Sunteți pe pagina 1din 105

Rating

Ingredient Acacia farnesiana extract. A fragrant extract from a type of acacia tree. There is no research showing it to have any benefit... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Plant Extracts

Acacia senegal. Herb that can have anti-inflammatory properties, but is used primarily as a thickening agent.
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

aai. Pronounced ah-sigh-ee, this small berry with a deep purple color is a potent source of... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Accutane. Trade name for the drug with the active ingredient isotretinoin. Acutane as a brand name is no... Read More
Categories: Prescription Drugs, Vitamins

acerola fruit extract. Acerola contains vitamin C. However, the dry acerola fruit and powder are unlikely to be a good... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

acetic acid. Acid found in vinegar, some fruits, and human sweat. It can be a skin irritant and drying to skin,... Read More
Categories: Irritants

acetone. Strong solvent that is used in Nail Polish removers.


Categories: Miscellaneous

acetyl carnitine HCL. See L-carnitine


Categories: Antioxidants

acetyl glucosamine. Amino acid sugar and primary constituent of mucopolysaccharides and hyaluronic acid. As such, it... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

acetyl glyceryl ricinoleate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

acetyl hexapeptide-3. Is a synthetically derived peptide that is being used in a wide range of skin care and makeup... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

acetyl tributyl citrate. Related to citric acid and used as a plasticizer, most commonly in nail polish and nail-hardening... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

acetyl tyrosine. An amino acid complex that functions as a skin-conditioning agent. There is no research proving it... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

acetylated castor oil. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

acetylated hydrogenated cottonseed glyceride . Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

acetylated lanolin. Emollient derived from lanolin.


Categories: Emollients

acetylated lanolin alcohol. An ester of lanolin alcohol uses as an emollient and occlusive agent. An ester is a compound formed... Read More
Categories: Emollients

acetylated palm kernel glycerides. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

acetylsalicylic acid. Chemical name for aspirin, one of the most widely used anti-inflammatory drugs in the world.... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants

Achillea millefolium. See yarrow extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

acid. Anything with a pH lower than 7 is considered acidicabove 7 is considered alkaline. Water has a pH... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

acne soap. Soaps that often contain anti-bacterial ingredients, and they are often overly drying and... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

acrylate. See film-forming agent


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

acrylates copolymer. See film-forming agent


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

acrylates/C10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer. See film-forming agent


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

acrylates/dimethicone copolymer. A silicone-enhanced film-forming agent. Also functions as a binding agent so products adhere better... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Silicones

acrylates/steareth-20 methacrylate copolymer. A synthetic polymer that blends stearth-20 with one or more forms of methacrylic acid. Functions as... Read More
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Actaea racemosa. See black cohosh


Categories: Plant Extracts

active ingredient. The active ingredients list is the part of a cosmetic, drug, or pharmaceutical ingredient label... Read More
Categories: Sunscreen Actives, Miscellaneous

adapalene. See retinoids, Differin


Categories: Prescription Drugs

adenine. Component of DNA that carries genetic information to the cell.


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

adenosine . Yeast-derived ingredient that plays an important cell-signaling role in many bodily processes.... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

adenosine triphosphate. An organic compound from adenosine, which is formed by the hydrolysis of yeast nucleic acids. All... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

adipic acid/neopentyl glycol/trimellitic anhydride copolymer . A synthetic polymer.


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

advanced glycation endproduct. Advanced glycation endproducts, also known as AGEs, are caused by the body's major fuel source,... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

Aerocarpus santalinus. See red sandalwood


Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

Aesculus hippocastanum. See horse chestnut extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

agar. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Agaricus bisporus extract. An extract of mushroom that is thought to help regulate skin cell production by inhibiting cell... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Plant Extracts

AGE. See advanced glycation endproduct


Categories: Miscellaneous

age spots. Once referred to as liver spots, these brown skin discolorations are also not related to age, any... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

Agrimonia eupatoria leaf extract. Research shows this plant extract inhibits the hepatitis b virus and has antioxidant properties.... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

AHA. Acronym for alpha hydroxy acid. AHAs are derived from various plant sources or from milk. However,... Read More
Categories: Leave-On Exfoliant

Ahnfeltia concinna extract. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

ahnfeltia extract. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Ajuga turkestanica extract. The only research about this plant indicates that it may have anabolic steroid properties (Source:... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Plant Extracts

alanine . See amino acid


Categories: Antioxidants

Alaria esculenta. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

albumin. Found in egg white, and can leave a film over skin. It can constrict skin temporarily, which can... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

Alchemilla vulgaris. Plant with antimicrobial properties. Its high tannin content can cause skin irritation (Source:... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

alcloxa. More technically known as aluminum chlorhydroxy allantoinate, alcloxa has constricting properties... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

alcohol. The term alcohol refers to a group of organic co mpounds that have a vast range of... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Absorbent, Irritants

Aleurites moluccana oil. See kukui nut oil


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

alfalfa extract. Can be an antioxidant in skin-care products (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

algae. Algae are very simple, chlorophyll-containing organisms in a family that includes more than 20,000... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

algae extract. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

algin. Brown algae.


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

aliphatic hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbon contained in natural gas and mineral oils. It is a synthetic fluid with varying... Read More
Categories: Slip Agents

alkaline. Anything with a pH higher than 7 is alkaline; a pH below 7 is acidic. Water has a pH of 7; skin has... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

alkyloamides. Identified on skin-care product labels as DEA, triethanolamine (TEA), and monoethanolamine (MEA),... Read More
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

allantoin. By-product of uric acid extracted from urea and considered an effective anti-irritant.
Categories: Anti-Irritants

all-trans retinoic acid. Active ingredient in Retin-A and Renova.


Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Prescription Drugs

allyl methacrylates crosspolymer. A synthetic, non-aqueous polymer whose chief function is filmforming agent.
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

almond oil. Non-volatile oil extracted from the seeds of almonds and used as an emollient.
Categories: Emollients

Aloe barbadensis. See aloe vera


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

aloe extract. See aloe vera


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

aloe juice. See aloe vera


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

aloe vera. There is no real evidence that aloe vera (Aloe barbadenis) helps the skin in any significant way.... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

alpha bisabolol. See bisabolol


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

alpha glucan oligosaccharide. Emollient used in cosmetics that also has water-binding properties.
Categories: Emollients

alpha hydroxy acid. See AHA

Categories: Leave-On Exfoliant

alpha lipoic acid. Enzyme that, when applied topically on skin, appears to be a very good antioxidant. Taken... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

alpha-tocopherol.
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

Alteromonas ferment extract. Alteromonas is a gram-negative bacteria found in deep areas of seawater. Due to its... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

Althaea rosea. See mallow


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Althea officinalis. Latin name for the marshmallow plant.


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

alumina. Aluminum oxide, which is used as an abrasive, a thickening agent, and an absorbent in cosmetics.
Categories: Absorbent, Scrub Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

aluminum chlorohydrate. Chemically a salt, and used in antiperspirants, it can be extremely irritating on abraded skin. In... Read More
Categories: Absorbent

Aluminum hydroxide. A synthetic ingredient that functions as an opacifying agent and skin protectant. Secondary uses... Read More
Categories: Absorbent, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

aluminum magnesium silicate. Salt that has absorbent properties.


Categories: Absorbent

aluminum powder. Metallic element used as a coloring agent. It is composed of finely ground particles of aluminum.... Read More
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

aluminum silicate. Salt that has absorbent and abrasive properties.


Categories: Absorbent, Scrub Agents

aluminum starch octenylsuccinate. Powdery thickening agent, absorbent, and anticaking agent used in cosmetics.
Categories: Absorbent, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

aluminum stearate. The aluminum salt of stearic acid that functions as a thickening agent and helps stabilize... Read More
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

aluminum sulfate. Topical disinfectant and typical ingredient in deodorants. It can be a skin irritant.
Categories: Absorbent, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

amino acid. Fundamental constituents of all proteins found in the body, such as: alanine, arginine, asparagine,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Skin-Identical Ingredients

aminobutyric acid. Amino acid that has water-binding properties for skin and may be an antiinflammatory. It... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants

aminomethyl propanediol. Used to adjust pH in cosmetics.


Categories: Miscellaneous

aminomethyl propanol. Used in cosmetics at concentrations of 1% or less to adjust pH.


Categories: Miscellaneous

aminophylline. Pharmaceutical ingredient present in prescription bronchodilators (medications designed to open... Read More
Categories: Prescription Drugs

ammonium chloride. Alkaline salt used as a pH balancer in skin-care products; it is not used in concentrations that... Read More
Categories: Absorbent

ammonium glycolate. Synthetic form of glycolic acid used as a pH adjuster and exfoliant. It is sometimes paired with... Read More
Categories: Leave-On Exfoliant

ammonium hydroxide. Clear, colorless liquid used in cosmetics to adjust a product's pH level. Ammonium hydroxide is... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

ammonium laureth sulfate. Can be derived from coconut; used primarily as a detergent cleansing agent and is considered gentle... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

ammonium lauryl sulfate. Can be derived from coconut; used primarily as a detergent cleansing agent and is considered gentle... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

amniotic extract or fluid. There is research showing that pure concentrations of amniotic fluid (human) have some benefit for... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

amodimethicone. See silicone


Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents

amygdalic acid. See mandelic acid


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Leave-On Exfoliant

amyl cinnamate. Fragrant component.


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

amyl salicylate. Fragrant component.


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

amyris oil. Fragrant oil. It has no other known benefit for skin.
Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

Anacyclus pyrethrum. See pellitory


Categories: Plant Extracts

Anacystis nidulans extract. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Ananas sativus fruit extract. See pineapple extract


Categories: Plant Extracts, Leave-On Exfoliant

andiroba oil. Extracted from the Brazilian mahogany tree; it has anti-inflammatory properties (Source:... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Anethum graveolens. See dill extract


Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

Angelica archangelica root oil. Volatile oil obtained from the angelica plant. The oil contains chemical constituents that can be... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

Angelica polymorpha sinensis root extract. See dong quai


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

anisaldehyde. Synthetic fragrance used in cosmetics.


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

anise. Also known as aniseed, it can have potent antioxidant and antibacterial properties (Source:... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Antioxidants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

annato extract. Natural plant colorant derived from the flesh surrounding the seed of Bixa orellana, a shrub native... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

Anthemis nobilis flower extract. See chamomile


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants

anthocyanin. Group of naturally occurring substances found in plants that give fruits, vegetables, and plants... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

antibacterial. Any ingredient that destroys or inhibits the growth of bacteria; in the case of skin-care products,... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

anti-inflammatory. Any ingredient that reduces certain signs of inflammation, such as swelling, tenderness, pain,... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants

anti-irritant. Any ingredient that reduces certain signs of inflammation, such as swelling, tenderness, pain,... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants

antioxidant. General term for a large group of natural and synthetic ingredients that work to reduce... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

apricot kernel. Often used as an abrasive agent in so-called "natural" scrubs. Apricot kernals have irregular and... Read More
Categories: Scrub Agents

apricot kernel oil. Emollient plant oil pressed from the seeds of apricots, and similar to other nonfragrant plant... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

aquaporins. Group of 13 different cellular membrane proteins that form water channels in living... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

arachidic acid. Derived from peanut oil and used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

arachidonic acid. Produced from phospholipids and fatty acids. There is research showing that this is potentially... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

arachidyl alcohol. Waxy substance used as a thickening agent and emollient in cosmetics.
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

arachidyl propionate. Waxy substance used as a thickening agent and emollient in cosmetics.
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Arachis hypogaea extract. Extract of the plant commonly known as the peanut. It can have emollient and anti-inflammatory... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

arbutin. Hydroquinone derivative isolated from the leaves of the bearberry shrub, cranberry, blueberry, some... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

Arctium lappa. See burdock root


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Arctostaphylos uva ursi leaf. See bearberry extract


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

argan oil. Non-fragrant plant oil expressed from the kernels of rarified argan trees. Argan trees are... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts, Vitamins

Argania spinosa. See argan oil


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts, Vitamins

arginine. Amino acid that has antioxidant properties and can be helpful for wound healing (Sources: Journal... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

Argireline. See acetyl hexapeptide-3


Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

arnica extract. Extract from the plant Arnica montana. There is research showing that when arnica is taken orally... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

arrowroot. Thickening agent; it has no known benefit for skin.


