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Problems faced during wet processing of Cotton Knitwea r: Knitwear Probable causes and remedial measures

Clariant India Ltd.


- Mr. A. K. Prasad - Mr. S. Pitchai - Mr. J. B. Pawar

The main endeavour of any business enterprise is to produce acceptable quality product at minimum cost. With the advent of new dyeing machines, advanced speciality chemicals and application of management technology, producing QUALITY FABRICS is possible by appropriate utilisation of technology & process control right from knitting to finishing. As far as processing is concerned, processing of tubular fabric is being done in softflow machines more and more even though processing in winches is also still being continued. Since knit goods are predominantly dyed using REACTIVE dyestuffs, problems related to reactive dyeing only are discussed. In overflows jets, there are four factors that should be adjusted when setting up a machine for process. These are 1. WATER LEVEL 2. WINCH SPEED 3. JET PRESSURE 4. NOZZLE SETTING (Depending on the machine) All these factors will influence the running of the machine & affect the quality of fabric dyed, even though appropriate chemicals & dyestuffs are used. The following are some of the common problems faced during the wet processing of knit goods, its causes and remedial measures.

PRE-TREATMENT
Problems
1. Entanglement of fabrics

Probable Causes
l Very less jet-pressure, over loading of

Remedial Measures
l Adjust the jet pressure, calculate

fabrics, causing fabric tube to Jam in front of the machine, making it difficult for the winch to lift and transport the fabric.
l Too high jet pressure also leads to

weight of the fabric to be loaded based on the rope length,diameter of the tube & gsm.
l Always load the fabric at warm

entanglement at the reel and accumulation of fabric at the rear side of the machine.

after adding Sandoclean PCJ/ LFD/HPJ Liq. For foams due to impurities (lubricants, wax), antifoam based on non-silicone chemicals are recommended, Antimussol HT2S Liq. dyeing and pretreatment.

l Foaming due to the presence of lubricants

l Check the filter and clean before

used for knitting or due to surfacants / wetting agents that has more foaming properties. 2. Oil marks on fabrics
l If the fabric is stored for more than a week,

l Use Elfugin KNIT as lubricat-

it may oxidise depending on the quality of knitting oil or lubricant used. The quantity of such oil/lubricant on the fabric can be more because of splashing of oil due to unexpected machiner y problems or due to irregularity of yarn.
l Improper house keeping and handling

ing agent while knitting.


l Oxidised oil marks are removed

by special scouring with 1.0-2.0% Sandoclean PC/PCJ Liq., 0.75 - 1.5% Imerol SR Liq. Boil, 30 min. at pH 9.0 followed by rinsing after neutralising.
l Lab pre-trials are required

of rolls.

before proceeding to bulk to find out optimum dosage quantity.


l Store & transport the fabric hori-

3.

End-marks

l If fabric rolls are stored on their ends, knit-

ted fabrics are prone to get End Marks.

zontally, in suitable plastic or cloth bags.

Problems
4. Pin-hole damage

Probable Causes
l Presence of sharp metallic parts in some

Remedial Measures
l Check the presence of any sharp

parts of the machine.


l Presence of metallic particles in peroxide

object in the machine.


l Provide magnetic filters in water/

bath.
l Presence of heavy metal ions

(Fe, Cu) in the fabric/Water/Caustic Soda.

steam lines. Use Sirrix 2UDI in pretreatment, to ionise Fe ions present in grey cotton and keep in complexed form after their removal.

l Bad condition of water tanks / pipes. l Presence of heavy concentration of Fe ions

l Clean main water tanks / pipes. l To follow the following process for

carried over from the residual caustic soda after mercerising.

pretreatment Sirrix YK Liq. 2.5% SandocleanLFD/PCJ Liq. 0.5%

Rinse Warm, 60C, 10 min Sandoclean LFD Liq. 0.25% Stabilizer SIFAM Liq. 0.25% Boil NaoH Flakes 1.0% 30 min H2O2 2.0-3.0% Hot wash 80C. 15 Min. Neutralise with Sirrix N Liq. 0.5%, 60C, 20 min 5. Uneven surface appearance particularly on interlock fabric
l This problem mainly occurs when the grey l Fabric may be singed to remove

$ $

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cotton quality is poor. Other possible causes are :l Too high mechanical stress on the fabric results in pilling or metal to fabric and fabric to fabric frictions.

the protruding fibres.


l To reduce the hydromechanical

action on the fabric, machine can be run at a compromising speed during scouring & washing. (i.e. running at optimum speed depending on machine type)
l Use of Lubricants like Imacol CG

l Too much fluff formation on the fabric,

because of bad running properties created, action of alkali & low cost solvent based wetting agents.
l Long duration of running due to

Liq.

l Clariants BIO-BLEACH concept

reprocessing

gives best results without too much fluff. Process: Sandoclean PCJ Liq. 0.5g/l Sirrix 2UDI Liq. 2.0g/l 0.3g/l Imacol CG Liq. Then add Bactosol CA Liq 0.6-1% } 60C, 45min After this process, continue scouring in the same bath.

