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List of Figures

Figure No.

Name of Figure

1

Computer network

2

Local Area Nework

3

LAN Classification

4

Campus Area Network

5

Metropolitan Area Network

6

To find location of a computer using FQDN

7

Tree structure

8

Structure of domain forest and domain tree

9

Multi-Master Mode

10

Parent child relationship model

11

Direct Sharing Scenario

12

ICS scenario

13

Scenario of win proxy server

14

NAT Server

15

VPN server

16

LAN routing

17

Static routing

18

Architecture of router

19

Variable Subnet Mask

20

Scenario of Telnet

21

Scenario of Static Routing

22

Routing table

23

Routing table of covered networks

24

Routing loops

25

OSPF Scenario

26

VLAN Operation

27

VTP Configuration

28

VTP Pruning

29

IEEE 802.11 Standard

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List of tables

Table No.

Name of table

1

Difference between Workgroup & Domain

2

Comparison between IPv4 and IPv6

3

Address Classes

4

Category and Speed of UTP cables

5

Colour Coding for straight Cable

6

Colour Coding for Crossover cable

7

Colour Coding for Rollover Cable

8

Operating Systems

9

Difference between Workgroup and Domain

10

Exchange Server with different operating systems

11

Router interfaces and connectors

12

Router Ports

13

Default address mask in binary & dotted decimals

14

Decimal and Binary values of subnet mask

15

Subnet mask, valid hosts, broadcast address

16

Routing table

17

Difference between RIPV1 & RIPV2

18

Difference between IGRP and RIP

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CONTENTS

Sr. No.

Topic

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

COMPANY PROFILE

2

LITERATURE RIEVIEW

3

NETWORKING

3.1

Introduction to networking

3.1.1 Models of Networking

3.1.2 Categories of network

3.2

IP ADDRESSES and MAC Addresses

3.2.1 IPAddressClasses

3.2.2 MAC Addressing

3.3

NETWORKING MEDIA

3.3.1

Ethernet Cabling

3.4

OPERATING SYSTEM

3.4.1

Types of Operating Systems

3.5

DNS SERVER

3.5.1

PARTS OF DNS SYSTEM

3.5.2

DNS Zone

3.6

DHCP SERVER

3.6.1

Working of DHCP Server

3.6.2 InstallationStepsofDHCPServer

3.7

ACTIVE DIRECTORY

3.7.1ActiveDirectoryServices

3.7.2

CHILD DOMAIN

3.8

INTERNET SHAREING

3.8.1

Direct Sharing

3.8.3

Win Proxy Server

3.8.4

NAT (Network Address Translation)

3.9

VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN)

3.9.1 VPN components

3.9.2 Types of VPN

3.10

ROUTING

3.10.1 Types of Routing

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3.11

EXCHANGE SERVER

3.11.1 Elements of Exchange Server

3.11.2 Exchange Version

3.11.3 Requirements for Exchange Server

3.12 Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model

3.12.1 Description of Different Layers

3.13

ROUTERS

3.13.1

Router Architecture and its Key Component

3.13.2 Router Interfaces & Ports

3.13.3 Modes of Router

3.13.4 Configuring Password

3.13.5 Managing Configuration

3.14

SUBNETTING

3.14.1

Advantages of subnetting

3.14.2

Types of Subnetting

3.15

TELNET

3.15.1

To Access the Device Remotely

 

3.15.2

Commands to assign IP addresses to the interfaces

3.16

ROUTING

3.16.1

TYPES OF ROUTING

3.16.2

Routing Protocol Basics

3.1.3

RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

3.1.4

IGRP ( Interior Gateway Protocol)

3.1.5

EIGRP(Enhanced Interior Routing Protocol)

3.1.6

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

3.17

LAN SWITCHING

3.17.1

SWITCH

3.17.1.1

VLAN (Virtual LAN)

3.17.1.2

Vlan Trunking Protocol (VTP)

4

CONCLUSION

5

BIBLIOGRAPHY

6

REFRENCES

C.O.E.M/Department(C.E)/Year(May-2012

1. INTRODUCTION

This project report pertains to six months industrial training that I had underwent at JETKING, Chandigarh as part of curriculum of degree in Bachelor of technology in Electronics and Communication engineering as required by Swami Parmanand College of engineering and technology (affiliated to Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar) .

I learnt a lot from professional managers and skilled engineers. I had a great learning experience as trainee in this firm. I learnt a lot about how different networks are controlled in the industry or any department with the help of networking processes, under MCSE and CCNA. I have learnt about different type of servers like DHCP Server, DNS Server, NAT Server. Also I have learnt how to control the LAN and MAN networks under MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineers) and how to control MAN and WAN networks under CCNA (CISCO Certified System Engineers).

Justification cannot be done to whatever I have learnt in these six months within a few pages but I have still tried my best to cover as much as possible in this report. In this report I have tried to sum up the technical knowledge I have gained in my six months of training.

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1.1 COMPANY PROFILE

Jetking is an organization came into establishment in1947. Jetking is India’s number one Computer Hardware and Networking Institute. Birth and Evolution It took a lot of failure before mankind tasted technological success. Jetking evolved in

tune with the changing face of technology. During 55 years in the field of electronic technology. Jetking successfully trained thousands of students to overcome failure for high paying careers.

1947

Birth

1962

Pioneered “Do-It-Yourself Kits” in India

1972

Introduced Asia- 72, Fairchild and Wildcat transistors

1986

Became a Public Limited Company and also introduced entertainment electronics product-T.V sets, Two-in-ones and amplifiers.

1990

Launched Jetking School of Electronics Technology

1993

Network of Jetking training centers spread all over India

1994

Opening of Jetking, Chandigarh

1995

Tie-up with Heath kit Educational System (U.S.A.)

1996

Introduced advanced courses on Pentium, Notebooks, Modems, Email/Internet, LAN 4.X

1997

Novell Education Academic Partner

1998

Representative for International Correspondence School (ICS), USA in India

1999

Added cyber technology to the curriculum

2008

ISO 9001-2000 company and Authorized Microsoft online testing centre (VUE) for MS, CISCO, MCSA, MCSE, CCNA, A+ etc.

Mr. Suresh G. Bharwani is the CHAIRMAN and MANAGING Director of Jetking Infotrain Ltd. India’s leading Computer Hardware and Networking Institute. With the vision to promote and the conviction to deliver the widespread propagation of comp- uter hardware and networking education across the nation, Mr. Bharwani was the first to set up an

training institute offering innovative courses in computer hardware in 1990. Jetking’s core competency lies in providing complete training and developing hardware engineers and

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professionals with sound technical knowledge. It focuses on the overall development of personality of an individual with emphasis on personality development, presentation and communication skills, leadership skills etc. Jetking has established more than 125 operational centers and 250 faculties across the country and has trained over 3,50,000 students who have move onto the crave success- full career. With its alumni placed in the best of organizations in India and some abroad, Jetking,s vocational training and placement promises has helped build the career prospects of many young boys and girls. The company has been awarded the ISO 9000:2000 certification in 2008.The company has been awarded the “ Maharashtra IT Award” for a key role in manpower activities in year 2006-07,it

was felicitated with Franchise Award as Best Franchisor for the year 2007-08.Also,ranked 4 th in the

list of 26 th hot franchises as per outlook money magazine.

Mr. Suresh Bharwani was awarded with “Pike’s Peak Award” by the Bob Pike Group USA for effective implementing smart lab plus for making technical training fun, faster and easier for non- technical person. Across all the sectors, industries are upgrading their information technology system. Industries ranging from plastics, chemicals, textiles and power to the automotive and telecom sector are now IT savy. Government and public sectors are going hi-tech with EDI and computer networks. The IT industry, software companies, data centers, IT-enabled services providers are all equipped with advance IT system and networks. The increasing number of call centers, BPO’s etc., have given a further boost to the hardware and networking industry. The courses in jetking comprises lecture and theory session, with a great focus on active participation through smart lab plus ,that focuses on audio visual and learning with hands-on training and equips students with an in depth domain knowledge that is technical; it also equips students with soft skills ,to face the multi-faceted challenges of corporate world. PLACEMENT: Jetking is the first and only institute that promises the 100% jobs guarantee to its students. The companies that have recruited jetkings students include:

Samsung, Sun Micro system, IBM, Canon, Siement, reliance, TATA, Compaq HP invent, IT-T solutions, Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited, D-Link, Novell, Dell, Wipro, LG, ICIC Infotech and several other MNCs.

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Any student who has qualified his or her HSC/SSC examination is eligible to take up a course at jetking. The one year program Jetking certified hardware and networking professionals give 680 hours of in-depth knowledge to a student in Basic electronics and computer applications. Computer hardware and peripherals, window 2008 administrator and network administrator (soon it will be replaced with window server 2008).Apart frame technical knowledge there are personality development sessions which groom the student’s personality, their ability to perform better. Jetking, India’s leading hardware and networking training institute has trained over 3,00,000 students from its 125 centers spread across India. With its alumni placed in the best of organizations in India and some abroad, Jetking vocational training and placement promises has helped build the career prospects of many young boys and girls. Jetking has partnered with some of the worlds most renowed names in networking to provide you with cutting edge courses and technologies. With academic partnerships with Microsoft, Comp TIA,LINUX, NOVELL, and person VUE . Jetking Chandigarh is a division of Hi-Tech point. Hi-Tech point is an ISO 9001-2000 IT company. It was established in year 1993 and run by a company of IT professionals. Jetking Chandigarh branch is considered to be the best centre among all centers. It has bagged number 1 center award consecutively for last 7 years. Here training on various fields is going on like Basic Electronic, Hardware, Networking, JCHNP Analog and Digital electronics and Hardware, RHCE, RHCSS, MNA, MCSE (Microsoft System Engineers), MCITP, MNA, CCNA (CISCO Certified Network Associate), CCNP(CISCO Certified Network Professional). Partnership with industry leaders like Microsoft and Red Hat Jetking ensure its students authentic courseware and technology.

C.O.E.M/Department(C.E)/Year(May-2012

2. LITERATURE RIEVIEW

Computer Networking is a very vast project in the present developing era of electronics and communication. Now a days, computers are used in a wider range. All the organizations are using multiple computers within their departments to perform their day to day work. Computer network allows the user to share data , share folders and files with other users connected in a network. Computer Networking has bound the world in a very small area with it wide networking processes like LAN, MAN, WAN.