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

artemia extract. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Artemisia absinthium extract. See mugwort extract


Categories: Plant Extracts

Artemisia vulgaris. See mugwort extract


Categories: Plant Extracts

Ascophyllum nodosum. Species of seaweed.


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

ascorbic acid. Form of vitamin C that has antioxidant properties (Sources: Advances in Experimental Medicine and... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

ascorbyl glucosamine. Form of vitamin C that has little research showing it has the antioxidant or skinlightening... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

ascorbyl glucoside. Form of vitamin C combined with glucose. It can function as an antioxidant, but only minimal... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

ascorbyl methylsilanol pectinate. Form of vitamin C that is considered stable and that functions as an antioxidant and thickening... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Vitamins

ascorbyl palmitate. Stable and nonacidic form of vitamin C that is effective as an antioxidant (Source: Biochemical and... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

asparagine. See amino acid


Categories: Antioxidants

Asparagopsis armata extract. Extract derived from seaweed.


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

aspartic acid. See amino acid


Categories: Antioxidants, Skin-Identical Ingredients

astaxanthin. See astaxanthin extract


Categories: Antioxidants

astaxanthin extract. Carotenoid (carotene pigment) found in plants, algae, and fish, particularly salmon, that functions... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

Astragalus membranaceus. Latin name for the Chinese herb Huang-Qi, also known as milk vetch.
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Astragalus sinicus. See milk vetch root


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

ATP. See adenosine triphosphate


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

Atractyloydes lancea root extract. Also known as Chinese Thistle Daisy, this root extract is used in Chinese and Japanese alternative... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

Avena sativa. Oat plant. Oat extract can have anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Skin... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

avobenzone. Synthetic sunscreen ingredient (also known as Parsol 1789 and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane) that... Read More
Categories: Sunscreen Actives

avocado oil. Emollient oil similar to other nonfragrant plant oils. It has antioxidant properties.
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients

awapuhi. English name for wild ginger.


Categories: Plant Extracts

Azadirachta indica. See neem extract or oil


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

azelaic acid. Trade name Azelex and available by prescription; a component of grains such as wheat, rye, and... Read More
Categories: Prescription Drugs

Azelex. See azelaic acid


Categories: Prescription Drugs

azuki beans. Legumes that are often ground up for use in skin-care scrub products.

Categories: Scrub Agents

azulene. Chamomile extract used primarily as a coloring agent in cosmetics. It can have antioxidant and... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Rating

Ingredient babassu oil. Plant oil that can have emollient properties for skin. There is no research showing it has special... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Bacillus subtilis. Naturally occurring bacterium that is widespread and can be used to control plant diseases, fungal... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

balm mint extract. Extract derived from a fragrant plant; it poses some risk of skin irritation. It also has some... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

balsam peru. Fatty resin that when applied topically can cause allergic skin reactions and contact dermatitis.... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

banana extract. Extract from banana fruit that has some weak antioxidant properties (Source: Free Radical Research,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

barberry. Plant whose primary component, berberine, is an alkaloid that can have antibacterial properties and... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Anti-Irritants

barium sulfate. Mineral used as a whitening agent in cosmetics. It can be a skin irritant.
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments, Irritants

barley extract. Extract from barley plants. Can have antioxidant properties when ingested, but there is no research... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

batyl alcohol. Derived from glycerin and used as a stabilizing ingredient and skin-conditioning agent.
Categories: Emollients

bay leaf oil. Can be a potent antioxidant (Source: Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, January 2002, pages... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

bearberry extract. Latin name Arctostaphylos uva ursi, there is research showing that this extract has antibacterial... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Antioxidants

bee pollen. Can have antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, April 2001, pages... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

beeswax. Substance made by bees to build the walls of their honeycomb. It is a thickening agent that has... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

beet root extract. Powdered base of the stem (root) of the Beta vulgaris plant. Used as a coloring agent. As with most... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Coloring Agents/Pigments, Plant Extracts

behenic acid. Fatty acid used as a thickening agent and surfactant.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

behentrimonium chloride. Skin-conditioning agent and emulsifier.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

behenyl alcohol. Thickening agent used in cosmetics. It is not related to irritating forms of alcohol.
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Bellis perennis. See daisy flower extract


Categories: Plant Extracts

bentonite. Type of clay that is used as an absorbent in cosmetics. It can be drying for skin, though its... Read More
Categories: Absorbent

benzalkonium chloride. Antimicrobial agent used as a preservative in skin-care products. There is no research showing it... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

benzephenone-3. Also called oxybenzone, a sunscreen agent that protects skin primarily from the suns UVB... Read More
Categories: Sunscreen Actives

benzocaine. Topical anesthetic (Sources: Dermatol Surgery, December 2001, pages 1010 1018; and Pediatric... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

benzoic acid. Preservative used in skin-care products; it is considered less irritating than some other forms of... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

benzoin extract. Balsam resin that has some disinfecting and fragrant properties; it may also be a skin irritant... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

benzophenone. Group of compounds used in cosmetics as sunscreen agents to protect mostly from UVB radiation and... Read More
Categories: Sunscreen Actives

benzothonium chloride. Compound used as a preservative in cosmetics. It is generally considered less irritating than some... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

benzoyl peroxide. Considered the most effective over-the-counter choice for a topical antibacterial agent in the... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

benzyl alcohol. See alcohol


Categories: Miscellaneous

Berberis aristata. See barberry


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

bergamot oil. A volatile citrus oil that, when used topically, is a photosensitizer and has photomutagenic... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

Bertholletia excelsa extract. See Brazil nut extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

beta hydroxy acid. See salicylic acid


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Leave-On Exfoliant

beta sitosterol. Plant extract, similar to cholesterol, that can have antimicrobial properties (Source: Journal of... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Beta vulgaris root extract. See beet root extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Coloring Agents/Pigments, Plant Extracts

beta-carotene. Member of the carotenoid family. There are hundreds of carotenoids, including lycopene and lutein.... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

beta-glucan. Polysaccharide, meaning that it is a sugar (e.g., starch and cellulose) that can be derived from... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants

Betula alba. See birch bark extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

BHA (beta hydroxy acid). See salicylic acid


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Anti-Irritants, Leave-On Exfoliant

BHT. Butylated hydroxytoluene, a potent synthetic antioxidant that also has carcinogenic properties when... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

bifida ferment lysate. Type of gram-positive bacteria found in the digestive system. It has no known effect on skin when... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

bifidus extract. Carbohydrate in human milk that stimulates the growth of Lactobacillus bifidus in the intestine. In... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

bilberry extract. Some research shows bilberry (vaccinium myrtillis) to be effective as an antioxidant when ingested... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

bimatoprost. The active ingredient in the glaucoma medication Lumigan that was found to also stimulate lash... Read More
Categories: Prescription Drugs

bioflavonoid. Diverse range of substances that are components of many fruits and vegetables. Many have been shown... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

biotin. Also known as vitamin H, a water-soluble vitamin produced in the body by certain types of... Read More
Categories: Vitamins

birch bark extract. Extract derived from the plant Betula alba (common name white birch). It can have potent... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

birch leaf extract. See birch bark extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

bisabolol. Can be extracted from chamomile or derived synthetically. It is an anti-irritant.


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

bis-diglyceryl polyacyladipate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

bismuth oxychloride. The standard primary ingredient included in most powders that are referred to as mineral... Read More
Categories: Absorbent, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

bis-PEG-18 methyl ether dimethyl silane. A synthetic skin conditioning agent and surfactant belonging to the chemical class of siloxanes and... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Silicones, Slip Agents

bis-phenylpropyl dimethicone. A synthetic polymer from the siloxane/silicone family.


Categories: Silicones, Slip Agents

bitter orange flower.


Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

black cohosh. There is research showing that black cohosh when taken orally can have an effect on menopausal and... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

black currant oil. Non-volatile plant oil.


Categories: Plant Extracts

black elderberry. When taken orally, this has potent antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

black locust extract. Extract that can have antioxidant properties, although it also may have toxic components (Source:... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

black mulberry. There is no research showing this has any benefit when applied topically to skin.
Categories: Plant Extracts

black pepper extract and oil. Used topically as a counter-irritant, which means it can cause significant skin irritation (Source:... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

black raspberry. Fruit that has potent antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, June... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

black tea. See green tea


Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

blackberry. Berries that have potent antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

bladderwrack extract. Extract derived from seaweed; it can be an effective antioxidant and has water-binding properties... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

bloodwort. Also known as yarrow.


Categories: Plant Extracts

blue 1. See FD&C colors


Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

blue 1 lake. See FD&C colors


Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

Boerhavia diffusa root extract. Extract from a flowering plant. Animal studies have shown that this plant has strong... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

bois de rose oil. See rosewood oil


Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

bois oil. Fragrant oil that has no research showing it has benefit for skin (Source: www.naturaldatabase.com).
Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

borage seed extract. Extract of the plant Borago officinalis, it can have anti-irritant and antiinflammatory properties... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

borage seed oil. Contains gamma linolenic acid (Source: www.naturaldatabase.com).


Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

Borago officinalis extract. See borage seed oil


Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

Borago officinalis seed oil. See borage seed oil


Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

borate. Group of compounds used in cosmetics in small quantities primarily as pH adjusters (they have a pH... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants

borax. Also known as sodium borate decahydrate, borax is a mineral composed of sodium, boron, oxygen, and... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Preservatives

boric acid. May have wound-healing benefits (Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, October... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

boron nitride. Synthetic, inorganic powder, which in cosmetics has absorbent properties similar to those of... Read More
Categories: Absorbent

Boswellia carterii. See frankencense extract


Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

botanicals. General term for a large group of natural ingredients. Botanicals may or may not be organic, and... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

boysenberry. Berry that can have potent antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Brassica campestris. See rapeseed oil


Categories: Emollients, Antioxidants

Brazil nut extract. Extract for which there is a small amount of research showing it can have antioxidant properties... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

broad spectrum. Term that refers to a sunscreens ability to protect the skin from both UVA and UVB rays from... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

bromelain. Bromelain is a crude extract from the pineapple that contains, among other components, various... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Leave-On Exfoliant

bronopol. Technical name 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, a formaldehyde-releasing preservative (Source:... Read More


Categories: Preservatives

bronze powder. Mineral coloring agent derived from copper. Permanently listed (since 1977) by the FDA as a safe... Read More
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

Buddleja davidii extract. Plant also known as summer lilac or butterfly bush (because the flowers are a food source for... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

bumetrizole. Sunscreen ingredient that absorbs primarily UVB light.


