptul familiei. The law is divided into branches: civil law, criminal law, constitutional law, family law. 11.Guvernul a introdus noi legi privind protecia mediului.

The government has introduced new laws on the environmental protection. 12.Studiul tiinific al dreptului se numete jurispruden. The scientific study of law is called jurisprudence. 13.Familia i coala trebuie s formeze ceteni care s respecte legea. Family and school must educate law-abiding citizens. 14.Faptele sale au avut drept consecin pierderea drepturilor civile. He was disfranchised as a result of his actions. (His acts resulted in the loss of his civil rights.) THE COMMON LAW Definiii The most important meaning of the term common law refers to that part of English law based on rules developed by the royal courts during the first three centuries after the Norman Conquest (1066) as a system applicable to the whole country, as opposed to local customs. The definition of equity implies the following aspect: a.the application of the dictated of conscience or the principles of natural justice to the settlement of disputes; b.a system of jurisprudence or a body of doctrines and rules developed in England and followed in the United States, serving to supplement and remedy the limitations and the inflexibility of the common law. Statute law denotes the written law established by enactments expressing the will of the legislature, as distinguished from the unwritten law or common law. Traducere 1.Noiunea de izvor de drept are 2 sensuri: -izvor material, prin care se neleg condiiile materiale, naturale, de existen a societii care dau coninutul, esena dreptului; i -izvor formal, adic formele specifice de exprimare a normelor juridice prin care se determin voina care a stat la baza adoptrii lor. The notion of source of law has two meanings: -material source, namely the material, natural, existence conditions of the society giving the content, essence of law; and -formal source, namely the specific forms of expressing the legal norms determining the will on the basis of which they have been adopted. 2.Din punct de vedere istoric, dreptul anglo-saxon a luat fiin prin extinderea competenei instanelor regale n toate regiunile din Anglia i ara Galilor, crendu-se astfel un sistem de drept comun ntregii Anglii, spre deosebire de cutumele i legile locale, diferite de la o regiune la alta. Termenul definete, de asemenea, totalitatea regulilor de drept complementare noiunilor de echitate i acte legislative. From historically point of view, the Anglo-Saxon law came into being through expanding the royal courts in all the regions of England and Gale Country (Walles), thus creating a law system common to the whole England, unlike local customs and laws which deffered from one region to another. The term also defines the body of legal rules cimplementary to the notions of equity and statute law.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW Traducere 1.Dreptul constituional se refer la normele juridice care reglementeaz relaiile sociale dintre individ i stat, relaii ce apar n procesul instaurrii, meninerii i exercitrii statale a puterii. Constitutional law refers to legal norms which regulates social relations between the individual person and the state, relations arising in the process of establishing, maintaining and exercising the power of the state. 2.Art.1: Statul romn (1) Romnia este un stat naional, suveran i independent, unitar i indivizibil. (2) Forma de guvernmnt a statului romn este republica. (3) Romnia este stat de drept, democratic i social, n care demnitatea omului, drepturile i libertile cetenilor, libera dezvoltare a personalitii umane, dreptatea i pluralismul politic reprezint valori supreme, n spiritul tradiiilor democratice ale poporului romn i idealurilor Revoluiei din decembrie 1989, i sunt garantate. (4) Statul se organizeaz potrivit principiului separaiei i echilibrului puterilor legislativ, executiv i judectoreasc n cadrul democraiei constituionale. (5) n Romnia, respectarea Constituiei, a supremaiei sale i a legilor este obligatorie. Art. 1: Romanian state (1) Romania is a sovereign, independent and unitary National State. (2) The form of government of the romanian state is the republic. (3) Romania is a democratic and social state governed by law in which the humans dignity, the right and freedom rights, the free development of human personality, justice and politic pluralism represent supreme valors, following the democratic traditions of the Romanian state and the ideals of the Revolution from December 1989, and they shall be guaranteed. (4) The state shall be organised in accordance with the principle of separation and balance of powers legislative, executive and judicial within constitution democracy. (5) In Romania, the observance of the Constitution, of its supremacy and laws shall be mandatory (binding). 3.Curtea Constituional are urmtoarele atribuii: -se pronun asupra constituionalitii legilor, nainte de promulgarea acestora, la sesizarea preedintelui Romniei, a unuia dintre preedinii celor 2 camere, a guvernului, a CCJ, a avocatului poporului, a unui numr de cel puin 50 de deputai sau de cel pu in 25 de senatori, precum i din oficiu asupra iniiativelor de revizuire a Constituiei. The Constitutional Court shall have the following powers: -it adjudicates on the constitutionality of laws, before their promulgation, upon notification by the president of Romania, by either of the presidents of the two chambers, by the government, by the High Court of Cassation and Justice, by the advocate of the people, by a number of at least 50 deputies or at least 25 senators, as well as ex officio on initiatives to revise Constitution. 4.Curtea Constituional se pronun asupra constituionalitii regulamentelor parlamentului, la sesizarea unuia dintre preedinii celor 2 camere, a unui grup parlamentar sau a unui numr de cel puin 50 de deputai sau de cel puin 25 de senatori. Hotrte asupra excepiilor de neconstituionalitate privind legile i ordonanele ridicate n faa instanelor judectoreti sau de arbitraj

