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The performance of rubber-based control systems for the seismic protection of cable-stayed bridges: A state-of-the-art review

Abstract The application of seismic control strategies to reduce the structural response of cable-stayed bridges has increased remarkably in recent years. Recent studies show that passive control devices rather than active or semi-active systems significantly decrease the seismically induced forces and the displacements of cable-stayed bridges. Despite the usefulness of rubber materials as passive seismic control devices and their cost efficiency in comparison with other control strategies, few research works have studied the behavior of rubber-based seismic control systems of cable-stayed bridges. In this paper, a review of the research carried out on the characteristics of rubber materials and the performance of rubber-based seismic control devices for controlling the displacements and the earthquake-induced forces in cable-stayed bridges are given. The recent proposed rubber-based isolation systems and dampers are also discussed in this paper. Different comparative studies are presented to compare the performance of rubber-based control systems with other proposed passive devices for the earthquake protection of cable-stayed bridges. Based on the previous research work, recommendations for future investigations are suggested.

Keywords: Cable-stayed bridge; Viscoelastic model; Rubber-based control system; seismic control; structural response.

1. Introduction
For many years, engineering communities have made an effort to control the earthquake input energy in structures and thus to mitigate their structural response to the ground motions. Innovative isolation systems and supplemental energy dissipation devices have been developed as seismic control techniques, and they are economical alternatives to traditional earthquake control methods. The effectiveness of the control devices and their applications to structures have been investigated in past research works1-6. Several types of isolation and supplemental damping systems, including passive, semi-active and active control devices, have been developed widely for the seismic design of structures in recent decades 7-14. Cable-stayed bridges are complex superstructures with long natural periods and low damping properties, and thus their dynamic characteristics depend significantly on the behavior of their structural components. Due to the sensitivity of cable-stayed bridges to the dynamic loading, the application of control devices, which aim to lengthen the natural period or increase the energy dissipating capability of the bridges under dynamic loads, is a promising way to mitigate the vibration caused by natural disasters such as earthquakes. The utilization of isolation bearings decreases the base shear and the bending moment of the towers and piers significantly; however, they increase the displacement response of the deck during an earthquake. To overcome the undesirable displacements and to provide energy dissipation, supplemental damper systems with a large stroke capacity and a high damping force are required for seismic protection of long-span cable-stayed bridges in seismically high risk areas. The first studies on the effectiveness of seismic isolation techniques for cable-stayed bridges were performed by Ali and AbdelGhaffar15,16, who proposed lead rubber bearing (LRB) devices as passive control systems. Since then, a variety of research works have proposed different control strategies by applying

analytical or experimental approaches to reduce the transmission of the earthquake motion to the cable-stayed bridge structure17-25. It has been observed in recent studies that the utilization of passive isolators and dissipating devices, rather than active or semi-active devices, significantly reduces the displacements and the seismically induced forces of cable-stayed bridges18,22. The passive control systems provide an internal action similar to the active devices, but they are reusable and do not require any external power. In the field of seismic engineering, the use of rubber in structural control devices for bridges and buildings has increased remarkably. Laminated natural rubber (NR) bearings and lead rubber bearings (LRB) are the most commonly used isolation devices, and they effectively reduce the seismic forces of cable-stayed bridges. More recently, high damping rubbers (HDR) with good load-bearing ability and damping characteristics, in which the rubber composition is changed to provide high damping properties, have been applied successfully to mitigate seismic effects on superstructures such as cable-stayed bridges. Despite all of the advantages of utilizing rubber materials as seismic control systems and their cost efficiency in comparison with other control devices, few studies have investigated the performance of rubber-based seismic control systems, and it is essential that more research be conducted to characterize and model rubber-based isolation and damper systems for the earthquake protection of cable-stayed bridges. This study investigates the performance of rubber-based control devices to increase their application for seismic protection of cable-stayed bridges. Moreover, different rubber-based devices as seismic control systems for cable-stayed bridges are reviewed and compared with other proposed systems to find some suggestions to improve the dynamic behavior of cable-

stayed bridges in the future; however, the detailed discussions are limited to recent systems that have been evaluated experimentally or analytically.