Categories: Sunscreen Actives

Bupleurum falcatum extract. A plant used in Chinese medicine for a varitety of ailments ranging from the common cold to liver... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

burdock root. Plant extract whose active constituents are anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Whether the leaves,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

butcher's broom extract. There is evidence showing that this extract can reduce edema and venous problems when taken orally... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

butyl acetate. Solvent used in nail polish and many other products.
Categories: Miscellaneous

butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane. See avobenzone


Categories: Sunscreen Actives

butylene glycol. Commonly used slip agent that has multiple functions in cosmetics, depending on the formula.... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous, Slip Agents

butylparaben. See parabens


Categories: Preservatives

Butyrospermum fruit. Fruit from the karite tree, scientific name Butyrospermum parkii, from which the fat is obtained to... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Butyrospermum parkii. See shea butter


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts, Skin-Identical Ingredients

Buxus chinensis. See jojoba oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts, Skin-Identical Ingredients

Rating

Ingredient C10-30 cholesterol/lanosterol esters. A blend of cholesterol and fatty acid ester from lanolin. Functions as a skin conditioning agent.
Categories: Emollients

C12-15 alkyl benzoate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

C12-18 acid triglyceride. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

C13-14 isoparaffin. A petroleum-derived ingredient whose wax-like texture functions as a thickening or gelling agent.
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

C18-36 acid triglyceride. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

C20-40 pareth-40. Mixture of polyethylene glycols of various molecular weight that can function as stabilizing... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

caffeic acid. Potent antioxidant that may have some anticarcinogenic properties (Sources: Toxicology, January... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

caffeine. Alkaloid found in coffee, tea, and kola nuts. Caffeine is the chief stimulate in beverages such as... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

cajeputi oil. See Melaleuca cajeputi oil


Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

calamine. Preparation of zinc carbonate, colored with ferric oxide (a form of rust). Zinc carbonate is a... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous, Irritants

calcium ascorbate. Form of vitamin C; other forms include ascorbic acid, L-ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, and... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

calcium carbonate. Chalk; used as an absorbent in cosmetics.


Categories: Absorbent

calcium d-pantetheine-s-sulfonate. See calcium pantetheine sulfonate


Categories: Miscellaneous

calcium gluconate. Calcium is an essential mineral for the body. A small amount of research shows calcium gluconate... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants

calcium pantetheine sulfonate. There is a small amount of in vitro research showing that this may have melanin-inhibiting... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

calcium pantothenate. Also known as pantothenic acid.


Categories: Vitamins

calendula extract. Extract derived from the plant commonly known as pot marigold, there is little research showing... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Calluna vulgaris flower extract. Also known as heather extract, this plant has anti-inflammatory properties. Heather is considered a... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil. See tamanu oil


Categories: Plant Extracts

Camellia japonica. The leaf has been shown in vitro to be potent antioxidant and also able to inhibit the expression... Read More

Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Camellia oleifera.
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Camellia sinensis. See green tea


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

camphor. Aromatic substance obtained from the wood of a tree common to Southeast Asia, Cinnamomum camphora,... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

cananga extract. Fragrance used in cosmetics; it can be a skin irritant, much like ylang ylang.
Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

Cananga odorata. See ylang ylang


Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

candelilla wax. Extract derived from candelilla plants; used as a thickening agent and emollient to give products... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Cannabis sativa L. oil. See hemp seed oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

canola oil. Plant lipid that has barrier-repair and anti-inflammatory properties (Source: British Journal of... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts, Skin-Identical Ingredients

caprylic/capric triglyceride. Extract derived from coconut and considered a good emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

caprylyl glycol. Skin-conditioning agent that may be plant-derived or synthetic. Often used as part of a... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Preservatives

caprylyl methicone. See silicone, polymer


Categories: Silicones, Emollients

capsaicin. Component of capsicum. When used topically, capsaicin can prevent the transmission of pain. It is... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

capsicum. Large group of plants consisting primarily of the pepper family, including chili peppers and... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

capsicum oleoresin. Fatty resin derived from capsicum plants. It can be a skin irritant and should not be applied to... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

caramel. Natural coloring agent.


Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

carbomer. Group of thickening agents used primarily to create gel-like formulations.


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

carbopol. See carbomer


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

carboxylic acid. See L-carnitine

Categories: Antioxidants

cardamom. Plant of the ginger family, used as fragrance in cosmetics. Terpene, one of its major constituents,... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

carmine. Natural red color that comes from the dried female cochineal beetle. It is sometimes used to color... Read More
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

carnauba wax. Natural, hard wax obtained from the leaves of palm trees. Used primarily as a thickening agent, but... Read More
Categories: Absorbent, Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Plant Extracts

carnitine. Naturally occurring amino acid. Deficiencies of this small but essential component can result in... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

carnosic acid. Component of rosemary that is a potent antioxidant (Sources: Free Radical Biology and Medicine,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

carnosine. Composed of amino acids, it has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. There is some... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

carnosol acid. See carnosic acid


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

carrageenan. Seaweed gum used in cosmetics as a thickening agent with water-binding properties.
Categories: Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

carrot oil. Emollient plant oil similar to other nonfragrant plant oils.
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts, Skin-Identical Ingredients

Carthamus tinctorius oil. See safflower oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

carvone. Essential oil used as a flavoring agent and fragrance component in cosmetics. It can be a... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

Carya illinoensis oil. See pecan oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

casein. Substance derived from milk protein that may have some antioxidant properties when applied... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

Castanea sativa seed extract. See chestnut seed extract


Categories: Plant Extracts

castor oil. Vegetable oil derived from the castor bean. It is used in cosmetics as an emollient, though its... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

catalase. Enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen and that has significant antioxidant... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

Caulerpa taxifolia extract. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

cedarwood. Fragrant plant extract. There is evidence that cedarwood oil is allergenic and can cause skin... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

Cedrus atlantica bark extract. Fragrant oil that can be a skin irritant.
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

celandine. Extract from the plant Chelidonium majus that has some research showing it has antiviral... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

cell-communicating ingredients. Cell-communicating ingredients, theoretically, have the ability to tell a skin cell to look, act,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

cellulose. Primary fiber component of plants. Used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and to bind other... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Cellulose gum. Any of various fibrous substances derived from the cell walls of plants. Cellulose gum is a natural... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Centaurea cyanus. See cornflower


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Centella asiatica. Extract of herb that may be listed on labels as asiatic acid, hydrocotyl, or gotu kola. It has... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

cephalin. Phospholipid.
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Cera alba. Beeswax; used as a thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

cera microcristallina. See petrolatum


Categories: Miscellaneous, Emollients

ceramide 1. See ceramides


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

ceramide 2. See ceramides


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

ceramide 3. See ceramides


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

ceramide 6-II. See ceramides


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

ceramides. Naturally occurring skin lipids (fats) that are major structural components of the sk ins... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

ceresin. Derived from clay, ceresin is a waxy ingredient used as a thickening agent in cosmetics. It can be... Read More
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

ceteareth-20. Fatty alcohol that is used to thicken cosmetics and keep ingredients mixed together and stable.
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

cetearyl alcohol. Fatty alcohol used as an emollient, emulsifier, thickener, and carrying agent for other... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

cetearyl ethylhexanoate. See cetearyl alcohol


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

cetearyl glucoside. A blend of cetearyl alcohol and glucose that functions as an emulsifier.
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

cetearyl octanoate. See fatty acid


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Skin-Identical Ingredients

cetyl acetate. A mixture of cetyl alcohol and acetic acid used as a skin-conditioning agent and emollient.
Categories: Emollients

cetyl alcohol. Fatty alcohol used as an emollient, emulsifier, thickener, and carrying agent for other... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

cetyl dimethicone. Silicone polymer that functions as skin-conditioning agent.


Categories: Silicones, Slip Agents

cetyl dimethicone copolyol. See silicone, cetyl alcohol


Categories: Silicones, Slip Agents, Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

cetyl esters. Synthetic wax used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient.
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

cetyl hydroxyethylcellulose. A mixture of cetyl alcohol and Hydroxyethylcellulose. It functions as thickener and stabilizing... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1-dimethicone. Silicone that functions as a skin-conditioning agent and emulsifier.


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Silicones, Slip Agents

chamomile. Plant species include Matricaria recutita, Chamomilla recutita, and Matricaria chamomilla.... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

Chamomilla recutita flower extract. See chamomile


Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

chaparral extract. There is conflicting research about its efficacy as an anticancer agent, though it does contain a... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

charcoal. Primarily carbon substance formed by charring organic material in absence of oxygen. One... Read More
Categories: Absorbent

chaulmoogra oil. Once the treatment for leprosy worldwide due to its antimicrobial properties (Source: Proceedings... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

chelating agent. Any of numerous ingredients that bind with metal ions or metallic compounds, preventing them from... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

cherry extract. Also known as wild cherry and sweet cherry, this fruit is a natural source of vitamin C and... Read More

Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

chestnut seed extract. Also known as European chestnut, the extract has a high tannin content, which has astringent and... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

China clay. See kaolin


Categories: Absorbent

chitosan. Derived from chitin, a polysaccharide found in the exoskeletons of shrimp, lobster, and crabs. It... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Anti-Irritants

chlorella. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

chlorhexidine. Topical antiseptic, it can cause irritation (Source: Toxicology in Vitro, August October... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants

chlorophene. Used as a preservative in cosmetics.


Categories: Preservatives

chloroxylenol. Chemical compound used as a disinfectant and preservative due to its action against certain types... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Preservatives

chlorphenesin. Alcohol used as a preservative in cosmetics.


Categories: Preservatives

cholecalciferol. Technical name for vitamin D.


Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

cholesterol. The barrier function of skin depends on the stratum corneum extracellular lipid matrix, which... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients

choline. Part of the vitamin B complex and a constituent of many other biologically important molecules,... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous, Vitamins

chondroitin sulfate. See glycosaminoglycans


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

Chondrus crispus. Form of red seaweed.


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

chromium hydroxide green. Earth mineral used as a coloring agent/additive and permanently listed (as of 1977) by the FDA for... Read More
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

chromium oxide green. See chromium hydroxide green


Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

chrysanthemum extract. Can have anti-inflammatory benefit for skin.


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Chrysanthemum parthenium extract. See feverfew extract


Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

Cichorium intybus. Source of a plant extract with antioxidant properties (Source: Archives of Pharmaceutical Research,... Read More

Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Cimicifuga racemosa root extract. See black cohosh


Categories: Plant Extracts

Cinnamomum. See cinnamon


Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts, Irritants

Cinnamomum camphora. See camphor


Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

cinnamon. Can have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties (Sources: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology, March... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts, Irritants

citric acid. Extract derived from citrus and used primarily to adjust the pH of products to prevent them from... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

Citrullus colocynthis. Bitter apple; considered a skin irritant.


Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

Citrus amara. See orange blossom


Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

Citrus aurantifolia. See lime (oil or extract)


Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

Citrus aurantium. See orange blossom


Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

Citrus aurantium extract. Bitter orange extract. It can have antioxidant properties when eaten (Source: Journal of... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

Citrus medica limonium. See lemon


Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

Citrus unshiu. Plant extract more commonly known as the satsuma. This medium-sized citrus fruit is native to... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Antioxidants

Citrus unshiu peel extract. See Citrus unshiu


Categories: Plant Extracts, Antioxidants

clary oil. Used as fragrance; can be a skin irritant or sensitizer.


Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

clay. See bentonite, kaolin


Categories: Absorbent

clove leaf. See clove oil


Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

clove oil. Potent skin irritant and inflammatory when used repeatedly (Sources: IFAInternational... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

clover blossom. Contains eugenol, which can be a skin sensitizer and cause photosensitivity.
Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

clover leaf oil. See clover blossom

Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

cocamide DEA and MEA. See alkyloamides, diethanolamine


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

cocamidopropyl betaine. One of the more gentle surfactants used in skin-care products.
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine. Mild surfactant.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

cocoa butter. Oil extracted from cocoa beans, used as an emollient and with properties similar to those of other... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

cocoa extract. Can have potent antioxidant properties (Sources: Experimental Biology and Medicine, May 2002, pages... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

coco-glucoside. A mixture of fatty alcohol from coconut and glucose. Chiefly functions as a cleansing agent. May be... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

cocoglycerides. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

coconut. Has degreasing and cleansing properties, which is why detergent cleansing agents are frequently... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

coconut oil. Non-volatile plant kernel oil that has emollient properties for skin.
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Cocus nucifera. See coconut oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Codium tomentosum extract. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

coenzyme Q10. Also known as ubiquinone, it is a vitamin-like, fat-soluble substance present in all human cells.... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants

Coffea arabica extract. Coffea arabica is the coffee plant, and there is research showing that coffee extract has... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Cola acuminata seed extract. See kola nut


Categories: Plant Extracts

Coleus barbatus. Member of the mint family and also known as forskolin; can be a skin irritant. Not enough is... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

collagen. Collagen is a type of protein found extensively throughout the body. It supports skin, internal... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

collagen amino acid. Amino acids hydrolyzed from collagen. These have good water-binding properties for skin.
Categories: Antioxidants

colloidal oatmeal. See oatmeal


Categories: Anti-Irritants

colloidal silver. Refers to ground-up silver suspended in solution.


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

colostrum. The thick, yellowish fluid secreted by the mammary glands prior to and during the first few days... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

coltsfoot. According to The PDR Family Guide to Natural Medicines & Healing Therapies, 1998 and a German... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

comfrey extract. Several studies have shown that comfrey extract can have carcinogenic or toxic properties when... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts, Irritants

Commiphora myrrha extract. See myrrh


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

coneflower. Another name for echinacea; has soothing properties.


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Copaifera officinalis. See balsam peru


Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

Copernicia cerifera wax. See carnauba wax


Categories: Absorbent, Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Plant Extracts

copper gluconate. Also known simply as copper, this mineral is an important trace element for human nutrition. The... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

copper PCA. A synthetic skin-conditioning agent composed of the copper salt of PCA (Pyrrolidone Carboxylic... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

copper peptides. See copper gluconate


Categories: Antioxidants

copper sulfate. Effective for topical wound healing, but there is no research showing it has any impact when used... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

Corallina officinalis extract. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

coriander. Herb and spice plant, the source of a fragrant component; it can be a potential skin irritant... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

corn oil. Emollient oil with properties similar to those of other nonfragrant plant oils (Source: British... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

cornflower. Can have anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, December 1999, pages... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

cornmint. Also known as wild mint; it can be a skin irritant.


Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

cornstarch. Starch obtained from corn and sometimes used as an absorbent in cosmetics instead of or... Read More
Categories: Absorbent, Plant Extracts

Cornus extract. See dogwood


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Corylus americana. See hazelnut oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Corylus avellana. See hazelnut oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

coumarin. Organic compound found in plants and derived from the amino acid phenylalanine. It creates the... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

counter-irritant. Ingredients such as menthol, peppermint, camphor, and mint are counter-irritants (Sources: Archives... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

cranberry seed extract. Extract of the cranberry fruit. Natural components known as proanthocyanidins are responsible for... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

cranberry seed oil. Extract derived from the seed of this red berry; the oil (which is not red) has potent antioxidant... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Crataegus monogina extract. See hawthorn extract


Categories: Plant Extracts

creatine. An amino acid found in the human body and most type of meat and fish. This ingredient serves as the... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

creatinine. Compound formed by the metabolism of the amino acid creatine. Creatine resides primarily in muscle... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

cucumber extract. Non-irritating plant extract from the gourd family (think pumpkin) thats often reputed to be... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Cucumis melo (melon) fruit extract. More commonly known as cantaloupe or honeydew melon, Cucumis melo is a fruit that is a rich source... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Cucumis sativus extract. See cucumber extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Cucurbita pepo seed extract. See pumpkin seed extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Cucurbitea peponis. See pumpkin


Categories: Antioxidants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Plant Extracts, Vitamins, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

Curcuma longa root. See turmeric


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

curcumin. Potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory spice that can be effective in wound healing (Sources:... Read More

Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants

Cyamopsis tetragonoloba. See guar gum


Categories: Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

cyanocobalamin. See vitamin B12


Categories: Vitamins

cyclamen aldehyde. Synthetic fragrant component in products; it can be a skin irritant.


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

cyclohexasiloxane. See silicone


Categories: Emollients, Slip Agents

cyclomethicone. Silicone with a drier finish than dimethicone.


Categories: Emollients, Slip Agents

cyclopentasiloxane. See silicone


Categories: Emollients, Slip Agents

cyclotetrasiloxane. See silicone


Categories: Emollients, Slip Agents

Cymbopogon citrates. See lemongrass extract


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts, Irritants

Cymbopogon martini. See geranium extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

cysteine. See amino acid


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

cystine. See amino acid


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

cytochrome. Protein found in blood cells that, with the aid of enzymes, serves a vital function in the transfer... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

cytokines. Diverse, potent, and extremely complex chemical messengers secreted by the cells of the immune... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

Rating

Ingredient D&C. According to the FDA, D&C is an identification that indicates a coloring agent has been approved as... Read More
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

D&C colors. General term for a wide group of color additives that are approved for use in drugs and cosmetics... Read More
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

daisy flower extract. There is no research showing this extract has any benefit for skin. Also known as tansy, it can... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

d-alpha-tocopherol. Antioxidant that's considered the most biologically active form of vitamin E.
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

dandelion extract. Can be a potent allergen (Source: Archives of Dermatology, January 1999, pages 6770).
Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

Daucus carota. Also known as wild carrot. It can have antioxidant properties, but applied topically it can cause... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

DEA. See diethanolamine


Categories: Miscellaneous

DEA oleth-10 phosphate. Used as an emulsifying agent, which is a group of ingredients essential to most cosmetic... Read More
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Dead Sea minerals. Several studies demonstrate that Dead Sea minerals can have a positive effect on psoriatic skin... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

decarboxy carnosine HCL. See cell-communicating ingredients, carnosine


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

decyl glucoside. Used as a gentle detergent cleansing agent.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

decyl oleate. A skin-conditioning agent derived from the esters of decyl alcohol and oleic acid.
Categories: Emollients

dehydroacetic acid. A synthetic preservative uses in amounts of 0.6% or less. Sometimes its salt form (known as sodium... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

dehydroepiandrosterone. See DHEA


Categories: Miscellaneous

deionized/demineralized water. Filtered water used in cosmetics. All water used in cosmetic formulations goes through this process... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

denatured alcohol. See alcohol


Categories: Irritants

deoxyribonucleic acid. See DNA


Categories: Miscellaneous

detergent cleansing agent. See surfactant


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

deuterium oxide. See heavy water


Categories: Miscellaneous

dextran. Polysaccharide that has water-binding properties for skin.


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

dextrin. Carbohydrate that is classified as a polysaccharide. It is used as an adhesive when mixed with... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

DHA. See dihydroxyacetone


Categories: Miscellaneous

DHEA. Also called prasterone and dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA is a naturally occurring steroid

hormone... Read More


Categories: Miscellaneous

diatomaceous earth. Light-colored porous rock composed of the skeletons of minute sea creatures called diatoms.... Read More
Categories: Scrub Agents

diazolidinyl urea. A water-soluble preservative that is very effective against a broad range of bacteria. Also has... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

dibutyl phthalate. Also known as DBP, it is a common ingredient in nail polish and most synthetic fragrances sold... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

dicaprylyl carbonate. An emollient ingredient that may be derived from synthetic or animal sources. It spreads easily and... Read More
Categories: Emollients

diethanolamine. Colorless liquid used as a solvent and pH adjuster. Also used as a lather agent in skin- and... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

diethylhexyl carbonate. A synthetic oil-like ester that functions as a skin-conditioning agent and emollient. Also... Read More
Categories: Emollients

diethylhexyl malate. Emollient and skin-conditioning agent derived from the solvent ethyl hexanediol.
Categories: Emollients

Differin. Differin (also called adapalene) is a retinoid, a form of vitamin A that has been shown in clinical... Read More
Categories: Prescription Drugs

dihydroxyacetone. Ingredient present in all self-tanners that affects the color of skin. Derived from sugar, it... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

diisopropyl adipate. Used as a film-forming agent, emollient, and skin-conditioning agent.


Categories: Emollients, Film-Forming/Holding Agents

diisopropyl dimer dilinoleate. A synthetic ester that functions as a skin-conditioning agent and emollient.
Categories: Emollients

diisostearoyl trimethylolpropane siloxy silicate . Skin-conditioning agent in the silicone family.


Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents

diisostearyl dimer dilinoleate. A synthetic ester that functions as an emollient and skin-conditioning agent. May be animal-derived.
Categories: Emollients

dill extract. An herbal extract most commonly used to season foods. Dill seed contains a volatile component... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

dimethicone. See silicone


Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents

dimethicone copolyol. See silicone


Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents

dimethicone crosspolymer. Silicone derivative used as a stabilizing or suspending agent or as a thickener.


Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

dimethicone/PEG-10/15 crosspolymer. A mixture of the silicone dimethicone with PEG-10 and PEG-15.
Categories: Emollients, Silicones

dimethicone/vinyl dimethicone crosspolymer. See silicone, polymer


Categories: Silicones, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

dimethiconol. See silicone


Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents

dimethyl capramide. Functions as a stabilizer and solvent in cosmetics.


Categories: Miscellaneous

dimethyl ether. Colorless gas used as a propellant in aerosol products. It is toxic if inhaled and can be... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous, Irritants

dimethyl MEA. See dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE)


Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE). What little research there is about DMAE relates to its effect as an oral supplement, and the... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

Dioscorea villosa extract. See wild yam extract


Categories: Plant Extracts

dipentaerythrityl hexacaprylate/hexacaprate . Mixture of fatty acids used as an emollient and thickening agent.
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

dipotassium glycyrrhizate. See anti-irritant, licorice extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

dipotassium glycyrrhizinate. See anti-irritant, licorice extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

di-PPG-3 myristyl ether adipate. Derivative of myristyl alcohol (a fatty alcohol) and adipic acid (a buffering and neutralizing... Read More
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

dipropylene glycol. A synthetic slip agent and penetration enhancer.


