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TEST YOURSELF 4 1-50.

sorularda cmlede braklan boluu uygun ekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz 1By the end of the year, everybody who ....... unemployed for over two years ....... on a training scheme. A) is/will be sending B) was/had been sending C) has been/will have been sent D) had been/has been sent E) will be/is going to send 11- Molasses ....... as a by-product of sugar production. Several light and flavourful varieties ....... as table syrups. A) obtains/have been used B) is being obtained/will be using C) was obtained/had used D) is obtained/are used E) has been obtained/are using 12- Mark ....... to let us know that they ....... for the party. A) has phoned/will be delayed B) has been phoning/have delayed C) had been phoned/were delaying D) will be phoned/delayed E) is phoning/had been delayed 13- If the direct sunlight ....... you, I can draw the blinds. A) has been disturbed B) was disturbed C) was disturbing D) is disturbed E) is disturbing 14- Microorganisms ....... into bacteria, protozoans, algae, fungi and viruses, and the study of each ....... a separate specialty within microbiology. A) have classified/is formed B) will be classified/has been formed C) are classifying/has formed D) were classified/was formed E) are classified/forms 15- The city of Bremen, Germany, ....... into two sections: Altstadt and Neustadt. The two sections ....... by three bridges. A) is divided/are connected B) has been divided/are connecting C) was being divided/have connected D) was dividing/had been connected E) divides/connect 16- Mr Cartwright ....... at the moment for the promotion. I hope he gets the job as he ....... it. A) is interviewing/has deserved B) has been interviewed/is deserving C) is being interviewed/deserves D) will be interviewed/deserved E) interviews/will have deserved 17- If eating disorders ........ they can be fatal. A) aren't treating B) aren't treated C) weren't treated D) don't treat E) haven't treated 18- The manager would like these letters ....... out today. A) to have sent B) having sent C) to be sent D) to send E) are going to send 19- The guest rooms ...... before your cousins from Canada visit us. A) will have to be redecorated B) used to be redecorated C) will have redecorated D) must have redecorated E) had been redecorated 20- The actress Coral Atkins was so appalled by the way children ....... in state homes that she ....... her own children's home. A) are treating/was opening B) have been treated/is opened C) had treated/opens D) were treated/opened E) will be treating/is going to open 21- Coral Atkins devoted her life ....... providing a home for unwanted children. A) with B) for C) to D) about E)in 22- I hope we ....... with lunch after the presentation as I haven't brought any sandwiches. A) were served B) have been served C) serve D) are serving E)) will be served

2- The point on the surface of the Earth directly above the focus, the point where the first movement ....... place, ....... the epicenter of an earthquake. A) takes/is called B) has taken/has called C) will be taken/has been called D) was taken/was called E) is taking/will have called 3The Richter Magnitude Scale, which ....... upon the amount of energy released by the rock movements rather than upon surface damage, ....... earthquakes on a 1 to 10 scale. A) bases/has graded B) has based/was graded C) was based/is graded D) will be based/graded E) is based/grades

4- Forms of bread ....... as food since prehistoric times. Probably, the first bread ....... from acorns or beechnuts. A) were used/has been made B) will have been used/was making C) have been used/was made D) are used/used to make E) were being used/is made 5Constantin Brancusi, who ....... by the French sculptor Rodin, ....... works in bronze, stone and wood. A) influences/was created B) was influenced/created C) influenced/has created D) has been influenced/is created E) will be influencing/is creating Thatched roofs ....... in London in 1212, but they ....... to be used elsewhere even today. A) are forbidden/are continued B) have been forbidden/will continue C) forbade/have been continuing D) were forbidden/continue E) had forbidden/have continued The city of Plovdiv, on the Maritsa River in Bulgaria, ....... considerably in an earthquake in 1928. A) was damaged B) is damaged C) had damaged D) was damaging E) has been damaged

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8- All video cassettes ....... before they ....... to the hire shop. A) have to rewind/return B) should be rewound/are returned C) must have rewound/are returning D) will be rewound/were returned E) can rewind/are being returned 9- Miguel de Cervantes ....... the idea for the novel Don Quixote while in prison. The second part of the story ....... one year before he died. A) was conceived/was completing B) had conceived/has completed C) used to conceive/completes D) has conceived/must be completed E) conceived/was completed 10- Mecca ....... by tens of thousands of pilgrims annually. A) has visited B) visits C) is visited D) visited E) may be visiting

