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Abstract

Earlier studies have pointed out the limitations of conventional inverters, especially in high-voltage and high-power applications. In recent years, multilevel inverters are becoming increasingly popular for high-power applications due to their improved harmonic profile and increased power ratings. Several studies have been reported in the literature on multilevel inverters topologies, control techniques, and applications. However, there are few studies that actually discuss or evaluate the performance of induction motor drives associated with threephase multilevel inverter. This paper presents then a comparison study for a cascaded H-bridge multilevel direct torque control (DTC) induction motor drive. In this case, symmetrical and asymmetrical arrangements of five- and seven-level H-bridge inverters are compared in order to find an optimum arrangement with lower switching losses and optimized output voltage quality. The carried out experiments show that an asymmetrical configuration provides nearly sinusoidal voltages with very low distortion, using less switching devices. Moreover, torque ripples are greatly reduced.

INTRODUCTION

MULTILEVEL voltage-source inverters are intensively studied for high-power applications and standard drives for medium-voltage industrial applications have become available. Solutions with a higher number of output voltage levels have the capability to synthesize waveforms with a better harmonic spectrum and to limit the motor winding insulation stress. However, their increasing number of devices tends to reduce the power converter overall reliability and efficiency. On the other hand, solutions with a low number of levels either need a rather large and expensive LC output filter to limit the motor winding insulation stress, or can only be used with motors that do withstand such stress. The various voltage stages have been chosen after considering the real-power contribution of the highest voltage stage. The maximum power supplied by highest voltage stage is maintained below the load power. Many studies have been conducted toward improving multilevel inverter. Some studies dealt with innovative topologies, such as cascaded multilevel inverter, to optimize the components utilization and the asymmetrical multilevel inverter to improve the output voltage resolution. Other studies focused on developing advanced control strategies or upgrading the voltage source inverter strategies for implementation in multilevel inverter. In symmetrical multilevel inverter, all H-bridge cells are fed by equal voltages, and hence all the arm cells produce similar output voltage steps. However, if all the cells are not fed by equal voltages, the inverter becomes an asymmetrical one. In this inverter, the arm cells have different effect on the output voltage. Other topologies are possible, such as the neutral point clamped fed by unequal capacitors. Asymmetrical multilevel inverter has been recently investigated. In all these studies, Hbridge topology has been considered and a variety of selection of cascaded cell numbers and dcsources ratios have been adopte . The suggested pulse width-modulation strategy that maintains the high-voltage stage to operate at low frequency limits the source-voltage selection. One of the methods that have been used by a major multilevel inverter manufacturer is direct torque control (DTC), which is recognized today as a high-performance control strategy for ac drives . Several authors have addressed the problem of improving the behavior of DTC ac motors, especially by reducing the torque ripple. Different approaches have been proposed. Although these approaches are well suitable for the classical two-levels inverter, their extension

to a greater number of levels is not easy. Throughout this paper, a theoretical background is used to design a strategy compatible with hybrid cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter; symmetrical and asymmetrical configuration are implemented and compared. Experimental results obtained for an asymmetrical inverter-fed induction motor confirm the high dynamic performance of the used method, presenting good performances and very low torque ripples.

Direct Torque Control (DTC) is a method that has emerged to become one possible alternative to the well-known Vector Control of Induction Motors [13]. This method provides a good performance with a simpler structure and control diagram. In DTC it is possible to control directly the stator flux and the torque by selecting the appropriate VSI state. The main advantages offered by DTC are: Decoupled control of torque and stator flux. Excellent torque dynamics with minimal response time. Inherent motion-sensor less control method since the motor speed is not required to achieve the torque control. Absence of coordinate transformation (required in Field Oriented Control (FOC)). Absence of voltage modulator, as well as other controllers such as PID and current controllers (used in FOC). Robustness for rotor parameters variation. Only the stator resistance is needed for the torque and stator flux estimator. These merits are counterbalanced by some drawbacks: Possible problems during starting and low speed operation and during changes in torque command. Requirement of torque and flux estimators, implying the consequent parameters identification (the same as for other vector controls). Variable switching frequency caused by the hysteresis controllers employed. Inherent torque and stator flux ripples. Flux and current distortion caused by sector changes of the flux position. Higher harmonic distortion of the stator voltage and current waveforms compared to other methods such as FOC. Acoustical noise produced due to the variable switching frequency. This noise can be particularly high at low speed operation. A variety of techniques have been proposed to overcome some of the drawbacks present in DTC [4]. Some solutions proposed are: DTC with Space Vector Modulation (SVM) [5]; the use of a duty--ratio controller to introduce a modulation between active vectors chosen from the look-up table and the zero vectors [68]; use of artificial intelligence techniques, such as Neuro-

Fuzzy controllers with SVM [9]. These methods achieve some improvements such as torque ripple reduction and fixed switching frequency operation. However, the complexity of the control is considerably increased. A different approach to improve DTC features is to employ different converter topologies from the standard two-level VSI. Some authors have presented different implementations of DTC for the three-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) VSI [1015]. This work will present a new control scheme based on DTC designed to be applied to an Induction Motor fed with a three-level VSI. The major advantage of the three-level VSI topology when applied to DTC is the increase in the number of voltage vectors available. This means the number of possibilities in the vector selection process is greatly increased and may lead to a more accurate control system, which may result in a reduction in the torque and flux ripples. This is of course achieved, at the expense of an increase in the complexity of the vector selection process. To understand the answer to this question we have to understand that the basic function of a variable speed drive (VSD) is to control the flow of energy from the mains to the process. Energy is supplied to the process through the motor shaft. Two physical quantities describe the state of the shaft: torque and speed. To control the flow of energy we must therefore, ultimately, control these quantities. In practice, either one of them is controlled or we speak of torque control or speed control. When the VSD operates in torque control mode, the speed is determined by the load. Likewise, when operated in speed control, the torque is determined by the load. Initially, DC motors were used as VSDs because they could easily achieve the required speed and torque without the need for sophisticated electronics. However, the evolution of AC variable speed drive technology has been driven partly by the desire to emulate the excellent performance of the DC motor, such as fast torque response and speed accuracy, while using rugged, inexpensive and maintenance free AC motors.

In this section we look at the evolution of DTC, charting the four milestones of variable speed drives, namely: DC Motor Drives 7 AC Drives, frequency control, PWM 9 AC Drives, flux vector control, PWM 10 AC Drives, Direct Torque Control 12 We examine each in turn, leading to a total picture that identifies the key differences between each. AC Drives Introduction Small size Robust Simple in design Light and compact Low maintenance Low cost The evolution of AC variable speed drive technology has been partly driven by the desire to emulate the performance of the DC drive, such as fast torque response and speed accuracy, while utilising the advantages offered by the standard AC motor.

Drawbacks

Controlling variables are Voltage and Frequency Simulation of variable AC sine wave using modulator Flux provided with constant V/f ratio Open-loop drive Load dictates torque level Unlike a DC drive, the AC drive frequency control technique uses parameters generated outside of the motor as controlling variables, namely voltage and frequency. Both voltage and frequency reference are fed into a modulator which simulates an AC sine wave and feeds this to the motors stator windings. This technique is called Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and utilizes the fact that there is a diode rectifier towards the mains and the intermediate DC voltage is kept constant. The inverter controls the motor in the form of a PWM pulse train dictating both the voltage and frequency. Significantly, this method does not use a feedback device which takes speed or position measurements from the motors shaft and feeds these back into the control loop. Such an arrangement, without a feedback device, is called an open-loop drive. Advantages Low cost No feedback device required simple Because there is no feedback device, the controlling principle offers a low cost and simple solution to controlling economical AC induction motors.