Categories: Slip Agents

disodium cocoamphodiacetate. Mild detergent cleansing agent.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

disodium cocoyl glutamate. A cleansing agent derived from coconut.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

disodium diglyceryl phosphate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

disodium EDTA. See EDTA


Categories: Miscellaneous

disodium glyceryl phosphate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

disodium lauraminopropionate. A mild surfactant.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

disodium lauriminodipropionate tocopheryl phosphates. A complex mixture of esters formed from a blend of tocopherol phosphates with lauriminodipropionic... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

disodium rutinyl disulfate. No research shows this synthetic, salt-derived antioxidant has any impact on cellulite.
Categories: Antioxidants

disteardimonium hectorite. Used as a suspending agent, often with pigments.


Categories: Miscellaneous

DMAE. See dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE)


Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

DMDM hydantoin. Formaldehyde-releasing preservative (Source: Household and Personal Products Industry, May 2001,... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

DNA. Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is found in all cells. It is the primary component of... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

docosahexaenoic acid. See fatty acid


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

dog rose. See rose hip


Categories: Plant Extracts

dogwood. There is a small amount of research showing that dogwood has antioxidant and antiinflammatory... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

dong quai. Latin name Angelica polymorpha sinensis, is an herb that has been shown in some studies to have... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Dromiceius oil. See emu oil


Categories: Emollients

dulse. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

durian. A tropical fruit that research has shown to be a potent antioxidants when consumed orally. It... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Durvillaea antarctica extract. Extract derived from a species of algae (Durvillea antarctica).
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Rating

Ingredient ecamsule. See Mexoryl SX


Categories: Sunscreen Actives

ectoin. Skin-conditioning agent that also functions in cosmetics as a stabilizer. There is limited research... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

EDTA. Acronym for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, a stabilizer used in cosmetics to prevent ingredients... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

egg yolk. Egg yolk is mostly water and lipids (fats), especially cholesterol, which makes it a good emollient... Read More
Categories: Emollients

eicosapentaenoic acid. Fatty acid derived from salmon oil; it is a good emollient for skin. It has also been shown to... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Elaeis guineensis. See palm oil


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

elastin. Major component of skin that gives it flexibility. Sun damage causes elastin in skin to... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

elderberry. Also known as black elderberry or Sambucus nigra, this plant has potent antioxidant... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

elecampane. Latin name Inula helenium; it is a plant that can be very irritating to the skin and can trigger... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

emollient. Supple, waxlike, lubricating, thickening agents that prevent water loss and have a softening and... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

emu oil. The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is a large, flightless bird indigenous to Australia. The oil... Read More
Categories: Emollients

emulsifier. When it comes to cosmetics, an emulsifier refers to any ingredient that helps keep unlike... Read More
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

English ivy extract. Can be a skin irritant due to its stimulant and astringent (skin-constricting) properties (Source:... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

ensulizole. Sunscreen agent, formerly known as phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid. Ensulizole is the established... Read More
Categories: Sunscreen Actives

Enteromorpha compressa extract. Extract from green algae.


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

enzymes. Vast group of protein molecules, produced by all living things, that act as catalysts in chemical... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Leave-On Exfoliant

epidermal growth factor (EGF). Stimulates cell division of many different cell types. There is research showing it to be helpful... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

epigallocatechin gallate. One of the active constituents of green tea believed to be responsible for its many health... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Epilobium angustifolium extract. Extract derived from a plant commonly known as fireweed or

willow herb. Can have antimicrobial... Read More


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

Equisetum arvense. See horsetail extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

ergocalciferol. Technical name for vitamin D.


Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

ergothioneine. A substance derived from animal tissue or various types of mushrooms that has potent antioxidant... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants

Eriobotrya japonica. See loquat extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

erythropoietin (Epo). Stimulates the growth of cells that carry oxygen throughout the body (Source: Melanoma Research,... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

erythrulose. Substance chemically similar to the self-tanning agent dihydroxyacetone. Depending on your skin... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

escin. Extract derived from horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), this ingredient has been prescribed... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

esculin. Component of horse chestnut, it is considered a toxin and is not recommended for skin (Source:... Read More
Categories: Irritants

essential oil. See volatile oil


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

ester. A compound formed from the reaction between an alcohol and an acid via the elimination of water.... Read More
Categories: Emollients

Ester-C. Trade name for a combination form of vitamin C that contains mainly calcium ascorbate, but in... Read More
Categories: Vitamins

estradiol. One of the three main forms of estrogen produced by the body; the other two are estrone and... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

ethanol. See alcohol


Categories: Irritants

ethoxydiglycol. See solvent


Categories: Miscellaneous

ethyl alcohol. See alcohol


Categories: Irritants

ethyl macadamiate. Mixture of fatty acids from macadamia nut oil.


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

ethyl vanillin. Flavoring agent derived from vanilla. It has antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. See octyl methoxycinnamate


Categories: Sunscreen Actives

ethylhexyl palmitate. A mixture of a fatty alcohol and palmitic acid that functions as an emollient.
Categories: Emollients

ethylhexyl stearate. See stearic acid


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

ethylhexylglycerin. A synthetic skin-conditioning agent and as a preservative or as a carrier or suspending agent for... Read More
Categories: Preservatives, Miscellaneous

ethylparaben. See parabens


Categories: Preservatives

eucalyptus extract. Extract that may have antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties on the skin (Source: Skin... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

eucalyptus oil. Fragrant plant oil whose active constituents are found in the leaves and the oil obtained from... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Eugenia aromatica. See clove oil


Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

Eugenia caryophyllus. See clove oil


Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

eugenol. See clove oil, methyleugenol


Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

Euphorbia cerifera wax. See candelilla wax


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Euphrasia officinalis. See eyebright


Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

Euterpe oleraca. See aai


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

evening primrose oil. Can have significant anti-inflammatory and emollient benefits for skin (Sources: Surgeon, February... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

Evodia rutaecarpa extract. A species of Asian tree whose fragrant fruit functions as a good antiinflammatory agent in... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Ext. D&C. Type of coloring agent. According to the FDA (www.fda.gov), when Ext. D&C is followed by a color,... Read More
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

eyebright. A plant; although the name sounds like it would be beneficial for the eye area, there are no... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

Rating

Ingredient

faex. A type of yeast.


Categories: Antioxidants

Fagus sylvatica extract. See yeast


Categories: Antioxidants

farnesol. Extract of plants that is used in cosmetics primarily for fragrance. A few animal studies and some... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Antioxidants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Plant Extracts

farnesyl acetate. See farnesol


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Antioxidants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Plant Extracts

fatty acid. Substance typically found in plant and animal lipids (fat). Fatty acids include compounds such as... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Skin-Identical Ingredients

fatty alcohol. Made from fatty acids; fatty alcohols are used in cosmetics as thickening agents and emollients.... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

FD&C colors. General term for any color additive deemed to be safe and FDA-approved for use in foods, drugs, and... Read More
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

FD&C. Type of coloring agent. According to the FDA, when FD&C is followed by a color, the color is... Read More
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

fennel oil. Volatile, fragrant oil that can cause skin irritation and sensitivity.
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

fennel seed extract. Can have antioxidant properties, but on skin it can be a skin irritant and photosensitizer (Source:... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. Inorganic salt of ferric ferrocyanide.


Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

ferric ferrocyanide. Also known as Iron Blue, a coloring agent used in cosmetic products, including those designed for... Read More
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

Ferula foetida. See ferulic acid


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Ferula galbaniflua. See galbanum


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

ferulic acid. A plant-based antioxidant. Research suggests that it provides antioxidant and sunprotective... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

feverfew extract. A plant that can be very irritating to the skin and can trigger allergic reactions. The irritation... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Within the body, stimulates growth of the nervous system and bone formation.
Categories: Miscellaneous

fibronectin. Type of protein found in the skins intercellular matrix, similar to collagen and elastin.... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

Ficus carica fruit extract. See fig


Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

fig. Fruit that contains psoralens, which are compounds that may cause photodermatitis. Topical... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

Filipendula glaberrima. Also known as Nakai, the root of this plant extract has been shown in vitro to be not only a potent... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Plant Extracts

Filipendula rubra. See meadowsweet extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

film-forming agent. Large group of ingredients that are typically found in hair-care products, but that are also widely... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

fir needle oil. Volatile, fragrant oil that can cause skin irritation and sensitivity.
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

fireweed extract. Extract from the Epilobium angustifolium plant; also known as willow herb.
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

fish cartilage extract. May have water-binding properties, but there is no research showing that this has any benefit for... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

flavonoid. See bioflavonoid


Categories: Antioxidants

flavor. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the term "flavor" on a product label signifies... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

flax. Plant source of linen and edible seeds. Flax seeds and seed oil have antioxidant properties... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

flaxseed oil. From seeds of the flax plant; a source of fatty acids, particularly omega-3.
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

floralozone. One of a number of synthetic fragrant components.


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

Foeniculum vulgare extract. See fennel oil, fennel seed extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

folic acid. Part of the B-vitamin complex; when taken orally, it is a good antioxidant. That benefit has not... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

formaldehyde-releasing preservative. Common type of preservative found in cosmetics (Source: Contact Dermatitis, December 2000, pages... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

fragrance. One or a blend of volatile and/or fragrant plant oils (or synthetically derived oils) that impart... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

frankencense extract. Fragrant component used in skin-care products; it can be a skin irritant. There is no research... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

free-radical damage. Occurrence that takes place at an atomic level and is a complex physiological process. Molecules... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

fructose. Often called fruit sugar, fructose is a type of sugar composed of glucose. It has waterbinding... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

fruit acid. See sugarcane extract


Categories: Miscellaneous

Fu ling. See Poria cocos extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Fucus vesiculosus extract. See bladderwrack extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

fuller's earth. Mineral substance that is similar to kaolin (a clay). Composed mainly of alumina, silica, iron... Read More
Categories: Absorbent, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

fumaric acid. Naturally occurring acid that has been proven effective for systemic and topical treatment of... Read More
Categories: Irritants

Rating

Ingredient GABA. GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid/gamma amino-butyric acid) is an amino acid synthesized in the brain... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

galactoarabinan. Polysaccharide extracted from the western larch tree.


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

galbanum. Fragrant substance that, because of its resin and volatile oil content, can be extremely irritating... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

gamma linolenic acid (GLA). Fatty acid used in cosmetics as an emollient, antioxidant, and cell regulator. GLA is considered to... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Emollients

Ganoderma lucidum extract. Mushroom stem extract. There is no research showing it to be effective when used topically on skin... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Gardenia florida extract. Flower extract used in cosmetics to impart fragrance; also functions as an antioxidant (Source:... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

gelatin. Protein obtained from plants or animals and used in cosmetics as a thickening agent.
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Gellidiela acerosa extract. Extract derived from a type of algae.


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

genistein. Plant component (most often from soy) that is a rich source of antioxidants, though it can also be... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Gentiana lutea (Gentian) root extract. Active part of the gentian plant, constituents of which are anti-inflammatory and antibacterial... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

geranium extract. Extract that can have potent antioxidant properties (Source: Phytomedicine, June 2000, pages... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

geranium oil. Fragrant oil that can have antimicrobial properties but also can be a skin sensitizer or irritant... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Geranium pretense. Geranium plant.


Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Germaben II. Trade name for diazolidinyl urea.