60C, 10 min

6.

Balooning of tubular knits of heavy texture fabrics

l If the pieces are densely sewn & the

l By cutting a vertical slit of 10-15cm

structure of knit pattern is tight, the entrapped air cannot go out & results in balooning which in turn leads to entanglement.

near the joint of two tubes enables the air to escape. l The use of larger diameter nozzle will also minimize the problem. l Addition of deaerating & penetrating agent (Sandozin NA Liq.) can be added as a safety measure.

Problems
7. Poor absorbancy of fabrics after scouring / Peroxide boil

Probable Causes
l Presence of Ca & Mg salts on fabric and in

Remedial Measures
l Protonic pretreatment before

water leading to precipitation in alkali and redeposition thereof.

scouring gives an outstanding cleaning effect. Light weight fabrics: Sirrix 2UDI Liq. 1-2g/l Sandoclean PCJ Liq. 0.5g/l 60C, 30 min, Rinse Heavy weight fabrics: Sirrix YK Liq 2.0g/l Sandoclean LFD Liq. 0.5g/l 80C, 30 min, Rinse hot Use of Sandoclean PCJ Liq. is recommended as a wetting agent. The synergistic properties of the product helps to penetrate into the core of the fibre by eliminating fibre-liquid surface tension, and saponification of all impurities. So, fabrics obtain very good absorbancy.
l Ensure high temp. rinsing at 80C. l Addition of Sirrix 2UDI Liq. in

l Due to the use of poor quality of wetting

agents which have low alkali stability, and hence cannot assist the penetration of Caustic Soda for efficient saponification reaction. Because of poor detergency and dispersing effects, paraffin wax cannot be removed completely.

l Redeposition of Oil / Wax.

8.

Tendering of fabric during bleaching

l The presence of iron on the fabric acts as

a decomposition catalyst for H2O2. In a freely circulating bath new sources of iron oxides form, as a chain reaction of homolytic cleavage of H2O2 into hydroxide radicals which attacks cellulose to form oxycellulose.

Peroxide bleach bath or by one step combined protonic pretreatment & scouring. Sandoclean PCJ Liq. 0.5g/l Sirrix 2UDI Liq. 1g/l 20min Then continue peroxide bleach in the same bath. Addition of Stabilizer SIFAM Liq. also prevents the formation of atomic oxygen responsible for cellulose damage.
l To add Bactosol ARLI Liq. in the

60C,

9.

Lower dye-yield & tone changes in some dyed lots

l Due to improper washing off after pretreat-

ment, residual peroxide will be left over on the fabric. If it is not removed completely, It may lead to the decomposition of some sensitive reactive dyes to non-homogeneous components, in a mixed shade dyeing.

neutralisation bath for eliminating H 2 O 2 in a biological way. Bactosol APN Liq. can be used in winch.
l Both the products promote quickly,

under optimum conditions, the redox conversion of H 2 O 2 to water & oxygen.


l Ensure careful feeding of alkali (by

10.

Dark coloured patches & Creases

l Localised swelling of unmercerised cotton. l Drying up of improperly neutralised alkali

linear dosing)
l Efficient neutralisation of the alkali

after mercerising.
l Damage of cellulose during the fast

using 0.5-1.0% SirrixN / YK Liq. before dyeing.

l Loading the fabric after setting the

transport through the jet nozzle. The damaged portion of the substrate is deeply dyed. (mainly on viscose)

bath with Imacol C2G Liq. alongwith Sandoclean PCJ Liq. ensuring proper piling & smooth running.

Problems
11. Whiteness variation

Probable Causes
l Presence of insoluble earth alkali on some

Remedial Measures
l To achieve the optimum consump-

substrate qualities, over stabilises H2O2 making the bleaching ineffective.


l Improper choice of mercerising wetting

tion of H2O2 a protonic pretreatment with Sirrix 2UDI Liq. before bleaching is recommended.
l Use 2.5 - 5.0 gpl Mercerol QW

12.