The courses in jetking comprises lecture and theory session, with a great focus on active participation through smart lab plus ,that focuses on audio visual and learning with hands-on training and equips students with an in depth domain knowledge that is technical; it also equips students with soft skills ,to face the multi-faceted challenges of corporate world.

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3. NETWORKING

3.1 Introduction to networking

Networking is a practice of linking of two or more computing devices such as PCs, printers, faxes etc., with each other Connection between two devices is through physical media or logical

media to share information, data and resources. Networks are made with the hardware and software.

resources. Networks are made with the hardware and software. Cable/media Fig 1: 3.1.1 Models of Networking

Cable/media

Fig 1:

3.1.1 Models of Networking

computer network

Model means the connectivity of two computers. We have many types of networking models.

(i)

Client – Server Model

(ii)

Peer to Peer Model (Workgroup Model)

(iii)

Domain Model

(i) Client –Server Model

In a Client server model we have one server and many clients. A Client can share the resources of server, but a server cannot share the resources on clients.On the point of view of

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administrator it’s very easy to control the network because we combine with the server also at security point of view. It is very useful because it uses user level security in which users have to remember only one password to share the resources.

(ii) Peer to Peer Model (Workgroup Model)

In Peer to Peer networking model all computers are in equal status, that is we cannot manage centralization, administration secutity. In Peer to Perr networking client use operating system like Window 98, Window XP, Window 2000, Window Vista.

(iii) Domain Model

It is a mixture of client server and peer-to-peer model. In this clients can share their resources as peer-to-peer but with the permission of the server as in client server model therefore it is commonly used model because in this security is more as we can put restriction on both server and clients.

Difference between Workgroup & Domain

Table 1

Workgroup

 

Domain

 

1. It is a peer to peer networking model.

1.

It is a server based networking model.

 

2. There is no client and no server. All the computers are in equal status.

2. There is a centralized dedicated server computer called domain controller which controls all other computers called clients.

3.

This

model

is

recommended

for

large

3. This model is recommended for small networks, upto 10 computers.

networks.

 

4.

There is centralized administration and each

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4.

There

is

no

centralized

administrated

PC can be administrated and managed from the server.

separately.

 
 

5. in this model high grade OS like WIN 2000/2008 Server can be used.

5.

In this model, low grade OS like 2000/XP

professional, WIN 98 etc. can be used.

6.

Users accounts are created in each PC and

6. Users accounts are created on the server side and are called Domain Users.

are called as Local Users.

 

3.1.2 Categories of network

Networks can be categorized as per geographical area to be covered by the network. Computer network are divided into four categories includes: Local Area Network (LAN), Campus Area Network (CAN), Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN).

3.1.2.1 Local Area Network (LAN)

LAN is a computer network that is used to connect computers and work station to share data and resources such as printers or faxes. LAN is restricted to a small area such as home, office or college. Devices used in LAN are : HUB and switch. Media for LAN is UTP cables.

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Figure 1.2 shows how all work stations, server and printer are interconnected with the help of

the network device.

are interconnected with the help of the network device. Fig 2: Local Area Network Types of

Fig 2: Local Area Network

Types of LAN

used for data sharing, LANS are classified into Ethernet, Token Bus, Token Ring and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI).Figure 3.3 shows LAN classification. In LANs, data can be transferred using techniques like token passing. As per techniques

using techniques like token passing. As per techniques Advantages of LAN Fig 3: LAN classification a).

Advantages of LAN

Fig 3: LAN classification

a). Provides communication in smaller networks, easy to install and configure. b). many users can share data or network elements at the same time which results in fast work.

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Disadvantages of LAN

a). limited number of computers are connected in a LAN. b). LAN cannot cover large area. c). Network performance degrades as the number of users exceeds.

3.1.2.2 Campus Area Network (CAN)

Campus Area Network is a computer network made up of two or more LANs within a limited area. It can cover many buildings in an area. The main feature of CAN is that all of the computers which are connected together have some relationship to each other e.g. different buildings in a campus can be connected using different CAN. It will help to interconnect academic departments, library and computer laboratories. CAN is larger than LAN but smaller than WAN.

Figure 3.4 shows a CAN network.

LAN but smaller than WAN. Figure 3.4 shows a CAN network. Fig 4: Campus Area Network

Fig 4:

Campus Area Network

Devices used in CAN are : HUB, Switch, Layer-3 switch, Access Point .And the media used for CAN

is Unshielded twisted pair of cables and Fiber Optics Cable.

3.1.2.3 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

MAN is the interconnection of networks in a city. MAN is not owned by a single organization. It act as a high speed network to allow sharing resources with in a city. MAN can also be formed by connecting remote LANs through telephone lines or radio links. MAN supports data and voice transmission. The best example of MAN is cable T.V network.

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3.1

Wide Area Network (WAN)

WAN covers a wide geographical area which include multiple computers or LANs. It connects computer networks through public networks like, telephone system, microwave, satellite link or leased line. Most of the WANs use leased lines for internet access as they provide faster data transfer. WAN helps an organization to establish network between all its departments and offices located in the same or different cities. It also enables communication between the organization and rest world.

Devices used in WAN is only Router

3.2 IP ADDRESSES and MAC Addresses

It is also called as logical addresses. IP is a 32 bit long and it is divided into 4 octets and dot (.) is used to separate one octet from another. It is represented in the form of decimals. There are two versions of IP addresses:

 

-

IPv4

-

IPv6

Table 2

Comparison between IPv4 and IPv6

IPv4

 

IPv6

- is 32 bit long.

It

 

- It is 128 bit long.

- is divided into 4 octets.

It

- It is divided into 16 octets.

- Ipv4 performs broadcasting, multicasting and unicasting.

- IPv6 doesn’t support broadcasting, it performs multicasting and unicasting.

- IPv4 is divided into 5 classes:

A

to E.

- Ipv6 doesn’t support classes.

IPv4 is in decimal form.

- IPv6 is in hexadecimal form.

3.2.1

IP Address Classes

IP address is a 32 bit address. It is divided into various classes namely Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E. TCP/IP defines Class D for experimental purpose. TCP /IP address contains two addresses embedded within one IP address; Network address and host address as shown in figure 3.1

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NETWORK

HOST ADDRESS

ADDRESS

0 bits

31 bits

Class A consists of 8-bit network ID and 24-bit host ID. Class B consists of 16-bit network ID and 16-bit of host ID. And Class C consists of 24-bit of network ID and 8-bit of host ID.

Address Classes

Table 3: Address Classes

`

Addres

Starting

Range of First

Mask Value

Valid Hosts

s

Bits

Octet

Class

(first-byte)

Class A

0

1to 127

255.0.0.0

256*256*256-2=

16,777,214

Class B

10

128

to 191

255.255.0.0

256*256-2=65,534

Class C

110

192

to 223

255.255.255.0

256-2

Class D

1110

224

to 239

Reserved for multicasting

Class E

1111

240

to 255

Reserved for research and development

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3.2.1.1

How to Assign IP Address to Computer

An IP address assigned to a computer may either be permanent address or address that is assigned to a computer on a time lease or for temporary basis. Hence, the address granted to computers is divided into two categories Dynamic IP addresses and Static addresses.

Dynamic IP Addresses

Dynamic IP addresses are assigned to the devices that require temporary connectivity to the network or non-permanent devices such as portable computer. The most common protocol used for assigning Dynamic IP address is DHCP also called Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. The DHCP grants IP address to the computer on lease basis.

Static IP Addresses

Static IP addresses are assigned to the device on the network whose existence in the network remains for a longer duration. These static IP addresses are semi-permanent IP addresses which remain allocated to a specific device for longer time e.g. Server.

3.2.1.2 How to Configure IP Address in window 2008

Right click on My Network Places- properties

right click on working LAN card- properties

select internet protocol (TCP/IP) -properties

Tick on- Use the following IP addresses - now fill the IP address e.g 10.0.0.1

Tick on –Use the following DNS server address

Fill the preferred DNS server 10.0.0.1

Ok

Close

Now check the connectivity of computer with itself with command

Start-run-cmd-ping 10.0.0.1

3.2.2 MAC Addressing

MAC address is a hardware address that is embedded in the NIC card. It is also known as hardware address or physical address. Every NIC card has a unique MAC address assigned by IEEE.

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Mac address is used to identify the nodes at lower levels of OSI model. The MAC address operates at the data link layer of the OSI model. MAC address is a 12 digit hexadecimal number (48 bit address). It is made up of numbers from 0-9 or a letter from A-F. MAC address can be written in any one of the formats:

MM:MM:MM:SS:SS:SS

MM:MM:MM:SS:SS:SS

T o identify the MAC address in window:

Click Start Run

Enter cmd in the Open text book

Type ipconfig /all

Press Enter

The 12 digit MAC address will be shown as say 00:11:11:EA:8D:F6

3.3 NETWORKING MEDIA

To do networking we need to use some type of media. There are many types of media.

(i)

Coaxial Cable

(ii)

Fiber optic cable

(iii)

Twisted Pair of Cables

(iv)

Micro- wave

(iv)

Satellite

Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable consists of an insulated copper conductor surrounded by a tube shaped copper braid outer copper tune and the inner conductor have the same axis of curvature hence it called coaxial cable. It is basically of two types:

(i)

Base Band Cable (RG – 59)

(ii)

Broad Band Cable (RG – 58)

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We used Base Band signal cable in Networking of Computers, It is so called because it carries single frequency. Its speed is 10 Mbps and impedance is 50 . Where as Broad Band Cables carries multiple frequencies. Connector used for Coaxial cable is BNC(British Novel Connector) connector. ARCnet uses RG-62 coaxial cable. It has an impedance of 93 and has a comparatively lesser attenuation, hence yield greater distances. These cables are expensive and provide high propagation factor.

Fiber Optical Cable propagation factor than coaxial cable. It is a costly but more secure transmission media.