2. Characterize the behavior of rubber-based control systems


Rubber is a highly elastic material; however, the stress in rubber materials depends on more than the strain. The magnitude of the strain, the temperature, stress-softening, the strain amplitude, and the frequency also affect the behavior of rubber in an isolation system. The behavior of rubber is also time-dependent, which leads to a hysteresis when it is exposed to cyclic loading, in the case of free oscillations, the energy lost will act as damping. In addition, the amount of fillers, such as carbon black, leads to stress-softening of rubber-based systems and a phenomenon called the .Mullins effect. that affects the mechanical properties of rubber significantly26-29. This aspect is particularly important in the HDR-based devices used to reduce the effect of seismic events that rarely occur. In recent decades, some constitutive models, such as elastic models, hyperelastic models, and viscoelastic models, have been developed to describe the mechanical behavior of rubber materials30-34. The results of recent studies show that the viscoelastic models describe the dynamic behavior of rubber-based isolation systems as well 29, 36-39. Different experimental and analytical works have been performed to characterize linear viscoelastic material behavior of rubber materials40-46. However, the experimental investigations on the force-displacement relationship of rubber-based control systems, which undergo compression and shear, show strong nonlinearities and stiffening behavior of rubber-based materials 47,
48

. The nonlinear force-

displacement relation of rubber-based control systems are generally modeled by equivalent linear elastic-viscous and bilinear hysteretic behaviors in recent studies and specifications49-54.

According to all experimental and analytical studies characterizing the nonlinear behavior of rubber-based isolation devices, the selection of the analytical model for control devices affects the dynamic responses of the isolated structures significantly53, 55-59. The equivalent linear model is applied extensively in the numerical studies of NR bearings. The linear restoring force of the bearing () in the equivalent linear model is defined as (JRA 2002)

& Fb = kb xb + cb x b

(1)

Where and kb are the effective damping and the stiffness of the isolation system and and xb are the velocity and the displacement of the device, respectively. The isolation time-period () and the damping ratio () can be defined as Tb = 2 M kb

(2)

b =

cb 2M b

(3)

where M is the mass of the structure and is the isolation frequency. The equivalent linear elastic stiffness of each cycle of loading ( kb ) can be calculated from the force-displacement curve of the isolator as
kb = F+ F +

(4)

where F + and F are the positive and negative forces of the test displacements + and , respectively. A schematic of the equivalent linear model of rubber-based isolators is shown in

Fig. 1. The model presented is also applied to model high damping rubber bearings (HDRB) in some studies52, 60, 61.

Fig. 1. Equivalent linear model

The bilinear model is recommended in specifications to represent the nonlinear inelastic hysteretic characteristics of HDRBs and LRBs49-51. The hysteretic characteristics of LRBs can be modeled by applying the Bounc-Wen hysteresis model 58, 60, 62-64 in which the restoring force of the LRB is described as
Fb = cb xb + kb x + (1 )Qd z
&

(5)

where is the ratio of the pre-yielding stiffness and the post-yielding stiffness; kb and are the pre-yield stiffness and the viscous damping, respectively; x is the horizontal shear displacement of the LRB; is the yielding load; and z is the dimensionless form of the hysteretic variation, where |z|1. To define the bilinear model for seismic isolation systems, the initial elastic stiffness,, the post-yield stiffness, kb , the characteristic strength, Q, and the yield displacement, q, are required parameters, as presented in Fig.2.

Fig. 2. Equivalent bilinear model

Although the bilinear model has been applied widely to model rubber-based isolation systems, some research works show that the present classical bilinear model cannot represent the actual behavior of rubber-based bearing systems as well 65. Different analytical and rheological models have been proposed to characterize the mechanical behavior of LRBs
35, 37, 42, 67, 71, 72 66-70

and HDRB devices

34,

regarding the nonlinear rate-dependent hysteresis of the rubber-based isolation

systems. Regarding the experimentally observed rate-dependent phenomena in rubber materials, more investigations should be conducted through experimental studies and upgrading the modeling techniques to characterize the behavior of rubber-based isolation systems. The behavior of rubber-based dissipating devices, which undergo pure shear strain, is different from that of the rubber-based isolators that experience strains due to compression and shear. Very few experimental and analytical studies have focused on characterizing the behavior of rubber-based dissipating devices that endure pure shear strain during seismic loading. Thus, there is a lack of information on the performance of rubber and HDR-based dampers as seismic control systems for cable-stayed bridges. DallAsta and Ragni
38

were among the first to

characterize the behavior of HDR-based dissipating devices through cyclic experimental tests. They developed a nonlinear thermodynamically compatible rheological model to describe the HDR behavior under pure shear. The proposed analytical model, which considers the Mullins

effect and strain-rate dependence of HDR dampers, shows good agreement with experimental test results. However, the investigations in this subject are not adequate and there is a need for extensive experimental and analytical studies to characterize the behavior of rubber-based dampers.