comercial; excepia de neconstituionalitate poate fi ridicat i direct de avocatul poporului. The Constitutional Court shall adjudicate on the constitutionality of the Standing Orders of Parliament, upon notification by either of the presidents of the two chambers, by a parliamentary group or a number of at least 50 deputies or at least 25 senators. It shall decide upon the objections as to the unconstitutionality regarding the laws and ordinances raised before courts of law or comercial arbitration; objections as to the unconstitutionality may also be brought up directly by the Advocate of the People. 5.Legile organice i hotrrile privind regulamentele camerelor se adopt cu votul majoritii membrilor fiecrei camere. La cererea guvernului sau din proprie iniiativ Parlamentul poate adopta proiecte de legi sau propuneri legislative cu procedur de urgen stabilit potrivit regulamentului fiecrei camere. Legea se trimite spre promulgare preedintelui Romniei. Promulgarea legii se face n termen de cel mult 25 de zile de la primire. Organic laws and regulations regarding the Standing Orders of Chambers are passed by the majority vote of members of each chamber. At the request of the government or on his own initiative, the Parliament may pass bills or legislative proposals under the emergency procedure established in accordance to the standing orders of each chamber. The law shall be sent to promulgation to the president of Romania. The laws promulgation is done within 25 days after the law has been received. ntrebri 1.What is a constitution? A constitution refers to the rules and practices that determine the composition and functions of the organs of central and local governments in a state and regulate the relationship between the individual and the state. 2.Define constitutional law. Constitutional law stands for the body of law deriving from the constitution and dealing primarily with governmental powers, civil rights and civil liberties. Constitutional law also represents the body of legal rules that determine the constitution of a state with a flexible constitution. 3.Is the British Constitution flexible or rigid? The British Constitution is considered a flexible constitution. 4.What does the British Constitution consist of? The British Constitution consists of: statutes/Acts of Parliament, common law rules and constitutional conventions. 5.Which is the legislative power in the UK? In the UK the legislative power belongs to Parliament. 6.General elections VS by-election. General elections are held every five years, but it is possible to hold elections sooner if the Prime Minister wants it. A general election for the House Of Commons involves all UK constituencies and takes place when the monarch dissolves Parliament and summons a new one. A by-election is caused by the resignation or death of an MP during his life of a Parliament. 7.Does the US have a written Constitution? Yes, US has a written Constitution. 8.What does the US Constitution set out? The US Constitution sets out to protect the nation and to ensure justice, peace and liberty for all. 9.How many parts is the US (american) Constitution divided into?