Fiber optic cable consists of a very fine fiber made from two types of glass, one for the inner core and the other for the outer layer. Here signal is transmitted in the form of light. Different varieties of fiber optics is used depending on the size of the network. Single mode fiber optics is used for networks spanning longer distance. Fiber Optics has lower

Twisted Pair Cable There are two wires, which are twisted with each other to avoid EMI (Electro Magnetic Induction).these cables are easy to terminate. However they have a slightly higher value of attenuation value and hence have limited distance covering capacity. Connector used for Twisted Pair of Cable is (Registered Jack) RJ-45 and RJ-11. There are two types of twisted pair of cables:

STP (Shielded Twisted Pair):

In this an extra wire which is called shielded wire is wrapped over the inner cover which holds copper in pairs. This protection is used to protect signal from external noise.

UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) In this type of wire no shielded cover is there for extra protection from noise. There are different categories of UTP cables:

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Categories of UTP Cables

Table 4:

Category and Speed of UTP cables

Category

Speed

CAT-1

56

Kbps

CAT-2

4 Mbps

CAT-3

10

Mbps

CAT-4

16-20 Mbps

CAT-5

100 Mbps

CAT-6

 

1Gbps

CAT-7

1Gbps

3.3.1 Ethernet Cabling

There are three types of Ethernet cables:

Straight cable

Crossover cable

Rolled cable

3.3.1.1 Straight cable

It is used when we have to connect

PC TO Switch

PC to Hub

Hub to Router

Switch to Router

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Colour Coding for straight Cable TABLE 5

 

568A

 

568B

(one end)

(other end)

(one end)

(other end)

Green/white

Green/white

Orange/white

Orange/white

Green

Green

Orange

Orange

Orange/white

Orange/white

Green/white

Green/white

Blue

Blue

Blue

Blue

Blue/white

Blue/white

Blue/white

Blue/white

Orange

Orange

Green

Green

Brown/white

Brown/white

Brown/white

Brown/white

Brown

Brown

Brown

Brown

3.3.1.2 Crossover Cable

It is used when we have to connect:

PC to PC

Hub to Hub

Switch to switch

Router to Router

PC to Router

Hub to Switch

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Colour Coding for Crossover cable

Table 6

Colour Coding for Crossover cable

(one end)

(other end)

Orange/white

Green/white

Orange

Green

Green/white

Orange/white

Blue

Blue

Blue/white

Blue/white

Green

Green

Brown/white

Brown/white

Brown

Brown

3.3.1.3 Rollover Cable

Rollover cable isn’t used to connect any Ethernet connections together, but Rollover cable can be used to connect a host to a router console serial communication (com) port.

NOTE: Straight cable and Cross cables are used for data transfer but Rollover cables are not used for data transfer. There are two methods for manufacturing Rollover cables:

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Table 7

Colour Coding for Rollover Cable

 

568A

 

568B

(one end)

(other end)

(one end)

(other end)

Green/white

Brown

Orange/white

Brown

Green

Brown/white

Orange

Brown/white

Orange/white

Orange

Green/white

Green

Blue

Blue/white

Blue

Blue/white

Blue/white

Blue

Blue/white

Blue

Orange

Orange/white

Green

Green/white

Brown/white

Green

Brown/white

Orange

Brown

Green/white

Brown

Orange/white

3.4

OPERATING SYSTEM

3.4.1

Types of Operating Systems

(i) DOS (Desktop Operating System)

Table 8:

Operating Systems

DOS

1. It is a desktop operating system.

2. It is used in small networks.

3. In this OS, there is less security.

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(ii) NOS (Network Operating System)

NOS

1. It is a network operating system.

2. It is used for large networks.

3. In this OS, there is more security.

4. In this OS, all computers are clients.

5. In this OS, MS-DOS, GUI package Win

3.1, Win 95, Win 98, Win ME comes.

4. In this OS, there are servers and clients.

5. In this OS Win NT, Win 2000, Win

2008, LINUX, UNIX, Novell and comes.

MAC

3.4.1.1 Introduction to Window 2008 Server

Window server 2008 (also referred to as WIN 2k3) is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. Introduced in 24 th April 2008 as the successor to window 2000 server, it is considered by Microsoft to be the corner stone of its window server system line of business server products. An update version Window Server 2008 R2 was released manufacturing on 6 th dec, 2005. its successor window 2008 was released on 4 th feb, 2008. According to Microsoft, window server 2008 is more scalable and deliver better performance than its predecessor window 2000.

Features of Window 2008

(i)

A significant improved version of Internet Information Service (IIS)

(ii)

Increased default security over previous version due to the built in firewall and having most services disabled by default.

(iii)

Manage your server-a role management administrative tools that allow an administrator to choose what functionality the server should provide.

(iv)

Improvement to Active Directory.

(v)

Improvement to Group Policy handling and Administration.

(vi)

Provides a Backup system to restore lost files.

(vii)

Improved disk management, including the ability to Backup from shadows of files, allowing the Backup of open files.

(viii)

Improved security and command line tools which are part of Microsoft initiative to bring a complete command shell to the next version of window.

(ix)

Support for a hard based “Watch Dog Timer”, which can restart the server if the operating system does not suspend with in a certain amount of time.

Removed Features

The ability of creating server disk automated system recovery (ASR) is used instead .

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Edition of Window 2008

Window server 2008 comes in a number of editions, each targeted towards a particular size and type of business. In general, all variant of window server 2008 have the ability to share files and printers, act as application server and host message queue, provide email services, authenticate users, act as an X.509 certificate server, provide LDAP (Light Weight Directory Access Protocol) services, serve streaming media, and to perform other server-oriented functions.

3.5 DNS SERVER

DNS stands for domain name system. DNS system is a standard technology for managing the names of websites and other internet domains. DNS techniques allows you to type

names into your web browser like computer networking, about computer and allow your computer to automatically find that address on internet. DNS is the resolution mechanism used by Window Server 2008 clients to find other computers and services running on those computers for computers in

a window 2008 network infrastructure to talk to one another, one of the key ingredients is the DNS server .Host name alone do not communicate globally but communicate locally, but if domain name

is added along with it then the host name can communicate globally. DNS is use for name reservation

i.e. to convert IP address to host name and host name to IP address or the function of DNS is to resolve host name such as www.yahoo.com to an IP address. User identify only user friendly name

and all computers and technologies identify IP address and MAC address DNS is use to solve this problem because DNS is used to convert host name FQDN (fully qualified domain name) to IP address and IP address to host name .

domain name) to IP address and IP address to host name . 3.5.1 PARTS OF DNS

3.5.1 PARTS OF DNS SYSTEM

(i)

Host name

(ii)

Domain name

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(iii)

FQDN

(iv)

Namespace

(v)

DNS server

3.5.1.1 HOST NAME

Host name is a computer name and is also called is NetBIOS (network basic Input/ output system) name. NetBIOS is actually an application layer protocol that can use the transport services of TCP/ IP when used in routed network. A NetBIOS name is 16- byte addresses

that identify a NetBIOS resource on the network.

3.5.1.2 DOMAIN NAME

Domain name is used to identifies the internet site one can identifies the location without having to remember the IP address of every location e.g. yahoo.com or gmail.com

3.5.1.3 FQD

FQDN means fully qualified domain name which represents a hostname appended to the parent name space in hierarchy. Also in fully qualified domain name different levels of namespace are visualize as in fig below this hierarchy is visualizedthe root level namespace, toplevel domain, and so on, in use throughout the internet today. Left most portion of the FQDN is the host portion of the name. A host name is alias we give to an IP address.

of the name. A host name is alias we give to an IP address. Fig 6:To

Fig 6:To find location of a computer using FQDN

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FQDN is a unique name in the computer on the network. We can identify host id and location of a computer as in fig above. Suppose we want to find location of pc1 with IP address 20.0.0.1, which is in lab2, 2 nd floor in the organization center. The FQDN for this is

Pc1.row3.lab2.floor2.center.com

But this address is very lengthy to locate pc1 so to simplify this we use “c name” technique as:

Pc1.center.com=20.0.0.1

3.5.1.4 Domain Namespace

DNS operates in what is known as DNS namespace. The DNS namespace is an organized, hierarchical division of DNS names. Domain namespace enable users to easily locate the network services and resources. The domain namespace include the root domain, the top level domain of the organization and organize these domain in a hierarchical tree structure. Namespace works on the hierarchical tree structure of root domain. There are total 13 root domain working in the internet, they are A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L and M. There is one root domain, which acts as the starting point of the fully qualified domain names. This root domain is designated with a dot (.). Fig 6.2 shows the tree structure or domain namespace.

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Fig 7: Tree structure or Domain Namespace 3.5.1.5 DNS server Any computer providing domain namespace

Fig 7: Tree structure or Domain Namespace

3.5.1.5 DNS server

Any computer providing domain namespace is a DNS server. DNS server is used to convert host name FQDN into IP address and IP address into host name FQDN. To store the name-to-IP-addresses mappings so crucial to network communication, name server uses zone files.

3.5.2 DNS Zone

Zone is the part of DNS database that contain record of domain or multiple domain. If the domains represents logical division of the DNS namespace, zones represents the physical separation of the DNS namespace. In other words information about records of the resources within DNS domain is stored in a zone files, and this zone files exist on hard drive of server. Zone files are divided into one of two basic types:

Forward lookup zone: Provides host-name-to-IP-address resolution

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Reverse lookup zone: Provides IP-address-to-host-name resolution

3.5.2.1 Resource record stored in a zone file

Each record stored in a zone file has a specific purpose. Some of the records set the behavior of the name server, others have the job of resolving a host name or service into an IP table.

(i) NS (Name Server):

These specify the name servers that are authoritative for a given portion of DNS namespace. These records are essential when DNS servers are performing iterative queries to perform name resolution.

(ii) SOA (Start of Authority):

the name of the

server that is the primary source for information about the zone. The information in an SOA record affect how often transfer of the zone are done between servers authoritative for the zone. It is also used to store other properties such as version information and timings that affect zone renewal or expiration.

This resource record indicates the name of origin for the zone contains

(iii) CNAME (Canonical Name):

CNAME can be used to assign multiple names of a single IP address. For example, the server hosting the site www.abc.com is probably not named www, but a CNAME record exist resolution of www to an IP address all the same. The CNAME record actually points not to an IP address, but to an existing A record in the zone.