3. Application of rubber-based seismic control systems in cable-stayed bridges


Despite the difficulties on characterizing the complex behavior of rubber materials, different rubber-based seismic control systems including isolation devices and supplemental dampers have been proposed in recent years to mitigate the earthquake response of bridges and buildings. LRBs are most widely used rubber-based isolation devices in the earthquake protection of structures. Furthermore, HDR dampers have been developed recently as economic seismic control devices for structures because they have a high damping force and a large stroke capacities, which absorb large amounts of energy without an axial force52. Regarding the effectiveness of rubber and HDR materials in the earthquake protection, the application of rubber-based seismic control systems in cable-stayed bridges is investigated in this paper.

3.1.

Laminated rubber bearings

Laminated rubber bearings, which consist of thin layers of natural rubber (NR) or synthetic rubber bonded to steel plates, are the most commonly used seismic control devices for long-span bridges. Laminated NR bearings provide a high vertical stiffness and a considerable horizontal flexibility to accommodate the ground motion during an earthquake 73, 74. However, the low

damping of NR bearings, which is typically less than 7% for the range of shear strains from 0 to 2.0, renders them less effective in comparison with other passive control systems. The rubber bearings with high damping were developed by Malaysian Rubber Producers, an Association (MRPRA) of United Kingdom in 1982. The application of laminated HDRBs, which possess high damping properties, has increased remarkably in recent years. The high damping of HDR is provided by addition of the chemical compounds (generally carbon black in seismic control systems, which improves the stiffness, the relaxation characteristics, the creep, and the fatigue life of the rubber) that may also affect the other mechanical properties of the NR. The flexibility and energy absorption capability of HDR-based isolation systems result in the absorption of the earthquake input energy before transmission to the structure and enhance the serviceability of the structure75-78. Few studies have investigated the application of laminated HDRBs as seismic control systems for cable-stayed bridges60, 61. However, there are further rooms for studies on the behavior of isolated bridges with HDRB seismic control systems. The first application of HDRBs for seismic protection of cable-stayed brides was in the Santarem Bridge in Portugal (2000), with a 246 m main span. Fig. 3 shows the installed laminated HDRBs in under construction Penang second cable-stayed bridge in Malaysia.

Fig. 3. HDRBs installed on the Penang second bridge in Malaysia (completion in 2013)

3.2.

Lead rubber bearings (LRB)

LRB devices with high inherent damping properties were invented by Robinson 79 in New Zealand and have been widely applied as isolation systems for buildings and bridges in New Zealand and worldwide. LRBs are laminated rubber bearings with a lead core in the center to provide additional hysteretic damping by elastic deformation. The LRB devices possess much higher damping than HDRBs while do not have their disadvantages such as scragging, dependence on load history, strain history and velocity. During severe earthquakes, the lead plug of LRB is capable of deforming through low-cycle plastic deformations 80, 81. In the case of large displacements, the steel plates force the lead plug to deform in shear and absorb energy that may affect the higher modes of the structure82. Ali and Abdel-Ghaffar15, 16 were among the first to propose LRBs as seismic control systems for cable-stayed bridges. Their studies showed that the application of LRBs significantly reduces the moments at the pier-foundation and deck-cable connections while transmitting less force to the abutment. More recently, few studies have discussed the effect of LRB devices on the seismic response of cable-stayed bridges24, 58, 83, 84. The results of investigations indicated that the LRB control systems improve the base shear and the bending moments while increase the displacement response of the cable-stayed bridges. The lead-core rubberized metal bearings are newly installed in Russky Island Bridge in Russia (completed in 2012) to provide energy dissipation during earthquakes. Although different research works have illustrated the efficiency of LRBs as control systems for structures, there are few applications of such devices for seismic control of cable-stayed bridges. The complex nonlinear behavior of rubber-based isolators and increasing the displacement response of the structure could have been restricted their application as seismic control system of cable-stayed bridges.

3.3.