Uneven wetting during mercerising Inconsistency in basic whiteness after pretreatment Light coloured reserved portion on Cotton / Lycra fabrics

agent.
l Because of poor stabilization of H 2O 2

spl Liq. / Mercerol RWLF Liq.

13.

l Use Stabiliser SIFAM Liq., for

bleaching
l Improper pretreatment & use of poor

controlled decomposition of H2O2.


l After a protonic treatment fabric

14.

quality wetting agents which could not remove the mineral oil-content from the fabric completely.

should be heat set & bleached using Sandoclean PCJ Liq. as scouring & wetting agent, at pH 10.5.

OPTICAL BRIGHTENING
Problems
1. Poor whiteness

Probable Causes
l Some grey cotton carry a lot of hardness

Remedial Measures
l Give a protonic pretreatment

forming substances, which interfere in the bleaching reaction of Hydrogen Peroxide on cellulose.
l Overdosing of optical whiteners & drying

before Hydrogen Peroxide bleach using Sirrix 2UDI / YK Liq. Sandoclean PCJ Liq.
l Use optimum quantity of optical

at temperature above 140C.

whitener & controlled drying, preferably below 130C. Use acid stable OBA in case of neutralising like Leucophor BMF Liq. 2. Poor wash fastness of whites
l Improper choice of optical whitener. l Use Leucophor BA/BH Liq. as

optical whitening agent in exhaust application.


l BHT (Butylated Hydroxy Toluene) is l Finish the fabric in slightly acidic

3.

Yellowing of whites after storage

present in polyethylene bags as an antioxidant. If the fabric is in the neutral or alkaline side the yellowing reaction starts.

medium (pH 5.5 - 6.0) using Sirrix 2UDI Liq., and keep the fabric away from Nitrogen oxides. Use wrapping without BHT.
l Use Leucophor BMF which is

4.

Yellowing of whites if finished at acidic side as per Okotex requirement Aqueous extract of the fabric is alkaline

l Use of optical whitener which has poor

stability in acidic medium.

stable under acidic pH of finish bath.


l Use Sirrix N for reducing the pH

5.

l If Acetic Acid is used for reducing the pH

at the end of finishing operation, it forms a buffer of sodium acetate at the liquidfabric interface and prevents the entry of further Acetic acid to the core of the fibre.
l Improper selection of optical brightening

of finish bath which can penetrate into the fibre to neutralise the core alkali, which is responsible for alkaline pH.
l Use Leucophor BFBI/BMF Liq.

6.

Tailing of white fabrics, when OBA is applied by padding application Yellow streaks on white fabrics

agent.

as optical brightening agents when applied by padding technique.


l Wash at 85C to completely

7.

l Poor washing off.

remove all impurities & neutralise using Sirrix N Liq.


l Local drying up marks because of more time l Dry the hydroextracted fabrics as

gap between hydroextraction and drying. 8. Poor whiteness on Cotton / elastane (lycra) fabrics
l The basic whiteness of fabric is very low.

early as possible.
l Natural whiteness of lycra can be

improved by giving a reductive scour before bleaching. 1.5 g/l Sandoclean PCJ Liq. 2 g/l Soda Ash 3 g/l Sodium Hydrosulphite Heat to 75-80C & run 60 min. Cool the bath to 60C & drop bath Run 15 min in a fresh bath containing 0.3 ml/l H2O2 (50%), Rinse cold.
l Improper selection of optical brightening l The selection of optical brighten-

agent.

ing agent must suit both the lycra & the hard fibre in the fabric. Apply Leucophor BMF Liq. 0.8% in a reducing bath (Soduim Hydrosulphite) at pH of about 5.5.

Problems
9. Loss of whiteness retention of cotton / elastane fabrics

Probable Causes
l Poor working practice and poor storage

Remedial Measures
l The following should be avoided:

conditions.

-Unsatisfactory optical whitener. Use only Leucophor BMF/BH Liq. -Drying with air heated by combustion gas or oil -Unsatisfactory softener, use Sandolube HD Liq. and Ceraperm MW Liq. - Do not store white goods in excessive light (natural / artificial). -Exposure to excessive burnt gas fumes (nitrogen oxides) -Lack of air tight & inert packing. -Packing which releases phenolic derivatives.

10.