The US Constitution is divided into three parts: the Preamble, the Document and the twenty-six Amendments. 10.Is it of a rigid or flexible type? (US Constitution) The US Constitution appears as a rigid one. 11.What is the name of the first 10 amendments together? The First 10 Amendments together are called the Bill of Rights. 12.Why does the US Constitution share power among groups? The US Constitution shares power among groups in such a way that each has a certain authority over the others. 13.What does Congress represent? The Congress represents the legislative power and consists of two houses, the Senate (to which each state elects two senators for a period of six years) and the House of Representatives (in which the number of representatives from each state depends on its population). 14.What institutions represent the judicial power? The judicial power is represented by the courts. 15.In what capacity does the President represent the country? The President represents the country as Head of State, but also has real political power. BRITISH PARLIAMENT ntrebri 1.What does the British Parliament consist of? The British Parliament consists of the sovereign, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. 2.Which is the role of the two chambers? The business of the Parliament takes place in two Houses: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Their work is similar: making laws (legislation), checking the work of the government (scrutiny) and debating current issues. The House of Commons is also responsible for granting money to the government through approving Bills and raise taxes. Generally, the decisions made in one House have to be approved by the other. In this way the twochamber system acts as a check and balance for the both Houses. 3.Who can stand as a candidate in a UK Parliamentary general Election? To stand as a candidate in a UK parliamentary General Election one needs to be at least 18 years old and: -a British citizen; -a citizen of the Republic of Ireland; -a citizen of a commonwealth country who does not require leave to enter or remain in the UK, or has indefinite leave to remain in the UK. 4.Who are the members of the House of Commons Commission? The House of Commons Commission is chaired by the Speaker of the House of Commons, a sitting MP elected to the position of Speaker through a ballot of all MPs. The other members are the Leader of the House, the Shadow Leader of the House (or another MP appointed by the Opposition) and three backbench MPs from the three largest parties. 5.Of how many types are the members of the House of Lords? The members of the House of Lords belong to three categories: life Peers, bishops and elected hereditary Peers.

ELECTIONS AND VOTING Traducere Cetenii au drept de vot de la vrsta de 18 ani mplinii pn n ziua alegerilor inclusiv. Au dreptul de a fi alei cetenii cu drept de vot care ndeplinesc condiiile prevzute n art. 16 dac nu le este interzis asocierea n partide politice potrivit art. 40. Citizens having turned 18 up to on election day shall have the right to vote (shall be entitled to vote). The eligibility (the right to vote) is granted to all citizens having the right to vote which meet the requirements provided under art. 16 unless they are forbidden to join a political party in accordance with art. 40. ntrebri 1.When is a general election held? Exceptions. General elections are held on the first Thursday in May every five years. There are two provisions that trigger an election other than at five year intervals: -a motion of no confidence is passed in Her Majestys Government by a simple majority and 14 days elapses without the House passing a confidence motion in any new Government formed; -a motion for a general election is agreed by two thirds of the total number of seats in the Commons including vacant seats. 2.Where and how can voting take place? Most voting takes place in polling stations, but anyone eligible to vote can apply for a postal vote. British citizens living abroad are also entitled to a postal vote as long as they have been living abroad for less than 15 years. An additional way to vote is by proxy, which can be useful if you are unable to get to a polling station. A proxy vote means that you appoint someone you trust to vote on your behalf. This can be helpful if you fall ill or if you are abroad on Election Day. Anyone over 18 years can apply for a proxy vote if you are on the electoral register but you will need to provide a reason. 3.What do by-elections refer to? A by-election takes place when a seat in the House of Commons becomes vacant between general elections. A by-election does not automatically take place if an MP changes political party. BILLS ntrebri 1.What is a Bill? A Bill is a proposal for a new law, or a proposal to change an existing law that is presented for debate before Parliament. 2.What is a draft Bill? Drafts Bills are Bills issued for consultation before being formally introduced to Parliament. 3.Who can introduce Bills? Bills can be introduced by: -The government -Individual MPs or Lords -Private individuals or organizations. 4.How many types of Bills do you know? There are three different types of Bill: Public, Private and Hybrid Bills. There is also another kind of Public Bill called Private Members Bills. 5.Which are the stages that a Bill has to go through before it becomes law? (Bill starting in the House of Commons)