Categories: Preservatives

ginger extract. Extract from a plant in the Zingiberacae family that has research showing it has... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

ginger oil. See ginger extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. Research shows this potent antioxidant helps improve blood flow. It is often used in anti-cellulite... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

ginseng. Herb in the family Araliaceae, native to Asia. A small number of studies carried out on animals... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Plant Extracts

GLA. See gamma linolenic acid (GLA)


Categories: Antioxidants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Emollients

glabridin. Main ingredient in licorice extract. It has anti-inflammatory properties. There is research showing... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

gluconolactone. See polyhydroxy acid


Categories: Leave-On Exfoliant

glucose. Monosaccharide that has water-binding properties for skin.


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

glucose tyrosinate. See tyrosine


Categories: Miscellaneous

glutamic acid. Amino acid derived from wheat gluten. It can have water-binding properties for skin. There is no... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

glutamine. Can help improve the barrier function of skin (Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry, July 1998,... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

glutathione. Potent antioxidant (Source: Free Radical Research, March 2002, pages 329340).
Categories: Antioxidants

glycereth-26. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glycereth-26 phosphate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glycereth-6 laurate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glycerin. Also called glycerol or glycerine; it is present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

glycerine. See glycerin


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

glycerol. See glycerin


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

glycerol monostearate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glycerol triacetate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glycerol trioleate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glyceryl behanate. A simple mixture of glycerin and the naturally-occuring fatty acid behenic acid. Glyceryl behenate... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glyceryl cocoate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glyceryl dibehanate. A complex mixture of glycerin and the naturally-occurring fatty acid behenic acid. Glyceryl... Read More
Categories: Emollients

glyceryl dipalmitate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glyceryl distearate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glyceryl ester. Large group of ingredients that are composed of fats and oils. At room temperature, the fats are... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glyceryl isopalmitate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glyceryl isostearate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glyceryl myristate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glyceryl oleate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glyceryl palmitate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.

Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glyceryl polymethacrylate. A blend of glycerin and polymethacrylic acid that functions as a filmforming agent. It has a... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glyceryl stearate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glyceryl stearate SE. Widely used ingredient that is a self-emulsifying (thats what the SE stands for) form of... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glycine. See amino acid


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

Glycine soja oil. Oil derived from wild soybeans; it has emollient properties.
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Glycine soja seed extract. See soy extract


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Glycine soja sterols. A sterol is a solid complex alcohol derived from animals and plants. In this case, the sterols are... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

glycogen. Polysaccharide that has water-binding properties for skin.


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

glycol stearate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glycolic acid. See AHA


Categories: Leave-On Exfoliant

glycolipid. Type of lipid composed of sugar (monosaccharide) and fat (lipid) that forms an important component... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients, Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

glycoproteins. Cell-to-cell communicating ingredients created when a protein links with a carbohydrate.... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

glycosaminoglycans. Also known as mucopolysaccharides; these are a fundamental component of skin tissue, and are... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

glycosphingolipid. See glycolipid, natural moisturizing factor (NMF)


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

glycyrrhetic acid. Extract from licorice that has anti-inflammatory properties (Sources: American Journal of... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Glycyrrhiza glabra. Licorice plant.


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

gold. Relatively common allergen that can induce dermatitis about the face and eyelids (Source: Cutis,... Read More
Categories: Irritants

goldenseal. A plant that may have antibacterial or antiviral properties when taken orally. There is no

evidence... Read More


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Gossypium herbacuem seed oil. Also known as cotton seed oil, this non-fragrant plant oil that research has shown has anti-cancer... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

gotu kola. See Centella asiatica


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

grape seed extract. Contains chemical constituents such as proanthocyanidins, polyphenols, flavonoids, and... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

grape seed oil. Emollient, non-fragrant plant oil that also has excellent antioxidant properties. For... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

grapefruit oil. Citrus oil whose volatile components (chiefly substances known as furocoumarins) are irritating to... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

green tea. Significant amounts of research have established that tea, including black, green, and white tea,... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

gromwell. See Lithospermum erythrorhizon


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

guaiac wood. Used as a fragrant extract in cosmetics; it is a potent skin irritant.


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Guaiacum officinale. See guaiac wood


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

guar gum. Plant-derived thickening agent


Categories: Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

guarana. Herb that contains two and a half times more caffeine than coffee. It can have constricting... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

gums. Substances that have water-binding properties, but that are used primarily as thickening agents in... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Irritants, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Plant Extracts

Rating

Ingredient Haematococcus pluvialis extract. See astaxanthin extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Hamamelis virginiana. See witch hazel


Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

hamamelitannin. Tannin that is found in witch hazel. It can be a skin irritant, but it also has potent antioxidant... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants

Haslea ostrearia extract. Extract derived from a water plant also known as blue algae. In pure concentrations this extract... Read More

Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

hawthorn extract. Extract that when taken orally may improve circulation (Source: Phytomedicine, 1994, volume 1,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

hayflower extract. Plant extract that, due to its constricting effect on skin, can be an irritant. There is no... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

hazelnut oil. Oil extracted from the hazelnut and that is used as an emollient.
Categories: Emollients

heavy water. Water in which hydrogen atoms have been replaced by deuterium; it is used chiefly as a coolant in... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

Hedera helix. See English ivy extract


Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

hedione. Synthetic fragrant component in products, which also can be a skin irritant.
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

Helianhtus annuus seed oil. See sunflower oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Helianthus oil. See sunflower oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

hemp seed oil. From the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa. Because both hemp and marijuana are from the genus Cannabis,... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Stimulates division in cells lining the liver, skin cells, and cells that produce skin color.
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

hesperidin. Flavonoid found in various plants such as citrus and evening primrose oil. It has potential as a... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

hesperidin methyl chalcone. Citrus bioflavonoid often seen in products claiming to banish dark undereye circles. There is... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

hexyl laurate. Skin-conditioning agent and emollient that is a mixture of hexyl alcohol and lauric acid.
Categories: Emollients

hexyldecanol. A synthetic, non-drying fatty alcohol used as an emollient and skin-conditioning agent.
Categories: Emollients

hexylene glycol. See propylene glycol


Categories: Slip Agents

Himanthalia elongate extract. Extract of a species of algae.


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Hippophae rhamnoides. See sea buckthorn


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

histidine. See amino acid


Categories: Antioxidants

hoelen. A mushroom that grows underground on the roots of pines and other trees around the world. It has... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts, Preservatives

homosalate. FDA-approved sunscreen active ingredient that primarily provides UVB protection. Its UVA range is... Read More
Categories: Sunscreen Actives

honey. A substance produced by bees from the nectar of certain flowering plants. Primarily consumed as... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Vitamins

honey extract. See honey


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Vitamins

honeysuckle flower extract. Plant extract that functions as an anti-inflammatory agent. It is a very good source of flavonoids... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

hops. There is no research showing that hops have any benefit for skin. However, components in hops may... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Hordeum vulgare extract. See barley extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

horse chestnut extract. May have anti-inflammatory properties for skin. Orally it has been shown to reduce edema in the... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

horse elder. See elecampane


Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

horseradish. Plant that can irritate skin and should never be applied to abraded skin.
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

horsetail extract. Plant extract that has a high tannin, alkaloid, and nicotine content, which can have... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Hortonia floribunda leaf extract. No research shows this plant as having any benefit for skin although it and other plant components... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

Huang qi. See milk vetch root


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

human growth factor. The topic of human growth factor (HGF) is exceedingly complicated. The physiological intricacies of... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

humectant.
Categories: Miscellaneous

Humulus lupulus extract. See hops


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

hyaluronic acid. Component of skin tissue that is used in skin-care products as a good skin-identical ingredient.... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

Hydnocarpus anthelmintica. See chaulmoogra oil


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Hydrastis canadenis. See goldenseal


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

hydrocortisone. Hormone from the adrenal gland that can also be created synthetically. It has potent... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants

hydrocotyl extract. See Centella asiatica


Categories: Plant Extracts, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

hydrogen peroxide. There is a great deal of current research showing that hydrogen peroxide is problematic as a... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants

hydrogenated coco-glyceride. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

hydrogenated didecene. Skin-conditioning agent derived from didecene, which is a hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbons are organic... Read More
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

hydrogenated lecithin. See lecithin


Categories: Emollients, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

hydrogenated olive oil. When a plant oil is hydrogenated, it is chemically converted gas from a liquid to a semi-solid or... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts, Emollients

hydrogenated palm glycerides. Palm glycerides are the fatty acid component of palm oil. When a plant oil is hydrogenated, it is... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients

hydrogenated polydecene. Synthetic polymer that functions as an emollient and skin-conditioning agent.
Categories: Emollients

hydrogenated polyisobutene. Synthetic polymer used as a skin-conditioning agent and emollient.


Categories: Emollients

hydrolyzed collagen. A form of animal or fish collagen that has been hydrolyzed, which is a chemical process involving... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

hydrolyzed corn starch. A form of the natural absorbent corn starch that has been hydrolyzed, which means it has undergone... Read More
Categories: Absorbent

hydrolyzed glycosaminoglycans. A skin-identical ingredient that has been hydrolyzed, which is a chemical process involving the... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

hydrolyzed jojoba esters. Essential fatty acids from the jojoba plant, broken down by water to form a new complex with... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

hydrolyzed jojoba protein. Protein fraction of seeds from the jojoba plant that has been hydrolyzed, which is a chemical... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

hydrolyzed silk. See silk


Categories: Antioxidants, Slip Agents

hydrolyzed vegetable protein. Composed of various protein substances derived from vegetables and broken down by water to form a... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

hydrolyzed wheat protein. Protein fraction from wheat that has been hydrolyzed, which is a chemical process involving the... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Plant Extracts

hydroquinone. Strong inhibitor of melanin production that has long been established as the most effective... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Antioxidants, Prescription Drugs

hydroxyethyl acrylate/sodium acryloyldimethyl taurate copolymer . A polymer that functions as a stabilizer, thickening agent, and opacifying agent.
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

hydroxyethylcellulose. Plant-derived thickening agent typically used as a binding agent or emulsifier. Also used (most... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

hydroxylated lecithin. See lecithin


Categories: Emollients

hydroxyproline. Derived from the amino acid proline, hydroxyproline is a fundamental component of collagen and... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

hydroxypropyl guar. See guar gum


Categories: Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Hypericum extract. See St. John's wort


Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

hypoallergenic. Term used by the cosmetics industry to lead consumers to believe they are using a product that will... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

hyssop. Fragrant plant extract that may have some antibacterial properties (Source: International Journal... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Rating

Ingredient

idebenone. A synthetic antioxidant similar to coenzyme Q10. Idebenone got a lot of press as the best... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

Ilex paraguariensis. See yerba mate extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants

Illicium vernum. See anise


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Antioxidants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

imidazolidinyl urea. Considered a weaker preservative than its "cousin" diazolidinyl urea because it is active against... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

inactive ingredient. The list of inactive ingredients is the part of an ingredient label that is not regulated by the... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

inositol. Major component of lecithin that may have water-binding properties for skin. It is not a vitamin,... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

insulinlike growth factor (IGF). Stimulates fat cells and connective tissue cells.
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

intercellular matrix. "Mortar" that holds layers of skin cells together, creating a contiguous natural, external barrier.... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

interleukin (IL). Stimulates growth of white blood cells.


Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

Inula helenium. See elecampane


Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

iodopropynyl butylcarbamate. A synthetic preservative that is typically used in concentrations of 0.1% or less. It is very... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

Iris florentina extract. See orris root


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Irish moss extract. Type of red algae.