Drop of whiteness value after finishing

l Improper choice of finishing agent.

l Use

appropriate chemicals.

finishing

i) WINCH Ceranine HINI Liq. - Nonionic or Ceranine AS Liq. - Anionic or Ceranine RSFLF Liq. - Amphoteric ii) SOFTFLOW Ceramperm HIS Liq. / Sandolube HD Liq. - Exhaust Ceraperam MW / UP Liq. - Padding iii) TOWELS Dilasoft RWS Liq. Ceraperm HIS Liq. Ceraperm AQUA Liq. 11. Loss of elastic properties in cotton / elastane fibres
l Improper processing methods. l Avoid processing of such blends

in strongly acidic (pH<4) or strongly alkaline baths (pH>10.5).


l Avoid use of Sodium Hypochlorite l Excessive steam ageing of printed

fabrics. The temperature in cottage steamers should not exceed 104C (0.2 Kg / cm2 steam pressure) during 30-60 min to maintain the properties of elastane fibres.
l High tension and over heating

above 150C should be avoided in finishing.

DYEING
Problems
1. Uneven shade from ROPE to ROPE

Probable Causes
l Rope length of fabric is not uniform in all

Remedial Measures
l To load fabrics with same rope

tubes of the machine.


l Worn out Teflon rolls on tubes of the

length in all the tubes.


l Replace the worn out Teflon roll

winches causes different reel speed affecting effective cycle turn over of the tubes.
l Varying GSM from rope to rope (Higher

GSM fabric has lower rope length, compared to lower GSM fabric of same weight)
l Check tightness factor.

with a new one & avoid use of solvent containing low cost lubricants based on acrylamide. Use Sandoclean PCJ Liq. as a wetting / scouring agent which is based on linear fatty alcohol of natural origin & use Imacol C2G Liq. which forms active film over the fabric keeping the fabric very ductile.
l Pretreat

2.

Uneven dyeing in a rope

l It can be due to rapid addition of dyes

and chemicals, mainly alkali (Soda Ash / Caustic Soda).

Clariants concept.

the fabrics using PROTOBLEACH

l Check that the dyestuff is dis-

solved properly & dosed. Verify rope speed and chamber loading conditions.
l Use Drimagen ER Liq. as per

the recommendation, which has good disaggregating effect during dye dissolution, uniform distribution during salting stage & pH regulation effect during alkali addition. 3. Dye spots
l Improper dissolution of dyestuff by dissolvl Ensure that any large undissolved

ing with insufficient amount of water.


l Improper addition of Caustic Soda.

particles do not enter into the dyeing m/c (Always the dissolved dyestuff should pass through a fine stainless steel mesh strainer).
l Use Drigmagen ER Liq. while

dosing NaOH in dyebath. 4. Uneven dyeing in one rope only


l Uneven pressure head in tubes. Wherever l Increase the pump rate to

pressure is low, this could reduce speed in one rope.


l Stoppage or damage at stitches during

increase the pressure.

running. 5. Shade variation


l Improper pretreatment. l Clariants PROTOBLEACH con-

cept using 1. Sandoclean PCJ Liq. 2. Sirrix 2UDI Liq. 3. Stabilizer SIFAM Liq. 3. NaOH 3. H2O2 4. Bactosol ARLI Liq. ensures perfectly neutral substrate ready for dyeing with instant absorbancy and no residual peroxide.

Problems

Probable Causes
l Presence of chlorine content in water.

Remedial Measures
l Addition of Drimagen ER Liq.

enables to dose mixed alkali very effectively for perfect & uniform diffusion of dyestuff in to the core of the fibre.
l Using bicarbonate containing hot water l Dyestuff should be dissolved in

(pH above 9) for dyestuff dissolution.


l Varying material to liquor ratio.

acidic medium.
l If the process water passes

through actified carbon unit, chlorine should be removed.


l Check the liquor rate using Salt

reading. 6. Reduction in dye yield


l Presence of residual peroxide decomposes l Use Clariants PROTOBLEACH

some sensitive reactive dyes, the effect of which is very predominant in pastel shades.

concept using Sirrix PK Liq. or Bactosol ARLI Liq. for clearing residual H2O2. dyeing cotton / viscose using Drimarene XN dyes.

l Reduction of Drimarene XN dyestuff

l Use Revatol S pdr. 1 -2 g/l while

caused by the reducing atmosphere created because of the reducing substances present in water (when dyeing temperature is 85 - 95C). 7. Batch to batch reproduction
l If the process - parameters, products &

l Standardise dyeing programme

non- compatible dyestuffs are used the dye-fibre reaction will not attain same end point always.

using identical special chemicals, as per the recommendations preferable using Drimarene CL/K Liq. for pale shades & Drimarene XN for dark shades as these dyestuffs are having least sensitiveness to minor variations in MLR, salt quantity, temperature & time.
l Increase the liquor ratio and

8.

