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MODULAR RADIANT PANELS

TECHNICAL MANUAL

INDEX
1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
Models, dimensions, weights, water contents Construction Production, modularity Suspension brackets Headers Painting Insulation Operating temperature Operating pressure page 4 page 6 page 6 page 6 page 6 page 6 page 6 page 6 page 6 page 6 page 8

1.10 Special versions, accessories 1.11 Components of the ECOPAN radiant panel

2
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

DESIGN DATA
Guidelines for a correct choice Active length Thermal emission Corrective coefficients for high installation heights Corrective coefficient for inclined panels Distance between radiant panels Minimum height of installation Arrangement of ceiling mounted panels Examples of calculation of radiant panels page 9 page 9 page 9 page 14 page 14 page 14 page 14 page 15 page 16 page 17 page 17 page 18 page 19 page 19 page 20 page 21 page 22 page 23 page 24 page 25 page 26 page 26 page 27 page 28

2.10 Effects on luminosity originating from the covering 2.11 Use in cooling systems 2.12 Diagrams of system balancing and power supply 2.13 Flow rate and speed of water in the panels 2.14 Pressure drops of panel pipes 2.15 Pressure drops of headers 2.16 Calculation of pressure drop of a panel 2.17 Static pressure and flow rate of the electric pump 2.18 Adjustment 2.19 Methods of installation and dilation 2.20 Examples of systems of fastening to roof 2.21 Packaging 2.22 Assembly 2.23 Conclusions

3 4
4.1 4.2

ACCESSORIES CERTIFICATIONS
ECOPAN radiant panel Insulating panel

page 30 page 30 page 31

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

ECOPAN is a registered trademark. ECOPAN modular radiant panels are patented. The technical, constructional and dimensional data are not binding and may be modified with no advance notice. This manual may not be reproduced, wholly or in part, without written authorization in advance from Ecopan srl. Ecopan srl 2004

CALOR SRL Str. Progresul 30-40, sect. 5, Bucuresti, tel: 021.411.44.44, www.calorserv.ro - ofertare@calor.ro

The new European standard EN 14037 defines how to obtain emissions which can be used to compare the various ceiling mounted radiant panels available on the market. To make it easier to use this product, we feel it is helpful to provide a manual that contains all necessary technical data.

MODULAR RADIANT PANELS

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
Nominal thermal emission (*) DT = 55 K W/m

1.1 Models, dimensions, weights, water contents - Tab.1


Interval of pipe mm External pipe diameter mm Cross section

Model

Total width L mm

Distance of suspensions D mm

150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150

21,3 21,3 21,3 21,3 26,9 26,9 26,9 26,9

2/150 4/150 6/150 8/150 2/150 4/150 6/150 8/150 4/100 6/100 8/100 10/100 4/100 6/100 8/100 10/100

180 309 431 554 190 318 449 581

300 600 900 1200 300 600 900 1200

270 570 870 1170 270 570 870 1170

111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111

21,3 21,3 21,3 21,3 26,9 26,9 26,9 26,9

278 413 516 616 279 415 534 650

450 675 900 1120 450 675 900 1120

420 650 870 1090 420 650 870 1090

150 NON-STANDARD PANELS 150 150

21,3 21,3 21,3

3/150 5/150 7/150 5/100 7/100 9/100

244 370 492

450 750 1050

420 720 1020

111 111 111

21,3 21,3 21,3

347 466 566

565 790 1010

535 760 980

Empty weight Panel (**) kg/m Header kg

Weight with water Pannel (**) kg/m Header kg

Water contents (**) dm3/m

4,7 5,4 8,7 10,1 12,7 14,9 16,8 19,7 5,1 6,1 9,7 11,6 14,3 17,1 18,9 22,6 7,6 9,1 11,0 13,1 14,5 17,4 18,0 21,8 8,7 10,5 12,6 15,3 16,7 20,4 20,9 25,5 6,7 7,8 10,8 12,6 14,9 17,4 9,3 11,1 12,8 15,3 16,3 19,6

1,1 2,0 2,9 3,8 1,1 2,0 2,9 3,8

5,23 5,84 9,75 10,98 14,28 16,21 18,90 21,45 6,00 6,88 11,50 13,16 16,99 19,45 22,49 25,73 8,65 9,98 12,58 14,41 16,60 19,15 20,63 23,99 10,50 12,06 15,29 17,65 20,29 23,53 25,39 29,41 7,49 8,46 12,11 13,69 16,74 18,93 10,61 12,19 14,64 16,83 18,67 21,57

1,8 3,3 4,8 6,3 1,8 3,3 4,8 6,3

0,53 0,44 1,05 0,88 1,58 1,31 2,10 1,75 0,90 0,78 1,80 1,56 2,69 2,35 3,59 3,13 1,05 0,88 1,58 1,31 2,10 1,75 2,63 2,19 1,80 1,56 2,69 2,35 3,59 3,13 4,49 3,91 0,79 0,66 1,31 1,09 1,84 1,53 1,31 1,09 1,84 1,53 2,37 1,97

(*)

Nominal thermal emission as per EN 14037, based on tests carried out at the HLK laboratory at the University of Stuttgart. This emission is relative to DT = 55 K, where DT is the difference between the average temperature of the fluid and the ambient temperature Top line: with electro-welded pipe Lower line: pipe with no welding

(**)

Maximum operating pressure: 6 bar. The suspension brackets for the radiant panel are designed to support a weight without breaking that is five times greater than the weight of the panel including water. The panel is able to support a load which is three times its own weight, including water, with no permanent deformation.

1,5

2,5

2,1 2,8 3,5 1,5 2,1 2,8 3,5

3,6 4,7 5,8 2,5 3,6 4,7 5,8

1,5 2,4 3,4

2,5 4,1 5,7

1,8 2,5 3,2

3,1 4,2 5,3

04
EN 14037-1 Ceiling mounted radiant panels Maximum operating pressure: 6 bar
5

1.2 Construction
ECOPAN radiant panels are made by permanently inserting pipes in a suitably shaped plate of steel sheet metal, including the side edges. The latest technologies are used to make circular grooves in the plate at regular distances. The pipes are inserted into these housings. The profile of the plate wraps around two thirds of the circumference of each single pipe to hold it in place. At the top, at intervals of about one metre, transversal brackets are placed. They make the entire system rigid and allow the support ties to be attached. At the worksite, the insulating mat provided is inserted between the side edges. ECOPAN panels have tested electro-welded steel pipes (measuring either or ). They are used in systems supplied with water at up to 120 C. For superheated water, steam, heat-transmitting oil, etc., steel pipes are used that are not welded, made of steel, and measure or or that have similar characteristics.

1.6 Painting
After undergoing a phosphating treatment, the panels are painted by immersion using water-soluble paints with non-toxic epoxy resin base. They are then sent to a kiln. The standard colour is RAL 7032 silicon grey. This painting is resistant up to 170C with water systems and up to 140C for steam systems. On request, and for higher temperatures, the panels can be treated with special paints. For colours other than the standard colour, after washing, de-greasing and phosphating, the panels are painted with powder treatment that is free of harmful substances.

1.7 Insulation
Standard EN 14037 requires the laboratory that tests the emission of the panels to provide them with a layer of rock wool with a thickness of 40 mm, minimum density 25 kg/m3, hermal conductivity 0.04 W/mK at 40 C, covered on the upper side by aluminium foil. The insulating material provided by ECOPAN with the panels is non-carcinogenic fibreglass wool, compliant with directive 97/69/EC, implemented in Italy by means of the decree of the Ministry of Health dated 1 September 1998, with a thickness of 40 mm and covered on the upper side with aluminium foil. For technical data of the insulation, see paragraph 4.2. The insulating mat is delivered in rolls. It is to be inserted between the edges of the upper side of the panel. It is easy to lay because there are no obstacles to obstruct this. This ensures perfect adherence to the radiant panel. The mat is fixed using plugs that are placed in holes in the suspension bracket.

1.3 Production, modularity


ECOPAN radiant panels are produced in a variety of models: - with pipes spaced at 150 mm, there are seven models with pipes of and four with pipes of - with pipes spaced at 111 mm, there are seven models with pipes of and four with pipes of . Table 1 provides a summary of the range of products. The sheet metal used to make plates is 0.6 mm thick and about 2 metres long. They are assembled to provide modules with lengths of either 4 or 6 metres. Fig. 1 shows the dimensions of the modules of 4 or 6 metres that make up the radiant panels. By combining these modules, it is possible to obtain radiant panels of any length in multiples of two, starting from a minimum length of 4 metres. To ensure continuity of the panels at the points of welding of the various modules, joint covers are provided that have the same cross section as the panel. They are installed using steel clips.