23- Professional microbiologists ........ in a wide variety of positions, but the majority ........ in universities, government agencies or industry. A) are employed/work B) used to employ/worked C) employ/have been worked D) were employed/will have worked E) can employ/should work 24- John ....... for his directness, but I think his remarks to David ....... as plain rude! A) has known/should be described B) is known/can be described C) Knew/will be describing D) has been known/were describing E) knows/must have described 25- I ....... that the car is any good until I ....... it myself. A) haven't been convinced/drove B) wasn't convincing/was driving C) won't be convinced/have driven D) wasn't convinced/had been driven E) can't be convinced/have been driven 26- The town of Balboa is situated on the site of a swamp, which ....... with the rocks dug out while the Panama Canal A) has been filled/was constructing B) has been filling/will be constructed C) was filling/had been constructed D) was filled/was being constructed E) will be filled/has been constructing 27- The tea tree ....... only in Australia, but recently people around the world ....... the oil for many medicinal purposes. A) grows/have been using B) was grown/were using C) has been grown/use D) is growing/will have used E) grew/had been used 28- Tom Thumb, the famous dwarf of the 19th century, was born Charles Sherwood Stratton, but later he ....... by his stage name, A) knew B) will know C) has been known D) has known E) was known 29- Tom Thumb ....... parents of normal height, but he only ....... to a height of 3 feet 4 inches. A) has/had been grown B) had/grew C) is having/will be grown D) had had/will grow E) was having/has grown 30- After the workers ....... from their jobs at the factory, not many of them ....... jobs quickly. A) were dismissed/had been found B) have been dismissed/were finding C) dismiss/are finding D) will have dismissed/can find E) had been dismissed/found 31- Residents who live near the nuclear power plant worry that their children ....... to radioactivity. A) expose B)exposed C) will have exposed D) had exposed E) are being exposed 32- Our manager usually comes to work dressed ....... a three piece pinstriped suit. A with B) on C) in D) about E) for 33- The organisers claim that visitors ....... at the exhibits at the EXPO2000 exhibition in Hanover, Germany. A) will be amazed B) are going to amaze C) mil have amazed D) have been amazing E) had amazed

34- When you ....... an advertisement, you ....... into account the type of people you want to be attracted to it. A) are being designed/must take B) designed/had better take C) are designing/have to take D) will design/have been taken E) had designed/will be taking 35- The National Lottery ....... twice a week in the UK: Wednesday and Saturday. A) is drawn B) is drawing C) was drawing D) draws E) has drawn 36- At the beginning of the 20th century, most solid waste ........ of by dumping it onto vacant land near where it ..... . A) had disposed/has generated B) has been disposed/generates C) will have disposed/is generating D) disposed/has been generated E) was disposed/was generated 37- Unlike many top tennis tournaments, the matches at Wimbledon are played ...... grass courts. A) with B) about C) in D) on E) by 38-After I ...... ants in the kitchen, I ...... the crack in the wall with ant powder. A) had discovered/filled B) was discovered/was filled C) was discovering/should fill D) have discovered/was filling E) discover/have been filled 39- Many home appliances, like vacuum cleaners or microwave ovens, ....... for their labour-saving or time-saving capabilities, while others ....... for their convenience. A) have chosen/will purchase B) arc chosen/are purchased C) will be chosen/purchase D) are choosing/have purchased E) choose/will be purchased 40- Airliners ........ parachutes because it is impractical to instruct passengers in their use in an emergency situation. A) aren't carried B) weren't carrying C) won't be carried D) don't carry E) hadn't carried 41- You ...... for the name of the caller before you transfer any calls. A) used to ask B) have asked C) may have asked D) should have asked E) must ask 42- It's surprising that, of the few Viking helmets that ....... in excavations so far, none ...... horns. A) were found/may have B) were finding/had C) have been found/have D) had found/were having E) are found/are having 43- The enormously heavy bill which ....... the shoveler bird its name ....... for feeding on the surface of ponds and lakes. A) was given/had been adapting B) has been given /will be adapted C) was giving/has adapted D) gives/is adapted E) will give/had been adapted 44- Because air navigation is concerned with direction and distance, the plane must be equipped ......... devices for measuring these factors. A) about B)with C) by D)on E) from 45- Of the many methods that are available today, only radio navigation ....... for all-weather flying. A) has been using B) will have used C) can be used D) had been used E) could have used