This type of drive is suitable for applications which do not require high levels of accuracy or precision, such as pumps and fans. Field orientation not used Motor status ignored Torque is not controlled Delaying modulator used With this technique, sometimes known as Scalar Control, field orientation of the motor is not used. Instead, frequency and voltage are the main control variables and are applied to the stator windings. The status of the rotor is ignored, meaning that no speed or position signal is fed back. Therefore, torque cannot be controlled with any degree of accuracy. Furthermore, the technique uses a modulator which basically slows down communication between the incoming voltage and frequency signals and the need for the motor to respond to this changing signal.

Features Field-oriented control - simulates DC drive Motor electrical characteristics are simulated- Motor Model Closed-loop drive Torque controlled INDIRECTLY To emulate the magnetic operating conditions of a DC motor, i.e. to perform the field orientation process, the flux-vector drive needs to know the spatial angular position of the rotor flux inside the AC induction motor. With flux vector PWM drives, field orientation is achieved by electronic means rather than the mechanical commentator/brush assembly of the DC motor.

Firstly, information about the rotor status is obtained by feeding back rotor speed and angular position relative to the stator field by means of a pulse encoder. A drive that uses speed encoders is referred to as a closed-loop drive. Also the motors electrical characteristics are mathematically modeled with microprocessors used to process the data. The electronic controller of a flux-vector drive creates electrical quantities such as voltage, current and frequency, which are the controlling variables, and feeds these through a modulator to the AC induction motor. Torque, therefore, is controlled INDIRECTLY. Advantages Good torque response Accurate speed control Full torque at zero speed Performance approaching DC drive Flux vector control achieves full torque at zero speed, giving it a performance very close to that of a DC drive.

Drawbacks Feedback is needed Costly Modulator needed To achieve a high level of torque response and speed accuracy, a feedback device is required. This can be costly and also adds complexity to the traditional simple AC induction motor. Also, a modulator is used, which slows down communication between the incoming voltage and frequency signals and the need for the motor to respond to this changing signal. Although the motor is mechanically simple, the drive is electrically complex.

Controlling Variables With the revolutionary DTC technology developed by ABB, field orientation is achieved without feedback using advanced motor theory to calculate the motor torque directly and without using modulation. The controlling variables are motor magnetizing flux and motor torque. With DTC there is no modulator and no requirement for a tachometer or position encoder to feed back the speed or position of the motor shaft. DTC uses the fastest digital signal processing hardware available and a more advanced mathematical understanding of how a motor works. The result is a drive with a torque response that is typically 10 times faster than any AC or DC drive. The dynamic speed accuracy of DTC drives will be 8 times better than any open loop AC drives and comparable to a DC drive that is using feedback. DTC produces the first universal drive with the capability to perform like either an AC or DC drive. The remaining sections in this guide highlight the features and advantages of DTC.

As can be seen from Table 1, both DC Drives and DTC drives use actual motor parameters to control torque and speed. Thus, the dynamic performance is fast and easy. Also with DTC, for most applications, no tachometer or encoder is needed to feed back a speed or position signal. Comparing DTC (Figure 4) with the two other AC drive control blocks (Figures 2 & 3) shows up several differences, the main one being that no modulator is required with DTC. With PWM AC drives, the controlling variables are frequency and voltage which need to go through several stages before being applied to the motor. Thus, with PWM drives control is handled inside the electronic controller and not inside the motor.

MULTILEVEL INVERTER

An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC); the converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits. Static inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications, from small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utility high-voltage direct current applications that transport bulk power. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from DC sources such as solar panels or batteries. The electrical inverter is a high-power electronic oscillator. It is so named because early mechanical AC to DC converters were made to work in reverse, and thus were "inverted", to convert DC to AC. The inverter performs the opposite function of a rectifier

Cascaded H-Bridges inverter A single-phase structure of an m-level cascaded inverter is illustrated in Figure 31.1. Each separate dc source (SDCS) is connected to a single-phase full-bridge, or H-bridge, inverter. Each inverter level can generate three different voltage outputs, +V dc, 0, and Vdc by connecting the dc source to the ac output by different combinations of the four switches, S 1, S2, S3, and S4. To obtain +Vdc, switches S1 and S4 are turned on, whereas Vdc can be obtained by turning on switches S2 and S3. By turning on S1 and S2 or S3 and S4, the output voltage is 0. The ac outputs of each of the different full-bridge inverter levels are connected in series such that the synthesized voltage waveform is the sum of the inverter outputs. The number of output phase voltage levels m in a cascade inverter is defined by m = 2s+1, where s is the number of separate dc sources. An example phase voltage waveform for an 11-level cascaded H-bridge inverter with 5 SDCSs and 5 full bridges is shown in Figure 31.2. The phase voltage van = va1 + va2 + va3 + va4 + va5. For a stepped waveform such as the one depicted in Figure 31.2 with s steps, the Fourier Transform for this waveform follows

Output phase voltage waveform of an 11-level cascade inverter with 5 separate dc sources.

The magnitudes of the Fourier coefficients when normalized with respect to Vdc are as follows:

The conducting angles, 1, 2, ..., s, can be chosen such that the voltage total harmonic distortion is a minimum. Generally, these angles are chosen so that predominant lower frequency harmonics, 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th, harmonics are eliminated [25]. More detail on harmonic elimination techniques will be presented in the next section. Multilevel cascaded inverters have been proposed for such applications as static var generation, an interface with renewable energy sources, and for battery-based applications. Three-phase cascaded inverters can be connected in wye, as shown in Figure 31.3, or in delta. Peng has demonstrated a prototype multilevel cascaded static var generator connected in parallel with the electrical system that could supply or draw reactive current from an electrical system [20-23]. The inverter could be controlled to either regulate the power factor of the current drawn from the source or the bus voltage of the electrical system where the inverter was connected. Peng [20] and Joos [24] have also shown that a cascade inverter can be directly connected in series with the electrical system for static var compensation. Cascaded inverters are ideal for connecting renewable energy sources with an ac grid, because of the need for separate dc sources, which is the case in applications such as photovoltaics or fuel cells. Cascaded inverters have also been proposed for use as the main traction drive in electric vehicles, where several batteries or ultracapacitors are well suited to serve as SDCSs [19, 26]. The cascaded inverter could also serve as a rectifier/charger for the batteries of an electric vehicle while the vehicle was connected to an ac supply as shown in Figure 31.3. Additionally, the cascade inverter can act as a rectifier in a vehicle that uses regenerative braking.

Three-phase wye-connection structure for electric vehicle motor drive and battery charging.

The main advantages and disadvantages of multilevel cascaded H-bridge converters are as follows Advantages: The number of possible output voltage levels is more than twice the number of dc sources (m = 2s + 1). The series of H-bridges makes for modularized layout and packaging. This will enable the manufacturing process to be done more quickly and cheaply.