3.5.2.2 Steps to Install and configure DNS server

Start control paneladd and remove program

Add remove window components

Select networking services and click on detail button

Check box of DNS server

Ok and finish

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3.5.2.3

Creating a Forward Lookup Zone

Statically fill the IP address

Start administrator tools

DNSright click on forward lookup zone

New zonenext

Select primary zonenext

Enter zone name (abc.com)next

Tick Allow both secure and non secure updates and secure dynamic updated

nextnext

now click on created zone (abc.com)

new hostenter host name for global level (i.e by entering www) fill IP address of the web server , click on add button

enter another host name, a blank host with same IP i.e do not fill its host name

steps to change SOA and NS records

Right click on SOA records properties

Fill primary server e.g (www.abc.com)responsible person

host master.abc.comapplyok

right click on NS records

click on add buttonenter FQDNwww.abc.com

resolveokapplyok

Now go to start menu

On Client Side To access DNS server fill IP address of server then use ping command e.g

www.abc.com

ping abc.com

3.5.2.3 Creating a Reverse Lookup Zone

Right click on reverse lookup zone

ping

New zonenextselect primary zonenext

fill Network IDnextnext

Select allow both non secure and non secure dynamic updates

Finish

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Right click on created reverse zonenew pointer

enter host IP number e.g (50.0.0.50)

enter FQDN (www.chd.com)

3.5.2.4 Some DNS Commands

(i) c:>tracert www.yahoo.com command is used to check the path , a data packet follow from one router

to

another router. (ii) c:>nslookup command display the domain name with IP (works only when reverse lookup zone is set

up).

(iv) c:>ipconfig /all This command display FQDN, IP address, MAC address.

(iv) c:>ipconfig /flushdns This command flush or clear all the information in the cache that is retrieved from DNS

server.

(v)

c:>ipconfig /displaydns Display the current contents or entries in the cache.

(vi)

c:>ip config /register register any DNS name

3.6

DHCP SERVER

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol that allocates IP address to computer on a network. DHCP centralized the management of IP address allocation and reduces human error associated with manual IP configuration. DHCP server supplies all the necessary networking param- eters. Two things are always handed out as a part of DHCP configuration: IP address and subnet mask. Further DHCP will frequently configure clients with optional values, such as a default gateway,

DNS server address, and the address of a Window Internet Naming Server, if one is present. Scenario showing DHCP server IP address allocation.

3.6.1 Working of DHCP Server

(i)

DHCP Scope

(ii)

DHCP Super Scope

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(iii)

Exclusion IP Range

(iv) DHCP Lease Time

(v) IP Reservation

DHCP Scope

Scope having the range of IP address for providing dynamic IP address to other computer. A group of IP address within a scope is called as DHCP scope.

DHCP Super Scope

A super scope is used to combine two or more scopes each serving different subnets, and can make

the administration of several scopes on window 2008 DHCP server more manageable. Using super scope you can group multiple scopes as a single administrative entity that allows the client to lease from either one. With this feature, a DHCP server can:

Support DHCP clients on a single physical network segment where multiple logical IP networks are used. When more than one logical IP network is used on each physical subnet or network, such configuration is called multinets.

Support DHCP clients located on the far side of DHCP and BOOTP relay agent.

In multinet configuration, DHCP superscope can be used to group and activate individual scope ranges of IP addresses used on your network. In this way , a DHCP server computer can activate and provide leases from more than one scope to clients on a single physical network.

Exclusion IP range

If you want to reserve some IP for any computer i.e if we want that from the series of 192.168.0.2 to

192.168.0.100 if we want that a series of IP addresses must not be assigned automatically then at can

be done using exclusive IP range.

DHCP Leased Time

DHCP lease time is validity of IP address. By default DHCP lease time is 8 days minimum,1 day maximum 999 days, 23 hours to53 day. With in 8 days:- After 80% of day clients demand new IP some times server refuse the client request. After 87.5% of days it will retry, and if the server did not give the new IP address then the client will receive APIPA address (Automatic Private IP Address).

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When a DHCP client is unable to locate a DHCP server, the client picks out a random IP address from the private APIPA address range of 169.254.*.*, with a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0. The 169.254.*.* IP range is private because that network number is not in use on the internet, it is random because the client generates an arbitrary host number for that network. The significance of APIPA is that DHCP client computers that cannot find a DHCP server can still be assigned an IP address and communicate with other computers on the same subnet mask that also cannot find DHCP server. It allows communication when DHCP server is down or just plain not there. Note that APIPA does not assign a default gateway, and therefore it cannot communicate with any computer that lives on the other side of a router.

IP Reservation There are some DHCP clients that you want to be the DHCP clients, but you will also want to make sure that they get same IP address every time. This can be done by statically filling the IP address. We can reserve IP address with the help of MAC address for a particular computer.

3.6.2

Installation Steps of DHCP Server

start control panel

add and remove programadd and remove window components

select networking services and click on detail button

check box of DHCP server

okfinish

3.6.2.1

Steps To Configure DHCP Server

startprogramadministrative tool

select DHCP

create new scope in action menunew scope next

give scope namenext

give IP address rangenext

add exclusion namenext

check lease durationnextfinish

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After DHCP server is configured, it is required to be authorized and DHCP scope should be active. For that select DHCP server and click on authorize in action menu. Then right click on scope name and click on active.

3.6.2.2 On Client Side

Go to LAN card properties select TCP/IP protocolproperties

Select obtain IP address automatically

Go to command prompt (cmd)

Give command

3.6.2.3 Backup of DHCP Server

We can take backup of all the configuration in DHCP server with the help of administrator. Backup means to export the DHCP database to another system, as it is helpful in case due to any reason our data is corrupted or deleted, we can take our database from the place where it is stored. Steps of taking backup :

Stop the DHCP server and disable the DHCP server services

Copy the DHCP server directory to a temporary location, say pen drive or on a new DHCP server.

3.6.3 DHCP Relay Agent

The DHCP relay agent is a software that listen DHCP discover packet and forward to DHCP server. In window 2008 server system the DHCP relay agent can be enabled as a part of Routing and Remote Access (RRAS).

3.6.3.1 Steps To Configure DHCP Relay Agent

Set the network, fill the IP address and select two LAN cards

Open Routing and Remote Access enable Routing and Remote Access

Right click on general new routing protocols

Select DHCP relay agent

New interface

Select LAN card which is to be connected to the cross cable i.e L1

Ok

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Right click on relay agent properties

Enter IP address of DHCP server

addapplyok

3.7 ACTIVE DIRECTORY

With the release of Windows 2000, Microsoft introduced Active Directory, a scalable, robust directory service. Active Directory is used to create server based networking. Active Directory’s job is to store and make available a Directory database i.e information about the user, its class, name, address, mails, phone numbers, location. Active Directory is a technology created by Microsoft that provides a variety of network services like Directory Services, DNS based naming and other network information. Active Directory also allows administrator to assign policies, deploy software and apply critical updates to an organizations. Active Directory was previewed in 1999, released first with window 2000 server edition and revised to extend functionally and improve administration in Window 2008. Additional improvements were made in Window server 2008 and Window server 2008. The fundamental building block of Microsoft’s Directory services continues to be a domain. A domain is logically grouping of network resources, including shares, printers, groups and users accounts. The user account represents the individual to domain, and allows for different type of access and different types of tasks. Every users account is unique. It has uniqueness of the user account that allows administrator to control access for every member of domain. There are two types of users accounts: local account and domain account. Local accounts are maintained in the local database of a computer and cannot be used to grant access to network resources. Local users are primarily used to administer a computer or to allow several people to share a single computer that is not a member of a domain. Whereas domain users accounts are much more widely used in organizations that local user accounts because they allow for central administration and user can log onto any computer in the domain. Domain users accounts are stored in Active Directory.

3.7.1 Active Directory Services A computer network can be divided logically into two networking models.

Workgroup

Domain

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Difference Between Workgroup and Domain Table 9

 

Workgroup

 

Domain

1.

It

is

a

peer-to-peer

networking

1. It is a server based networking model.

model.

 

2.there is a centralized dedicated server computer called domain controller (DC)which controls all other computers called clients.

2.

There is no client and no server. All

computers are in equal status.

 

3.This model is recommended for small networks (upto 10 pcs).

3. This model is recommended for large networks.

4.

There is no centralized Admin-

istration and each PC is administrated separately.

4. There is centralized administration and each PC can be administrated and managed from the server.

5.In this model, low grade operating system like 2000/xp professional, win 98 etc can be used.

5.In this model high grade operating system ,like win2000/2008 server are used.

6.

Workgroup can be given names like

6. Domain can also given names like abc.com, xyz.com etc.

sales, HR, accounts etc.

 

7.

Users accounts are created in each PC

7.Users accounts are created on sever side DC and are called as ”Domain Users”.

and are called as “Local Users”.

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Active Directory uses domain to hold objects, each domain has security boundary. Users must authenticates to the domain in which their users account resides before they can access resources, such as a shared folders. Active Directory also links related domains in a hierarchical structure and users can access resources in any of the domain in which their user account resides. The hierarchical structures of related domain is called a tree, and all domains in the tree share the same Domain Name System (DNS) namespace. All the domains and the trees in a single organization are called a forest. All domains in the forest share same schema.

3.7 Types of Domain

Domain Forest

Domain Tree

Organization unit

Domain Forest

A

forest is created when window 2k3 server computer is configured as a domain controller. A forest

is

a collection of multiple domain link together and relationship between the domains.

Domain Tree

A domain tree is made up when there is a parent child relationship between the domain in the forest. The child domain includes the complete parent domain name. a tree is a set of two or more domains sharing common namespace e.g we can create a parent domain and then child domain like mail.yahoo.com; where mail- child domain, yahoo- parent domain.

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Fig 8: Structure of domain forest and domain tree Organization Unit (OU) Organization unit is

Fig 8: Structure of domain forest and domain tree Organization Unit (OU)

Organization unit is the smallest unit in a domain network that can contain users, computer groups, shared folders, printers and group policy object in simple words. OU means department like sale department, accounts department like sales, accounts in a company OU can be used to apply different security policies to computer and users in different department. OU also helps in dividing administration among different administrator of managing only computer and users of sales

department.