1.8 Operating temperature


ECOPAN radiant panels with electro-welded pipes are suitable for carrying fluids at temperatures of up to 120 C. The version with pipes without welding can be used for fluids up to 180 C.

1.9 Operating pressure


For panels that operate with hot water up to 120C, the maximum pressure is 6 bar. The test pressure at the plant for each weld is bar, and the initial test pressure of each model is 10.2 bar. For panels with pipes without welding, the maximum operating pressure is 16 bar.

1.4 Suspension brackets


Suspension brackets are to be placed on the panels about one every metre. Fig. 2 shows the exact distance between the brackets. When putting the panels in service, there should normally be one suspension every two metres. The panels with pipes of may have spacing increased by up to 30%. Panels with a width of 60 cm or less may have suspension points with a distance of over 3 metres between them. Distances between suspensions which are greater than those indicated above may lead to permanent deformation.

1.10 Special versions, accessories


- Panels with pipes of 1 without welding - panels with pipes at intervals of 111 mm measuring with 4 pipes - 6 pipes - 8 pipes with spaces for lamps - anti-convection lateral skirts - concealed side profiles for suspensions at variable intervals - joint covers for pipe joints with sleeves for press fitting - headers for assembly with press fitting - insulation covers for heads of panels - upper sheet metal protections for gymnasiums. For a more detailed description, see chapter 3 on accessories.

1.5 Headers
The headers have a square cross section (50x50 mm) for panels with electro-welded pipes and a round crosssection ( 60 mm) for panels with pipes without welding. Different types of work are provided (fig. 3) depending on the fluid used and the type of supply. They are normally provided welded to the panels.

Fig.1

Longitudinal dimensions of the modules that make up the panels (mm)

6000 75 1950 1950 1950 75

5850 4050 75 1950 1950 75

3900

Fig.2
100

Suspension brackets (mm)


6000 950 950 50 950 950 50 950 950 100

4050 100 950 950 50 950 950 100

Fig.3 Headers - Execution AA, B, A, C, D ( mm)


Connection 1 or 1 Insert 3/8 Connection 1 o 1 Insert 3/8 Connection 1 o 1 Connection Connection 2 Connection

Sleeve 3/8 Sleeve 3/8

50

50

50

Insert 3/8

Insert 3/8

50

50

50

50

50

Connection

AA

B
Hot water

C
Steam

connections same side

connections opposite

Superheated water or heat-transmitting oil

1.11 Components of the ECOPAN radiant panel


Steel pipe, or Steel plates in single piece, including side edges Reinforcing and suspension bracket Insulating mat Plug for fastening insulating mat Header Female threaded connection, 1 or 1 Insert of 38 for vent or discharge Suspension ties (chain, steel cables, etc.) not included in supply Joint covers with fastening clips Anti-convective side skirts (on request)

Fig. 4

DESIGN DATA
An ECOPAN panel of 12 metres, formed of two modules of 6 metres, has an active length (Lact) of 11.70 metres. An ECOPAN panel of 14 metres, formed of two modules of 4.05 metres and one module of 6 metres, has an active length (Lact) of 13.65 metres. The examples above show that between the total length of the panels and their active length, there is a difference of about 3%. This is as opposed to an average difference of 5% in other panels available on the market. In designing ECOPAN panels, an attempt has been made to reduce this difference to a minimum. For this reason, a joint cover of 15 cm that is inserted to cover the joint between two modules has the same profile as the main sheet metal. Therefore it is also radiant. Laboratory tests show that it performs exacly like the active part of the panel.

2.1 Guidelines for a correct choice


The ECOPAN range of radiant panels includes 22 different models: - with interval of 111 mm, seven with pipe of and four with pipe of - with interval of 150 mm, seven with pipe of and four with pipe of . Each model can be provided with electro-welded pipes or pipes with no welding. All of these models provide the designer with a wide choice. Tab. 2 shows the guidelines for choosing the type, diameter and interval of the pipes of the panels.

Tab.2 Selection criteria


SELECTION CRITERIA pipes pipes interval: interval: 111 150 111 150 mm mm mm mm ! !

Short radiant panels: up to 40 m with same-side connections, 80 m with opposite connections Long radiant panels: over 40 m with same side connections or 80 m with opposite connections High-ceiling rooms Low-ceiling rooms (h 3.5 meters) Water flow rate per pipe from 250 to 500 l/h Water flow rate per pipe from 500 to 1000 l/h Water heating fluid up to 120 C Steam Superheated water Heat-transmitting oil

! ! ! ! ! ! !

Electro-welded pipes Pipes with no welding or equivalent characteristics

2.3 Thermal emission


Tests based on European standard EN 14037 were carried out and certified by the HLK laboratory of the University of Stuttgart. The thermal emissions of the ECOPAN radiant panels are shown in Tables 3 and 4. Tables 5 and 6 provide the emissions of a pair of headers for the various models of panels. The tables show the values of thermal power based on the difference (DT) between the average temperature of the fluid (tm) and the ambient temperature (t a ). The certified emission is for the active length of a radiant panel.

2.2 Active length


Standard EN 14037 defines active length as the part of the panel with the same transversal cross-section, excluding headers and joint covers. An ECOPAN panel of 6 metres has an active length (Lact) of 5.85 metres.
75 Lact 5850 mm

75
height of modules: 71 mm with pipe of 77 mm with pipe of

Fig. 5

Ltot 6000 mm

An ECOPAN panel of 8 metres, formed of two modules each with a length of 4.05 metres, has an active length (Lact) of 7.8 metres.
75 Lact 3900 mm 150 Lact 3900 mm 75

4050 mm

4050 mm Ltot 8100 mm


9

Fig. 6

Tab.3 Table of thermal emissions per linear metre as per standard EN 14037

ECOPAN radiant panels - pipes of


MODEL Interval of pipes mm Width DT=t m-t a (*) mm K 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54
DTs standard temperature difference

4/100 111 450 4 - W/m 84 94 104 115 125 136 146 157 168 179 191 202 213 225 236 248 260 272 278 284 296 308 320 332 345 357 369 382 395 407 420 433 446 458 471 484 497 510 524 537 550 563 577 590 604 617 631 644 658 672 685 699

5/100 (**) 111 565 5 - W/m 105 118 130 143 156 170 183 197 210 224 238 252 267 281 295 310 325 340 347 354 369 385 400 415 430 446 461 477 493 508 524 540 556 572 588 604 621 637 653 670 686 703 719 736 753 770 786 803 820 837 854 872

6/100 111 675 6 - W/m 125 140 156 171 186 202 218 234 251 267 284 301 318 335 352 369 387 404 413 422 440 458 476 494 512 531 549 568 586 605 624 643 662 681 700 719 738 758 777 797 816 836 856 875 895 915 935 955 975 996 1016 1036

7/100 (**) 111 790 7 - W/m 141 158 175 192 210 228 246 264 282 301 320 339 358 377 397 416 436 456 466 476 496 516 536 557 577 598 619 640 661 682 703 725 746 768 789 811 833 855 877 899 921 943 965 988 1010 1033 1055 1078 1101 1124 1146 1169

8/100 111 900 8 - W/m 156 175 194 213 232 252 272 292 313 333 354 375 396 418 439 461 483 505 516 527 549 572 594 617 640 663 686 709 733 756 780 803 827 851 875 899 923 948 972 997 1021 1046 1071 1095 1120 1145 1171 1196 1221 1246 1272 1297

9/100 10/100 2/150 (**) 111 111 150 1010 9 - W/m 171 191 212 233 255 276 298 320 343 365 388 411 435 458 482 506 530 554 566 578 603 628 652 677 702 728 753 779 804 830 856 882 908 935 961 987 1014 1041 1068 1095 1122 1149 1176 1203 1231 1258 1286 1314 1342 1369 1397 1426 1120 10 - W/m 186 208 231 254 277 300 324 348 373 398 423 448 473 499 524 551 577 603 616 630 656 683 710 738 765 793 820 848 876 904 933 961 990 1018 1047 1076 1105 1134 1164 1193 1222 1252 1282 1312 1342 1372 1402 1432 1462 1493 1524 1554 300 2 - W/m 55 61 68 75 81 88 95 102 109 117 124 131 138 146 153 161 169 176 180 184 192 199 207 215 223 231 239 247 255 263 271 280 288 296 304 313 321 330 338 346 355 363 372 381 389 398 407 415 424 433 441 450

3/150 (**) 150 450 3 - W/m 75 84 93 102 111 120 130 139 149 159 168 178 188 198 208 219 229 239 244 250 260 271 281 292 303 313 324 335 346 357 368 379 390 401 412 424 435 446 458 469 481 492 504 515 527 538 550 562 574 585 597 609