46- According to the autopsy results, the victim was shot in the back ....... a semi automatic hand gun ....... a left-handed person. A) for/from B) from/with C) in/about D) with/by E) by/for 47- Although very often the autopsy ...... only with forensic, or legal, medicine in the determination of the cause or details of death from foul play, it ...... a number of other purposes as well. A) is associated/serves B) has been associated/is served C) associated/was serving D) was associated/has been served E) had associated/served 48- The community centre can be used ....... meetings of the club whenever needed. A) with B) about C) by D) from E) for 49- The manufacturer was ....... with excitement at receiving his first large order. A) influenced B) considered C) depressed D) filled E) covered 50- After his brother made his fortune on the stock market, Scott was convinced ....... the wisdom of investing his money in stocks and shares. A) with B) from C) for D) at E) of 51-60. sorularda, verilen Trke cmlenin ngilizce dengini bulunuz. 51- Fransz yazar Albert Camus'un romanlar ve oyunlar duygusuz, anlamsz bir evreni yanstr. A) In his novels and plays, the French author Albert Camus wrote mainly about an indifferent, nonsensical universe. B) The novels and plays of the French author Albert Camus reflect an indifferent, meaningless universe. C) Albert Camus's novels and plays are often set in an imaginary, nonsensical universe. D) The French author Albert Camus wrote many plays and books about an indifferent, meaningless universe. E) Albert Camus, the French author, has a selection of novels and plays describing an indifferent, absurd universe. 52- Duyduuma gre, Brownlarn evi, hepsi evde bir filme dalmken soyulmu. A) According to what I've heard, the Browns' house was burgled while they were all at home absorbed in a film. B) I heard that the Brown's house was actually burgled while they were all at home watching a film. C) The Browns were so involved in a film that, apparently, they didn't even hear some burglars break into their house. D) I was surprised to hear that the Browns' house was broken into when they were all at home intently watching a flim. E) Apparently, thieves slipped into the back of the Browns' house while they were all watching a film on television. 53- Blgedeki personeli korumak ve hassas enstrmanlarn gvenliini salamak iin nkleer reaktrlerin iletilmesinde byk dikkat gerekmektedir. A) The safety of personnel and the protection of sensitive instruments are of great importance during the operation of nuclear reactors. B) During the operation of nuclear reactors, extreme care should be taken by the personnel in the area to protect the sensitive instruments. C) In the operation of nuclear reactors. great care is required to protect the personnel in the area and to secure the safety of the sensitive instruments. D) When operating nuclear reactors, the personnel have to take great care with safety procedures as the instruments are highly sensitive. E) They ought to take great care over the safety of personnel and the protection of the sensitive instruments in the area of the nuclear operations.

54- Eskiden Ortak Pazar ya da Avrupa Topluluu diye bilinen, Avrupa'nn ekonomik ve politik entegrasyonu iin kurulmu organizasyon, 1993'te Avrupa Birlii adn almtr. A) Founded in 1993, the European Union, formerly the Common Market or the European Community, aims to promote economic and political integration throughout Europe. B) The European Union, renamed in 1993 which had been formerly known both as the Common Market and the European Community, serves to promote economic and political integration of Europe. C) In 1993, the European Community, formerly known as the Common Market, took the name European Union and began to promote both political and economic harmony within Europe. D) Formerly known as the Common Market or European Community, the organisation founded for the economic and political integration of Europe took the name European Union in 1993. E) The institution which has promoted economic and political integration ol Europe since 1993 used to be known as the Common Market, and later, the European Community. 55- Srlar nce Asya'da evcilletirilmi olmal; nk en eski sr kemikleri, oradaki yerleim blgelerinde bulunmutur. A) According to evidence in the form of bones, Asians were most likely the first people to domesticate cattle. B) The practice of domesticating cattle most likely originated in Asia, where the oldest cattle bones have been found. C) Cattle bones which have been found in Asia are believed to be from the oldest examples of domesticated animals. D) Because very old bones have been discovered in settlements in Asia, cattle might have been first domesticated there. E) Cattle must have been domesticated in Asia first, for the oldest cattle bones have been found in settlements there. 56- Dnya Bankas'nn amac, ye lkelerdeki ekonomik gelimeyi destekleyecek projeleri finanse etmektir. A) The World Bank promotes economic development throughout the world by financing projects. B) The purpose of the World Bank is to finance projects that promote economic development in member nations. C) The member nations use the World Bank to finance projects which promote economic development. D) The World Bank aims to promote economic development in member nations by financing worldwide projects. E) The World Bank was set up to encourage development in the economics of member nations by financing projects. 57- Gilbert Stuart, zellikle George Washington'in parlak renkli portreleriyle tannr. A) George Washington was a favourite subject of Gilbert Stuart's luminously coloured portraits. B) Gilbert Stuart is especially known for his luminously coloured portraits of George Washington. C) Well-known artists, particularly Gilbert Stuart, painted some luminous portraits of George Washington. D) The famous artist Gilbert Stuart's portraits of George Washington are all luminously coloured. E) Gilbert Stuart's best-known work is a luminously coloured portrait of George Washington. 58- Zor durumlardaki davran biiminin, insann gerek karakterini aa kard sylenir. A) It is believed that a person's behaviour under pressure is a test of his or her strength of character. B) People say that how a person behaves in difficult times can show his or her true strength of character. C) Often people don't act their true selves when they are faced with great difficulties. D) It's said that the way one behaves in difficulties reveals one's real character. E) A person's true character is evident in his or her behaviour at times of real trouble.