3.7.2.1 Types of Domain Controller

(i)

PDC :

Primary domain controller

(ii)

ADC : Additional domain controller

(iii)

BDC :

Backup domain controller

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Primary Domain Controller (PDC)

This is the first domain controller, in this domain all entries are created in it like users account, group policy, Organization unit etc. All FSMO role are done in PDC.

Additional Domain Controller (ADC)

It is a domain network, it is important to have more than one DC so that if one DC fails, the other DC will continue serving the client. There is also load balancing of Active Directory Service if we have more than one DC. The first DC we create is simply called PDC and if we create an extra DC then that DC is known as ADC. ADC has same configuration of AD as primary domain controller. All domain controllers in a domain networking are masters. We can make a change in the active directory of any domain controller and that change is replicated to all other domain controllers. Replication takes place among all the domain controllers and it is controlled automatically. If we create a user in the first domain controller, it is automatically created in the ADC because of replication. All the domain controllers in the domain networking are peers and this model is called as multi- master model .

are peers and this model is called as multi- master model . Fig 9: Multi-Master Model

Fig 9: Multi-Master Model

3.7.1.3

Requirements of Active Directory

(i)

Window 2000/2008 server computer.

(ii)

Atleast one NTFS partition.

(iii)

Static IP address

(iv)

Atleast 1GB free hard disk space

(v)

LAN card enabled and connected to the network

(vi)

Install DNS, if not installed of Active Directory and configure it.

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It should be noted that active directory cannot work without DNS.DNS is automatically installed and configured during the Active Directory installation.

3.7.1.4 Installation of Active Directory

First of all fill the static IP address, then install DNS service into it and after that install the Active

Directory

startrundcpromo

Ok

Welcome to active directory nextnext

Select domain controller for a new domain e.g (gmail.com)

Next

Domain NETBIOS name (gmail.com)

Next

Data folder, folder new tech directory servicenext (SYS VOL)

Next

Click on install and configure the DNS server on this computer to use this DNS server as its preferred DNS server.

Tick on permission compatible only with window server

Next

Enter the restore mode and the password

nextnextfinish

now restart computer

Command used for the removal of Active Directory start rundcpromo This command is also used to remove active directory, if after this command the active directory is not removed then type

startrun

cmddcpromo /forceremoval

Ok

How to identify Active Directory installation

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Start administrator tool After that if three options specified if come, it means that Active Directory has been

installed

Active Directory domain and trusts

Active Directory sites and services

Active Directory users and computer

Open DNS console by

Administrator toolsDNS

Forward lookup zone

msdcs.exam.edu

start of authority (SOA)

name server (NS)

Now ping active directory with domain name like

startrunping gmail.com

Backup of Active Director Active Directory backup come in use when there is some problem in active directory. If there is any problem in active directory then remove it and restore the backup.

Start runntbackupok

Select advance mode and untick that is already ticked

Select backup

Selsct system state

Change backup path browse keep in your hardware and then send it to the pen drive

D:\adbackup

3.7.3 CHILD DOMAIN A domain is created say “xyz.com”. this domain is known as parent domain or the root domain.

Now “chd.xyz.com” will be the child domain or the sub domain of xyz.com.

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Fig 10 : parent-child relationship model A child domain is created to ease administration in

Fig 10 : parent-child relationship model A child domain is created to ease administration in a very large domain network. We can create the parent domain in the head office of the company and the child domain in the branch offices. Each branch office will have its own administrator to manage the users of the child domain present in the branch office. A true relationship is automatically created between the parent domain and the child domain. This means users in the child domain can access the file server of the parent domain. Moreover users of either domain can use clients of either domain for logging in the domain but a user can always logon only in the domain in which his account resides, though he physically can use client pc of parent or client domain. Users of either domain can logon its own domain from either side but only when it use its own domain name. users of parent domain can communicate with child domain but he has to use its domain name for that.

3.7.3.1 Steps to create child domain

but he has to use its domain name for that. 3.7.3.1 Steps to create child domain

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First of all install the active directory on pc1 i.e on the parent domain. Now make Tom user on it. On pc2 create the child domain, then make users on it, user- Ram Below are the steps to cerate child domain.

Fill the IP address in the child domain

Now ping to the parent domain with the domain name (xyz.com)

Run dcpromook

nextselect domain controller for a new domain

nextselect child domain and existing domain name (mcse.com)

next

enter username, password and domain name

enter user parent domain name also enter child domain name

enter complete DNS name i.e xyz.mcse.com

nextnextnextnext

it should be noted that parent domain can logon into child domain but on the other hand child domain cannot logon to the parent domain. Also parent domain can apply policies or security on the child domain.

Make the client member by entering particular user with its domain name.

First right click on My Computer

Properties

Computer name

Change

Write domain name ok

Now logoff start and then write user name - Tom Domain name - mcse.com

Again logoff and check the other user

Start-user name- abc Domain name – mail.mcse.com

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3.8 INTERNET SHAREING We can share a single internet connection to multiple computers with the help of

or internet sharing. There are four ways to share internet.

(i)

Direct sharing

(ii)

ICS – Internet connection sharing

(iii)

Win Proxy

(iv)

NAT – Network Address Translation

networking

3.8.1 Direct Sharing

Internet sharing can be done between computers directly, just by taking internet connection directly from ISP (Internet Server provider), then it is provided to ADSL model, ADSL modem is connected to the ISP through RJ-11 connector. Then it is connected to the switch with RJ-45 connector. Switch, further connects computers those have to be provided with internet connection.

The scenario for direct sharing is as shown in figure:

The scenario for direct sharing is as shown in figure: Fig: 11: Direct Sharing Scenario

Fig: 11: Direct Sharing Scenario

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ADSL modem has IP address 192.168.1.1. All the PCs are assigned with a DNS

(Domain

Name Server) and GW (gateway) -192.168.1.1. Also DHCP (Dynamic Host Communication Protocol) is enabled which will provide IP addresses to the PCs automatically.

3.8.2 ICS (Internet Connection Sharing)

Internet Connection sharing provides an alternate way to provide Internet Sharing. ICS requires a server with two network interfaces, one for the private internal network configured with IP 192.168.0.1 address and an adapter for public connection. ICS requires two connections in order to work: one public and one private i.e. ICS server requires two LAN cards, Internal (Private) and External (Public). Internal LAN card uses Local LAN card (L2) and External LAN card (L1) is used by Internet. ICS is designed to be as simple as possible. ICS works on following windows: XP, Vista, 2K3 Server, 2k3 Server SP1.it doesn’t work on the server in which AD+SP1 is present. The scenario for ICS is shown below:

AD+SP1 is present. The scenario for ICS is shown below: Fig 12: ICS scenario Note:- When

Fig 12: ICS scenario

Note:- When we configure ICS then the local card detect 192.168.0.1 address automatically. How to configure ICS

Open network and sharing center

Network- Properties

Click on Manage network connections

Right click on LAN Card which is used for internet- Properties

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Click on sharing

Enable ICS

Ok

yes

3.8.3 Win Proxy Server Win Proxy is a third party software which is used for sharing internet and we can also block the

web site with the help of win proxy. WIN Proxy supports all the three classes A, B, C also it is supported by all operating systems. The scenario for WIN proxy is shown below:

systems. The scenario for WIN proxy is shown below: Fig 13: scenario of win proxy server

Fig 13: scenario of win proxy server

In win proxy as shown in the scenario above we can share internet. First of all a ADSL modem is connected to the ISP (Internet Service Provider) by a RJ-11 connector and other end of ADSL modem is connected to the PC1 through RJ-45. Assign IP address

192.168.1.1 to the ADSL modem also enable the DHCP server and set the start IP address of

192.168.1.2 and end IP address of 192.168.1.254. Then after ADSL modem connect PC1, assign GW

192.168.1.1 and

3.8.4 NAT (Network Address Translation)

If we have to connect many computers with a single IP address then we will use NAT. NAT exchange IP packet between local network and internet. The routing and remote access server of window 2K3 server provide us with a component known as NAT. By enabling NAT on a Server 2008 system, you allow connected users on a private system to share a single connection to access a public

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network such as the internet i.e. NAT enable multiple client computer to connect the internet through a single publicly registered IP address. A NAT server translate private IP address to public addresses. NAT eliminates the need for large number of IP addresses by mapping externally assigned IP addresses.

of IP addresses by mapping externally assigned IP addresses. Fig 14: NAT server When deploying NAT,

Fig 14: NAT server

When deploying NAT, it is needed to configure setting on both the client side and the server side. On the server side of NAT fill the IP address statically.

3.8.4.1 Steps to enable NAT server

Open internet ToolsInternet options

connectionsLAN settings

untick the IP and port address

okokgive site name

. On the client side of NAT, client side is configured to obtain IP addresses automatically and

then restart the client system. Assuming NAT is used for address assignment, the client system will

receive TCP/IP information from the NAT server. The client information includes:

IP address from 192.168.0.0 private addressing range

Subnet mask (255.255.255.0)

DNS server address, which would be the address of the NAT interface on the server.

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With the client side configured, there are few things to do on NAT server:

The first step to configure NAT server is to actually install the Routing and Remote Access Services. To do this, start the Routing and Remote Access Service Setup Wizard.

Startadministrator toolsRouting & Remote Access

Right click on My Computerright click on computer name

Select option Configure and enable routing & remote access

Welcome to routing nextnext

Select NATnext

Select LAN card which is to be connected to internet

nextnext

From any of the four methods of internet sharing only method is used at a time to remove the other

method

go to startsetting

add & remove

change/ remove, tick on remove.

3.9 VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN)

A virtual private network is used to convert public network address to private network. All the clients of VPN dial to public IP address of VPN server and receive private IP from virtual VPN dynamic host protocol (DHCP).in VPN one can have multiple virtual connections to a single IP address. This way ,one network card can host several inbound connections, rather than require a modem and telephone line for each simultaneous remote user.

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Fig 15 : scenario of VPN server Using VPN server we can connect many private

Fig 15 : scenario of VPN server Using VPN server we can connect many private networks to internet services i.e the remote connection. We can create a private network through public network, we can use firewall for security and data encryption in VPN server.