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

iron oxides. Compounds of iron that are used as colorings in some cosmetics. They also are used as a metal... Read More
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

isobutyl acetate. See solvent


Categories: Miscellaneous

isobutylparaben. See parabens


Categories: Preservatives

isocetyl salicylate. See sodium salicylate


Categories: Miscellaneous

isododecane. Hydrocarbon ingredient used as a solvent. Isododecane enhances the spreadability of products and... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

isoflavone. Plant estrogen with potent antioxidant properties (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

isohexadecane. Used as a detergent cleansing agent, emulsifier, and thickening agent in cosmetics.
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

isoleucine. See amino acid


Categories: Antioxidants, Skin-Identical Ingredients

isononyl isononanoate. An ester that functions as a skin-conditioning agent. Occurs naturally in cocoa and lavender oil.
Categories: Emollients

isoparaffin. See paraffin


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

isopropyl alcohol. See alcohol


Categories: Irritants

isopropyl cloprostenate. A synthetic ingredient developed by the company that markets the lashand brow-growth product... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

isopropyl lanolate. Derived from lanolin, it is used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient.
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

isopropyl myristate. Used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient. Historically, animal testing has shown it... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

isopropyl palmitate. Used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient. As is true for any emollient or thickening... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

isopropyl titanium triisostearte/triethoxycaprylylsilane crosspolymer . A synthetic, siliconeenhanced polymer that occurs from combining isopropyl titanium... Read More
Categories: Silicones, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

isostearamide DEA. Used as a surfactant, water-binding agent, and thickening agent.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

isostearic acid. Fatty acid used as a binding agent and thickener.


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

isotretinoin. Anti-acne drug thats derived from vitamin A. This drug works by essentially stopping oil... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Vitamins, Prescription Drugs

ivy extract. See English ivy extract


Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

Rating

Ingredient

Japan wax. Vegetable wax obtained from sumac berries, and used as a thickening agent and emollient in... Read More
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Emollients

jasmine oil. Fragrant oil, often used as a source of perfume, that can be a skin irritant or sensitizer... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Jasminium grandiflorum. See jasmine oil


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

jewelweed. Has antifungal properties (Sources: www.naturaldatabase.com; and Plant Physiology, April 2002,... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

jojoba butter. The fattiest portion of jojoba oil, used as an intensive emollient.
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

jojoba esters. A complex mixture of esters from jojoba oil and hydrogenated jojoba oil. The result is

an... Read More


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

jojoba oil. Emollient oil similar to other nonfragrant plant oils.


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts, Skin-Identical Ingredients

jojoba wax. Semi-solid portion of jojoba oil.


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts, Skin-Identical Ingredients

jonquil extract. Fragrant plant extract that poses a strong risk of skin irritation.
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Ju hua. See chrysanthemum extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

jujube fruit extract. Asian plant extract that has anti-inflammatory action and may also provide antibacterial benefit... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

juniper berry. Can have anti-inflammatory properties for skin (Source: Pharmacology and Toxicology, February 1998,... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Juniperus communis. See juniper berry


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Rating

Ingredient

kaolin. Naturally occurring clay mineral (silicate of aluminum) that is used in cosmetics for its absorbent... Read More
Categories: Absorbent

Kathon CG. See methylchloroisothiazolinone, methylisothiazolinone


Categories: Irritants, Preservatives

kava-kava extract. Extract of the Piper methysticum plant that has analgesic (anti-inflammatory) properties, but... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

kawa extract. See kava-kava extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

kelp extract. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Kigelia africana extract. Extract of African plant commonly known as the sausage tree. The African lore about this extract is... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

kinetin. Trade name N6-furfuryladenine, a plant hormone responsible for cell division. As a... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Plant Extracts

kiwi fruit extract. As a food, kiwi has significant antioxidant properties that may even be greater than those of... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

kojic acid. By-product of the fermentation process of malting rice for use in the manufacture of sake, Japanese... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants

kojic dipalmitate. A mixture of kojic acid and palmitic acid. It functions as a skin-conditioning agent and can help... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants

kola nut. One of the major components of the kola nut is caffeine, which can be a skin irritant. However,... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

kudzu root. Source of isoflavone, genistein, and daidzein, all plant estrogens (Sources: Phytochemistry, June... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

kukui nut oil. Oil from a plant native to Hawaii; it has emollient properties for skin (Source: Journal of the... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Rating

Ingredient

lactic acid. Alpha hydroxy acid extracted from milk, although most forms used in cosmetics are synthetic. It... Read More
Categories: Leave-On Exfoliant

Lactobacillus bifidus. Type of friendly bacteria found in the intestine that helps maintain a healthy natural flora in... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

lactobionate. Polysaccharide that has water-binding properties for skin.


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

lactobionic acid. See polyhydroxy acid


Categories: Leave-On Exfoliant

lactoperoxidase. Enzyme derived from milk; it has antibacterial properties for skin and may be helpful for... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

lady's thistle extract. Extract for which there is a great deal of research showing it has many medical health applications... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Plant Extracts

lady's mantle extract. See Alchemilla vulgaris


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

Lagerstroemia indica extract. No research shows this plant as having any benefit for skin although it is used as a mosquito... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

Laminaria digitata. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Laminaria longicruris. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Laminaria ochroleuca extract. The Latin name for a species of kelp, also known as brown seaweed. Applied topically, it helps... Read More

Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Laminaria saccharine. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Lamium album flower extract. A species of the nettle plant that is used topically as an antiinflammatory owing to its saponin... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

lanolin. Emollient, very thick substance derived from the sebaceous glands of sheep. Lanolin has long been... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients

lanolin alcohol. Emollient derived from lanolin.


Categories: Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients

lappa extract. See burdock root


Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Larrea divaricata extract. See chaparral extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

Larrea tridentata. See chaparral extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

L-ascorbic acid. Form of vitamin C that is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent (Sources:... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Irritants

Latisse. Brand name for the prescription drug whose active ingredient is the prostaglandin analogue... Read More
Categories: Prescription Drugs

lauramphocarboxyglycinate. Mild detergent cleansing agent.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

laurdimonium hydroxypropyl hydrolyzed soy protein . See quaternium ammonium compounds, soy extract
Categories: Miscellaneous

laurdimonium hydroxypropyl hydrolyzed wheat protein. See quaternium ammonium compounds


Categories: Miscellaneous

laureth-23. Derived from lauryl alcohol and used either as a surfactant or emulsifier (or, in many cases, as... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

laureth-4. Derived from lauryl alcohol and used either as a surfactant or emulsifier (or, in many cases, as... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

laureth-7. A form of lauryl alcohol (a non-irritating fatty alcohol derived from coconut oil) that can... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

laureths. Substances that in various combinations create a wide range of mild detergent cleansing agents... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

lauroyl lysine. Amino acid derivative that functions as a skin- and hair-conditioning agent. It also contributes to... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

Laurus nobilis. See bay leaf oil


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

lauryl alcohol. See surfactant


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

lauryl glucoside. See surfactant


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

lauryl lactate. Mixture of lauryl alcohol and lactic acid that functions as a skin-conditioning agent and... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

lauryl PEG-9 polydimethylsiloxyethyl dimethicone. A silicone polymer that has multiple functions in cosmetic products, including skin/hair... Read More
Categories: Emulsifiers, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Miscellaneous

lavandin oil. Essential oil of the hybrid lavender plant Lavandula hybrida and used in cosmetics as a fragrance... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Lavandula angustifolia. See lavender extract and oil


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Lavandula officinalis. See lavender extract and oil


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

lavender extract and oil. Widely-used plant that's a member of the mint family. It is primarily a fragrance ingredient,... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

L-carnitine. Also known as carboxylic acid, it is often erroneously labeled an amino acid (which it is not). It... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

L-cysteine. See antioxidant


Categories: Antioxidants

lecithin. Phospholipid found in egg yolks and the membranes of plant and animal cells. It is widely used in... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients

lemon. Potent skin sensitizer and irritant. Though it can have antibacterial properties, the irritation... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

lemon balm. See balm mint extract


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

lemon oil. Can be a skin irritant, especially on abraded skin (Source: www.naturaldatabase.com).
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

lemongrass extract. Extract that can have antibacterial properties (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2000,... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

lemongrass oil. Also known as Oil of Verbena; can be effective as a mosquito repellent (Source: Phytomedicine,... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Lentinus edodes extract. Extract from the shiitake mushroom that may have antimicrobial and antibacterial properties,... Read More

Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Leontopodium alpinum extract. Plant extract whose constituents are capable of provding antioxidant and... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants

Leptospermum scoparium oil. See manuka oil


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

leucine. Amino acid.


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

Levisticum officinale root extract. See lovage root extract


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

licorice extract. Extract that has anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Healthnotes Review of Complementary and... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

licorice root. See licorice extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Lilium candidum bulb extract. Extract derived from the white lily bulb. There is no research showing this has any benefit for... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

lime (oil or extract). Citrus fruit whose volatile compounds are skin irritants and photosensitizing (Source:... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Limnanthes alba. Plant commonly known as meadowfoam; its seed oil is a non-volatile plant oil used as a... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

Limnanthes alba seed oil. See meadowfoam seed oil


Categories: Plant Extracts

limonene. Chemical constituent of many fragrant natural ingredients, notably citrus oils (d-limonene) and... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

linalool. Fragrant component of lavender and coriander that can be a potent skin irritant, allergen, or... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

linden flower extract. Major active constituents in linden are flavonoids and glycosides. Flavonoids are potent... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

linoleic acid. Unsaturated fatty acid used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. There is some... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Emollients, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

linseed oil. Non-volatile plant oil. Linoleic acid is a component of linseed oil.
Categories: Plant Extracts

Linum usitatissimum extract. See linseed oil


Categories: Plant Extracts

lipid. Wide range of ingredients found in plants, animals, and human skin. Lipids include fatty acids,... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Skin-Identical Ingredients

liposomes. Delivery system (not an ingredient) capable of holding other ingredients and releasing them after... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

lithium magnesium sodium silicate. Synthetic silica-based clay composed of lithium, sodium, and magnesium. Used as a thickening agent... Read More
Categories: Absorbent, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Also known as gromwell, the root of this plant is believed to have antioxidant, anti-tumor, and... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Litsea cubeba. See lemongrass oil


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

locust bean. See gums


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Irritants, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Plant Extracts

Lonicera caprifolium flower extract. See honeysuckle flower extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Lonicera japonica . Honeysuckle extract. A plant with soothing properties for skin.
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Lonicera japonica flower extract. See honeysuckle flower extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

loquat extract. Extract derived from a subtropical flower that has antioxidant and antitumor properties similar to... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

lotus seed extract. Extract that can have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties (Sources: Planta Medica, August... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

lovage root extract. Extract that is administered orally as a diuretic. In cosmetics, it is used as a fragrance.... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

Luffa cylindrica seed oil or extract. Components of a plant that have antifungal properties (Source: Peptides, June 2002, pages... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

lupine. Legume that is a source of isoflavones, a form of plant estrogen that has antioxidant properties... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Irritants, Plant Extracts

lupine oil. Extract of Lupinus albus, a legume; it has emollient and antioxidant properties, though it may also... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Lupinus albus extract. Species of legume.