Disadvantages: Separate dc sources are required for each of the H-bridges. This will limit its application to products that already have multiple SDCSs readily available.

Diode-Clamped Multilevel Inverter The neutral point converter proposed by Nabae, Takahashi, and Akagi in 1981 was essentially a three-level diode-clamped inverter [5]. In the 1990s several researchers published articles that have reported experimental results for four-, five-, and six-level diode-clamped converters for such uses as static var compensation, variable speed motor drives, and high-voltage system interconnections [18-31]. A three-phase six-level diode-clamped inverter is shown in Figure 31.5. Each of the three phases of the inverter shares a common dc bus, which has been subdivided by five capacitors into six levels. The voltage across each capacitor is V dc, and the voltage stress across each switching device is limited to Vdc through the clamping diodes. Table 31.1 lists the output voltage levels possible for one phase of the inverter with the negative dc rail voltage V0 as a reference. State condition 1 means the switch is on, and 0 means the switch is off. Each phase has five complementary switch pairs such that turning on one of the switches of the pair requires that the other complementary switch be turned off. The complementary switch pairs for phase leg a are (Sa1, Sa1), (Sa2, Sa2), (Sa3, Sa3), (Sa4, Sa4), and (Sa5, Sa5). Table 31.1 also shows that in a diode-clamped inverter, the switches that are on for a particular phase leg are always adjacent and in series. For a six-level inverter, a set of five switches is on at any given time.

Three-phase six-level structure of a diode-clamped inverter. Diode-clamped six-level inverter voltage levels and corresponding switch states.

Advantages: All of the phases share a common dc bus, which minimizes the capacitance requirements of theconverter. For this reason, a back-to-back topology is not only possible but also

practical for uses such as a high-voltage back-to-back inter-connection or an adjustable speed drive. The capacitors can be pre-charged as a group. Efficiency is high for fundamental frequency switching.

Disadvantages: Real power flow is difficult for a single inverter because the intermediate dc levels will tend to overcharge or discharge without precise monitoring and control. The number of clamping diodes required is quadratically related to the number of levels, which can be cumbersome for units with a high number of levels. Flying Capacitor Multilevel Inverter Meynard and Foch introduced a flying-capacitor-based inverter in 1992 [32]. The structure of this inverter is similar to that of the diode-clamped inverter except that instead of using clamping diodes, the inverter uses capacitors in their place. The circuit topology of the flying capacitor multilevel inverter is shown in Figure 31.7. This topology has a ladder structure of dc side capacitors, where the voltage on each capacitor differs from that of the next capacitor. The voltage increment between two adjacent capacitor legs gives the size of the voltage steps in the output waveform.

One advantage of the flying-capacitor-based inverter is that it has redundancies for inner voltage levels; in other words, two or more valid switch combinations can synthesize an output voltage. Table 31.2 shows a list of all the combinations of phase voltage levels that are possible for the six-level circuit shown in Figure 31.7. Unlike the diode-clamped inverter, the flying-capacitor inverter does not require all of the switches that are on (conducting) be in a consecutive series. Moreover, the flying-capacitor inverter has phase redundancies, whereas the diode-clamped inverter has only line-line redundancies [2, 3, 33]. These redundancies allow a choice of charging/discharging specific capacitors and can be incorporated in the control system for balancing the voltages across the various levels. In addition to the (m-1) dc link capacitors, the m-level flying-capacitor multilevel inverter will require (m-1) (m-2)/2 auxiliary capacitors per phase if the voltage rating of the capacitors is identical to that of the main switches. One application proposed in the literature for the multilevel flying capacitor is static var generation [2, 3]. The main advantages and disadvantages of multilevel flying capacitor converters are as follows [2, 3]. Advantages: Phase redundancies are available for balancing the voltage levels of the capacitors. Real and reactive power flow can be controlled. The large number of capacitors enables the inverter to ride through short duration outages and deep voltage sags. Disadvantages: Control is complicated to track the voltage levels for all of the capacitors. Also, precharging all of the capacitors to the same voltage level and startup are complex. Switching utilization and efficiency are poor for real power transmission. The large numbers of capacitors are both more expensive and bulky than clamping diodes in multilevel diode-clamped converters. Packaging is also more difficult in inverters with a high number of levels.

Flying-capacitor six-level inverter redundant voltage levels and corresponding switch states

The Space Vector PWM generation module accepts modulation index commands and generates the appropriate gate drive waveforms for each PWM cycle. This section describes the operation and configuration of the SVPWM module. A three-phase 2-level inverter with dc link configuration can have eight possible switching states, which generates output voltage of the inverter. Each inverter switching state generates a voltage Space Vector (V1 to V6 active vectors, V7 and V8 zero voltage vectors) in the Space Vector plane (Figure: space vector diagram). The magnitude of each active vector (V1to V6) is 2/3 Vdc (dc bus voltage). The Space Vector PWM (SVPWM) module inputs modulation index commands (U_Alpha and U_Beta) which are orthogonal signals (Alpha and Beta) as shown in Figure. The gain characteristic of the SVPWM module is given in Figure . The vertical axis of Figure represents the normalized peak motor phase voltage (V/Vdc) and the horizontal axis represents the normalized modulation index (M). The inverter fundamental line-to-line Rms output voltage (Vline) can be approximated (linear range) by the following equation: .. (1) Where dc bus voltage (Vdc) is in volts

Space Vector Diagram This document is the property of International Rectifier and may not be copied or distributed without expressed consent

Transfer Characteristics

The maximum achievable modulation (Umag_L) in the linear operating range is given by: .. (2) Over modulation occurs when modulation Umag > Umag_L. This corresponds to the condition where the voltage vector in (Figure: voltage vector rescaling)increases beyond the hexagon boundary. Under such circumstance, the Space Vector PWM algorithm will rescale the magnitude of the voltage vector to fit within the Hexagon limit. The magnitude of the voltage vector is restricted within the Hexagon; however, the phase angle () is always preserved. The transfer gain (Figure :transfer characteristics) of the PWM modulator reduces and becomes non-

Voltage Vector Rescaling This document is the property of International Rectifier and may not be copied or distributed without expressed consent. PWM Operation Upon receiving the modulation index commands (UAlpha and UBeta) the sub-module SVPW M_Tm starts its calculations at the rising edge of the PWM Load signal. The SVPWM _Tm module implements an algorithm that selects (based on sector determination) the active space vectors (V1 to V6) being used and calculates the appropriate time duration (w.r.t. one PWM cycle) for each active vector. The appropriated zero vectors are also being selected. The SVPWM _Tm module consumes 11 clock cycles typically and 35 clock cycles (worst case Tr) in over modulation cases. At the falling edge of nSYNC, a new set of Space Vector times and vectors are readily available for actual PWM generation (PhaseU, PhaseV, PhaseW) by sub module Pwm Generation. It is crucial to trigger PwmLoad at least 35 clock cycles prior to the falling edge of nSYNC signal; otherwise new modulation commands will not be implemented at the earliest PWM cycle.