59- Sence yeni program gelecek ay bu zamanlar uygulamaya konmu olur mu? A) Do you think the new schedule will have been introduced by this time next month? B) You think the new schedule will be introduced about this time next month, don't you? C) In your opinion, the new schedule should be introduced by this lime next month, shouldn't it? D) Do you believe that they will have introduced the new schedule by the end of next month? E) I believe we will have been introduced the new schedule before this lime next month, don't you? 60- zel diyetler ve daha bilimsel bakm sayesinde hayvanat bahelerinde eskiden olduundan ok daha fazla yavru domaktadr. A) A combination of special diets and scientific care has led to an increase in the number of baby animals born in zoos. B) The increase in births of animals in zoos recently is due mainly to special diets and more scientific care. C) Thanks to special diets and more scientific care, many more baby animals are being born in zoos than in the past. D) In the past, very few baby animals were born in zoos, but recently, this has improved due to scientific care and special diets. E) The baby animals born in zoos today are given special diets and scientific care, which results in more of them surviving than they did in the past. 61-70. sorularda, verilen ngilizce cmlenin Trke dengini bulunuz. 61- In world markets, the bigger South American bananas are preferred over the African varieties. A) Dnya piyasalarnda daha ok, Afrika trlerine gre daha irice olan Gney Amerika muzu rabet grmektedir., B) Dnya piyasalarnda, Afrika'daki trlerine tercih edilen Gney Amerika muzu daha iridir. C) Dnya piyasalar. Afrika'daki trlerine gre daha irice olan Gney Amerika muzunu tercih etmektedir. D) Dnya piyasalarnda en ok rabet gren muz Afrika trlerinden daha iri olan Gney Amerika muzudur. E) Daha iri olan Gney Amerika muzu, dnya piyasalarnda, Afrika trlerine tercih edilmektedir. 62- Many forms of anemia are acquired, which shows that they are not due to genetic disorders but develop after birth. A) Bulgular gstermitir ki aneminin, doutan gelen genetik bozukluklardan kaynaklanmayp sonradan gelien pek ok tr vardr. B) Pek ok anemi tr sonradan ortaya ktna gre, bu hastaln baz trleri genetik bozukluktan kaynaklanmyor, daha ok doduktan sonra geliiyor. C) Aneminin pek ok tr genetik bir bozukluktan kaynaklanmayp sonradan edinildigi iin bu hastaln doduktan sonra gelitii sylenebilir. D) Aneminin pek ok tr sonradan edinilmektedir ki bu da onlarn genetik bozukluktan dolay olmadn, doduktan sonra gelitiini gstermekledir. E) Baz anemi trleri genetik bir bozukluktan kaynaklanmayp doduktan sonra ortaya kmaktadr ki bu da onlarn sonradan edinildiini gsterir. 63- At yesterday's committee meeting, very interesting suggestions were made while the programme for the coming season was being discussed. A) Komitenin dnk toplantsnda, nmzdeki sezonun programyla ilgili ok ilgin neriler tartld. B) Dnk komite toplantsnda, gelecek sezonun program tartlrken ok ilgin neriler yapld. C) Komite, dnk toplantsnda, gelecek sezonun programn grrken ok ilgin neriler getirdi. D) Dnk komite toplantsnn gndemi, ilgin nerilerin tartld gelecek sezonun programyd. E) ok ilgin nerilerin yapld gelecek sezonun program tartmas dnk komite toplantsnda yapld.