HDR-based dampers

Laminated rubber dampers have been used extensively as wind vibration control systems for cable-stayed bridges in recent decades, (Odawara Blueway Bridge in Japan, Meiko Nshi Bridge in Japan, Christopher S. Bond Bridge in Missouri, Hale Boggs Memorial Bridge in Louisiana, Bai Chay Bridge in Vietnam). However, the required damping for seismic protection is considerably greater than that for wind vibration control. The greater intensity of the seismic loads, which leads to greater displacements in the dampers, requires devices with very high damping to control the deformation during the earthquake. The HDR-based dampers, as viscoelastic systems, could be promising dissipating devices for cable-stayed bridges due to their high damping properties and fading memory material characteristics. Although different research works have verified the effectiveness of the viscoelastic dampers to reduce the seismic response of cable-stayed bridges18,61, few studies have investigated the behavior of isolated cable-stayed bridges by HDR or other rubber-based dampers. Igarashi et al. 65 evaluated the performance of HDR dampers through investigating the experimentally simulated seismic response of an isolated bridge model. The schematic configuration of the proposed control system is presented in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Overview of the laminated HDR dampers of a cable-stayed bridge 65

The real-time hybrid experimental system was implemented using the concept of velocitybased loading control to validate the response reduction performance of the laminated HDR damper as an energy dissipation device applied to a real cable-stayed bridge (Higashi Kobe Bridge). The displacement response of the bridge with laminated HDR dampers and without these devices was evaluated during the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. The application of the laminated HDR dampers reduced the seismic response of the bridge as much as 30.6%, which is a considerable response reduction. However, more extensive studies in future would clarify the performance of HDR dampers as dissipating devices for cable-stayed bridges.

4. Discussions
The detailed literature review reveals that the application of rubber-based control systems significantly controls the structural responses of cable-stayed bridges during earthquakes. However, few research works have been conducted to compare the performance of rubber-based isolators and dampers with other control strategies. Saha and Jangid60 presented a comparative

performance study to investigate the earthquake response of the phase-I benchmark cable-stayed bridge86 with different isolation systems consisting of HDRBs, LRBs, friction pendulum systems (FPS), and resilient-friction base isolators (RFBI). The evaluation criteria J1 to J18 were defined to evaluate the effectiveness of various control systems for the El Centro (1940), Mexico City (1985) and Gebze (1999) earthquakes (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5. Evaluation criteria for different control systems 86

Based on the numerical simulation results, all types of isolation systems were effective to control the seismic responses of the bridge for three earthquake ground motions. However, the LRBs had more consistent performance and were more effective than the other isolators to reduce the transmitted loads by different ground motions (Fig. 6). Moreover, it was found from the parametric study that LRB is more robust than other isolators.

Fig. 6. Comparison of different control systems according to evaluation criteria (dimensionless)

It was also observed in this study that the earthquake ground motions and the parameters of the control systems (the isolation time period for all control devices, the damping ratio for HDRB, the normalized yield strength for LRB and the frictional coefficient for both FPS and RFBI) significantly affect the seismic response of the structure.

More recently, Soti and Saha61 reviewed the effectiveness of passive seismic control devices, such as LRBs, HDRBs, FPS, viscoelastic dampers, and elastoplastic dampers on structural responses of the phase-I benchmark cable-stayed bridge. The application of viscoelastic dampers, which couple the isolating properties of the elastic parts with the dissipating properties of the viscous materials such as rubber, was found to be one of the best strategies to reduce the displacements and dissipate the seismic energy in cable-stayed bridges (Fig. 7). The detailed information about the properties of the studied control systems can be found in the literature.

Fig. 7.

Comparison of maximum deck displacement related to different damper systems in different earthquake records (El Centro, Mexico City, and Gebze earthquakes)

The results of this study also indicated that the application of HDRBs and LRBs increase the displacement response of the deck in different ground motions rather than other isolation systems. Different research works have made efforts to find a solution to reduce the earthquakeinduced displacements of isolated bridges. Hybrid control systems have been developed in recent decades for the seismic protection of cable-stayed bridges which can alleviate some of the previous restrictions of protection strategies. A hybrid control system is defined as a combination of a passive control system, to mitigate the seismic forces in the structure, with an active, semiactive or other passive control device, to further reduce the deck displacement of cable-stayed

bridges. During the severe earthquakes, the passive control system provides protection even if the active control device fails to operate. The application of LRBs and HDRBs as passive control devices of hybrid systems have been increased in recent years. Park et al. 25 presented LRB-based hybrid control systems for seismic protection of a phase-II benchmark cable-stayed bridge 87. LRBs were used as passive control devices to reduce the earthquake-induced forces in the bridge and hydraulic actuators (HA) or magnetorheological fluid dampers (MFD) were used as additional control devices to further reduce the bridge responses, especially deck displacements. The numerical simulations in this study demonstrated that the proposed hybrid control systems could effectively control the structural responses of cable-stayed bridges in different earthquake records (El Centro, Mexico City, and Gebze earthquakes) as shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. Comparison of maximum deck displacement for three earthquakes (X-direction, Incidence angle =15)