A Bill starting in the House of Commons has to go through the following stages before it becomes law: A.House of Commons a.First reading b.Second reading c.Committe stage d.Report stage e.Third reading B.House of Lords a.First reading b.Second reading c.Committe stage d.Report stage e.Third reading C.Consideration of amendments D.Royal Assent 6.Bill starting in the House of Lords. A Bill starting in the House of Lords has to go through the following stages before it becomes law: A.House of Lords a.First reading b.Second reading c.Committe stage d.Report stage e.Third reading B.House of Commons a.First reading b.Second reading c.Committe stage d.Report stage e.Third reading C.Consideration of amendments D.Royal Assent 7.How do changes to Acts operate? Future changes to the law happen through the passing of another Act or delegated legislation. An Act can be also be repealed so that its provisions no longer apply. Parliamentary committees examine UK laws and recommend the removal of out of date legislation. CRIMES Crimes against the person Clasificare In the American legal system, crimes are divided into: -felonies -misdemeanors; -treason. In the British legal system, offences are commonly classified into: -indictable offences; -summary offences; -offences which are triable either way. ntrebri 1.Define a crime. A crime is defined as an act (or sometimes a failure to act) that is deemed by statute or by the common law to be a public wrong and is therefore punishable by the state in criminal proceedings. The modern tendency is to refer to crimes as offences. 2.What is the difference between crime and offence?

There is no difference. Crime is a term used in the American legal system and offence is used in the British legal system. The modern tendency is to refer to crimes as offences. 3.What was meant by a felony? What categories of offences exist now and to what extent do they overlap? A felony is an offence punishable by imprisonment for more than one year or by death or imprisonment generally. Felonies are usually more serious crimes. Now the main offences against the person are: fatal offences and non-fatal offences. Fatal offences overlap with felonies and indictable offence. Non-fatal offences overlap with misdemeanors and summary offences. 4.What is meant by actus reus? Can a person be guilty of an offence by omitting to act? In most cases, the actus reus will simply be act accompanied by specified circumstances, or it may just consist in an omission to act. A person can be guilty of an offence by omitting to act. 5.What is mens rea? Mens rea is a guilty mind. 6.Define and distinguish between murder and manslaughter. What is meant by malice aforethought in the former? Murder is the unlawful killing of a person. Manslaughter is the unlawful killing of a person, but without malice aforethought. The mens rea for murder is traditionally known as malice aforethought. It means that the defendant intended to cause the death of the victim or to do serious bodily harm to the victim. 7.What is the difference between voluntary and involuntary manslaughter? Voluntary manslaughter arises when the defendant had the intent to kill, but mitigating circumstances, such as provocation or diminished responsibility, reduce the offence to manslaughter. Involuntary manslaughter is the killing of a person without mens rea. Death results from an accident or from an unlawful act of omission. 8.Distinguish between assault and battery. Give examples of aggravated assault. Assault is an intentional or reckless apprehended as an act of violence, whereas battery is the actual application of force to a person. Aggravated assault include assault with intent to resist lawful arrest and assault with intent to rob. 9.What offences involving sexual intercourse can you define? Offences involving sexual intercourse are: rape, buggery. Rape is the crime of having sexual intercourse with someone without his or her consent and against his or her will. It is also rape: -to have intercourse with a girl under 16; -to have intercourse with mental defectives. Buggery is defined as sexual intercourse in an unnatural matter or with an animal. 10.Which are the defences available in the case of bigamy? Bigamy in the act of marrying someone when already married to someone else. There is a defence if the accused honestly and reasonably believed that his/her first spouse was dead (or presumed to be dead because the defendants spouse had been continuously absent for seven years or more) or that their previous marriage was void or had been dissolved.