3.9.1 VPN components

(i)

VPN server

(ii)

VPN Clients

(iii)

WAN Option

(iv)

Security Options

VPN Server VPN server, serve as the end points of a VPN connection. When configuring a VPN server, you can allow access to just that server, or pass traffic through VPN server so that the remote user gain access the resources of the entire network.

VPN Client VPN clients establish connection to VPN server. They can also be routers that obtain the router-to-router secure connection. VPN client software is included in all the modern window operating systems, including Window 2008 server. Router-to router VPN connection can be made from computers running server2008 and Windows 2000 running Routing and Remote Access. Additionally, any client that support PPTP or L2TP connections can be VPN clients of a window server 2008 system.

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WAN Options These provide the physical mechanism for passing data back and forth. These connections typically include such similar network technologies such as T1or frame relay. In order for VPN connections to be successful, the VPN client and VPN server must be connected to each other using either permanent WAN connection or by dialing into an internet server provider (ISP).

Security Options Since a VPN uses a network that is generally open to the public, it is important that the data passed over the connection remain secure. To aid with secure communication routing and remote access supports such security measure as logon and domain security, data encryption, smart cards, IP packet filtering and caller ID.

3.9.2 Types of VPN

(i)

PPTP (Point to Point Tunneling Protocol )

(ii)

L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) according to CCNA.

Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) PPTP is Microsoft’s legacy protocol for supporting VPN. It was developed in conjunction with other communications companies such as Robotics as an extension to the PPP protocol. PPTP encapsulates IP or IPX packets inside of PPP datagram’s. This means that you can remotely run programs that are dependent upon particular network protocols. One of the keys to remember about PPTP is that the protocol provides encryption capabilities, making it much safer to send information over nonsecure networks.

Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) L2TP is a standard based encapsulation protocol with roughly the same functionality as a Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). One of the key differences between Window’s server 2008 implementation of L2TPand it cousin PPTP is that L2TPis designed to run natively over IP networks only. This implementation of L2TP does not support native tunneling over X.25, frame relay, or ATM networks. Like PPTP, L2TPencapsulates Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) frames, which then encapsulate IP or IPX protocols, allowing users to remotely run programs that are dependent on specific network protocols . But unlike the PPTP protocol, L2TP does not provide encryption of the data. For data security L2TPrelies on the services of another standards- based protocol, IPSec.

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3.9.3

How to configure VPN

startadministrative tools

Routing and Remote access

Right click on computer name configure and enable Routing and Remote access

nextselect remote access (dial up or VPN)

next VPNnext

select LAN card which is connected to internet (172.15.15.50) public IP

disable enable security next

from a specific range of addressnextnew

enter the required range

oknextno radius

nextfinish

3.9.4

Create users in VPN server

open user propertiesdial in allow access

applyok

3.9.5

Working on Client Side

Right click on My Network Placesproperties

Double click on New Network Wizardnext

Connect to network at my work placenext

Virtual private network connectionnext

Enter company name (abc)next

Enter public IP address of VPN servernext

Any one use next

finish

3.10 ROUTING It is a process of transferring information through an inter network i.e from one network to another. Routing connect different networks having ID help in process of routing. The dial-in properties also allow for specific IP address to be assigned to a user. This is the only way in Window Server 2008 that you can assign a specific IP to a user. To assign a specific IP to a user, check the box next to assign A Static IP Address and enter a valid IP in the space provided. Static routing can also

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be specified as per user. By defining static routes, users can be limited to only specific parts of networks. In an internetwork a router must then about all the networks present in the for effort websites, there are hardware routers like CISCO. Even win 2008 server computer configured as router. In simple words Router is a computer with two network cards. These two network cards, then, are attached to two different logical IP networks. The routing table helps direct traffic that is passed through the router. Now when there is a router, also there is a routing table, there is a need to configure the router in order for that router to pass along traffic to the proper network. There are two ways the routing table can be built and modified: either manually or automatically.

3.10.1 Types of Routing

(i)

Static Routing

(ii)

Dynamic Routing

3.10.1.1 Static Routing

In this routing information required for routing is manually entered into the router by

administrator.

How to configure LAN routing

Enter the static IP in the router

Administrator tools

Routing and Remote access

Right click on computer name (pcc1)

Configure and enable routing and remote access

nextcustom configuration

select LAN routingnextfinish

yes and logon to see IP table route

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Enable LAN routing Interface WAN IP 172.15.0.0 SNM 255.255.0.0 GW 20.0.0.2 enable LAN routing Interface

Enable LAN routing Interface WAN IP 172.15.0.0 SNM 255.255.0.0 GW 20.0.0.2

enable LAN routing Interface WAN 10.0.0.0 IP 10.0.0.0 SNM 255.0.0.0 GW 20.0.0.1

Fig 16 : scenario for LAN routing

How to configure static routing At Router R1:

enable LAN routing

right click on static route

interface WAN

destination 172.15.0.0

mask 255.255.0.0

GW 20.0.0.2

At Router R2:

Enable LAN routing

Right click on static route

Interface WAN

Destination 10.0.0.0

Mask 255.0.0.0

GW 20.0.0.1

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Fig 17 : static routing 3.10.1.2 Dynamic Routing The other way to manage a router

Fig 17 : static routing

3.10.1.2 Dynamic Routing The other way to manage a router routing tables is to let the computer do it for you. Just like DHCP allocate IP addresses, configuring the dynamic routing protocol usually means less errors due to human error, and less administrative overhead. In dynamic routing, routing information is automatically entered in the router using protocols like RIP AND OSPF. These routing protocols used by Window Server 2008 use one of two kinds of algorithms to determine the best possible path for a packet to get to its destination, either distance vector or link state. RIP is used for small networks where as OSPF is used for large networks.

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) The distance vector protocol in use on Window 2008 is called Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for IP. This protocol was designed for the exchange of the routing information within a small to medium size IP network. When Router is enabled on Window 2008 machine, the routing table includes entries only for the networks that are physically connected. When RIP is enabled for an interface, the router will periodically send an announcement of its routing table to inform other RIP routers of the networks it can reach. RIP version1 uses broadcast packets for its announcement. RIP

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version2 offers an improvement and can be configured to use either multicast or broadcast packets when communicating with other routers. Also, RIP version2 offers more flexibility in subnetted and classless inter domain routing (CIDR) environments. The biggest advantage of RIPis its simplicity. With a few clicks in the Routing and Remote Access Server and MMC console, you can deploy RIP. With the RIP dynamic routing protocol installed on Window’s Server 2008, you get the following features:

(i)

RIP version1 and version2, with the ability to configure individual network cards with separate versions.

(ii)

Calculations used to avoid routing loops and speed recovery of the network whenever topology changes occur.

(iii)

Route filters; you can configure RIP to except information from only certain networks, and also choose which routes will be shared with RIP routers.

(iv)

Peer filters, which allow control over which router announcements are accepted.

(v)

Simple password authentication support.

But there are significant drawbacks, which makes RIP a poor, if not unusable solution for large networks. For example, the maximum hop count used for RIP routers is15, making network 16 hops away (or more) unreachable where RIP is concerned.

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Where RIP is built to work to work in smaller networks, the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol is designed for large or very large networks. The goal is the same: information about connection to other networks is shared from one router to another. It offers several advantages over RIP, especially significant in large networks:

(i)

Routes calculated with OSPF are always loop free.

(ii)

OSPF can scale much more easily than RIP.

(iii)

Reconfiguration for network topology changes is faster.

The biggest reason OSPF is the choice in large networks is its efficiency; instead of changing routing table via broadcast the way RIP does, OSPF configured routers maintain a map of the network. The mapping is called the link state database, OSPF routers keep the link state database up

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to date. Once changes have been made to link state database, an OSPF router’s link state database is

recalculated. As the networks start to multiply, the size of the link state database increases, and a corresponding hit on router performance results. To combat this, OSPF sub divide the network into smaller sections, called areas. Areas are connected to each other through a backbone area, with each

router only responsible for the link state database for those areas connected to the routers. Area Border Routers (ABRs) then connect one backbone area to another. The biggest drawback of OSPF is its complexity; OSPF requires proper planning and is more difficult to configure and administer.

3.11 EXCHANGE SERVER

Exchange server is a mail server, we can send and receive mail from one user to another user.

Exchange server is the mail server of Microsoft.

3.11.1 Elements of Exchange Server

Mail Server

A server which helps to the users to send and receive mail is called mail server.

Mail Box

A storage place where senders and receivers mails are stored.

3.11.2 Exchange Version

Table 10:

Exchange Server with different operating systems

Exchange Version

Operating System

Exchange Server 5.5

WIN NT or 2000 server (without SP).

Exchange Server 2000

WIN NT or 2000 server (SP3,SP4) without (SP).

Exchange Server 2008

WIN 2000 Server or WIN2008 server (SP4) without SP.

Exchange server 2007

WIN2008 server or R2/WIN 2008 server with SP1.

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Where SP stands for Service Pack. Service Pack are the services which are loaded externally to remove some bugs that come during installation of server CD.

3.11.3 Requirements for Exchange Server

Protocols Required

POP3 (Post Office Protocol) This protocol is used for receiving e- mails.

IMAE4 (Internet Messaging Access Protocol) This protocol is advance version of POP, this is also used to receive mail.

LMTP (Local Mail Transfer Protocol)/SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used to send mails.

NNTP (Network News Transfer protocol) This protocol is used for transferring messages on internet.

Hardware Requirements

Processor: min. 133MHz

Rec. 733MHz

RAM:

min. 256MB

Rec. 512MB

Other Requirements

OS: 2k or 2k3 Server

NTFS partition

Static IP address

Active Directory

DNS installation with AD zone

IIS installed with ASP.net, SMTP, NNTP and www service

3.12 Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model

OSI model is the layer approach to design, develop and implement network. OSI provides following advantages: -

(i)

Development of new technology will be faster.

(ii)

Devices from multiple vendors can communicate with each other.

(iii)

Implementation and troubleshooting of network will be easy.

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3.12.1 Description of Different Layers

Application Layer Application layer accepts data and forward into the protocol stack. It creates user interface between application software and protocol stack. Presentation Layer This layer decides presentation format of the data. It also able to performs other function like compression/decompression and encryption/decryption. Session Layer This layer initiate, maintain and terminate sessions between different applications. Due to this layer multiple application software can be executed at the same time.