4/150 150 600 4 - W/m 95 106 117 129 140 152 164 176 188 201 213 225 238 251 263 276 289 302 309 315 328 342 355 368 382 395 409 423 436 450 464 478 492 506 520 534 548 563 577 591 606 620 635 649 664 678 693 708 722 737 752 767

5/150 (**) 150 750 5 - W/m 114 127 141 154 168 182 197 211 226 240 255 270 285 300 316 331 347 362 370 378 394 410 426 442 458 474 490 507 523 540 556 573 590 606 623 640 657 674 692 709 726 743 761 778 796 813 831 848 866 884 902 920

6/150 150 900 6 - W/m 132 148 164 180 196 212 229 246 263 280 297 315 332 350 368 386 404 422 431 440 459 477 496 515 534 552 572 591 610 629 648 668 687 707 727 747 766 786 806 826 847 867 887 907 928 948 969 989 1010 1031 1052 1072

7/150 (**) 150 1050 7 - W/m 151 169 187 205 224 243 262 281 300 320 339 359 379 400 420 441 461 482 492 503 524 545 566 588 609 631 653 675 697 719 741 763 785 808 830 853 876 898 921 944 967 990 1013 1037 1060 1083 1107 1130 1154 1178 1202 1225

8/150 150 1200 8 - W/m 170 190 210 231 251 273 294 316 337 359 382 404 427 449 472 495 519 542 554 566 589 613 637 661 685 710 734 759 783 808 833 858 883 908 934 959 985 1010 1036 1062 1088 1114 1140 1166 1192 1219 1245 1272 1298 1325 1352 1379

No. of pipes -

55 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120

10

(*) DT = difference between the average temperature of the fluid and the ambient temperature (**) = non-standard panels

Tab.4 Table of thermal emissions per linear metre as per standard EN 14037

ECOPAN radiant panels - pipes of


MODEL Interval of pipes mm Width No. of pipes - DT=t m-t a (*) K 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54
DTs standard temperature difference

4/100 111 450 4 - W/m 84 94 105 115 126 136 147 158 169 180 192 203 215 226 238 250 261 273 279 285 298 310 322 334 347 359 372 384 397 410 423 435 448 461 474 488 501 514 527 540 554 567 581 594 608 621 635 649 662 676 690 704

6/100 111 675 6 - W/m 126 141 156 171 187 203 219 235 252 268 285 302 319 336 353 370 388 406 415 423 441 459 477 496 514 532 551 570 588 607 626 645 664 683 702 722 741 760 780 800 819 839 859 879 899 919 939 959 979 1000 1020 1040

8/100 111 900 8 - W/m 161 181 200 220 240 261 281 302 323 345 366 388 410 432 454 477 499 522 534 545 568 592 615 638 662 686 710 734 758 782 807 831 856 881 905 930 955 981 1006 1031 1057 1082 1108 1134 1159 1185 1211 1237 1264 1290 1316 1343

10/100 111 1120 10 - W/m 196 219 243 267 292 317 342 367 393 419 446 472 499 526 553 581 608 636 650 664 692 721 749 778 807 836 865 895 924 954 984 1014 1044 1074 1104 1135 1166 1196 1227 1258 1289 1321 1352 1383 1415 1447 1479 1511 1543 1575 1607 1639

2/150 150 300 2 - W/m 58 65 72 79 86 93 100 108 115 123 131 138 146 154 162 170 178 186 190 194 202 210 219 227 235 244 252 261 269 278 286 295 304 312 321 330 339 348 357 366 375 384 393 402 411 420 429 438 447 457 466 475

4/150 150 600 4 - W/m 97 108 120 132 144 156 168 181 193 206 219 231 245 258 271 284 298 311 318 325 338 352 366 380 394 408 422 436 451 465 479 494 509 523 538 553 567 582 597 612 627 642 657 673 688 703 718 734 749 765 780 796

6/150 150 900 6 - W/m 137 153 169 186 203 220 237 255 273 291 309 327 346 364 383 402 421 440 449 459 478 498 517 537 557 577 597 617 637 658 678 698 719 740 761 781 802 823 844 866 887 908 930 951 973 994 1016 1038 1060 1082 1104 1126

8/150 150 1200 8 - W/m 176 197 219 240 262 284 307 330 353 376 399 423 447 471 495 519 544 568 581 593 618 644 669 694 720 746 772 798 824 850 877 903 930 957 984 1011 1038 1065 1092 1120 1147 1175 1203 1230 1258 1286 1314 1343 1371 1399 1428 1456
11

mm

55 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120

(*) DT = difference between the average temperature of the fluid and the ambient temperature

Tab.5 Table of thermal emissions of headers as per standard EN 14037

pair of ECOPAN headers ECOPAN - pipes of


MODEL Interval of pipes mm Width DT=t m-t a (*) mm K 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54
DTs standard 55 temperature difference

4/100 111 450 4 - W 36 40 45 49 54 59 64 69 74 80 85 90 96 101 107 113 118 124 127 130 136 141 147 153 159 166 172 178 184 190 197 203 209 216 222 229 235 242 249 255 262 269 276 282 289 296 303 310 317 324 331 338

5/100 (**) 111 565 5 - W 44 50 55 61 67 74 80 86 93 99 106 113 119 126 133 140 148 155 158 162 169 177 184 192 200 207 215 223 231 239 247 255 263 271 279 287 296 304 312 321 329 338 346 355 364 372 381 390 399 408 417 426

6/100 111 675 6 - W 52 59 66 73 80 87 95 102 110 118 126 134 142 150 159 167 176 184 189 193 202 211 220 229 238 247 257 266 276 285 295 304 314 324 334 344 354 364 374 384 394 405 415 425 436 446 457 467 478 489 500 510

7/100 (**) 111 790 7 - W 58 66 73 81 89 97 106 114 123 132 140 149 158 168 177 186 196 205 210 215 225 235 245 255 265 275 286 296 306 317 328 338 349 360 371 382 393 404 415 426 438 449 460 472 483 495 507 518 530 542 554 566

8/100 111 900 8 - W 64 73 81 90 98 107 117 126 135 145 154 164 174 184 194 205 215 226 231 236 247 258 269 280 291 302 313 324 336 347 359 371 382 394 406 418 430 442 454 467 479 491 504 516 529 541 554 567 580 592 605 618

9/100 10/100 2/150 (**) 111 111 150 1010 9 - W 71 80 89 98 108 117 127 137 148 158 169 179 190 201 212 223 234 246 251 257 269 281 292 304 316 328 341 353 365 378 390 403 415 428 441 454 467 480 493 506 520 533 547 560 574 587 601 615 628 642 656 670 1120 10 - W 77 87 96 107 117 128 138 149 160 171 183 194 206 218 230 242 254 266 272 278 291 303 316 329 342 355 368 381 394 408 421 435 448 462 476 490 504 518 532 546 560 575 589 604 618 633 647 662 677 692 707 722 300 2 - W 22 25 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 55 58 61 64 68 71 74 76 78 81 85 88 92 95 99 102 106 110 113 117 121 124 128 132 136 140 143 147 151 155 159 163 167 171 175 179 183 187 191 195 199

3/150 (**) 150 450 3 - W 34 38 43 47 52 57 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96 102 107 112 118 120 123 129 134 140 145 151 157 162 168 174 180 186 192 198 204 210 216 222 228 234 241 247 253 260 266 272 279 285 292 298 305 311 318

4/150 150 600 4 - W 46 52 58 64 70 77 83 90 97 103 110 117 124 131 139 146 153 161 165 168 176 184 191 199 207 215 223 231 239 247 255 263 272 280 288 297 305 314 323 331 340 349 357 366 375 384 393 402 411 420 429 438

5/150 (**) 150 750 5 - W 58 66 73 81 89 97 105 113 122 130 139 147 156 165 174 183 192 201 206 211 220 230 239 249 259 269 278 288 298 308 319 329 339 349 360 370 381 391 402 413 424 434 445 456 467 478 489 500 511 523 534 545

6/150 150 900 6 - W 71 80 89 98 107 117 127 137 147 157 167 177 188 199 209 220 231 242 248 253 265 276 287 299 310 322 334 346 358 370 382 394 406 418 431 443 456 468 481 493 506 519 532 545 558 571 584 597 610 624 637 650

7/150 (**) 150 1050 7 - W 83 94 104 115 126 137 149 160 172 184 196 208 220 232 245 257 270 283 289 296 309 322 335 348 362 375 389 403 416 430 444 458 472 487 501 515 530 544 559 573 588 603 618 633 648 663 678 693 708 723 739 754

8/150 150 1200 8 - W 96 108 120 133 145 158 171 184 197 211 224 238 252 266 280 294 309 323 331 338 353 368 383 398 413 428 444 459 475 491 506 522 538 554 570 587 603 619 636 652 669 686 702 719 736 753 770 787 804 822 839 856