Crimes against property ntrebri 1.What is arson? Arson is the intentional and malicious burning of another persons property. It is sometimes expanded by statute to include acts similar to burning such as exploding. 2.Give examples of criminal mischief. Criminal/malicious mischief, also known as vandalism, is the willful damaging of the property of another. It may include throwing rocks through windows, slashing car tires, ripping down fences, breaking off car aerials. 3.Is there any difference between larceny and theft? Before 1969, in the British legal system, the offence of theft was called larceny with the distinction that larceny was more limited than theft and it required the carrying away of the property. 4.How many types of larceny do you know? According to the value of property taken or the method used, larceny is sometimes classified into grand larceny, which is a felony, and petit (petty) larceny, which is a misdemeanor. 5.What is embezzlement? Embezzlement is the fraudulent taking of property by someone to whom it was entrusted. It is often associated with bank employees, public officials, who during their lawful activities may happen to take for their own use property, such as money, which actually belongs to others. 6.Distinguish between robbery and burglary. Robbery is the unlawful taking of property from a persons immediate possession, by using force against that person or putting him/her in fear if being subjected to force. Burglary is the breaking and entering any structure, such as a building, with the intent to commit a crime (theft, inflicting grievous bodily harm, causing criminal damage). 7.Imagine the following situations: a)A well-executed pickpocketing; b)Some boys surrounded a young man threateningly, and the young man, in fear for his safety, offered money which was accepted. Can these come under the offence of robbery? The first case is not robbery, because robbery involves force. The second case is robbery, because the young man was scared by the boys. 8.What threats do extortion statutes generally cover? Extortion statutes generally cover the future physical harm, destroying property or damaging someones character. 9.What is forgery? Explain the phrase false instrument. Forgery is generally defined as the making of a false instrument with the intention that it shall be used to induce somebody to accept as genuine, thereby causing harm to others. A false instrument may be a false document or any device in which information is recorded or stored. 10.What other offences against property do you know? Keeping lost property and receiving stolen property are also crimes against property.

THE LEGAL PROFESSION Traducere 1.n Romnia avocatul este persoana cu studii juridice superioare a crui activitate const n principal n asistarea sau reprezentarea persoanei fizice i a persoanei juridice n raportul acestora cu autoritile publice, instituiile i orice persoan romn sau strin. In Romania a lawyer is the person with legal higher qualification whose activity mainly consists in assisting or representing natural persons and legal persons in their relations with public authorities, institutions, and with any romanian or foreign person. 2.Att la nivel naional, ct i internaional, n exercitarea dreptului la aprare, avocatul are dreptul i obligaia s asigure prin toate mijloacele legale liberul acces la justiie, un proces echitabil soluionat ntr-un termen rezonabil. At above national and international level, when exercising the right to defence, the lawyer has a right and duty to ensure through all legal means free access to justice, a fair trial within a reasonable time. 3.Intrarea n profesie presupune 2 etape: dobndirea calitii de avocat i nscrierea n barou n vederea exercitrii efective a profesiei. Admission to the legal profession inplies two stages: acquiring the status of lawyer and registering in the bar for the actual exercise of the profesion. 4.Contractul de asisten juridic ncheiat ntre avocat i clientul su reprezint acordul de voin expres exprimat i ncheiat ntre forma de exercitare a profesiei de avocat i client, prin care avocatul accept mandatul acordat de clientul su, n temeiul cruia se oblig s efectueze tot ceea ce este necesar i legal n vederea asigurrii drepturilor, libertilor i intereselor legitime ale persoanei fizice sau juridice contractante. The legal assistance contract concluded between the lawyer and his client represents the mutual agreement expressly set out and concluded between the form of exercising lawyers profession and the client, under which the lawyer agrees to represent the client, representation on the basis of which he undertakes all that is necesarily and legal in order to ensure the protection of the legitimate rights, freedoms and interests of the contracting natural or legal person. ntrebri 1.Are there any differences between a lawyer and an attorney-atlaw? An attorney-at-law is a lawyer qualified to represent clients in legal proceedings in the US, while the term lawyer is covering both solicitor and barrister. 2.Does a lawyer differ from a solicitor or a barrister? No, the term lawyer is covering both solicitor and barrister. 3.What is a counsel? A counsel is a barrister who is intructed by a solicitor to prepare a document known as instructions to counsel or a brief to counsel. 4.Which are the main branches of the legal profession in England and Wales? The main branches are solicitors and barristers. 5.What particular activities does a work of a barrister cover? A barrister is a specialist in advocacy that represents his client in court and also provides specialist legal advice. Also, the barristers increasingly specialise in particular areas of law such as commercial law, criminal law, chancery law (estates and trust).