The above Figures voltage vector rescaling illustrates the PWM waveforms for a voltage vector locates in sector I of the Space Vector plane (shown in Figure). The gating pattern outputs (PWMUH PWMWL) include dead time insertion

PWM Carrier Period: Input variable Pwm controls the duration of a PWM cycle. It should be populated by the system clock frequency (Clk) and Pwm frequency (PwmFreq) selection. The variable should be calculated as:

.. (3) The input resolution of the Space Vector PWM modulator signals U_Alpha and U_Beta is 16-bit signed integer. However, the actual PWM resolution (Pwm) is limited by the system clock frequency. Dead time Insertion Logic Dead time is inserted at the output of the PWM Generation Module. The resolution is 1 clock cycle or 30nsec at a 33.3 MHz clock and is the same as those of the voltage command registers and the PWM carrier frequency register. The dead time insertion logic chops off the high side commanded volt*seconds by the amount of dead time and adds the same amount of volt*seconds to the low side signal. Thus, it eliminates the complete high side turn on pulse if the commanded volt*seconds is less than the programmed dead time.

The dead time insertion logic inserts the programmed dead time between two high and low side of the gate signals within a phase. The dead time register is also double buffered to allow on the fly dead time change and control while PWM logic is inactive. Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Mode Operation There are two modes of operation available for PWM waveform generation, namely the Center Aligned Symmetrical PWM (Figure) and the Center Aligned Asymmetrical PWM (Figure)The volt-sec can be changed every half a PWM cycle (Tpwm) since Pwm Load occurs every half a PWM cycle (compare Figure :symmetrical pwm and Figure :asymmetrical PWM). With Symmetrical PWM mode, the inverter voltage Config = 0), the inverter voltage can be changed at two times the rate of the switching frequency. This will provide an increase in voltage control bandwidth, however, at the expense of increased current harmonic

Asymmetrical PWM Mode Three-Phase and Two-Phase Modulation Three-phase and two-phase Space Vector PWM modulation options are provided for the IRMCx203. The Volt-sec generated by the two PWM strategies are identical; however with 2phase modulation the switching losses can be reduced significantly, especially when high

switching frequency (>10Khz) is employed. Figure: three-phase and two phase modulation shows the switching pattern for one PWM cycle when the voltage vector is inside sector 1

Three Phase and Two Phase Modulation The field Two Phase PWM of the PWM Config write register group provides selection of three-phase or two-phase modulation. The default setting is three-phase modulation. Successful operation of two-phase modulation in the entire speed operating range will depend on hardware configuration. If the gate driver employs a bootstrap power supply strategy, disoperation will occur at low motor fundamental frequencies (< 2Hz) under two-phase modulation control.

Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation In many industrial applications, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), also called Sine coded Pulse Width Modulation, is used to control the inverter output voltage. SPWM maintains good performance of the drive in the entire range of operation between zero and 78 percent of the value that would be reached by square-wave operation. If the modulation index exceeds this value, linear relationship between modulation index and output voltage is not maintained and the over-modulation methods are required Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation A different approach to SPWM is based on the space vector representation of voltages in the d, q plane. The d, q components are found by Park transform, where the total power, as well as the impedance, remains unchanged. Fig: space vector shows 8 space vectors in according to 8 switching positions of inverter, V* is the phase-to-center voltage which is obtained by proper selection of adjacent vectors V1 and V2.

Determination of Switching times The reference space vector V* is given by Equation (1), where T1, T2 are the intervals of application of vector V1 and V2 respectively, and zero vectors V0 and V7 are selected for T0. V* Tz = V1 *T1 + V2 *T2 + V0 *(T0/2) + V7 *(T0/2).(4)

Fig. below shows that the inverter switching state for the period T1 for vector V1 and for vector V2, resulting switching patterns of each phase of inverter are shown in Fig. pulse pattern of space vector PWM.

Comparison

In Fig:- comparison, U is the phase to- center voltage containing the triple order harmonics that are generated by space vector PWM, and U1 is the sinusoidal reference voltage. But the triple order harmonics are not appeared in the phase-to-phase voltage as well. This leads to the higher modulation index compared to the SPWM.

As mentioned above, SPWM only reaches to 78 percent of square wave operation, but the amplitude of maximum possible voltage is 90 percent of square-wave in the case of space vector PWM. The maximum phase-to-center voltage by sinusoidal and space vector PWM are respectively Vmax = Vdc/2 : Sinusoidal PWM Vmax = Vdc/3 : Space Vector PWM Where, Vdc is DC-Link voltage. This means that Space Vector PWM can produce about 15 percent higher than Sinusoidal PWM in output voltage.

The Pulse Width modulation technique permits to obtain three phase system voltages, which can be applied to the controlled output. Space Vector Modulation (SVM) principle differs from other PWM processes in the fact that all three drive signals for the inverter will be created simultaneously. The implementation of SVM process in digital systems necessitates less operation time and also less program memory. The SVM algorithm is based on the principle of the space vector u*, which describes all three output voltages ua, ub and uc : u* = 2/3 . ( ua + a . ub + a2 . uc ) (5)

Where a = -1/2 + j . v3/2 We can distinguish six sectors limited by eight discrete vectors u0u7 (fig:- inverter output voltage space vector), which correspond to the 23 = 8 possible switching states of the power switches of the inverter.

Space vector Modulation The amplitude of u0 and u7 equals 0. The other vectors u1u6 have the same amplitude and are 60 degrees shifted. By varying the relative on-switching time Tc of the different vectors, the space vector u* and also the output voltages ua, ub and uc can be varied and is defined as: ua = Re ( u* ) ub = Re ( u* . a-1) uc = Re ( u* . a-2) (6)

During a switching period Tc and considering for example the first sector, the vectors u0, u1 and u2 will be switched on alternatively.

Definition of the Space vector Depending on the switching times t0, t1 and t2 the space vector u* is defined as: u* = 1/Tc . ( t0 . u0 + t1 . u1 + t2 . u2 ) u* = t0 . u0 + t1 . u1 + t2 . u2 u* = t1 . u1 + t2 . u2 Where t0 + t1 + t2 = Tc and t0 + t1 + t2 = 1 t0, t1 and t2 are the relative values of the on switching times. They are defined as: t1 = m . cos ( a + p/6) t2 = m . sin a t0 = 1 - t1 - t2 .. (7)

Their values are implemented in a table for a modulation factor m = 1. Then it will be easy to calculate the space vector u* and the output voltages ua, ub and uc. The voltage vector u* can be provided directly by the optimal vector control laws w1, v sa and vsb. In order to generate the phase voltages ua, ub and uc corresponding to the desired voltage vector u* the following SVM strategy is proposed.