Dimpling (or cockling) of fabric surface Pilling of fabrics

l Running heat sensitive (or thermo plastic)

fabrics at too low speed during cooling.


l Because of salt and alkali addition in the

arrive at a compromise speed.


l Use 0.5 - 1.0 g/l Imacol C2G Liq.

9.

dyebath, the specific gravity of the bath increases. Hence, even fabric surface to surface contact at high speed generates pilling due to heavy friction. 10. Fine creases & unlevelness due to abrasion on cotton & polycotton blends
l Many phenomena appear during the dye-

in dye bath.

l The elastic recovery of cotton

ing of textile fabric in the JET dyeing m/c affect the surface of the textiles. They are i) Twisting of the rope ii) Pressure on the fold. iii) More weight on the fold which compresses the fold if no lubrication is applied. iv) Tension on fibres. v) Friction over fabric and also on machine parts with force.

being low compared to synthetic fibres is the primary reason why a universal anticrease product cannot perform very well in every case on every fibre. Only an efficient range of dyeing lubricants can solve all the problems. Imacol C / C2G Liq. - Cotton / Cellulosics Imacol MPE Liq. - For micro polyester Imacol PAM Liq. - For polyamide microfibres

Problems
11. Back - staining of color from the dyed portion to adjacent white or pale colored fabric

Probable Causes
l This problem is visible after knitting the

Remedial Measures
l After treat the dyed fabric using

dyed yarn and when washing the fabric.

Sandopur RSK / SW / RSD Liq. depending on the class of reactive dye used, followed by a cationic fixative treatment. (Fastness should be ok in iron test) softener.

l Use Destofil YL Liq. as the l Use Thiotan AS Liq. on white

yarn (cellulose/nylon) to prevent tinting of colour. 12. Streakiness


l Uneven absorption of dyestuff particularly l Use Imacol C2G Liq. in the

when dyeing fabrics of light structure & heavy gsm.


l Yarn parameter variation.

dyebath, and Drimarene XN Liq. is the recommended dyestuff, for high degree of levelness.

l Check unevenness in yarn. l Use Drimarene XN Liq. by

13.

Tailing effect on critical shades (khakis, Greys, Olives & Browns) Unlevel dyeing with lighter reserved portions

l It is due to poor migration of the dyestuff

(on perfectly pretreated fabric with no alkalinity & residual peroxide).


l Calcium & magnesium ions present in

migration technique with the aid of 0.5 g/l Drimagen ER Liq.


l Use Sandopur R3CZP Liq. for

14.

water/ Salt increase the hardness of dyebath and favours aggregation of dye molecules and lead to greater risk of unlevelness. The aggregated dye will tend to migrate more slowly than the single dye molecules or smaller aggregates, so that levelling is not very uniform at the time of alkali fixation.

conditioning the dyebath & sequestering calcium & magnesium not unaffecting the final shade. Dyeing process can be further improved by using. Drimarene CL / K Liq. - For pale shades Drimarene XN Liq. - For deep shades
l Addition of Sandopur R3CZP

Liq. also facilitates easy removal of dye hydroxylates during washing off operations. 15. Poor rubbing fastness
l It mainly depends on the type of substrate l Do protonic pretreatment before

and the finishing chemicals used.

scouring / bleaching.
l Use Optifix F Liq. for removing

traces of hydrolysed dyestuff.


l Finish the goods using

Sandolube JNF Liq.

16.

Poor wash fastness

l Improper fixation of dyestuff.

l Use high performance reactive

dyes Drimarene CL / XN Liq. with sufficient quantity of alkali.

l Improper washing of hydrolysed dyestuff.

l Soaping should be carried out

using Sandopur RSK / SW Liq. which can dissolve hydrolysed dyestuff and keep them in the wash bath, preventing their redeposition on the substrate.

Problems

Probable Causes
l Use of poor quality salt in dyeing & hard

Remedial Measures
l Correct the hardness of dyebath

water for washing off.

using Drimagen ER Liq. & Sandopur R3C ZP Liq., after using water & salt of good quality.