64- The police think that this assault case is connected with the murder committed last week in the dockyards. A) Polis, bu saldr olaynn geen hafta tersanede ilenen cinayetle balantl olduunu dnyor. B) Polise gre bu saldr olayyla geen hafta tersanede islenen cinayet arasnda balant olabilir. C) Polis, geen haftaki tersane cinayetiyle bu saldr arasnda balant olduundan kukulanyor. D) Polis, bu saldr olaynn geen hafta tersanede ilenen cinayetle ilikisi olabilecei kansnda. E) Polis, bu saldn ile geen hafta tersanede ilenen cinayet arasnda bir balant olduunu zannediyordu. 65- Children learn to speak without any special training, but reading and writing need to be specially taught. A) ocuklar konumay zel bir eitim olmakszn renirler ama okuma ve yazmann zel olarak retilmesi gerekir. B) ocuklar zel bir aba sarfetmeden konumay renebilirler ancak okuma ve yazmann retilmesi eitimi gerektirir. C) ocuklar konumay renmek iin zel bir eitim almazlar fakat okuma yazma renmek iin zel bir eitime ihtiyalar vardr. D) ocuklar konumay kendiliinden rendikleri halde okuma yazmay ancak zel bir eitimle renebilirler. E) ocuklar konumay renirken zel bir eitim gerekmese de, okuma yazma renebilmeleri iin zel bir eitim arttr. 66- Over many centuries people have cleared away great expanses of forests for agriculture and settlement. A) Asrlardr byk miktarlarda orman insanlar tarafndan tarm ve yerleim iin yok edilmektedir. B) nsanlar, asrlar boyunca ormanlar byk lde tarm ve yerleim iin yok etliler. C) Asrlar boyunca insanlar, byk miktarlarda orman, tarm ve yerleim iin yok etmilerdir. D) nsanlar, asrlardan beri byk miktarlarda orman yok ederek tarm ve yerleim alan yapmlardr. E) nsanlarn, tarm ve yerleim iin byk orman alanlarn yok etme eylemleri asrlardan beri devan etmektedir. 67- According to Aztecs law, theft of corn from a field used to be punished by slavery or execution. A) Tarladan msr alma suu Aztek yasalarna gre, kle olmay ya da idam edilmeyi gerektiriyordu. B) Aztek yasalar, tarladan msr almay klelik ya da idamla cezalandrrd. C) Aztek yasalarnda, msrn tarladan alnmasnn cezas klelik ya da idam olurdu. D) Yasalara gre Aztekler, tarladan msr alanlar klelie ya da idama mahkum ederlerdi. E) Aztek yasalarna gre tarladan msr almak klelik ya da idamla cezalandrlrd. 68- The relics left in caves have helped greatly in tracing the movements of early people and in understanding their lives. A) lk insanlarn faaliyetlerinin takip edilmesinde ve onlarn yaamlarnn anlalmasnda maaralarda braklan kalntlardan yararlanlmtr. B) Maaralarda braklan kalntlar, ilk insanlarn etkinliklerinin izini srmede ve onlarn yaamn anlamada ok yardmc olmutur. C) Maaralardaki kalntlar sayesinde ilk insanlarn etkinliklerinin izini srp yaam biimlerini byk lde anlayabildik. D) lk insanlarn maaralarda braktklar kalntlar, onlarn etkinliklerini izlememizi ve yaam tarzlarn anlamamz salamtr. E) ilk insanlarn faaliyetlerini izlemek ve yaam tarzlarn anlamak iin byk lde maaralardaki kalntlar kullanlmtr.