No. of pipes -

56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120
12

(*) DT = difference between the average temperature of the fluid and the ambient temperature

(**) = non-standard panels

Tab.6 Table of thermal emissions of headers as per standard EN 14037

pair of ECOPAN headers ECOPAN - pipes of


MODEL Interval of pipes mm Width No. of pipes - DT=t m-t a (*) K 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54
DTs standard temperature difference

4/100 111 450 4 - W 43 49 55 60 66 72 78 84 90 97 103 109 116 122 129 136 143 149 153 156 163 170 178 185 192 199 206 214 221 229 236 244 251 259 267 274 282 290 298 306 314 322 330 338 346 354 362 370 379 387 395 404

6/100 111 675 6 - W 57 65 72 80 89 97 105 114 123 132 141 150 160 169 179 189 199 209 214 219 229 240 250 261 271 282 293 304 315 326 337 349 360 372 383 395 407 419 431 443 455 467 479 491 504 516 529 541 554 567 579 592

8/100 111 900 8 - W 67 76 84 94 103 112 122 132 142 152 162 172 183 193 204 215 226 237 243 248 260 271 283 294 306 318 330 342 354 367 379 391 404 416 429 442 455 467 480 494 507 520 533 546 560 573 587 601 614 628 642 656

10/100 111 1120 10 - W 77 87 97 107 117 128 138 149 160 171 183 194 206 217 229 241 253 265 271 277 290 302 315 327 340 353 366 379 392 405 418 432 445 459 472 486 500 514 528 542 556 570 584 598 612 627 641 656 670 685 700 714

2/150 150 300 2 - W 20 23 25 28 31 34 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60 63 66 69 71 73 76 79 82 86 89 92 96 99 102 106 109 113 116 120 123 127 130 134 138 141 145 149 152 156 160 163 167 171 175 179 182 186

4/150 150 600 4 - W 49 55 62 68 75 82 89 96 103 111 118 126 133 141 149 157 165 173 177 181 189 198 206 214 223 232 240 249 258 267 276 285 294 303 312 321 330 340 349 359 368 378 387 397 407 417 426 436 446 456 466 476

6/150 150 900 6 - W 79 89 99 110 120 131 142 153 165 176 188 200 212 224 236 249 261 274 280 287 300 313 326 339 352 366 379 393 407 421 435 449 463 477 491 505 520 534 549 564 578 593 608 623 638 653 668 684 699 714 730 745

8/150 150 1200 8 - W 110 124 138 152 167 181 197 212 227 243 259 275 291 308 324 341 358 375 384 393 410 428 445 463 481 499 517 536 554 573 592 610 629 648 668 687 706 726 745 765 785 804 824 844 865 885 905 925 946 967 987 1008
13

mm

55 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120

(*) DT = difference between the average temperature of the fluid and the ambient temperature

2.4 Corrective coefficients for high installation heights


When the height of installation of the radiant panels is over 6 metres, consideration must be made of the reduced radiant effects on the occupants and for the luminous bodies. Therefore, a greater heating surface will be required. Table 7 below shows the coefficients of reduction in radiance for installation heights of over 6 meters. Tab. 7
H(m) 6 fn 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 18 20

Inclination favours convective movement. There is an increase in total emission while emission from radiance is decreased. The new emission value is determined by multiplying the thermal emissions in Table 3 and 4 by the corrective coefficient shown in Fig. 9, based on the angle of inclination.
Correction factor of the thermal emission
1,10 1,08 1,06 1,04 1,02 1,00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

1,00 0,97 0,95 0,92 0,90 0,88 0,86 0,84 0,82 0,79 0,76 0,73

Angle of panel inclination in

Example: in a warehouse where the panels are installed at a height of 10 metres, the number of panels obtained by dividing the total thermal requirement by the emission per metre of the selected model must then be divided by f n = 0.9. However, this must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, especially when high levels of power are involved. Consideration should made of the size of the solid angle with which the occupant sees the surface of all of the installed panels. This is illustrated more clearly by the laws of thermal exchange by radiance. All of this is also dependent on the cold surface around the occupant. From our experience, and without entering into issues that are difficult to resolve which would involve factors of shape (fraction of the total radiant power which starts from one surface and reaches another one), we suggest this simple method: a) calculate the cold surface of the external walls below the panels (perimeter x height of installation) b) determine the ratio between this surface and the floor surface c) if this ratio is greater than 1, the corrective coefficients for elevated heights are applied; if it is less than 1, they are not applied. Panels supplied with water up to 120C normally do not require the installation of side skirts. These are used in systems that are to heat single zones or where the carrier fluid is at a very high temperature. For special installations consult the ECOPAN technical department.

Fig.9 Corrective coefficient of emissions for inclined panels

2.6 Distance between radiant panels


To ensure even distribution of heat, the distance between radiant panels must be equal to or less than their installation height. The distance from the cold wall must not be greater than 1 / 3 of the height.

1/3 H DH H

Fig.10 Distance between radiant panels

2.7 Minimum height of installation


When making calculations for a radiant panel system, keep in mind that the required surface area of the panels decreases as the temperature of the carrier fluid increases. In order to ensure physiological well-being of individuals and prevent excessive radiance, limits must be set for the minimum height of installation of the panels. Table 8 provides the minimum height of installation for the panels, based on the average temperature of the carrier fluid and the interval between pipes. Tab.8 Minimum height of installation based on average temperature of carrier fluid
average temperature of supply fluid C 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Interval of pipes 111 mm H min (m) 3,80 4,10 4,30 4,50 4,70 4,90 5,10 Interval of pipes 150 mm H min (m) 3,60 3,90 4,10 4,30 4,50 4,70 4,90

2.5 Corrective coefficient for inclined panels


ECOPAN radiant panels can be installed inclined, following the geometry of the roof. They can be inclined either transversally or longitudinally.

Fig.7 Transversally inclined panel

Fig.8 Longitudinally inclined panel


14

2.8 Arrangement of ceiling mounted panels


In laying out and arranging the panels, it is advisable to comply with the following: - if possible, install the panels parallel to the longest wall of the building - keep a distance between the wall and the first panel that is not greater than a third of the installation height - provide panels that are as long as possible, taking into account emissions and pressure drops - determine the number of panels, taking into account the height of installation and the resulting area of radiance - determine the models of panels based on their thermal power. Place models with greater emission near the outer to walls to better contrast cold radiation - check that the minimum height of installation is compatible with the temperature of the heating fluid being used. For installation at reduced height, choose panels that are narrower or that have a greater interval between pipes. Figures 11, 12 and 13 clearly show how correct layout of panels provides even radiance and an ideal ambient temperature.

1,50

4,50

4,50
S

4,50

4,50

1,50
S

100% 80% 4,50 m


ta C 22 21 20 19 18

60% 40%

7,00 m 14,00 m transversal section

20%

ta C 22 21 20 19 18

7,00 m

14,00 m

21,00 m 28,00 m longitudinal section 43,00 m

35,00 m

21,00 m

Fig.11 Intensity of radiance and ambient temperature with even distribution of panels of the same power parallel to the long side of the building

2,30

4,10

4,10
S

4,10

4,10

2,30
S

100% 80% 7,00 m 60% 40% 7,00 m 14,0 m 20%


ta C 17 16 15 14 13

ta C 17 16 15 14 13

7,00 m

14,00 m

21,00 m

28,00 m

35,00 m

transversal section 21,00 m

longitudinal section 43,00 m

Fig.12 Intensity of radiance and ambient temperature with higher power panels nearer the external walls

1,50 4,50
S S

4,50

4,40

4,40

4,40

4,40

4,40

4,50

4,50

1,50

100% 80% 4,50 m


ta C 22 21 20 19 18

60% ta C 40% 20%


22 21 20 19 18

7,00 m 14,00 m transversal section

7,00 m

14,00 m

21,00 m 28,00 m longitudinal section 43,00 m

35,00 m

21,00 m

Fig.13 Intensity of radiance and ambient temperature with panels parallel to the short side of the building
15

2.9 Examples of calculation of radiant panels


While respecting the structural needs of the building and the layout of any scaffolding, machinery, and so on, it is always advisable to place the radiant panels parallel to the longest side. In this way, you can have panels of greater length while reducing the number. You will thus also reduce the fluid distribution network, resulting in lower system costs. The length and layout of the panels must be such that it evenly covers the entire area to be heated. In the following examples, we have hypothesized similar rooms but with different heights, or with different layouts of the panels. First example (Fig. 11 and 14) Consider a warehouse with the following dimensions: 4321 metres with average height of 5.5 metres, for a volume of approximately 4,967 m3. The thermal requirement has been estimated as about 95 kW. Ambient temperature ta = 20 C. Installation height of the panels 4.5 m. Maximum interval between panels 4.5 m. Consider 5 panels with a length of 40 m, arranged as in Fig. 14, for a total length of 200 m. Dividing the thermal requirement by the total length of the panels gives the thermal emission per metre: . 95 000 W 200 m = 475 W m Fixing: water delivery temperature t1 = 80 C water return temperature t2 = 70 C the average temperature of the water will be: t1 + t2 80+70 tm= = = 75 C 2 2 and the DT is: DT = tm - ta = 75 C - 20 C = 55 C From Table 3 with DT = 55 C and considering model 8/100-, one obtains a thermal emission of 516 W m. The total installed thermal power is: . 200 m 516 W m = 103 200 W thermal power sufficient to cover thermal requirement. Having a distribution of only 5 connections to balance the circuit, it is advisable to use calibration valves on the panels.