The total harmonic distortion, or THD, of a signal is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental frequency. Lesser THD allows the components in a loudspeaker, amplifier or microphone or other equipment to produce a more accurate reproduction by reducing harmonics added by electronics and audio media. A THD rating < 1% is considered to be in high-fidelity and inaudible to the human ear To understand a system with an input and an output, such as an audio amplifier, we start with an ideal system where the transfer function is linear and time-invariant. When a signal passes through a non-ideal, non-linear device, additional content is added at the harmonics of the original frequencies. THD is a measurement of the extent of that distortion. When the input is a pure sine wave, the measurement is most commonly the ratio of the sum of the powers of all higher harmonic frequencies to the power at the first harmonic, or fundamental, frequency:

According to Wikipedia, the online encyclopaedia for all things defined, Total Harmonic Distortion of a signal is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental frequency. Lesser THD, for example, allows the components in a loudspeaker, amplifier or

microphone or other equipment to make a violin sound like a violin when played back and not a cello or simply a distorted noise. (1) As a musician, I typically have learned about harmonics in terms of chords, distortion and found them useful in tuning guitars at various frets across the neck of the guitar. For those of us in the lighting and electrical world, THD refers to the Harmonic Distortion present with most electrical equipment, and more specifically now, the distortion present with electronic ballasts. THD is the measurement of the distortion created from the equipments current draw. True resistive loads, such as an incandescent light bulb, do not have THD. Equipment containing coils and capacitors, such as motors, drives, fluorescent lighting and HID lighting, have some measure of THD. In the true engineering sense; only fundamental frequency current can provide real power. Systems with Power Factor correction capacitors and motors are considered to be linear loads with acceptable (negligible) distortion levels. However, solid-state electronic devices have been shown to be the largest contributor to distortion due to the switching of diode bridges producing a discontinuous current, which then causes a distorted sine wave. (2) In four wire WYE systems such as 120/208 and 277/480-volt systems; harmonics may cause a problem with overheating of the neutral wire. The phase wires should also be designed for the increased harmonic current, but since the triplen are additive, the problem is especially critical on the neutral. The third harmonic and other triplen (9th, 15th, etc.) Are additive. Total Harmonic Distortion is the percentage of all of these additive values in relation to the total load. The sum of triplen harmonics greater than 33 percent will result in neutral current greater than individual line currents. The resultant current exceeds the neutral conductors rating and causes overheating of the neutral and/or transformer. It is a common misconception that electronic ballasts increase THD. Currently available electronic ballasts actually decrease the THD on an electrical system compared to a system applying magnetic ballasts. ANSI C82.11 requires that the maximum THD of electronic ballasts not exceed 32 percent and the maximum triplen not exceed 30 percent. Electronic ballasts today are rated at less than 20 percent, 15 percent, or less than 10 percent THD. The magnetic ballast is rated in the 20 to 28 percent range. Electronic ballasts reduce THD in two ways. 1. The electronic ballast has a lower THD percentage than the magnetic ballast.

2. The biggest reduction comes from the fact that electronic ballasts reduce the total load.

CASCADED OPERATION

H-BRIDGES

STRUCTURE

AND

The cascaded H-bridge inverter consists of power conversion cells, each supplied by an isolated dc source on the dc side, which can be obtained from batteries, fuel cells, or ultra-capacitors, and series-connected on the ac side. The advantage of this topology is that the modulation, control, and protection requirements of each bridge are modular. It should be pointed out that, unlike the diode-clamped and flying-capacitor topologies, isolated dc sources are required for each cell in each phase. Fig. 1 shows a three-phase topology of a cascade inverter with isolated dc-voltage sources.

Where N is the number of cascaded bridges. The inverter output voltage vo (t) may be determined from the individual cells switching states

If all dc-voltage sources in Fig. 1 are equal to Vdc, the inverter is then known as a symmetric multilevel one. The effective number of output voltage levels n in symmetric multilevel inverter is related to the cells number by

For example, Fig. 2 illustrated typical waveforms of Fig. 1 multilevel inverter with two dc sources (five-levels output). The maximum output voltage Vo,Max is then

To provide a large number of output levels without increasing the number of inverters, asymmetric multilevel inverters can be used.it is proposed to choose the dc-voltages sources according to a geometric progression with a factor of 2 or 3. For N of such cascade inverters, one can achieve the

For example, Figs. 3 and 4 illustrated typical waveforms of Fig. 1 multilevel inverter with, respectively, two dc sources ( Vdc and 2Vdc) (seven-levels output) and two dc sources ( Vdc and 3Vdc) (nine-levels output).

Comparing (3) to (7), it can be seen that asymmetrical multilevel inverters can generate more voltage levels and higher maximum output voltage with the same number of bridges. Table I summarizes the number of levels, switches, dc sources, and maximum available output voltages for classical cascaded multilevel inverters. Increasing the number of levels provides more steps; hence, the output voltage will be of higher resolution and the reference sinusoidal output voltage can be better achieved. Among the n3 switching states of n-level inverter, there is n zero states, where zero output voltages are produced. Among the (n3n) nonzero remaining states, there are unique states and mutual states. The unique states provide voltage vectors that cannot be obtained by any other states. The mutual state on the other hand, provides a set of output voltages that can be provided by some other mutual state or states. The equivalent mutual states share the same voltage vectors. The n-level inverter has [(n 1)3 (n 1)] nonzero mutual states. The voltage vectors of the five-level inverter are shown in Fig. 5. The number of distinct voltage vectors obtained from n-level inverter is [n3 (n 1)3 ]. The xistence of equivalent mutual states has usually been used to minimize the switching losses. Nevertheless, the equivalent mutual states can be replaced by any one of these states and the other states can be considered redundant. There are ( n 1)3 redundant states in the n-level symmetrical H-bridge multilevel inverter.

DTC is an alternative method to flux-oriented control. However, in the standard version, important torque ripple is obtained even at high sampling frequencies.Moreover, the inverter

Switching frequency is inherently variable and very dependent on torque and shaft speed. This produces torque harmonics with variable frequencies and an acoustic noise with disturbance intensities very dependent on these mechanical variables and particularly grating at low speed. The additional degrees of freedom (space vectors, phase configurations, etc.) provided by the multilevel inverter should, therefore, be exploited by the control strategy in order to reduce these drawbacks.

A. Nomenclature:

The stator flux vector an induction motor is related to the stator voltage and currentvectors by

Maintaining vs constant over a sample time interval and neglecting the stator resistance, the integration of (10) yields

Equation (9) reveals that the stator flux vector is directly affected by variations on the stator voltage vector. On the contrary, the influence of vs over the rotor flux is filtered by the rotor and stator leakage inductance [20], and is, therefore, not relevant over a short-time horizon. Since the stator flux can be changed quickly while the rotor flux rotates slower, the angle between both vectors sr can be controlled directly by vs . A graphical representation of the stator and rotor flux dynamic behavior is

illustrated in Fig. 6. The exact relationship between stator and rotor flux shows that keeping the amplitude of s constant will produce a constant flux r . Since the electromagnetic torque developed by an induction motor can be expressed by

It follows that change in sr due to the action of vs allows for direct and fast change in the developed torque. DTC uses this principle to achieve the induction motor desired torque response, by applying the appropriate stator voltage vector to correct the flux trajectory.

Fig. 7 illustrates one of the 127 voltage vectors generated by the inverter at instant t=k, denoted by vk s (central dot). The next voltage vector, to be applied to the load vk+1 s, can be expressed By

Where vk s = {vi |i = 1. . . 6}. Each vector vi corresponds to one corner of the elemental hexagon illustrated in gray and by the dashed line in Fig. 7. The task is to determine which vk+1 s will correct the torque and flux responses, knowing the actual voltage vector vk s , the torque and flux errors ek and ek T , and the stator flux vector position (sector determined by angle s ). Note that the next voltage vector vk+1 s applied to the load will always be one of the six closest vectors to the previous vk s ; this will soften the actuation effort and reduce high dynamics in torque response due to possible large changes in the reference. Table II summa-

rizes vector selections for the different sectors and comparators output (desired s and Te corrections). To implement the DTC of the induction motor fed by a hybrid H-bridge multilevel inverter, one should determine at each sampling period, the inverter switch logic states as a function of the torque and flux instantaneous values for the selection of the space vector in the frame [23], [24]. The proposed control algorithm was divided into two major tasks, which are independent and executed in cascade.