69- In ancient Egypt, not only humans but sacred animals, particularly cats, were also mummified. A) Eski Msr'da kutsal hayvanlar olarak kabul edilen kediler, ayn insanlar gibi, mumyalanrd. B) Eski Msrllar, yalnzca insanlar deil, kedi gibi, kutsal kabul ettikleri hayvanlar da mumyalyorlard. C) Eski Msrllar, kutsal olduunu dndkleri hayvanlar, zellikle de kedileri, ayn insanlar gibi mumyalyorlard. D) Eski Msr'da sadece insanlar deil, kutsal hayvanlar da, zellikle kediler, mumyalanyordu. E) Eski Msr'da insanlarn yan sra, zellikle kediler bata olmak zere, kutsal hayvanlar da mumyalanmtr. 70- As a breed, Holsteins are noted for producing the most milk, but their milk ranks among the lowest in butterfat percentage. A) St ya oran bakmndan en alt sralarda yer almasna karn, holstein cinsi, ok byk miktarda st verdii iin rabet grmektedir. B) Cins olarak holsteinlar en fazla st vermekle dikkati eker ama stleri ya oran bakmndan en alt sralarda yer alr. C) Cins olarak st verimleri ok yksek olsa da holsteinlar, stlerindeki ya orannn azl nedeniyle en alt sralarda yer almaktadrlar. D) St verimlerinin yksek oluuyla dikkati eken holstein cinsinin alt sralarda yer almasnn nedeni stlerindeki ya orannn azldr. E) Holsteinlar, st verimi ok yksek bir cins olarak bilinir ama onlar sralamada stlerindeki ya oran bakmndan en alttadr. 71-85. sorularda, verilen cmleye anlamca en yakn olan seenei bulunuz. 71- This morning I drove past a pheasant, which had been run over. A) I passed a pheasant, which someone had run over, in my car this morning. B) This morning I overtook the driver who had run down a pheasant in his car. C) Unfortunately, I ran over a pheasant in my car this morning. D) I couldn't avoid running over a pheasant, which appeared in front of me so suddenly, this morning. E) I'm afraid I killed a pheasant this morning as I ran over it. 72- Due to a school boy's protests, a hazard warning sign has been erected at the point where ducks often cross the road. A) A school boy protested about the hazard warning sign, which had been put up at a place near a habitat of ducks. B) They put up a hazard warning sign at the place which is frequently used by ducks to cross the road after the protests by a pupil. C) A school boy suggests that the ducks could be protected if they put a hazard warning sign on the road. D) A pupil from a nearby school put up a hazard warning sign at the side of the road in order to protect the ducks which often cross there. E) The hazard warning sign was erected to warn the school boys not to disturb the ducks which live near the side of the road. 73- Not being selected for promotion disappointed him. A) He will be disappointed if he is not chosen for promotion. B) To his disappointment, they gave the manager's job to someone else. C) He was disappointed when he was not chosen for promotion. D) He wasn't promoted because his performance was so disappointing. E) His disappointment must have been connected with his colleague's promotion. 74- Despite being criticised by journalists, the Millennium Dome has attracted thousands of visitors. A) Thousands of people have visited the Millennium Dome even though journalists criticised it. B) The Millennium Dome had received thousands of visitors before journalists criticised it. C) Many of the visitors to the Millennium Dome have criticised it to journalists. D) The criticism of journalists dissuaded thousands of people from visiting the Millennium Dome. E) The Millennium Dome has been criticised by thousands of journalists who have visited it.

75- In England, as in Turkey, many surnames are derived from the skills and professions of ancestors. A) Most sons in England, as in Turkey, are named after their father's profession. B) Surnames in most countries, including England and Turkey, are based on the names of former skills and professions. C) Different from in Turkey, many of our ancestors in England were named after their skill or profession. D) Surnames in England can often be traced back to the skills and professions of ancestors, as is the case in Turkey. E) Many skills or professions in both England and Turkey are named after the surnames of the ancestors who carried them out. 76- This course of ours has been developed for users with no experience of Microsoft Excel. A) We believe that the people who developed this course have never used Microsoft Excel. B) We require you to have at least some experience of Microsoft Excel to take this course. C) During this course, we will help you develop your skills on Microsoft Excel. D) Your skills on Microsoft Excel will be enhanced during this course of ours. E) We have designed this course for people who have never used Microsoft Excel. 77- An effective antibacterial substance in crocodiles' blood has just been discovered. A) They have very recently identified an clfective antibody in crocodiles' blood. B) Crocodiles have remarkable antibacterial substances in their blood. C) The latest discovery in the field of medicine is that crocodiles have an effective antibody in their blood. D) They have just started looking at crocodiles' blood in order to find an antibody which fights resistant bacteria. E) Scientists have concluded that crocodiles' blood must contain antibodies. 78- Generally, scientists prefer to keep the details of their research secret until something has been proved. A) Scientists often worry about public reaction to their research if they haven't proved something with concrete evidence. B) In general, up until they have proved something, scientists would rather not disclose details of their research. C) Usually, people would like to learn the details of scientists' research even before they have proved their theories. D) Scientists don't have to release information about their work until they have proved something. E) Generally, scientists keep their findings to themselves, especially when they are difficult to explain to the public. 79- Before Mozambique can be restored to normal, considerable investment is required. A) It's normal that Mozambique requires significant investment in order to acheive a higher standard of living. B) The fate of Mozambique can only be altered with sizeable investment. C) Normally, stability in Mozambique cannot be achieved without some investment from overseas. D) They consider investing large sums to help relieve the suffering in Mozambique. E) Mozambique will need significant investment before the country can return to normal.