Second example (Fig. 12 and 15) Consider a warehouse with the previous dimensions: 4321 metres with average height of 8.2 metres, for a volume of approximately 7,405 m3. The thermal requirement has been estimated as about 120 kW. Ambient temperature ta = 15 C. Installation height of the panels 7 m. Maximum interval between panels 7 m. Consider 5 panels with a length of 40 m, arranged as in Fig. 15, for a total length of 200 m. As previously mentioned in paragraph 2.4, it is not necessary to increase the number of panels to be installed. Dividing the thermal requirement by the total length of the panels gives the average thermal emission per metre: . 120 000 W 200 m = 600 W m Fixing: Water delivery temperature t1 = 80 C Water return temperature t 2 = 70 C the average temperature of the water will be: t1 + t 2 80+70 tm= = = 75 C 2 2 and the DT is: DT = tm - ta = 75 C -15 C = 60 C On the side there are 2 panels model 10/100- with a length of 40 metres (80 m total). In the central area there are 3 panels model 8/100- with a length of 40 metres (120 m total). Table 3 with DT= 60 C provides a thermal emission of: 683 W/m for panels of 10/100- 572 W/m for panels of 8/100- The total thermal power of the single models is: . 80 m 683 W/m = 54 640 W . 120 m 572 W/m = 68 640 W for a total of: . . 54.640 + 68 640 = 123 280 W thermal power sufficient to cover the 120 kW required. Having a distribution of only 5 connections to balance the circuit, it is advisable to use calibration valves on the panels.

43,00 m

43,00 m
1,50
2,30
10/100

8/100

4,50
8/100

4,10

21,00 m

8/100

21,00 m

4,50

8/100

4,10

4,50

8/100

4,10

8/100 8/100

4,50 1,50

8/100

4,10 2,30

10/100

Fig.14 Example of ECOPAN panels in warehouse with average height of 5.5 m and parallel panels on greater side
16

Fig.15 Example of ECOPAN panels in warehouse with average height of 5.5 m and parallel panels on greater side

Third example (Fig. 13 and 16) Consider a warehouse, again with the same dimensions: 4321 metres with average height of 5.5 metres, for a volume of approximately 4,967 m3. The thermal requirement has been estimated as about 95 kW. Ambient temperature ta = 20 C. Installation height of the panels 4.5 m. Maximum interval between radiant panels 4.5 m. Suppose it is not possible to place the panels parallel to the longer wall of the warehouse, but that they need to be placed parallel to the shorter one. Consider 10 panels with a length of 18 m, arranged as in Fig. 16, for a total length of 180 m. Dividing the thermal requirement by the length gives the average thermal emission per metre: . 95 000 W 180 m = 528 W m Fixing: Water delivery temperature t1 = 80 C Water return temperature t2 = 70 C the average temperature of the water will be: t1 + t2 80+70 tm= = = 75 C 2 2 And the DT is: DT = tm - ta = 75 C - 20 C = 55 C On the sides there are 2 panels model 10/100- with a length of 18 meters (36 m total) and in the central zone 8 panels model 8/100- with a length of 18 metres (144 m total). Table 3 with DT=55 C provides a thermal emission of: 616 W m for panels 10/100- 516 W m for panels 8/100- The total thermal power of the single models is: . 36 m 616 W m = 22 176 W . 144 m 516 W m = 74 304 W for a total of: . . . 22 176 + 74 304 = 96 480 W Thermal power sufficient to cover thermal requirement. Having a distribution of 10 connections and short panels, the circuit can be balanced using "inverse return".

2.10 Effects on luminosity originating from the covering


Ceiling mounted panels, if located carefully, do not reduce the light from skylights in the roof. In many applications, the effect has been checked both before and after the installation of the panels. In most cases, the reduction of light in the warehouses was negligible.

2.11 Use in cooling systems


ECOPAN radiant panels can be used in cooling systems. This application provides the same benefits as the use of panels for heating, which include: - very limited thermal inertia - no air movement, which is bothersome to persons affected by it - no moving parts - no maintenance - no wear - no noise - limited amount of electrical consumption and electrical systems - possible to install by zones - minimum dimensions. This is a system that pleasantly cools the rooms but does not allow air treatment, except in combination with other specific units. In this case, the insertion of cold surfaces contrasts the radiance from hot surfaces, providing the occupants with well-being. To prevent condensation on the radiant surface, the surface temperature of the panels needs to be greater than the dew point of the ambient air. Thermal power in cooling mode should be requested from the ECOPAN technical department, which is available for suggestions for every single project.

1,50 4,50

4,50

4,40

4,40

43,00 m 4,40

4,40

4,40

4,50

,50 4,50 1

21,00 m

10/100

Fig.16 Example of ECOPAN panels in warehouse with average height of 5.5 m and parallel panels on smaller side
17

8/100

10/100

8/100

8/100

8/100

8/100

8/100

8/100

8/100

2.12 Diagrams of system balancing and power supply


Radiant panels supplied by hot water can be connected to the distribution network with inlet and outlet of the fluid on opposite sides (type A headers) or with connections on the same side (type AA and B headers).
A A

Fig.17 Connection with fluid inlet and outlet on opposite sides


AA B

Fig.18 Connection with fluid inlet and outlet on same side In the first case, all the pipes of the panels are supplied in parallel and the water flow is divided equally among them. In the second case, half the pipes are connected in series with the other half, thus doubling the flow rate of each pipe. The following are some examples of possible supply layouts.

Fig.21 ECOPAN radiant panels in series with opposite connections

Fig.22 ECOPAN radiant panels in series with sameside connections In every heating system, it is important for the heating bodies to be supplied with the proper amount of fluid as established during the design phase. The radiant panels must also be supplied in a perfectly balanced manner. To balance them, provide calibration valves as necessary which are to be adjusted at start-up.

Fig.19 ECOPAN radiant panels in parallel with opposite connections

Fig.20 ECOPAN radiant panels in parallel with sameside connections


18

Cut-off valve Cut-off and balancing valve

2.14 Pressure drops of panel pipes


If there are many panels, it is advisable to provide a set of pipes for "inverse return" (Fig. 23 and 24) which balances the system. This solution is expensive and it is not always feasible. Table 9 shows the values of the pressure drop in Pa/m and of the speed in m/s based on the water flow rate of each pipe in a panel, with an average water temperature of 75 C. This is true both for panels with electro-welded pipes and for those with pipes with no welding. Tab.9 Pressure drop in Pa/m pipes in ECOPAN radiant panels
Electro-welded pipes Pipe without welding

Pressure drop Pa/m

Pressure drop Pa/m Speed m/s

Pressure drop Pa/m Speed m/s

Pressure drop Pa/m Speed m/s

Water flow rate l/h


200 220 240 260 280

Speed m/s

41 49 57 66 75 86 96 108 119 132 145 159 173 188 203 219 262 309

0,21 0,23 0,25 0,28 0,30 0,32 0,34 0,36 0,38 0,40 0,42 0,45 0,47 0,49 0,51 0,53 0,58 0,64

70 85 100 115 129 150 165 190 200 220 250 270 295 340 350 360 450 525

0,25 0,28 0,31 0,33 0,36 0,39 0,41 0,44 0,46 0,49 0,51 0,54 0,57 0,61 0,62 0,66 0,71 0,77

45 50 55 60 65 70 76 82 90 110 130 150 170 195 220 250 275 300 350 400 455 550 640

0,25 0,26 0,28 0,29 0,31 0,32 0,33 0,35 0,36 0,40 0,44 0,47 0,51 0,54 0,58 0,62 0,65 0,69 0,75 0,80 0,88 0,95 1,04

Fig.23 ECOPAN radiant panels with opposite connections and with "inverse return" pipes

300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 550 600 650 700 750

31 0,22 35 0,23 38 0,24 42 0,25 46 0,27 50 0,28 54 0,29 58 0,30 62 0,32 73 0,35 86 0,38 100 0,41 114 0,44 130 0,48 146 0,51 164 0,54 182 0,57 202 0,60 222 0,64 266 0,70 313 0,76 364 0,83 420 0,88

Fig.24 ECOPAN radiant panels with same-side connections and with "inverse return" pipes

800 850 900

2.13 Flow rate and speed of water in the panels


If the speed of the water in the pipes of the panels is too low, the water will not be able draw off the air. This may cause a shutdown in circulation with a substantial reduction in the emission of the panel. When determining the size of the systems, it is advisable to make sure that the speed of the water in each single pipe is never less than 0.23 m/s in pipes of and 0.32 m/s in pipes of . In hot water radiating panels, it is advisable to have a temperature difference of 10C between the delivery and return headers. This is considered an acceptable compromise between the size of the network and the need for a high surface temperature. Also, pressure drops may be considered acceptable in pipes of the panels which do not exceed 200250 Pa/m.