Transport Layer Transport layer is responsible for connection oriented and connection less communication. Transport layer also performs other functions like

(i)

Error checking

(ii)

Flow Control Buffering Windowing Multiplexing

(iii)

Sequencing

(iv)

Positive Acknowledgement

(v)

Response

(vi)

Network Layer

This layer performs function like logical addressing and path determination. Each networking device has a physical address that is MAC address. But logical addressing is easier to communicate on large size network. Logical addressing defines network address and host address. This type of addressing is used to simplify implementation of large network. Some examples of logical addressing are: - IP addresses, IPX addresses etc. Network layer has different routing protocols like RIP, EIGRP, BGP, and ARP etc. to perform the path determination for different routing protocol. Network layer also perform

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other responsibilities like defining quality of service, fragmentation and protocol identification. Data Link Layer The functions of Data Link layer are divided into two sub layers

Logical Link Control

Media Access Control

(i)

Logical Link Control defines the encapsulation that will be used by the NIC to delivered data to destination. Some examples of Logical Link Control are ARPA (Ethernet), 802.11 wi-fi.

(ii)

Media Access Control defines methods to access the shared media and establish the identity with the help of MAC address. Some examples of Media Access Control are CSMA/CD, Token Passing.

Physical Layer Physical Layer is responsible to communicate bits over the media this layer deals with the standard defined for media and signals. This layer may also perform modulation and demodulation as required.

3.13

ROUTERS

13.13.1 Router Architecture and its Key Component

LAN Processor I/O Controller WAN Memory Controller RAM
LAN
Processor
I/O
Controller
WAN
Memory
Controller
RAM

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Ports
Ports
Flash RAM O/S IOS
Flash
RAM
O/S
IOS

BIOS

ROM

Incomplete

IOS

NVRAM

Startup Configuration

Fig 18 : Architecture of router

Processor Speed: - 20 MHz to 1GHz Architecture: - RISC Reduce Instruction set computer Manufacturers: - Motorola, IBM, Power PC, Texas, Orion, Intel.

Flash RAM

Flash memory is just like a hard copy of the computer. Flash RAM is the permanent read/write memory. This memory is used to store one or more copies of router O/S. Router O/S is also called IOS (Internetwork Operating System).The size of Flash RAM in the router is 4MB to 256MB. This memory is Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM). NVRAM

NVRAM is a “Non Volatile Random Access Memory”. It is used to store the startup configuration of the Router. It is on chip RAM, its size is 32kb.

RAM (Random Access Memory) It is a volatile memory. All the activities we do are stored in RAM,this means that it holds the running configuration. RAM of the router is divided into two logical parts.

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Primary RAM

Shared RAM

Primary RAM

Primary RAM is used for: -

(i)

Running copy of IOS.

(ii)

Running configuration

(iii)

Routing table

(iv)

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table (IP address to MAC address)

(v)

Processor & other data structure

Shared RAM Shared RAM is used as a buffer memory to shared the data received from different interfaces. Size of RAM in a router may vary from 2 MB to 512 MB. The types of memory that may be present in a RAM are:

(i)

DRAM -> Dynamic RAM

(ii)

EDORAM -> Extended Data Out RAM

(iii)

SDRAM -> Synchronous Dynamic RAM

ROM (Random Access Memory) It has four components:

POST (Power on Self Test) It performs hardware testing.

BOOT Strap Boot strap specifies from where and which inter operating system is to be loaded.

Mini IOS Cisco 2500, 1600

ROM MOW

3.13.2

Router Interfaces & Ports

Interface is used to connect LAN networks or wan networks to the router. Interface will use protocol stacks to send/receive data. Ports are used for the configuration of routers. Ports are not used to connect different networks. The primary purpose of port is the management of router.

3.13.2.1 Router Interface

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Table 11:

Router interfaces and connectors

Table 11: Router interfaces and connectors AUI – Attachment Unit Interface EPABX – Electronic Private Automatic

AUI – Attachment Unit Interface EPABX – Electronic Private Automatic Branch PSTN – Public Services Telephone Network

3.13.2.2

Router Ports

Table 12:

Router Ports

3.13.2.2 Router Ports Table 12: Router Ports 3.13.3 Modes of Router When we access router command

3.13.3 Modes of Router When we access router command prompt the router will display different modes. According

to the modes, privileges and rights are assigned to the user.

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User mode

Router> In this mode, we can display basic parameter and status of the router we can test connectivity and perform telnet to other devices. In this mode we are not able to change and save router configuration.

Privileged mode Router# In this mode, we can display all information, configuration, perform administration task, debugging, testing and connectivity with other devices. We are not able to perform here configuration editing of the router. The command to enter in this mode is ‘enable’. We have to enter enable password or enable secret password to enter in this mode. Enable secret has more priority than enable password. If both passwords are configured then only enable secret will work. Global configuration Route(config)# This mode is used for the configuration of global parameters in the router. Global parameters applied to the entire router. All the changes are performed in this mode. But here we cannot see and save the changes. For e.g: - router hostname or access list of router, password, Banner, Routing, Security. The command to enter in this mode is ‘configure terminal’

Line configuration mode In this mode we can set the password of the user mode, i.e to set user mode password .This

mode is used to configure lines like console, vty and auxiliary. There are main types of line that are configured.

(i) Console Router(config)#line console 0

(ii)

Auxiliary Router(config)#line aux 0

(iii)

Telnet or vty Router(config)#line vty 0 4

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Interface configuration mode In this mode we can set ip addresses of the interfaces. This mode is used to configure router interfaces. For e.g:- Ethernet, Serial, BRI etc.

Router(config)#interface <type> <number> Router(config)#interface serial 1

Routing configuration mode

This mode is used to configure routing protocol like RIP, EIGRP, OSPF etc. Router(config)#router <protocol> [<option>] Router(config)#router rip Router(config)#router eigrp 10

3.13.4 Configuring Password There are five types of password available in a router Console Password router#configure terminal router(config)#line console 0 router(config-line)#password <word> router(config-line)#login router(config-line)#exit

To erase password do all steps with no command. Vty Password router>enable router#configure terminal router(config)#line vty 0 4 router(config-line)#password <word> router(config-line)#login router(config-line)#exit

Auxiliary Password router#configure terminal router(config)#line Aux 0

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router(config-line)#password <word> router(config-line)#login router(config-line)#exit

Enable Password router>enable router#configure terminal router(config)#enable password <word> router(config)#exit Enable Secret Password Enable Password is the clear text password. It is stored as clear text in configuration where as enable secret password is the encrypted password. Router>enable Router#configure terminal Router(config)#enable secret <word> Router(config)#exit

Encryption all passwords All passwords other than enable secret password are clear text password. The command to encrypt all password are Router#configure terminal Router(config)#service password-encryption

3.13.5 Managing Configuration There are two types of configuration present in a router

(i)

Startup Configuration

(ii)

Running Configuration

Startup configuration is stored in the NVRAM. Startup configuration is used to save settings in a router. Startup configuration is loaded at the time of booting in to the Primary RAM. Running Configuration is present in the Primary RAM wherever we run a command for configuration, this command is written in the running configuration.

To save configuration Router#copy running-configuration startup-configuration Or

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Router#write

To abort configuration Router#copy startup-configuration running-configuration To display running-configuration Router#show running-configuration To display startup configuration Router#show startup-configuration

Configuring Host Name Router#configure terminal Router(config)#hostname <name> <name>#exit or end or /\z Router#config terminal Router(config)#hostname r1

R1(config)#

Configuration Interfaces Interfaces configuration is one of the most important part of the router configuration. By default, all interfaces of Cisco router are in disabled mode. We have to use different commands as our requirement to enable and configure the interface. Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface <type> <no> Router(config-if)#ip address <ip> <mask> Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#exit

To display interface status

Router#show interfaces (to show all interfaces) Router#show interface <type> <no> This command will display following parameters about an interface (1) Status

(2)

Mac address

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(3)

IP address

(4)

Subnet mask

(5)

Hardware type / manufacturer

(6)

Bandwidth

(7) Reliability

(8)

Delay

(9)

Load ( Tx load Rx load)

(10) Encapsulation

(11)

ARP type (if applicable)

(12)

Keep alive

Configuring optional parameter on WAN interface Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interfac <type> <no> Router(config-if)#encapsulation <protocol> Router(config-if)#clock rate <value> Router(config-if)#end

Command displaying history of Router

To display commands present in history Router#show history

To display history size Router#show terminal

To change history size Router#config terminal Router(config)#line console 0 Router(config-if)#history size <value(0-256)> Router(config-if)#exit

Configuring Banners Banners are just a message that can appear at different prompts according to the type. Different banners are: -

Message of the day (motd) This banner appear at every access method

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Login

Appear before login prompt

Exec

Appear after we enter to the execution mode

Syntax:-

Incoming Appear for incoming connections

Router#config terminal Router(config)#banner <type> <delimation char>Text Massage Router(config)#

Example

<delimation char>

Router#config terminal Router(config)#banner motd $ This router is distribution 3600 router connected to Reliance $ Router(config)#

To set time in router We can configure router clock with the help of two methods:

(i)

Configure clock locally

(ii)

Configure clock on NTP server (Network Time Protocol)

Router does not have battery to save the clock setting. So that clock will reset to the default on reboot.

To display clock Router#show clock To configure clock Router#clock set hh:mm:ss day month year Router#clock set 7:15:10 9 June 2009

To configure clock from NTP server Router#config terminal Router(config)#ntp server <IP address> Router(config)#exit

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C:\>ping pool.ntp.org To get ntp server ip from internet C:\>route print

3.14 SUBNETTING Subnetting is a process or a technique to divide large and complex networks into smaller parts

or smaller networks and each network is called as subnet. Subnetting is done to reduce the wastage of

IP addresses ie instead of having a single huge network for an organization smaller networks are created within a given huge network. Subnetting allows the user to create multiple logical networks within a single Class A, B or C based networks. In subnetting, the IPv4 address is broken into two parts; network id and host id. This process borrows bits from the host id field. In this process, the network size does not shrink but the size of hosts per network shrinks in order to include sub-networks within the network.

3.14.1 Advantages of subnetting

Size of the physical networks is reduced and hence easy to manage.