6.Which are the training stages for a barrister? The training stages for a barrister are the academic stage, vocational stage and pupillage. The academic stage consists in a degree in law (three years fulltime), or in any other subject followed by the conversion course (Graduate Diploma in Law); the vocational stage consists in the Bar Professional Course, one year full-time or two years part-time; the pupilage is one year in an authorised pupillage training organisation (barristers chambers or another approved legal environment). 7.What is a QC? A QC is a Queens Counsel. When a member of the Inn is appointed a QC, he is called into the bar. 8.What are the Inns of Court? The Inns of Court have the sole right to call members to the Bar and also deal with the discipline of barristers, including the severe sanction of removing a barrister (Middle Temple, Inner Temple, Grays Inn, Lincolns Inn). 9.What particular activities does the work of a solicitor cover? The solicitors undertake the general aspects of giving legal advice and conducting legal proceedings, they have the rights of audience in the lower courts and, if they have acquired appropiate advocacy qualification, in the higher courts. They also prepare cases for barristers to present in superior courts. 10.Which are the training stages of a solicitor? The training stages for a solicitor are the academic stage, vocational stage and practice based training. The academic stage consists in a degree in law (three years full-time) or in any other subject followed by the Common Professional Examination/Graduate Diploma in Law; another route is through the Institute of Legal Executives. The vocational stage consists in the Legal Practice Course one year full-time. Practice based training (training contract) incorporates the Professional Skills Course two years full-time. THE COURT SYSTEM Traducere 1.O funcie important a justiiei o constituie posibilitatea controlului constituionalitii legilor. Magistratura este activitatea desfurat de judectori n scopul nfptuirii justiiei i de procurori n scopul aprrii intereselor generale ale societii, a ordinii de drept i a drepturilor i libertilor cetenilor. An important function of justice is the possibility of the judicial review of laws. Magistracy is the activity performed by judges with the purpose of doing justice and by prosecutors with the purpose of defending the general interests of the society, the order and the citizens rights and freedoms. 2.Judectorul este persoana cu studii juridice superioare care n condiii prevzute de lege este nvestit n funcie de ctre stat prin reprezentanii si constituionali i avnd drepturi i obligaii specific ce deriv direct din Constituie i din lege i care au dreptul i responsabilitatea aplicrii legii n cadrul sistemului instanelor judectoreti. A judge is a person with higher legal education who, as provided by law, is invested in office by state through its constitutional representatives, with specific rights and duties deriving from (arising out of) the Constitution and the law, with the right and responsibility to enforce the law within courts systems.

ntrebri 1.How can courts be classified? Courts can be classified at several levels: -civil courts and criminal courts; -original jurisdiction courts and appellate jurisdiction courts; -superior courts and inferior courts. 2.Which are the courts of original jurisdiction? The courts of original jurisdiction are: the magistrates courts, county courts, the Crown Court and High Court. 3.Magistrates Courts They primarily have a criminal jurisdiction, as well as limited civil jurisdiction. They are also responsible for the enforcement of fines and community punishments. 4.County Courts The county court deals with civil matters and its jurisdiction is set out in statute. 5.The Crown Court The Crown Court deals with more serious criminal cases (murder, rape, robbery), some of which are on appeal or referred from magistrates courts. As a court of appellate jurisdiction, the Crown Court hears appeals against decisions of magistrates courts. 6.The High Court The High Court deals with higher level civil disputes within three divisions (the Queens Bench Division, the Chancery Division, the Family Division) and deals with other jurisdictions including the Administrative Court. It has unlimited jurisdiction in civil matters, but it also has important appellate and reviewing jurisdiction in respect of criminal matters. 7.The Court of Appeal The Court of Appeal deals with civil appeals from the High Court and the county court, as well as appeals from certain tribunals (Employment Appeals Tribunal). Criminal appeals include appeals against convictions in the Crown Court, and points of law referred by the Attorney General following acquittal in the Crown Court or where the sentence imposed was unduly lenient. 8.The Supreme Court The Supreme Court assumes jurisdiction on points of law for all civil law cases in the UK and all criminal cases in England and Wales and Northern Ireland. Before the creation of the Supreme Court, the highest court of appeal was the House of Lords. As an appeal court, the Supreme Court cannot consider a case unless a relevant order has been made in a lower court.