17.

Tone change after soaping on shades produced using vinyl sulphone dyestuffs Uneven appearance due to dye residues on the fabric

l Due to splitting of covalent bond under

l Use

soaping conditions.

Sandopur RSD Liq. alongwith Sandopur DTCI Liq. in soaping at pH 7.0

18.

l Due to improper removal of hydrolysed

l Treat the fabric at 95C using

dyestuff, using commercially available nonionic/anionic soaps which can remove only dirt impurities.
l Dosage of dye-fixative concentration is in

Sandopur RSK Liq. at pH 9 for complete removal of dye residues (with soft water)

19.

Too much variation in tone after dye-fixation treatment

l Use optimum quantity of dye-

excess of actually required.


l Improper choice of dye-fixative.

fixative.
l Use Sandofix EC/HCF Liq. conc. l Use Drimarene X-3L Liq. dyestuff

20.

Lower light fastness

l Improper selection of dyestuff & uncon-

trolled after treatment.

for pale shades to get higher level of light fastness (shades below 1%) i.e a rating of 4.0 (AATC method)
l For med/dark shades Drimarene

XN Liq. or selected Drimarene CL Liq. dyestuffs can be used. invariably lowers the light fastness by at least 1/2 rating.

l Any cationic dye fixing agent

21.

Twisting of rope causing abrasion, creases, rope marks and uneven dyeing

l Loading of the machine is not proper. Due

l Loading of the machine need to

to entanglement/twisting, free movement of strands will be affected causing slippage. Hence, undue stagnation of certain portion of the fabric in the dyebath can occur and consequently uneven dyeing can result, (dark & light affect on the same length of fabric)

be treated as a skilled job. The length of each rope and the total no. of ropes will have to be determined in advance, based on the weight, sensitivity of fabric, rope length, diameter & gsm.
l The speed of the winch should be

fairly steady and low and the winch should ensure transport of the strand without slippage.
l There should not be too much ac-

cumulation in the bath where the rope strands tend to fall over or shift to the sides thereby causing twisting of ropes.

10

Problems
22. Uneven and patchy dyeing

Probable Causes
l Improper selection of reactive dyestuff,

Remedial Measures
l Use Drimarene CL Liq. which

without considering exhaustion, reactivity and substantivity of the dyestuffs.


l A reactive color could be highly exhaus-

are medium substative and Sandopur RSK / SW Liq. for washing off unfixed dyestuff.

tive but if its reactivity is medium or lower, fixation will be poor and a hydrolysed dyestuffs should be washed off. Otherwise, unwashed dyestuff appears as patches. In other words, if a color is highly reactive but low exhaustion, this would result in the colour reacting with the fabric even while in the process of adsorption and, at most favourable sites (amorphous regions) the color will strike and cause patchy dyeings.

11

PRINTING
Problems
1. Creases / Folds

Probable Causes
l Improper feeding and batching of fabric.

Remedial Measures
l Proper batching using suitable ex-

pander in batching m/c (Recommended the preparatory department to use Imacol C2G Liq. in the process). 2. Dark & Light prints in Pigment printing
l Improper pretreatment l Fabric should be pretreated thor-

oughly, as per the following method. Sandoclean LFD Liq. - 0.5% Sirrix 2UDI Liq. - 1.0% NaOH flakes - 2.5% Stabilizer SIFS Liq. - 0.4% - 2-4% H2O2 followed by hot wash at 80C & Neutralising.
l Cotton quality l Immature cotton % is more. l Using high density oil. l Use Elfugin Knit-1% in the print

3.

Haziness in pigment printing (mainly on blotch designs) on low gsm fabrics Oil odour

paste.

4.

l Use low density MTO with 0.784

specific gravity or deodorised Kerosene.

use

l Use Clariants Printofix package

(Aqueous system) with Binder 2000, Printogen RM Liq. & Thickner CN Liq. as the key products. 5. Smudging of OUTLINES
l Poor rheological property of print paste. l Thickening of paste due to electrolytes on l Use 3 gms/kg of Printogen RM

Liq. in the print paste.


l Ensure proper removal of all

fabric. 6. Presence of HCHO & PCP beyond the limit values for export
l Due to high concentration of binders used

electrolytes
l Use aqueous system of Clariant

in oil system.
l High HCHO fixer. l PCP is also present on grey cotton.

(Printofix concept)
l Use low HCHO fixer (Printofix

Fixative WAF Liq.)