950 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400

For average water temperatures other than 75 C, the values in Table 9 must be corrected, applying the coefficients shown in Table 10. Tab.10 Coefficients for average water temperatures different from 75 C
Temperature Coefficient 40C 1,18 60C 1,06 90C 0,96 120C 0,91 140C 0,87
19

2.15 Pressure drops of headers


Table 11 and 12 show the pressure drops in a pair of headers based on their water flow rate, the type of supply (same-side or opposite) and the diameter of the pipes ( or ). Tab.11 Pressure drop in Pa of a PAIR OF HEADERS - PIPES
Total flow rate of headers lh

Pressure drop in pair of headers A Opposite sides number of pipes per panel 2 110 170 240 320 420 530 650 940 1270 1660 2100 3 100 150 200 250 320 400 560 770 1000 1270 1560 2000 4 100 140 180 230 280 410 550 720 910 1120 1420 1750 2100 5 110 140 180 220 320 430 560 710 880 1100 1370 1650 2000 2700 6 120 150 180 260 360 460 590 720 910 1130 1360 1630 2200 2900 100 130 160 230 300 400 500 620 800 980 1200 1400 1900 2500 3200 3900 7 8 110 140 200 270 350 440 540 680 840 1050 1250 1650 2150 2800 3400 4100 9 120 180 240 310 390 480 610 750 910 1080 1500 1950 2500 3000 3700 4400 110 160 220 280 350 440 550 680 830 980 1350 1750 2200 2800 3300 3900 5400 10 -

Pressure drops in pair of headers AA-B - Same side number of pipes per panel 4 240 380 540 730 960 1210 1500 2150 3000 6 140 220 310 420 550 690 850 1230 1670 2200 2800 3400 8 210 290 380 480 580 840 1150 1500 1900 2350 3000 3700 4400 10 220 280 360 440 640 870 1150 1450 1800 2300 2800 3400 4000 5400

400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 7000

Tab.12 Pressure drop in Pa of a PAIR OF HEADERS - PIPES


Total flow rate of headers lh
800 900 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 12000
20

Pressure drops in pair of headers A - Opposite sides number of pipes per panel 2
180 220 320 440 570 720 890 1150 1400 1700 2000 2700 3600

Pressure drops in pair of headers AA-B - Same side number of pipes per panel 10 4
120 150 190 240 290 350 420 570 740 940 320 400 500 710 970 1300 1600 2000 2500 3100 3800 4500

4
100 150 200 260 330 410 520 640 770 920 1300 1650 2100 2600 3100

6
100 140 180 230 280 350 430 530 630 850 1100 1400 1750 2100 2500 3400 4450

8
110 140 180 220 280 340 420 490 670 870 1100 1400 1700 2000 2700 3500 4400 5500

6
240 290 420 570 740 940 1200 1500 1800 2200 2600 3600 4700

8
210 300 400 530 660 840 1050 1300 1550 1850 2500 3300 4200 5100 6200

10
230 310 410 520 640 800 1000 1200 1450 1950 2550 3200 4000 4800 5700 7800

1150 1400 1700 2300 3000 3800 4600 6700

2.16 Calculation of pressure drop of a panel


To determine the pressure drop of a radiant panel, you need to add the pressure drop of the pipes to that of the headers, calculated based on the data provided in paragraphs 2.14 and 2.15. Here are a few examples. First example Consider a radiant panel model 8/100 with a length of 42 metres (Fig. 25) with electro-welded pipes of and with opposite connections (type A headers). Water delivery temperature Water return temperature Ambient temperature t1 = 85 C t2 = 75 C ta = 15 C Second example Consider a radiant panel model 10/100 with a length of 42 metre (Fig. 26) with electro-welded pipes of and with same-side connections (type AA and B headers). Water delivery temperature Water return temperature Ambient temperature t1 = 85 C t2 = 75 C ta = 15 C

Header A

Header B

t1 + t2 DT= - ta = tm - ta = 65 C 2 With this data, Table 3 shows that the thermal emission per metre of the panel is: Fm = 628 W/m The total thermal power of the panel with a length of 42 metres is therefore: . Fp = 628 W/m 42 m = 26 376 W and its water flow rate: . Fp 0,86 26 3760,86 . Qp = = = 2 268 kg/h t1 - t2 10 Since the panel has 8 pipes and opposite connections, the inlet water is equally divided among all 8 pipes, and so the water flow rate of each pipe is: . Qp 2 268 Qt = = = 283 kg/h @ 283 l/h 8 8

6,00 m

t1 + t2 DT= - ta = tm - ta = 65 C 2 With this data, Table 3 shows that the thermal emission per metre of the panel is:

6,00 m

Fm = 751 W/m The total thermal power of the panel with a length of 42 metres is therefore: . Fp = 751 W/m 42 m = 31 542 W

6,00 m

and its water flow rate: . F p 0,86 31 5420,86 . Qp = = = 2 713 kg/h t1 - t2 10 Since the AA header has a diaphragm in it, the inlet water is divided among 5 pipes. Therefore, the flow rate of each pipe is: . Qp 2 713 Qt = = = 543 kg/h @ 543 l/h 5 5 upper value at suggested minimum flow rate in a pipe of (220 l/h).

42,00 m

42,00 m

6,00 m

6,00 m

Table 9 shows that the pressure drop in the pipes is roughly 76 Pa/m. Therefore, the total pressure drop in the pipes is:

Table 9 shows that the pressure drop in the pipes is roughly 256 Pa/m. Therefore, the total pressure drop in the pipes is:

Dpt = 42 m 76 Pa/m = 3.192 Pa


6,00 m

Dpt = 42 m 2 256 Pa/m = 21.504 Pa


In Table 11, under the total flow rate of the panel, . which is about 2 713 l/h, one finds that the pressure drop in the pair of headers Dpc is about 3,320 Pa. The pressure drop of the panel will be the sum of the two values, therefore:
6,00 m 6,00 m

In Table 11, under the total flow rate of the panel, which is about 2,268 l/h, one finds that the pressure drop in the pair of headers Dpc is 693 Pa. The pressure drop of the panel will be the sum of the two values, therefore:

Dpp =Dpt +Dpc = 3.192 + 693 = 3.885 Pa (equal to 0.39 m c. A.)


Header A

Dpp =Dpt +Dpc = 21.504 + 3.320 = 24.824 Pa


(equal to 2.53 m c. a.)

Header AA

Fig.25

Fig.26
21

6,00 m

6,00 m

upper value at suggested minimum flow rate in a pipe of (220 l/h).

6,00 m

6,00 m

6,00 m

6,00 m

Third example Consider a radiant panel model 10/100 with a length of 84 metres (Fig.27) with electro-welded pipes of and with same-side connections (type AA and B headers). Water delivery temperature Water return temperature Ambient temperature t1 = 85 C t2 = 70 C ta = 15 C

Header B

1st solution
1 2 9 10 11

Heating plant

6,00 m

3 4 5 6 7 8 42,00 m

60,00 m

12 13 14 15 16 42,00 m

t1 + t2 DT= - ta = tm - ta = 62,5 C 2 With this data, table 4 shows that the thermal emission per metre of the panel is: Fm = 756 W/m The total thermal power of the panel with a length of 84 metres is therefore: . Fp = 756 W/m 84 m = 63 504 W and its water flow rate: . Fp 0,86 63 5040,86 . Qp = = = 3 640 kg/h t1 - t2 15 Since the AA header has a diaphragm in it, the inlet water is divided among 5 pipes. Therefore, the flow rate of each pipe is: . Qp 3 640 Qt = = = 728 kg/h @ 728 l/h 5 5 Upper value at suggested minimum flow rate in a pipe of (500 l/h). Table 9 shows that the pressure drop in the pipes is 123 Pa/m. Therefore, the total pressure drop in the pipes is:

6,00 m

90,00 m

Fig.28 16 panels model 10/100- with a length of 42 metres are to be provided. Considering as valid the conditions described in the second example of the previous paragraph, a panel 10/100- with a length of 42 metres has a pressure drop of about 2.53 m c.a. and a flow rate of 2,713 l/h.The least favoured panel will be number 8 (or number 16). 2nd solution
1 Heating plant

84,00 m

6,00 m

2 3

60,00 m

4 5 6 7

6,00 m

8 84,00 m 90,00 m

Fig.29 8 panels model 10/100- with a length of 84 metres are to be provided. Considering as valid the conditions described in the third example of the previous paragraph, a panel 10/100- with a length of 84 metres has a pressure drop of about 2.32 m c.a. and a flow rate of 3,640 l/h. The least favoured panel will be number 8. Obviously, the second solution is more rational and advantageous, for the following reasons:
6,00 m 6,00 m

Dpt = 84 m 2 123 Pa/m = 20.664 Pa


In table 12, under the total flow rate of the panel, . which is about 3 640 l/h, one finds that the pressure drop in the pair of headers Dpc is about 2,120 Pa. The pressure drop of the panel will be the sum of the two values, therefore:

- since the number of connections is limited, there is no need for "inverse return". For balancing of the circuit, it is possible to use a few calibration valves.