80- In Greek mythology, Medusa transformed whoever looked into her eyes to stone. A) According to Greek myth, anyone who glanced into the eyes of Medusa was turned to stone. B) The ancient Greeks believed that Medusa was capable of turning people to stone by looking at them. C) Medusa in Greek myth was a monster who turned lots of people into stone by glancing at them. D) It's believed that Medusa in Greek mythology was turned into stone when people looked into her eyes. E) Medusa is a Greek goddess who is believed to turn anything she looks at to stone. 81- Despite a great deal of improvements in public transport, congestion on the roads in Birmingham is getting worse. A) The problem of Birmingham's congested roads could be solved with significant improvement to public transport. B) A great deal of improvements in public transport are needed in order to relieve the congestion on Birmingham's roads. C) Public transport has been improved considerably, yet the roads in Birmingham are getting more and more congested. D) More roads are needed in Birmingham to relieve the congestion, which has been increasing due to inadequate public transport. E) Congestion in Birmingham could not be reduced until they built new roads and improved public transport a great deal. 82- The current English national football team manager used to be a player for Liverpool. A) At the moment, he manages both the English national football team and Liverpool. B) Before he managed the English national football team, he managed Liverpool. C) At one time the person currently managing the English national team played for Liverpool. D) He used to play for Liverpool, but now he only plays for the English national football team. E) Currently, he combines managing the English national football team with playing for Liverpool. 83- Every year, our local florist donates the flowers for the charity's annual concert. A) The flowers for the yearly charity concert are always donated by the florist in our neighbourhood. B) This year, the florist in our neighbourhood supplied the flowers for the charity's annual concert. C) Our local florist didn't charge the charity for the flowers which she provided for their concert. D) Every year, the charity asks the florist in our neighbourhood to donate some flowers for their concerts. E) Some of the profits from the flowers sold by our local florist go to fund the charity's annual concert. 84- Why this girl was sacrificed on the mountain summit will probably remain a mystery for ever. A) It appears that it will take some time to prove why this girl was sacrificed on the mountain summit. B) The reason for this mountain top sacrifice of a girl has to be discovered. C) It isn't yet clear why such a sacrifice of a young girl on a mountain top took place. D) It is likely that the reason for the sacrifice of this girl on the top of the mountain will never be known. E) We only have vague theories about why these sacrifices of girls took place on mountain tops.

85- Tom Higdon was dismissed from his job as a teacher in 1911 for suggesting that the children of farm workers should be educated. A) Tom Higdon was fired from his job as a teacher in 1911 when he refused to educate the children of agricultural workers. B) In 1911, the teacher Tom Higdon was fired because he proposed the education of children of farm workers. C) Tom Higdon's suggestions in 1911 that the children of farm workers didn't deserve to be educated led to his dismissal. D) In 1911, Tom Higdon was fired from his post as a teacher for teaching the children of farm workers who shouldn't have been educated. E) After being fired from his teaching position in 1911, Tom Higdon suggested that the children of farm workers ought to be educated. TEST YOURSELF 4 l.C 2.A 3.E 4.C 5.B 6.D 7.A 8.B 9.E 10.C 11.D 12.A 13.E 14.E 15.A 16.C 17.B 18.C 19.A 20.D 21.C 22.E 23.A 24.B 25.C 26.D 27.A 28.E 29.B 30.E 31.E 32.C 33.A 34.C 35.A 36.E 37.D 38.A 39.B 40.D 41.E 42.C 43.D 44.B 45.C 46.D 47.A 48.E 49.D 50.E 51.B 52.A 53.C 54.D 55.E 56.B 57.B 58.D 59.A 60.C 61.E 62.D 63.B 64.A 65.A 66.C 67.E 68.B 69.D 70.B 71.A 72.B 73.C 74.A 75.D 76.E 77.A 78.B 79.E 80.A 81.C 82.C 83.A 84.D 85.B