1) First task:

It aims at the control of the electromagnetic state of the induction motor. The torque and flux instantaneous values, and their variations will be taken into account for the space vector selection in the . Once the space is chosen, the phase levels sequence can be selected. To ensure this task, one should detect the space vector position in the frame (Qk at sampling time k). The algorithm must then select the next position Qk+1 to be achieved before next sampling instant k + 1 (see Fig. 8) in order to reduce voltage steps magnitude. Only one step displacement

in the frame is authorized per sampling period Ts . Hence, in the absence of inverter saturation, Qk+1 must coincide with one of the six corners of the elementary hexagon centered at Qk . The same procedure will be carried out at the next period in order to determine the next trajectory direction, yielding Qk+2, which in turn will coincide with one of the six corners of the new elementary hexagon centered at Qk+1. In case of inverter saturation (if Qk gives an unreachable point for Qk+1), a trajectory correction is necessary (see Fig. 8). In cases (2) and (3), the closest displacement direction is selected. Case (1) illustrates a particular situation in which no switching should be performed, since the nearest reachable trajectory goes

roughly toward the opposite sense of the favored one given by the lookup table (see Table II).

2)

multilevel topology to choose the phase levels sequence that synthesizes the voltage vector selected previously. There are several phase levels sequences that are able to generate the same vector illustrated in Fig. 9; this degree of freedom can, therefore, be exploited to reduce voltage steps magnitude according to one of the following criteria: a) minimize the commutation number per period; b) distribute commutations for the three-phases per period; or c) choose a vector which minimizes the homopolar voltage. This task allows losses and torque ripple minimization.

Finally, the configuration of each phase will be selected and must be able to generate the phase levels.

SIMULINK

Simulink is a graphical extension to MATLAB for modeling and simulation of systems. In Simulink, systems are drawn on screen as block diagrams. Many elements of block diagrams are available, such as transfer functions, summing junctions, etc., as well as virtual input and output devices such as function generators and oscilloscopes. Simulink is integrated with MATLAB and data can be easily transferred between the programs. In these tutorials, we will apply Simulink to the examples from the MATLAB tutorials to model the systems, build controllers, and simulate the systems. Simulink is supported on UNIX, Macintosh, and Windows environments; and is included in the student version of MATLAB for personal computers. Simulink is started from the MATLAB command prompt by entering the following command: simulink Alternatively, you can hit the New Simulink Model button at the top of the MATLAB command window as shown below:

When it starts, Simulink brings up two windows. The first is the main Simulink window, which appears as:

The second window is a blank, untitled, model window. This is the window into which a new model can be drawn. Basic Elements There are two major classes of items in Simulink: blocks and lines. Blocks are used to generate, modify, combine, output, and display signals. Lines are used to transfer signals from one block to another. Blocks: There are several general classes of blocks:

Sources: Used to generate various signals Sinks: Used to output or display signals Discrete: Linear, discrete-time system elements (transfer functions, state-space models, etc.) Linear: Linear, continuous-time system elements and connections (summing junctions, gains, etc.) Nonlinear: Nonlinear operators (arbitrary functions, saturation, delay, etc.) Connections: Multiplex, Demultiplex, System Macros, etc. Blocks have zero to several input terminals and zero to several output terminals. Unused input terminals are indicated by a small open triangle. Unused output terminals are indicated by a

small triangular point. The block shown below has an unused input terminal on the left and an unused output terminal on the right.

Lines Lines transmit signals in the direction indicated by the arrow. Lines must always transmit signals from the output terminal of one block to the input terminal of another block. On exception to this is a line can tap off of another line, splitting the signal to each of two destination blocks, as shown below (click the figure to download the model file called split.mdl).

Lines can never inject a signal into another line; lines must be combined through the use of a block such as a summing junction. A signal can be either a scalar signal or a vector signal. For Single-Input, Single-Output systems, scalar signals are generally used. For Multi-Input, Multi-Output systems, vector

signals are often used, consisting of two or more scalar signals. The lines used to transmit scalar and vector signals are identical. The type of signal carried by a line is determined by the blocks on either end of the line. Simple Example

The simple model (from the model file section) consists of three blocks: Step, Transfer Fcn, and Scope. The Step is a source block from which a step input signal originates. This signal is transfered through the line in the direction indicated by the arrow to the Transfer Function linear block. The Transfer Function modifies its input signal and outputs a new signal on a line to the Scope. The Scope is a sink block used to display a signal much like an oscilloscope. There are many more types of blocks available in Simulink, some of which will be discussed later. Right now, we will examine just the three we have used in the simple model. Modifying Blocks A block can be modified by double-clicking on it. For example, if you double-click on the "Transfer Fcn" block in the simple model, you will see the following dialog box.

This dialog box contains fields for the numerator and the denominator of the block's transfer function. By entering a vector containing the coefficients of the desired numerator or denominator polynomial, the desired transfer function can be entered. For example, to change the denominator to s^2+2s+1, enter the following into the denominator field: [1 2 1] and hit the close button, the model window will change to the following,

which reflects the change in the denominator of the transfer function. The "step" block can also be double-clicked, bringing up the following dialog box.

The default parameters in this dialog box generate a step function occurring at time=1 sec, from an initial level of zero to a level of 1. (in other words, a unit step at t=1). Each of these parameters can be changed. Close this dialog before continuing. The most complicated of these three blocks is the "Scope" block. Double clicking on this brings up a blank oscilloscope screen.

When a simulation is performed, the signal which feeds into the scope will be displayed in this window. Detailed operation of the scope will not be covered in this tutorial. The only function we will use is the autoscale button, which appears as a pair of binoculars in the upper portion of the window. Running Simulations To run a simulation, we will work with the following model file:

Before running a simulation of this system, first open the scope window by

double-clicking on the scope block. Then, to start the simulation, either select Start from the Simulation menu (as shown below) or hit Ctrl-T in the model window.

The simulation should run very quickly and the scope window will appear as shown below.

Note that the simulation output (shown in yellow) is at a very low level relative to the axes of the scope. To fix this, hit the autoscale button (binoculars), which will rescale the axes as shown below.

Note that the step response does not begin until t=1. This can be changed by double-clicking on the "step" block. Now, we will change the parameters of the system and simulate the system again. Double-click on the "Transfer Fcn" block in the model window and change the denominator to [1 20 400] Re-run the simulation (hit Ctrl-T) and you should see what appears as a flat line in the scope window. Hit the autoscale button, and you should see the following in the scope window.

Notice that the auto scale button only changes the vertical axis. Since the new transfer function has a very fast response, it it compressed into a very narrow part of the scope window. This is not really a problem with the scope, but with the simulation itself. Simulink simulated the system for a full ten seconds even though the system had reached steady state shortly after one second. To correct this, you need to change the parameters of the simulation itself. In the model window, select Parameters from the Simulation menu. You will see the following dialog box.