Jung et al. 21 proposed a hybrid control strategy combining LRBs as passive isolation devices, and semi-active dampers as supplemental damping devices. The comparative investigations of their study indicated that the performance of the hybrid control systems were nearly the same overall as the passive control systems (consisting LRBs and viscous dampers) and were slightly better than active control systems and the hybrid control system using LRBs and active devices (Fig. 9).

Fig. 9. Comparison of maximum deck displacement related to different control systems for three earthquakes

In recent years, different research works have emphasized the efficiency of LRB-based hybrid control systems based on numerical studies23,
84

. However, it seems that there are limited

investigations in applying rubber-based hybrid control systems for cable-stayed bridges and accurate experimental studies are required in future to verify the performance of rubber-based Hybrid systems as seismic control strategy for cable-stayed bridges.

5. Conclusions and remarks


The utilization of appropriate control strategies to mitigate the seismic responses of cable-stayed bridges requires accurate knowledge of the cost efficiency, the simplicity, requirements, maintenance, dynamic range, and other factors of the control devices. Regarding the reusability, cost efficiency and durability of rubber materials a detailed review on the rubber-based passive control systems is presented in this paper in terms of their effectiveness to control the structural responses of cable-stayed bridges. The following aspects can be found from different research works on this subject:

According to all research on the behavior of rubber-based seismic control systems, the

selection of the analytical model for control devices affects the structural responses of the isolated bridges significantly. The behavior of rubber-based control systems is strongly nonlinear during the seismic loading. Although the equivalent linear and bilinear models have been applied widely to model the nonlinear characteristics of rubber-based isolation devices, recent studies illustrate that more accurate analytical models are required to represent the ratedependent behavior of rubber-based isolation systems. In terms of rubber-based dissipating devices, few research works have focused on characterizing the behavior of rubber and HDR dampers. More extensive experimental and analytical studies should be conducted to characterize the behavior of rubber-based isolation systems and dissipating devices to increase the application of rubber materials as control systems particularly for seismic protection of cable-stayed bridges. Despite all the advantages of HDRB and LRB control systems and their wide application

as seismic isolation of bridges, some difficulties such as their complex behavior, being robust in comparison with other isolators, and increasing the displacement response of the deck have restricted their application as control devices of cable-stayed bridges. Conducting accurate analytical and experimental investigations would help to find some aspects to improve the performance of rubber-based isolation systems and overcome the limitations in their application as seismic control devices of cable-stayed bridges. The comparison of the seismic isolation systems in the literature shows that the LRBs

have more consistent performance in different ground motions and are more effective than other isolators for controlling the earthquake-induced forces of cable-stayed bridges. However, the application of LRBs increases the displacement of the deck and there is a need

to find a solution to control the displacement response of isolated bridges. The application of LRB-based hybrid control systems has been shown to be an efficient strategy to control the seismic-induced responses of cable-stayed bridges, particularly deck displacements. However, the studies on this subject are very limited hence experimental studies are required to characterize the behavior of hybrid systems and to verify the performance of rubber-based hybrid seismic control systems of cable-stayed bridges. Numerical studies show that laminated HDR dampers reduce the earthquake-induced

responses of cable-stayed bridges significantly. However, the performance of HDR dampers in seismic control of cable-stayed bridges should be compared with other dissipating systems in future studies to verify their efficiency. The performance of rubber-based dampers located in different places of cable-stayed bridges would be one of the future challenges in this subject. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank all previous researchers that their studies have been reviewed in this paper. The research reported in this paper is sponsored by remarked GRA research grants (UKM-HEJIM-INDUSTRI-07-2010) funded by the National University of Malaysia (UKM) and (FRGS/1/2011/TK/UKM/02/13) founded by Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia.

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