INTRODUCTION TO LAW law right rules laws regulations to regulate regulatory framework norms conduct norms to establish (to set up) to sanction to enforce coercive power relations party natural person legal person to be rooted in crime (offence) to prohibit penalty (sanction) to jeopardize for the purpose of to inflict a punishment on to commit criminal (offender) to exercise to arise in force to come into force custom court grounds scholar prevalent infringement to infringe a right legal and factual environmental protection law-abiding citizen to disfranchise a drept, lege drept subiectiv reguli legi reglementri a reglementa cadru de reglementare norme norme de conduit a stabili a sanciona a pune n aplicare for de constrngere raporturi parte persoan fizic persoan juridic a-i avea rdcinile n infraciune a interzice sanciune a periclita n scopul (cu scopul) a aplica o pedeaps a svri infractor a exercita a aprea n vigoare a intra n vigoare obicei instan motive, temeiuri savant ntietate nclcare a nclca un drept de drept i de fapt protecia mediului cetean care respect legea pierde drepturi civile

THE COMMON LAW source of law izvor de drept to adopt (to pass) a norm a adopta o lege customs obiceiuri, cutume bodies organisme adjudication luarea unei decizii whereby prin care justices judectori assizes curte cu juri, magistra i forfeiture confiscare fine amend revenue venituri court of record curte cu sesiuni publice jurisdiction competen abolished desfiinat to come into being a lua fiin CONSTITUTIONAL LAW to alter a modifica to repeal a abroga as subsequently amended cu modificri ulterioare judicial review control al constituionalitii impeachment acuzaie adus unui nalt demnitar term of office mandat primary election alegeri generale by-election alegeri pariale voting booth cabin de vot polling station secie de votare constituency circumscripie electoral rule of law supremaia legii Bill of Rights Carta de drepturi, primele 10 amendamente din Constituia SUA bill proiect de lege to bring a bill a face o propunere de lege Upper House camera lorzilor Lower House camera comunelor assent consimmnt whip un membru al parlamentului care determin pe colegii de partid s se prezinte n parlament framers fondatori to hold a organiza resignation demisie powers atribuii to adjudicate on a se pronuna asupra upon notification by la sesizarea ex officio din oficiu advocate of the people avocatul poporului Standing Orders of Parliament regulamente ale parlamentului chamber camer a parlamentului objection excepie to raise (to bring up) an objection a ridica o excepie comercial arbitration arbitraj comercial arbitral award decizie a unui tribunal arbitral resolutions hotrri to pass a bill a adopta un proiect de lege emergency procedure procedur de urgen within 20 days n termen de cel mult 20 de zile

BRITISH PARLIAMENT chaired prezidat ballot vot Shadow Leader posibil lider backbenchers membri ai parlamentului care nu dein funcii importante ELECTIONS AND VOTING to turn a mplini to meet a requirement a ndeplini o condiie CRIMES statute text de lege omission inaciune summary offences infraciuni uoare indictable offences infraciuni grave criminal mischief vandalism arson incendiere larceny (theft) furt embezzlement abuz de ncredere, fraud robbery jaf burglary spargere, intrare prin efracie extorsion antaj forgery fals uttery uz de fals slander insult libel calomnie n scris perjury s mini n instan, mrturie mincinoas THE LEGAL PROFESSION to draft a redacta settlement rezolvare brief dosar counsel avocatul aprrii right to defence drept la aprare to ensure a asigura fair trial proces echitabil to rule on a soluiona status calitate to register a se nscrie to conclude a ncheia un contract contracting parties pri contractante legal assistance asisten juridic to terminate a denuna legitimate legitim to breach a nclca prevederile contractuale on the basis (on the ground) n temeiul mutual agreement acord de voin to undertake a se obliga THE COURT SYSTEM original jurisdiction court instan de fond appellate jurisdiction court instan de apel to make an appeal a face o cale de atac claim form cerere de chemare n judecat defence ntmpinare counterclaim cerere reconvenional mortgage ipotec judicial review control constituionalitii magistracy magistratur to perform (to carry out) an activity a desfura o activitate to challenge a judgement (a decision) a declara apel

appeal cale de atac