There are many simulation parameter options; we will only be concerned with the start and stop times, which tell Simulink over what time period to perform the simulation. Change Start time from 0.0 to 0.8 (since the step doesn't occur until t=1.0. Change Stop time from 10.0 to 2.0, which should be only shortly after the system settles. Close the dialog box and rerun the simulation. After hitting the autoscale button, the scope window should provide a much better display of the step response as shown below.

Building Systems In this section, you will learn how to build systems in Simulink using the building blocks in Simulink's Block Libraries. You will build the following system.

First you will gather all the necessary blocks from the block libraries. Then you will modify the blocks so they correspond to the blocks in the desired model. Finally, you will connect the blocks with lines to form the complete system. After this, you will simulate the complete system to verify that it works. Gathering Blocks Follow the steps below to collect the necessary blocks:

Create a new model (New from the File menu or Ctrl-N). You will get a blank model window.

This opens the Sources window which contains the Sources Block Library. Sources are used to generate signals.

Drag the Step block from the sources window into the left side of your model window.

Double-click on the Linear icon in the main Simulink window to open the Linear Block Library window. Drag the Sum, Gain, and two instances of the Transfer Fcn (drag it two times) into your model window arranged approximately as shown below. The exact alignment is not important since it can be changed later. Just try to get the correct relative positions. Notice that the second Transfer Function block has a 1 after its name. Since no two blocks may have the same name, Simulink automatically appends numbers following the names of blocks to differentiate between them.

Double-click on the Sinks icon in the main Simulink window to open the Sinks window. Drag the Scope block into the right side of your model window.

Modify Blocks Follow these steps to properly modify the blocks in your model.

Double-click your Sum block. Since you will want the second input to be subtracted, enter +- into the list of signs field. Close the dialog box. Double-click your Gain block. Change the gain to 2.5 and close the dialog box. Double-click the leftmost Transfer Function block. Change the numerator to [1 2] and the denominator to [1 0]. Close the dialog box.

Double-click the rightmost Transfer Function block. Leave the numerator [1], but change the denominator to [1 2 4]. Close the dialog box. Your model should appear as:

Change the name of the first Transfer Function block by clicking on the words "Transfer Fcn". A box and an editing cursor will appear on the block's name as shown below. Use the keyboard (the mouse is also useful) to delete the existing name and type in the new name, "PI Controller". Click anywhere outside the name box to finish editing.

Similarly, change the name of the second Transfer Function block from "Transfer Fcn1" to "Plant". Now, all the blocks are entered properly. Your model should appear as:

Connecting Blocks with Lines Now that the blocks are properly laid out, you will now connect them together. Follow these steps.

Drag the mouse from the output terminal of the Step block to the upper (positive) input of the Sum block. Let go of the mouse button only when the mouse is right on the input terminal. Do not worry about the path you follow while dragging, the line will route itself. You should

see

the

following.

The resulting line should have a filled arrowhead. If the arrowhead is open, as shown below, it means it is not connected to anything.

You

can

continue the partial line you just drew by treating the open arrowhead as an output terminal and drawing just as before. Alternatively, if you want to redraw the line, or if the line connected to

the wrong terminal, you should delete the line and redraw it. To delete a line (or any other object), simply click on it to select it, and hit the delete key.

Draw a line connecting the Sum block output to the Gain input. Also draw a line from the Gain to the PI Controller, a line from the PI Controller to the Plant, and a line from the Plant to the Scope. You should now have the following.

The line remaining to be drawn is the feedback signal connecting the output of the Plant to the negative input of the Sum block. This line is different in two ways. First, since this line loops around and does not simply follow the shortest (right-angled) route so it needs to be drawn in several stages. Second, there is no output terminal to start from, so the line has to tap off of an existing line. To tap off the output line, hold the Ctrl key while dragging the mouse from the point on the existing line where you want to tap off. In this case, start just to the right of the Plant. Drag until you get to the lower left corner of the desired feedback signal line as shown below.

Now, the negative terminal of the Sum block in the usual manner.

the

open arrowhead of this partial line can be treated as an output terminal. Draw a line from it to

Now, you will align the blocks with each other for a neater appearance. Once connected, the actual positions of the blocks does not matter, but it is easier to read if they are aligned. To move each block, drag it with the mouse. The lines will stay connected and re-route themselves. The middles and corners of lines can also be dragged to different locations. Starting at the left, drag each block so that the lines connecting them are purely horizontal. Also, adjust the spacing between blocks to leave room for signal labels. You should have

something

like:

Finally, you will place labels in your model to identify the signals. To place a label anywhere in your model, double click at the point you want the label to be. Start by double clicking above the line leading from the Step block. You will get a blank text box with an editing cursor as shown below

Type an r in this box, labeling the reference signal and click outside it to end editing.

Label the error (e) signal, the control (u) signal, and the output (y) signal in the same manner. Your final model should appear as:

To save your model, select Save As in the File menu and type in any desired model name. The completed model can be found here. Simulation Now that the model is complete, you can simulate the model. Select Start from the Simulation menu to run the simulation. Double-click on the Scope block to view its output. Hit the

autoscale

button

(binoculars)

and

you

should

see

the

following.

Simulink Basics Tutorial - Interaction with MATLAB We will examine three of the ways in which Simulink can interact with MATLAB.

Block parameters can be defined from MATLAB variable. Signals can be exchanged between Simulink and MATLAB. Entire systems can be extracted from Simulink into MATLAB. Taking Variables from MATLAB In some cases, parameters, such as gain, may be calculated in MATLAB to be used in a Simulink model. If this is the case, it is not necessary to enter the result of the MATLAB calculation directly into Simulink. For example, suppose we calculated the gain in MATLAB in the variable K. Emulate this by entering the following command at the MATLAB command prompt. K=2.5 This variable can now be used in the Simulink Gain block. In your simulink model, doubleclick on the Gain block and enter the following in the Gain field.

Close this dialog box. Notice now that the Gain block in the Simulink model shows the variable K rather than a number.

Now, you can re-run the simulation and view the output on the Scope. The result should be the same as before.

Now, if any calculations are done in MATLAB to change any of the variab used in the Simulink model, the simulation will use the new values the next time it is run. To try this, in MATLAB, change the gain, K, by entering the following at the command prompt. K=5 Start the Simulink simulation again, bring up the Scope window, and hit the autoscale button. You will see the following output which reflects the new, higher gain.

Besides variab, signals, and even entire systems can be exchanged between MATLAB and Simulink. Simulink is a platform for multinomial simulation and Model-Based Design for dynamic systems. It provides an interactive graphical environment and a customizable set of block libraries, and can be extended for specialized applications.

TOOL BOXES of MATLAB SIGNAL PROCESSING The Signal Processing Blockset extends Simulink with efficient framebased processing and blocks for designing, implementing, and verifying signal processing systems. The blockset enables you to model streaming data and multirate systems in

communications, audio/video, digital control, radar/sonar, consumer and medical electronics, and other numerically intensive application areas. Embedded Target for Motorola MPC555 The Embedded Target for Motorola MPC555 lets you deploy production code generated from Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder directly onto MPC5xx microcontrollers. You can use the Embedded Target for Motorola MPC555 to execute code in real time on the Motorola MPC5xx for on-target rapid prototyping, production deployment of embedded applications, or validation and performance analysis. Real-Time Windows Target Real-Time Windows Target enables you to run Simulink and State flow models in real time on your desktop or laptop PC. You can create and control a real-time execution entirely through Simulink. Using Real-Time Workshop, you generate C code, compile it, and start real-time execution on Microsoft Windows while interfacing to real hardware using PC I/O boards. Other Windows applications continue to run during operation and can use all CPU cycles not needed by the real-time task.