- The use of panels with pipes of allows for the creation of rather long panels with modest pressure Header AA drops. Dpp =Dpt +Dpc = 20.664 + 2.120 = 22.784 Pa Fig.27 In the case in question, the panel has a greater (equal to 2.32 m c.a.) emission than the panel. Therefore, with the same installed power (about 500 kw) a greater temperature difference can be used (85 C-70 C instead of 85 C-75 C).This will provide a flow rate of 29 m3/h as opposed 2.17 Static pressure and flow rate of the electric to the 43 m3/h required by panels with pipes of . pump Therefore, with the same installed power and pressure In a circuit of radiant panels, the flow rate of the electric drops, there is reduced flow rate, which translates into pump is determined from the sum of the flow rates of the smaller pipe diameters and reduced power of the single panels of the circuit. Its static pressure is obtained by electric pump. adding the pressure drops of the least favoured radiant All this leads to a reduction in the amount of pipes panel, any cut-off and calibration valves on the connection required for distribution, resulting in substantial savings. of that panel, the pipes that supply it and the heating plant. Consider, for example, the need to heat a warehouse measuring 9060 metres, with a height of 9 metres, and with the panels installed at a height of 8 metres.
22

2.18 Adjustment
Since this is a system with low thermal inertia, the ambient temperature can be controlled in a variety of ways, depending on the type and importance of the system. However, you should keep mind that with ceiling mounted radiant panel systems, changes should be in the temperature of the water delivered to the panels. The flow rate should be kept constant. Turning the panels on and off may create unpleasant sensations (like moving from the sunshine into shade). This is because blocking circulation means blocking the beneficial effect of radiance. It is therefore advisable to use a mixer valve, regulator and ambient probes as shown in diagram 1. The mixer valve prepares the water to be sent to the panels so as to maintain the desired ambient temperature. Normal ambient probes can be installed to measure the air temperature. Today the market also includes probes that directly measure the operating temperature. Since the system quickly comes up to operating power, to reduce operating costs it is advisable to provide a programmable timer for daily and weekly shutdowns. In this case it is advisable to include an anti-freeze function. In panel systems of a certain size (warehouses of over 10,000 m2 ) in which operating costs are substantial, control should be complete with an external probe. However, this probe must never limit the operation of the ambient probe (diagram 2). For large-scale industrial complexes, again for economical management, it is necessary to make use of controlled, programme adjustment (diagram 3).

Diagram 2 Adjustment of delivery hot water temperature based on external temperature with correction made by ambient, programmable timer for weekly or night-time shutdown with anti-freeze function to be activated should the ambient temperature, during shutdown, drop below a certain value (anti-freeze contact wiring parallel to the system on/off control contact)

T-AMB

T-MAND

T
T-EST REGULATOR ANTI-FREEZE CONTACT (pump control relay example)

V1 (increase)

BOILER

Fig. 31

Diagram 3 Adjustment for systems with variation of the programmed pre-heating hours based on the external temperature, to ensure in any condition the desired ambient temperature with night-time and holiday shutdowns. Adjustment and control of the temperature difference of the water and of the operating temperature.

Diagram 1 Adjustment of delivery hot water temperature based on ambient temperature, timer and anti-freeze function for start-up if the ambient temperature drops below a certain value during shutdown.
T

T-AMB + POT

T-MAND

V1

T
T-EST REGULATOR

ALARM

REMOTE CONTROL CPU

BOILER

OPERATOR TERMINAL

MODEM MODEM

REGULATOR

ANTI-FREEZE CONTACT (pump control relay example)

Fig. 32
BOILER

SYSTEM MANAGEMENT POSITION

Fig. 30

If the system includes a series of rooms all with the same characteristics, it is possible to use a single mixer valve with various ambient probes. If instead it is necessary to heat rooms that are not uniform, it will be necessary to provide several independently controlled circuits.
23

2.19 Methods of installation and dilation


After installing the suspension ties on the roof, the panels are to be raised in order to hook the ties onto the brackets on the panels. The brackets for fastening are arranged on the panels about 95 cm from one another (see Fig. 2). Normally, one is hooked on every two metres. Examples follow of the distance between suspension points, creating only modules of 6 metres (Fig. 33) and modules of 6 and 4 metres (Fig. 34).
100 1950 1950 2100 1950 1950 2100 1950

It is indispensable that the fastening system that is used allows adjustment in height of the ties to allow perfectly straight installation without bends.

1950

2100

1950

1950

1900

100

6000

6000

6000

6000

Fig.33 Example of distance between suspension points with modules of 6 metres


100 1950 2100 1950 1950 2100 1950 1950 2100 1950 1900 100

4050

6000

6000

4050

Fig.34 Example of distance between suspension points with modules of 4 and 6 metres During operation, radiant panels behave like all pipes that have hot fluids passing through them. This means they undergo varying degrees of dilation depending on their length and the temperature of the fluid. It is important for the ties to be long enough that they do not keep the panels from dilating (Fig. 35 and Table 13).

If ties of a sufficient length cannot be provided, it will be necessary to provide rigid supports with sliding rollers (Fig. 36).

L min

Fig.36 Example of brackets with rollers To keep from placing too much stress on the radiant panels, the connection pipes between the headers and the distribution network must be shaped so that they absorb the dilation that takes place in the system.

Fig.35 Minimum length of suspension ties Table 13 shows the minimum length of the ties based on the length of the panel and the difference between the average temperature of the heating fluid and the ambient temperature. Tab.13 Minimum length of suspension ties (mm)
Length of panels (m) 25 50 75 100 150 200
24

Temperature difference (Tm -Ta ) 75 C 150 300 450 550 850 1100 100 C 125 C 150 C 175 C 200 400 550 750 1100 1500 250 450 700 950 1400 1900 300 550 850 1100 1650 2200 350 650 1000 1300 1950 2600
shaped connection to be calculated based on dilations distribution network

Fig. 37

To make air venting easier, the headers include threaded inserts of 3/8 for the installation of automatic vent valves.

2.20 Examples of systems of fastening to roof


The following drawings show some examples of suspension systems of the radiant panels.

Fig.38 Example of brackets with chains

Fig.41 Example of brackets on sheet metal with frets

Fig.42 Example of brackets with roller for panels transversal to roof tiles

Fig.39 Example of brackets with chains

Fig.43 Example of brackets with roller for panels parallel to roof tiles

Fig.40 Example of brackets hooked onto metal beams

Fig.44 Example of brackets with steel ties


25

2.21 Packaging
The panels are normally shipped stacked on packs of about 10 pieces, strapped and placed on suitable wood spacer pallets. Protective strips of polyethylene are placed between the panels near the brackets. Special packaging on request.

2.22 Assembly
If the panels are to be ceiling-mounted in buildings with a height of over four metres, the safest and most economical way of doing this is to use elevator platforms with a lifting capacity of over 400 kg and that can reach the highest parts of the building.

WOOD BOARDS

These machines can be rented nationwide. Start by securing the suspension ties to the roof. Tie rods are not included in the supply. They may consist of chains, steel cables, threaded bars or other devices.