7.

Harsh feel

l Due to high solid Binders used in pigment

l Use Printofix Modifier 99 Liq.

printing. 8. Poor Wet & Dry Rub fastness even after proper curing
l Improper choice of Binder & Fixer. l Use

Binder 2000 Liq. & Printofix Modifier 99 Liq. to improve dry rub fastness. for improving wet rub fastness

l Use Printofix Fixative WAF Liq.

9.

Dulling of prints after washing

l Improper Choice of Binder.

l Use Binder 2000 Liq., Printofix

Fixative WAF Liq.

10.

Poor fastness of Prints

l Improper working method

l Check the curing temperature and

amount of Binder 2000 Liq. corresponding to the pigment quality.

12

Problems
11. Thickener consumption is high

Probable Causes
l Thickener is not stirred before use. l Water used for preparing the paste is hard.

Remedial Measures
l Use high speed stirrer before

using the paste.


l Use soft water & if required add

Sirrix 2UDI Liq. to adjust the hardness.

12.

Flushing Problems

l Electrolyte impurities coming from water

& fabric.

l Use soft water & print on protonic

bleached fabric using Printofix Concept.


l Use Printofix Lack M paste on

13.

Crackling khadi on interlock quality fabric

l Improper choice of Khadi.

interlock fabric.

AREAS OTHER THAN PIGMENT PRINTING


14. Harsh feel due to uneven removal of gum on reactive printed goods Tinting on white ground from the adjacent Turq. Blue or Brilliant Blue coloured portion (reactive print)
l Poor quality of Thickener. l Poor quality of Soap. l Improper choice of Thickener & dyestuff l Use 5 g/l Ekaline FI Liq. &

5 g/l Sandopur RSKI Liq. in washing.

15.

with poor solubility.

l Use Drimarene Blue CLBR,

Drimarene Turq. Synthetic Thickener. Thiotan AS Liq. Urea Sod bicarbonate before printing. (Pad-Dry-Print).

CLB

&

l Pad and dry with

- 20 -30 g/l - 20 g/l - 10 g/l

16.

Poor wash off in polyester prints (with disperse)

l Low quality of AGBV gum.

l Use Printofix Thickener LS pdr. l Use Sandopur PC Liq. in wash-

ing off (5g/l). 17. Harsh feel on reactive printed fabrics


l Poor conditioning of Silicate bath & formal Use Sirrix SAI Liq. Conc. -5 g/l

tion of precipitations / silicic acid.

in silicate padding bath.


l Use Sandopur RSKI Liq. -5 g/l

in soaping (without neutralising with acetic acid before soaping).

13

FINISHING
Problems
1. Sewability damage

Probable Causes
l Because of various processing operations,

Remedial Measures
l Use of Sandolube JNF Liq. (for

brittleness on the fabric is developed, which does not allow the needle to penetrate the single knit structure smoothly, but pierces, damaging the knit structure. 2. Poor handle of the fabric after cationic dye-fixing & finishing treatment
l At pH 5.0 to 5.5 most of the cationic soft-

dyed) and Sandolube HD Liq. (for white) material.

l Under such conditions satisfac-

eners exhaust onto cellulose fibres, independent of temperature. An exception to this rule is the softening of dyed cellulosic material which has been treated with cationic fixatives.
l The fibre has a cationic charge due to fixa-

tive. In an acid bath, cationic charge on the fibre and that of softener are activated and repel each other. 3. Dark spots on the fabric
l Using softeners which have poor shear

tory exhaustion of the softner can be achieved using Sandolube JNF Liq. and / or Sandosoft SPK Liq. at pH 7.0

l Softener & dyefixative can be

force stability, which forms spots after the emulsion system is disturbed.

stripped, before redyeing, using 1.0 g/l Lyocol RDNI Liq. 2.0 g/l Acetic Acid at 80C, 30 min, Rinse & Neutralise. -Use of Sandolube JNF Liq. (Jet stable & non foaming) in finishing.
l Use Sandoperm MEJ Liq. by

4.

Poor inner softness & elasticity of fabrics (Dyed goods)

l Many of the commercial aminosilicones

have particle size above 0.1 Micron which cannot penetrate into the core of the fibre to provide an excellent product distribution to give inner softness without looking greasy.

exhaust method or Ceraperm MW Liq. by padding method. (for whites & dyed fabrics) technological properties (mainly supports elasticity), apart from increasing the softness

l Both the above products increase

5.