Real-Time Workshop Real-Time Workshop generates and executes stand-alone C code for developing and testing algorithms modeled in Simulink. The resulting code can be used for many real-time and non-real-time applications, including simulation acceleration, rapid

prototyping, and hardware-in-the-loop testing. You can interactively tune and monitor the generated code using Simulink blocks and built-in analysis capabilities, or run and interact with the code outside the MATLAB and Simulink environment. Real-Time Workshop Embedded Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder generates C code from Simulink and Stateflow models that has the clarity and efficiency of professional handwritten code. The generated code is exceptionally compact and fastessential requirements for embedded systems, on-target rapid prototyping boards, microprocessors used in mass production, and real-time simulators. You can use Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder to specify, deploy, and verify production-quality software.

To let you make a side-by-side comparison between the capabilities and characteristics of the code generated by Real-Time Workshop and Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder, the demos for both products have been placed together on the Real-Time Workshop.

SimDriveline SimDriveline extends Simulink with tools for modeling and simulating the mechanics of driveline (drivetrain) systems. These tools include components such as gears, rotating shafts, and clutches; standard transmission templates; and engine and tire models. SimDriveline is optimized for ease of use and speed of calculation for driveline mechanics. It is integrated with MathWorks control design and code generation products, enabling you to design controllers and test them in real time with the model of the mechanical system. SimEvents

SimEvents extends Simulink with tools for modeling and simulating discrete-event systems using queues and servers. With SimEvents you can create a discreteevent simulation model in Simulink to model the passing of entities through a network of queues, servers, gates, and switches based on events. You can configure entities with userdefined attributes to model networks in packet-based communications, manufacturing, logistics, mission planning, supervisory control, service scheduling, and other applications. SimEvents lets you model systems that are not time-driven but are based on discrete events, such as the creation or movement of an entity, the opening of a gate, or the change in value of a signal. SimMechanics SimMechanics extends Simulink with tools for modeling and simulating mechanical systems. It is integrated with MathWorks control design and code generation products, enabling you to design controllers and test them in real time with the model of the mechanical system. Sim Power Systems SimPowerSystems extends Simulink with tools for modeling and simulating basic electrical circuits and detailed electrical power systems. These tools let you model the generation, transmission, distribution, and consumption of electrical power, as well as its conversion into mechanical power. SimPowerSystems is well suited to the development of complex, self-contained power systems, such as those in automobiles, aircraft, manufacturing plants, and power utility applications.

Simulink Accelerator The Simulink Accelerator increases the simulation speed of your model by accelerating model execution and using model profiling to help you identify performance bottlenecks.

Simulink Control Design Simulink Control Design provides advanced functionality for performing linear analysis of nonlinear models. You can extract linear approximations of a model to analyze characteristics such as time and frequency responses and pole-zero dynamics. A graphical user interface (GUI) and programming capabilities reduce the complexity and time required to develop the linearized models.

Simulink Fixed Point Simulink Fixed Point enables the intrinsic fixed-point capabilities of the Simulink product family, letting you design control and signal processing systems that will be implemented using fixed-point arithmetic.

Simulink Parameter Estimation Simulink Parameter Estimation is a tool that helps you calibrate the response of your Simulink model to the outputs of a physical system, eliminating the need to tune model parameters by trial and error or develop your own optimization routines. You can use time-domain test data and optimization methods to estimate model parameters and initial conditions and generate adaptive lookup tables in Simulink. Simulink Report Generator The Simulink Report Generator automatically creates documentation from Simulink and State flow models. You can document software requirements and design specifications and produce reports from your models, all in a standard format. You can use the pre built templates or create a template that incorporates your own styles and standards. Simulink Response Optimization

Simulink Response Optimization is a tool that helps you tune design parameters in Simulink models by optimizing time-based signals to meet user-defined constraints. It optimizes scalar, vector, and matrix-type variables and constrains multiple signals at any level in the model. Simulink Response Optimization supports continuous, discrete, and multirate models and enables you to account for model uncertainty by conducting Monte Carlo simulations. Simulink Verification and Validation Simulink Verification and Validation enables you to develop requirements-based designs and test cases in Simulink and State flow and measure test coverage. By linking requirements to your design and test cases and performing coverage analysis at the model level, you can trace requirements, validate your design, identify inadequate requirements, and expose unnecessary constructs and design flaws. State flow Stateflow is an interactive design and simulation tool for event-driven

systems. Stateflow provides the language elements required to describe complex logic in a natural, readable, and understandable form. It is tightly integrated with MATLAB and Simulink, providing an efficient environment for designing embedded systems that contain control, supervisory, and mode logic.

For the validation of the earlier discussed control approach, simulations and experiments have been carried out.

Figs. 1015 and Figs. 1621 show simulation results for fivelevels cascaded and seven-levels H-bridge inverter, respectively. For further verification, a three-phase DSP (TMS320LF2407 A) controlled five- and seven-levels cascaded H-bridge multilevel DTC induction motor drive system prototype was built and tested (see Fig. 22). The induction motor ratings are given in the Appendix. The switch ratings are (600 V/27 A) for the insulated gate bipolar transistors. The prototype is versatile; it consists of a multiwinding transformer and an inverter with a

burst structure that contains six H-bridges. The H-bridges and transformer terminals are connected through a single-phase rectifier with standard laboratory wires and connectors to get the tested, or any other desired, topology. The multilevel inverter control algorithms and the DTC are running in the same DSP. The control cycle is 120 s. It should be noted, as illustrated in Fig. 22(a), that the experimental setup was built to slightly emulate an automotive application (electric vehicle). Figs. 2326 and Figs. 2730 illustrate experimental results for five-levels cascaded and seven-levels H-bridge inverter, respectively.

The output voltages form with seven-levels stepped multilevel waveform can be clearly appreciated; the motor currents complete the overview of the performance of the drive. They appear completely sinusoidal, since the lowpass nature of the load has filtered the high-frequency content of the applied voltage. The stator flux with constant amplitude imposed by the flux controller confirms the good dynamic performance of the drive. The most important results are that torque ripple has been almost eliminated in comparison to five-levels classic DTC.

CONCLUSION

This paper dealt with a comparison study for a cascaded Hbridge multilevel DTC induction motor drive. Indeed, symmetrical and asymmetrical arrangements of five- and seven-levels H-bridge inverters have been compared in order to find an optimum arrangement with lower switching losses and optimized output voltage quality. The carried out experiments shows that an asymmetrical configuration provides nearly sinusoidal voltages with very low distortion, using less switching devices. In addition, torque ripples are greatly reduced: asymmetrical multilevel inverter enables a DTC solution for high-power induction motor drives, not only due to the higher voltage capability provided by multilevel inverters, but mainly due to the reduced switching losses and the improved output voltage quality, which provides sinusoidal current without output filter.

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