SUSPENSION TIES

On the ground, place the insulation on the panels and secure it by placing the provided plugs about every two metres. Once the insulation has been placed, stack three or four modules, depending on the capacity of the elevator platform, and load them on the platform using a forklift. Move the panels up to the roof and attach them, one at a time, to the previously placed suspensions. Once the entire panel has been installed (composed of various modules of 4 and/or 6 metres), weld the head pipes of two adjacent modules. Once welding is complete, painting takes place. The rest of the insulation is placed, and the joint cover is inserted and secured with the clips. The joint cover adheres perfectly to the pipes and it also becomes a radiant surface. The presence of shaped side edges in the plate, the ease of laying the insulation, the head welding of the perfectly aligned pipes, and the simplicity of inserting the joint cover all reduce and simplify assembly times and hence installation costs.
SLOPE INSERT FOR VENT VALVE

WOOD BOARDS

INSERT FOR DRAIN COCK

LEVEL LINE

DRAINS

VENTS

26

2.23 Conclusions
Laying and securing the insulating mat
PLUG

PLUG

Welding of modules

Currently in Europe, there is not a single method for calculating the heat loss of a building. Nor is there a specific standard for the calculation of radiance systems with ceiling mounted radiant panels. For over 20 years, the ECOPAN technical department has used a method of calculation which is based on the temperature of the inner surfaces of the room and their interaction with the radiant panels. The basis of the calculation is the operating temperature, which depends on the air temperature, the temperature of the walls, the temperature and surface of the panels and air circulation. A complete study is quite complex and requires consideration of a number of factors. Thousands of ECOPAN systems have confirmed the validity of the calculations. A rough estimate of the thermal requirements of a room to be heated with radiant panels can be obtained using the following formula:
= [(S1 K 1 DT1) + (S2 K2 DT2) + (S3 K 3 DT3 ) + (S4 K 4 DT4 ) +...+ (V R c p r DTE )]

where : = total thermal requirement (W) S i = dispersing surfaces such as external walls, ceiling, floor, internal walls, etc. (m2 ) K i = transmittance of surfaces (W m2 K) DTi = to-ti where ti is the temperature of the air outside the room and to is the temperature of the room that one wishes to obtain (K) V = volume of room (m3 ) R = air/hour exchanges expected (1 h) r = air density (kg m3) c p = specific heat of air (Wh kg K) DTE = difference between ambient temperature and external temperature (K) With design winter external temperatures of -5 C, requested operating temperature of +16 C and air exchange of 0.3 volumes h, approximately, for a newly constructed warehouse, it is possible to estimate a need of 1 m2 of panels for each 78 m2 of floor space. Besides attaining comfort, the client is also interested in system costs and operating efficiency. Proper sizing helps reduce these costs. With the ambient values listed above, purely as a guideline, based on measurements made, one can estimate annual operating costs of about 1.501.85 m2 of warehouse space. The larger the warehouse, the less the operating cost. ECOPAN has been producing and selling radiant panels for ceiling installation for over twenty years. This experience has shown that the use of this product is the best solution for heating large industrial and civil locations. Radiant panels fully satisfy the needs for silent operation and lack of air movement. It evenly heats rooms with reduced energy consumption and no fire hazard.

WITH GUIDE

WITH CLAMP PINCER

Installation of joint cover

JOINT COVER

FASTENING CLIPS 27

ACCESSORIES

Anti-convections side skirts

90 mm

35 mm

Concealed side profiles for suspensions at variable intervals They allow suspension ties to be attached anywhere on the panel. These profiles, anchored directly on the brackets, stiffen the panel so that the space between one anchor and the next can be increased. They remain completely concealed.
Swivel hook for suspension
70 mm

Profile

Joint covers for pipe joints with sleeves for press fitting

Headers for assembly with press fitting

28

140 mm

Insulation covers for heads of panels

Upper sheet metal protections for gymnasiums

Panels with pipes of , interval 111 mm with room for lamps


535 mm

565 mm 760 mm

790 mm 980 mm

1010 mm

29

CERTIFICATIONS

4.1 ECOPAN radiant panel


Number of test Model report as per European standard EN 14037-1,-2,-3 Nominal thermal emission Characteristic equation exponent n (*) Characteristic equation constant K (*) W/K
n

DT= 55 K

F (*)
W/m

2/150 3/150 4/150 5/150 6/150 7/150 8/150 2/150 4/150 6/150 8/150 4/100 5/100 6/100 7/100 8/100 9/100 10/100 4/100 6/100 8/100 10/100

DC203D12.1821 DC203D12.1821 / 1824 DC203D12.1824 DC203D12.1824 / 1827 DC203D12.1824 / 1827 DC203D12.1824 / 1827 DC203D12.1827 DC203D12.1820 DC203D12.1823 DC203D12.1823 / 1822 DC203D12.1822 DC203D12.1819 DC203D12.1819 / DC204D12.1977 DC204D12.1977 DC204D12.1977 / 1950 DC204D12.1977 / 1950 DC204D12.1977 / 1950 DC204D12.1950 DC204D12.1989 DC204D12.1985 DC204D12.1985 / 1949 DC204D12.1949

180 244 309 370 431 492 554 190 318 449 581 278 347 413 466 516 566 616 279 415 534 650

1,1752 1,1708 1,1663 1,1670 1,1677 1,1684 1,1691 1,1760 1,1763 1,1773 1,1783 1,1828 1,1806 1,1784 1,1802 1,1820 1,1837 1,1855 1,1843 1,1793 1,1825 1,1857

1,6220 2,2415 2,8830 3,4450 4,0040 4,5598 5,1127 1,7056 2,8516 4,0143 5,1687 2,4278 3,0599 3,6753 4,1120 4,5234 4,9290 5,3288 2,4274 3,6744 4,6691 5,6154

(*)Nominal thermal emission as per EN 14037, based on tests carried out at the HLK laboratory at the University of Stuttgart. This emission, relative to DT=55 K is obtained from the equation:

F = KDT n
in which

F = thermal emission
K = characteristic equation
constant

DT= difference between the


average temperature of the fluid and the ambient temperature

n = characteristic exponent
equation

4.2 Insulating panel Fibreglass wool treated with thermosetting resin, covered on the upper side with aluminium foil. Its properties include: - chemical inertia, immune to attack by parasites and rodents, does not decay or absorb humidity, resistant to even substantial temperature changes. The completely inorganic nature of fibreglass wool ensures its long-lasting performance. Fire reaction Class A1 according to test methods in standard EN 13501-1. Thickness Thermal conductivity at an average temperature of 40C Density Thermal resistance 40 mm 0,048 W/mK 14 kg/m3 10% 0.83 m2K/W

30

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Panels with pipes electro-welded

Panels with pipes with no welding

Ceiling mounted radiant panels with emission certified as per harmonized European standard EN 14037, composed of: Plate in quality steel sheet metal, cold worked using mechanical stamping and drawing process, to obtain deep grooves that wrap 2/3 of the outer surface of the pipe so as to obtain maximum downward radiance. Wide range of models based on the number of pipes they are made of, 7 models with interval of 111 mm and 7 with an interval of 150 mm, all available with pipes of or of . Length of 4 or 6 metres obtained by assembling sheets of 2 metres so as to prevent them from deforming and to contain sliding between pipes and sheet metal within limits of elasticity.

Electro-welded steel pipes with a thickness of 1.5 mm made from laminated strip, diameter (or ), electronically tested at the steelworks and certified, suitable for liquids at a temperature of up to 120C and operating pressures of up to 6 bar.

Steel pipes with no welding (or with equivalent characteristics) with a diameter of (or ), suitable for liquids at a temperature of up to 180C and operating pressures of up to 16 bar.

Anchoring brackets located about one every metre to stiffen the structure, composed of rectangular tube that is especially flat so as to allow continuity and adherence of the insulation to the sheet metal, thus reducing thermal points. Side edges with special profile obtained from the plate, thus extending the radiant surface. They contain and hide the insulating mat. Head headers welded to pipes and tested in the factory for the required pressures. Fibreglass wool mat with a thickness of 40 mm, density 14 kg/m3, covered on the upper face with aluminium foil, fire reaction class A1 as per standard EN 13501-1. Joint covers to be placed on joints between modules, with the same profile as the main sheet metal, to be pressed in and secured from underneath with clips. Painting carried out after washing, degreasing, and phosphating by immersion in tub containing water-soluble enamel with non-toxic epoxy powder resins, followed by kiln baking. The standard colour is RAL 7032 silicon grey; other RAL colours are available on request. This paint resists up to 170C in systems supplied with water and 140C in steam systems. For uses at higher temperatures, there are specially suited paints.

31

ECOPAN

CALOR SRL STR. PROGRESUL 30-40 SECTOR 5, BUCURESTI tel: 021.411.44.44 www.calorserv.ro - ofertare@calor.ro

ECOPAN is a registered trademark. - ECOPAN modular radiant panels are patented. - The technical, constructional and dimensional data are not binding and may be modified with no advance notice.

This manual may not be reproduced, wholly or in part, without written authorization in advance from Ecopan S.r.l.

MAN. TEC. EN 03-07 Rights to modification reserved