Very poor handle in thick pique & air-tex fabrics (Dyed goods)

l Due to poor capacity of the softener to

l Use Ceraperm JET Liq. by

develop gliding behaviour on the surface.

exhaust method. Or Ceraperm MN / UP Liq. by padding application.

6. 7.

Limpy feel of rib fabrics Poor hydrophilicity of fabrics

l Improper softener selection. l Improper softener selection. Cotton fibre is

l Use Ceranine RSFLF Liq. l Use

hydrophilic. It becomes hydrophobic because of the oriented adsorption of cationic softener. 8. Poor feel on white fabrics
l If softener is applied by exhaust method, it

Dilasot RWS Liq. & Sandolube HD Liq. in exhaust and Sandolube HD Liq. in padding.

l Use Ceranine RSFLF Liq. at

is difficult to exhaust the softener since only non-ionic softeners / anionic / amphoteric are recommended for white goods.

pH-5.0. Use acid stable OBA like Leucophor BMF Liq.


l Pad with Ceraperm MW Liq. &

Ceraperm MN or UP Liq.

14

Problems
9. Poor hydrophilicity on polyester on two sided fabrics with one side cotton & other side polyester

Probable Causes
l Functional knitted articles are manufac-

Remedial Measures
l Use Sandotor HV Liq. The

tured having synthetic fabric inside & cellulosic fibre outside (sportswear).

hydrophilic projecting polyether groups on the surface of treated fabrics enables easy penetration of liquid through the capillaries. Or, use Cassapret SRHA Liq. with Ceraperm MW Liq. conc.
l Finish fabrics with Sandolube

10.

Sticking at ends while cutting garments made of cotton & polyester (Two sided fabrics)

l During cutting, a no. of layers of fabric are

cut using knife blades, which gets heated due to large friction involved developing a temperature of about 300C. Hence, it causes melting of synthetic fibres leading to sticking at edges.
l Poor quality of cotton.

products which reduce the friction between the textile and the cutting blades.

11.

Dead cotton on dyed fabric

l Bactosol CA Liq. Conc.

treatment. 12. Dark coloured oil spots


l Often encountered when the goods are l Use Sandoperm MEJ Liq. or

given silicone finishing agent treatment in softflow machine using SILICONES which are NOT jet stable. 13. Pin hole seen in a straight line at regular repeat intervals Drip spots in a straight line
l Presence of embedded metal object in the

Ceraperm JET Liq., which are jet-stable silicones.

l Check for any sharp objects.

finishing line.
l Oil drips from a frame, usually on oily l Clean frames at regular intervals.

14.

softener. 15. Damage of viscose fabrics after dyeing


l Residual caustic left in viscose & its blends l Core alkali should be removed

after reactive dyeing can degrade the viscose when heated.

using Sirrix N Liq. or Sirrix 2UDI Liq. & Acetic acid mixture 50:50.

16.

Silicone stains on fabrics even after using Jet stable silicone

l Due to direct heating of the bath / silicone.

l The fabric to be finished should

not have anionic residues, silicone can be added to hot bath at 50C but never heat after adding softener.
l Maintenance of pH not only in the bath but l Use Stripper SS for removing

17.

Oil stains near the edge of tubes & also on the body randomly (Mainly on Navy & Black Shades

also on the fabric is important, otherwise rubbery film formed in finish bath will adhere to the fabric & forms silicone stains, which appears after drying.

silicone stains.
l Navy shades can be produced

using Drimarene XN Liq. instead of vinyl sulphone dyes. using Sirrix 2UDI Liq.

l Efficient removal of core alkali

18.

Poor water / oil repellant finish on Air tex fabrics

l The effect is low because of the structure

l Use the following recipe

of the fabric.

Nuva HPC Liq. Nuva FW Liq. Cerol PA Liq. Pad at 70% PU

60 g/l 10 g/l 40 g/l

Dry & cure at 180C 1 min.

Many of their dyestuff, pigments and chemicals are patented by CLARIANT LTd. in numerous industrial countries. Registered trade mark of CLARIANT LTD., MUTTENZ, Switzerland and CLARIANT INDIA LTD. are the licensed users of these trade marks. Trademark licensed to CLARIANT LTD. in numerous countries. The signs and appear only at the first mention of the product. The information and recommendations presented here were compiled with the utmost care, but cannot be extended to cover every possible case. They are intended to serve as non-binding guidelines and must be adapted to the prevailing conditions.