Reduce network traffic.

Easy to troubleshoot.

Reduce the wastage of IP address.

Subnet Mask A subnet mask specifies the part of IP address that is to be used for identifying a sub network.

A subnet mask when logically ANDed with IPaddress provides a 32- bit network address. This binary

address gives the first address in the subnet block specified in the large network.

Default Mask Classfull addresses consists of three classes; Class A, Class B, Class C used for subnet.Each class has

a default subnet mask C lass A consists of eight 1s in the network address field and 24 0s in

remaining field, Class B consists of 16 1s in network address field and 16 0s in remaining field, and Class C cointains 24 1s in the network address field and remaining 8 bytes as 0s. the default address mask in binary and dotted-decimal is shown in the table

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To Calculate the Subnet Mask 1. Identify the class of address assigned. For this example

To Calculate the Subnet Mask

1.

Identify the class of address assigned. For this example the class of IP address is Class B.

2.

check the default address mask for the appropriate class and convert it to binary format .for this example the default address mask is 255.255.0.0 and the equivalent binary format is; 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000

3.

check the no. of 1s in the default mask. E.g this address contains 16 1s in class B, 16 bits 2 octat are for net id and the last 16 bits 2 octates are for host id.

4.

now if we need 9 subnets. This no. 9 is not a power of 2. the next no. that is power of 2 and greater than 2 is 16. So, we require 4 extra 4 extra 1s in the network field which has to be borrowed from the host id field.

5.

the total no. of 1s is 16+4=20, as 16 1s are from network id and 4 1s are of additional bits required for subnetwork. The no. of 0s in the n/w is 32-20=12. which defines whole address.

6.

hence address is given as 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000 and in decimal

Table 14:

format can be given as 255.255.240.0 decimal and binary values of subnet mask

Decimal

Binary

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0

00000000

128

10000000

192

11000000

224

11100000

240

11110000

248

11111000

252

11111100

254

11111110

255

11111111

3.14.2

Fixed Length Subnet Mask (FLSM)

Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM)

Steps of Subnetting for FLSM For IP address 192.168.10.0 (Class C) Step 1:

Types of Subnetting

Identify the total no. of subnets 2^n = no.of subnets

Where n are the no.s and borrowed bytes from host ID portion. Let we are given that we have to make 4 subnets. Therefore 2^n =4 i.e n=2

Step 2:

To idettify the total no. of the valid hosts for each subnet.

2^m-2= no.of valid hosts. Where m are the remaining no. of bits in host ID 2^6-2=62

Step 3:

Calculate the subnet mask and range

Subnet mask for n/w 192.168.10.0/26 is 11111111.11111111.11111111.1100000000 ie

255.255.255.192

range=> 256-192=64

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step 4:

Identify the total no of subnets, no. of valid hosts and the broadcast address.

Table 15: showing subnet mask, valid hosts, broadcast address

Subnetwork

Valid Host

Broadcast Address

192.168.10.0

192.168.10.1

to

 

192.168.10.63

192.168.10.63

192.168.10.64

192.168.10.65

to

192.168.10.126

192.168.10.127

192.168.10.128

192.168.10.129

to

192.168.10.190

192.168.10.191

192.168.10.192

192.168.10.193

to

192.168.10.254

192.168.10.255

VLSM In VLSM to allocate IP addresses to subnets depending upon the no. of hosts. The network having more no of hosts is given priority and the one having least no of host comes at last and for each network the subnet is assigned separately. As in the scenario given:

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Fig 19: variable subnet mask 3.15 TELNET Telnet stands for terminal network, telephone network, terminal

Fig 19: variable subnet mask

3.15 TELNET Telnet stands for terminal network, telephone network, terminal encapsulation on the network. Purpose of Telnet is to access the remote device in order to configure it. It provides textual access of the remote device. It uses the services of TCP. Telnet service is used where small bandwidth is low. It provides textual access of the remote device. Port number of Telnet is 23.

3.15.1 To Access the Device Remotely

For this purpose we have to assign the IP addresses to the PCs and the interfaces. For Telnet the Routers are to be configured with RIP version1 , so that the device can ping each other. Also DCE cable is used to connect the Routers. The serial link should have the speed of 64K also apply vty password and enable secret password. Set up the Routers so that they can manage via Telnet. First of all select the PCs and the routers connect the ports to the router, double click on router, switch off the router if it is on. Then select the serial port according to the routers, switch on the router. Select the cable to connect the Routers. Router to Router connections are made by the serial cable, so go on first Router select the serial port as s0/1/0 in the scenario, then go to the other Router and connect the serial cable at interface s1/0. Accordingly connect the third Router with interfaces s1/1 and s1/2. Now connect the PCs to the routers, to do this first select the console cable, click on the PC select RS232 option, then connect it on the Router and select console cable. Now select cross- over cable on the PC select Fast Ethernet option and on the Router select f0/0 option now as the PCs and Routers are connected to each other assign IP addresses to the PCs and the Routers. According to the fig set

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the IP addresses of the PCs double click on the PCchoose the option of desktopIP configuration. Now set the IP address, subnet mask, and the default gateway. Like wise set the IP address of all the PCs. Now set the IP address of the interfaces of router.

3.15.2 Commands to assign IP addresses to the interfaces:

At Router1:

Router> Router>enable Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface f0/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown

address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Fig 20: scenario of Telnet Router# Router#configure terminal

Fig 20: scenario of Telnet

Router# Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface s0/1/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 40.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config)#interface s0/1/0 Router(config-if)#clock rate 64000

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Router(config-if)#no shutdown

Now to check the assigned IPaddresses to the interfaces the command used is Router#show ip interface brief

At router 2:

 

Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface f0/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 20.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown

Router# Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface s1/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 40.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface s1/1 Router(config-if)#ip address 50.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config)#interface s1/1 Router(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Router(config-if)#no shutdown

At router 3:

Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface f0/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 30.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown

Router# Router#configure terminal Router(config)#interface s1/0 Router(config-if)#ip address 50.0.0.2 255.0.0.0

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Router(config-if)#no shutdown

To Telnet a device from Router At all the Routers use these commands Router(config)#line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)#password cobra Router(config-line)#login Router(config)#enable password cobra Router(config)#enable secret cobra1

To telnet a device from router

Router#telnet <IP> Or Router>telnet <IP>

To exit from telnet session

Router#exit

To exit from a hanged telnet session

Ctrl+shft+6

Or

Router#disconnect

To display connected session

Router#show sessions This command shows those sessions, which are created or connected by us. If we want anyone can telnet our router without password then on the line vty type command “No Login”.

3.16

ROUTING Routing is a process or technique to identify the path from one network to another. Routers don’t really care about hosts—they only care about networks and the best path to each network.

To route the packet the router must know the following things:

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Destination network

Neighbour device from witch it can learn about remote Networking.

Possible number of routers to reach the destination.

Best route to reach the destination.

How to maintain & verify the routing information.

3.16.1

TYPES OF ROUTING

Static routing.

Default routing.

Dynamic routing.

3.16.1.1 STATIC ROUTING In static routing an administrator specifies all the routes to reach the destination. Static routing occurs when you manually add routes in each router’s routing table.By default, Static routes have an Administrative Distance (AD) of 1

Features

There is no overhead on the router CPU.

There is no bandwidth usage between routers.

It adds security, because the administrator can choose to allow routing access to certain networks

only.

Advantages of static routing (1) Fast and efficient. (2) More control over selected path. (3) Less overhead for router. (4) Bandwidth of interfaces is not consumed in routing updates.

Disadvantages of static routing

(1) More overheads on administrator. (2) Load balancing is not easily possible. (3) In case of topology change routing table has to be change manually.

Syntax for Static Routing

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Router (config)# ip route <destination N/w> <Subnet mask> <Next Hope- address or exit interface> [<administrative distance>Permanent].

To check the routing table of router

Router # show ip route

To check the routing table of router Router # show ip route Fig 21: scenario of

Fig 21: scenario of static routing

Static routing of router (R1) Router(config)#ip route 20.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 40.0.0.2 Router(config)#ip route 30.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 40.0.0.2 Router(config)#ip route 50.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 40.0.0.2

Router(config)#interface so/1/0

Router(config)# clock rate 64000

Router # show ip route

Static routing of router (R2) Router(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 40.0.0.1

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Router(config)#ip route 30.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 50.0.0.2 Router#show ip route Router(config)#interface s1/0 Router(config)# clock rate 64000 Router(config)#interface s1/1 Router(config)#clock rate 64000 Router#show ip route

Static routing of router (R3) Router(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 50.0.0.1 Router(config)#ip route 20.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 50.0.0.1 Router(config)#ip route 40.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 50.0.0.1 Router(config)#interface s1/0 Router(config)# clock rate 64000 Router#show ip route

3.16.1.2 DEFAULT ROUTING

Default routing is used to send packets with a remote destination network not in the routing table to the next-hop route. Default routing is also a type of static routing which reduces the routing overhead & default routing is also used with stub networks. Stub networks are those having a single exit interface. Default routing is also used for unknown destination.

A special address is used to perform the default routing ie 0.0.0.0 The scenario for default routing is same and but the commands used at the routers having single exit interface like R1 and R3 have different commands.

At Router (R1)

Router(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 40.0.0.2 Router#show ip route

At Router (R3)

Router(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 50.0.0.1 Router#show ip route

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3.16.1.3 DYNAMIC ROUTING Dynamic routing is when protocols are used to find networks and update routing table

on routers. A routing protocol defines the set of rules used by router when it communicates routing information between neighbor routers. In dynamic routing, we will enable a routing protocol on router. This protocol will send its routing information to the neighbor router. The neighbors will analyze the information and write new routes to the routing table. The routers will pass routing information receive from one router to other router also. If there are more than one path available then routes are compared and best path is selected. Some examples of dynamic protocol are: -

RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF There are two type of routing protocols used in internetwors:

Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs)

IGPs are used to exchange routing information with routers in the same Autonomous System(AS) number. Routing which is performed within a single autonomous system is known as interior routing. The protocol that are used to perform this type of routing are known as IGP(Interior

Gateway Protocol). These protocols are:-

(i)

RIPv1 (Routing Information Protocol Version 1)

(ii)