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Irritants, Plant Extracts

lutein. Carotenoid that has potent antioxidant properties (Source: Photochemistry and Photobiology, May... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

lycopene. Carotenoid pigment that has potent antioxidant properties (Source: Photochemistry and Photobiology,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

lye. See potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide


Categories: Irritants, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

lysine. Amino acid.


Categories: Antioxidants, Skin-Identical Ingredients

Rating

Ingredient

macadamia nut oil. Used in cosmetics as an emollient for dry skin.


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Mad cow disease. Technically known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or BSE, mad cow disease is a chronic... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

madecassoside. One of four principal bioactive compounds in the plant extract Centella asiatica. One double-blind... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

magnesium. Earth mineral that has strong absorbent properties and some disinfecting properties. Magnesium... Read More
Categories: Absorbent, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

magnesium aluminum silicate. Powdery, dry-feeling, white solid that is used as a thickening agent and powder in cosmetics.
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

magnesium ascorbyl palmitate. Fatty acid-based derivative of vitamin C that can be an effective antioxidant. There is some... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

magnesium ascorbyl phosphate. Form of vitamin C that is considered stable and an effective antioxidant for skin (Sources:... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

magnesium carbonate. Inorganic mineral salt used as an absorbent, opacifying agent, coloring agent, or to adjust the pH... Read More
Categories: Absorbent

magnesium gluconate. Magnesium is an essential mineral the body uses to maintain circulatory and nervous system... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

magnesium hydroxide. Active ingredient in milk of magnesia. It is an absorbent and has antibacterial properties for skin.
Categories: Absorbent, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

magnesium laureth sulfate. Mild detergent cleansing agent.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

magnesium oleth sulfate. Mild detergent cleansing agent.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

magnesium stearate. Used as a thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

magnesium sulfate. Commonly known as Epsom salt, a magnesium salt used as a thickening agent.
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

malic acid. See AHA


Categories: Leave-On Exfoliant

mallow. Can be used as a thickening agent in cosmetics and may have anti-inflammatory and soothing... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Malva sylvestris extract. Extract from the blue mallow flower, it may have some anti-inflammatory and soothing properties for... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

malvaceae extract. Extract from plants of the Malvaceae family, which includes over 1,000 species, found in tropical... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

mandarin orange oil or extract. Primarily used as a fragrance; it can be a skin irritant. There is no research showing it has any... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

mandelic acid. Alpha hydroxy acid, also known as amygdalic acid. There is scant research showing this to be an... Read More
Categories: Leave-On Exfoliant

manganese gluconate. Mineral found in trace amounts in tissues of the body. While manganese plays a vital role in the... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

manganese violet. Coloring agent/additive permanently listed (as of 1976) by the FDA for use in cosmetic products,... Read More
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

Mangifera indica root. Extract derived from the mango tree; it can have antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

manuka oil. Extract derived from the New Zealand tea tree; the oil is similar to that of the Australian tea... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

marigold. See calendula extract


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

marionberry. Fruit that has potent antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, June... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

marjoram. Herb with a fragrant component used in cosmetics; can be a skin irritant.
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

marshmallow. See mallow


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Mastocarpus stellatus. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

mate extract. See yerba mate extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

matricaria oil. See chamomile


Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

matrix metalloproteinases. Also called MMPs, a group of 23 different enzymes that cause substances in the body to break down.... Read More

Categories: Miscellaneous

MEA. Abbreviation for monoethanolamine.


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

meadowfoam seed oil. Non-fragrant, edible plant oil originally developed as an agricultural crop in the 1950s. It... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

meadowsweet extract. Extract that can have anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry,... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Medicago sativa. See alfalfa extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Melaleuca alternifolia. See tea tree oil


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

Melaleuca cajeputi oil. There is no research showing that this oil, which is derived from a plant in the same family as the... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

melasma. Melasma or chloasma are brownish discolorations of the face, hands, chest, and neck. Pregnancy is a... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

Melia azadirachta. See neem extract or oil


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants

melibiose. Saccharide that can have good water-binding properties.


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

Melissa officinalis. See balm mint extract, counter-irritant


Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

Mentha arvensis. See cornmint


Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

Mentha piperita. See counter-irritant, peppermint


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts, Irritants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

Mentha spicata. See counter-irritant, spearmint oil


Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

Mentha viridis. See counter-irritant, spearmint oil


Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

menthol. Derived from peppermint; menthol can have the same irritating effect as peppermint on skin (Source:... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts, Irritants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

menthone. Major constituent of peppermint.


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts, Irritants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

menthoxypropanediol. Synthetic derivative of menthol. It is known to produce effects that are twice as strong as... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

menthyl anthranilate. Also known as meradimate, this is a synthetic sunscreen active is a partially effective UVA... Read More
Categories: Sunscreen Actives

menthyl lactate. Used as a cooling agent and fragrance in cosmetics. It is a derivative of menthol and is supposed... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

meradmiate. See menthyl anthranilate


Categories: Sunscreen Actives

methanol. See alcohol


Categories: Irritants

methicone. One of the simpler silicones due to its less complex molecular structure.
Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents

methionine. See amino acid, antioxidant


Categories: Antioxidants, Skin-Identical Ingredients

methy glucose sesquistearate. A mixure of the diesters of methyl glucoside and stearic acid. Functions as a skin-conditioning... Read More
Categories: Emollients

methyl gluceth-20. Liquid that functions as a water-binding and skin-conditioning agent.


Categories: Miscellaneous

methyl trimethicone. See silicone


Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents

methylchloroisothiazolinone. In combination with methylisothiazolinone, it goes by the trade name Kathon CG (among others).... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Preservatives

methyldibromo glutaronitrile. Formaldehyde-releasing preservative (Source: Contact Dermatitis, December 2000, pages... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

methyldihydrojasmonate. Synthetic fragrant component.


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

methyleugenol. Natural constituent of plant oils such as those from rose, basil, blackberry, cinnamon, and anise.... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

methylisothiazolinone. Preservative that is generally recommended only for use in rinse-off products such as cleansers or... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Preservatives

methylparaben. See parabens


Categories: Preservatives

methylpropanediol. Glycol that functions as a solvent. Methylpropanediol can enhance the penetration of ingredients... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

methylsilanol mannuronate. See silicone


Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents

methylsilanol PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate. A glyceryl ester used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.
Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents

methylsufonylsulfate. See antioxidant


Categories: Antioxidants

methylsulfonylmethane. Also known as MSM. There is no published research to back up claims made about any benefit this... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

Mexoryl SX. Also called ecamsule (technical name terephthalylidine dicamphor sulfonic acid), Mexoryl SX is a... Read More
Categories: Sunscreen Actives

mica. Earth mineral included in products to give them sparkle and shine.
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

microcrystalline wax. Plastic-type, highly refined wax derived from petroleum. Used as a thickener and to give products a... Read More
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Microcystis aeruginosa. Latin name for spirulina.


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

milk protein. See protein


Categories: Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients

milk vetch root. There is a good deal of research showing this root has antioxidant properties (Source:... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

millet seed extract. Extract from a cereal grain that has no established benefit for skin, but is added to cosmetic... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

mimosa oil or extract. Extract used as a fragrance in cosmetics.


Categories: Plant Extracts, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

mineral oil. Clear, odorless oil derived from petroleum that is widely used in cosmetics because it rarely... Read More
Categories: Emollients

mint. Can be a skin irritant and cause contact dermatitis.


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Mitracarpe scaber extract. Extract from a plant native to West Africa, it has been shown to have some antimicrobial properties... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

mixed fruit extracts. See sugarcane extract


Categories: Plant Extracts

montan wax. A type of natural wax derived from lignite, which is a type of coal thats made from wood. Most... Read More
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

montmorillonite. See bentonite


Categories: Absorbent

Morinda citrifolia. See noni juice


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Morus bombycis root extract. See mulberry extract


Categories: Plant Extracts

Morus nigra root extract. See black mulberry


Categories: Plant Extracts

mucopolysaccharide. Also known as glycosaminoglycans. This is a large class of ingredients that includes hyaluronic... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

Mucor miehei extract. Extract of a type of mold whose enzymes are used as a food additive and flavor enhancer in cheeses.... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

mugwort extract. There is no research showing this extract has any benefit for skin (Sources:... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

mulberry extract. Due to its arbutin content, this extract can have some value in preventing melanin production.... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

myristic acid. Detergent cleansing agent that also creates foam and can be drying.
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

myristyl myristate. Used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

myristyl nicotinate. A derivative of nicotinic acid, a component of vitamin B3 (niacin) that isnt the same... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

myrrh. Fragrant gum resin that can be a skin irritant. There is little research showing it has any benefit... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

myrtle extract. Contains volatile oil and tannins, and can have fungicidal, disinfectant, and antibacterial... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Myrtus communis extract. See myrtle extract


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Rating

Ingredient

N6-furfuryladenine. Technical name for kinetin.


Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Plant Extracts

N-acetyl-L tyrosine. See tyrosine


Categories: Antioxidants, Skin-Identical Ingredients

nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are microscopic particles whose size is measured in nanometers. In order to get a... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

nanotechnology. A molecular technology that concerns changing any material from its original size and... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

NaPCA. See natural moisturizing factor (NMF), sodium PCA


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

Narcissus poeticus wax. Fragrant flower extract that can cause irritation and dermatitis (Source: www.naturaldatabase.com)
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Nardostachys jatamansi. See spikenard


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

Nasturtium officinale extract. See watercress extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

natto gum. Fermentation product of soy protein. It may be a potent antioxidant (Source: Journal of... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

natural ingredient. The FDA has tried to establish official definitions and guidelines for the use of certain terms... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

natural moisturizing factor (NMF). One of the primary elements in keeping skin healthy is making sure the structure of the epidermis... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

neem extract or oil. Extract from leaves of the neem tree, it has potential toxic effects, although it also has been... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

neopentyl glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

neopentyl glycol diheptanoate. Mixture of neopentyl glycol (film-forming agent and solvent) and heptanoic acid (fatty acid made... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

neroli. See orange blossom


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

neroli oil. Fragrant plant oil that can be a skin irritant and sensitizer.
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

nettle extract. Extract that may have anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Healthnotes Review of... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

niacin. See niacinamide


Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Vitamins

niacinamide. Also known as vitamin B3 and nicotinic acid, niacinamide is a potent cellcommunicating ingredient... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Vitamins, Anti-Irritants

nicotinamide. See niacinamide


Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Vitamins

nicotinic acid. See niacinamide


Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Vitamins

nitrogen. Used as a propellant in cosmetic products; as nitric oxide, it can generate free-radical damage and... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

noni juice. Also known as morinda or Morinda citrifolia, comes from a small evergreen tree. The juice from this... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts, Anti-Irritants

nonoxynols. Used as mild surfactants.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Component of some plants that has been shown to have anticancer properties for skin and that may... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

nylon-12. Powder substance that is used as an absorbent and thickening agent.


Categories: Absorbent, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Nymphaea tetragona. Also known as pygmy waterlily. The stem has been shown in vitro to be not only a potent antioxidant... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Rating

Ingredient

oak root extract. Extract that may have antibacterial properties on skin, but that also can be a skin irritant.
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

oatmeal. Can have anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

octinoxate. See octyl methoxycinnamate


Categories: Sunscreen Actives

octisalate. Technical name for the active sunscreen ingredient octyl salicylate (also known as ethylhexyl... Read More
Categories: Sunscreen Actives

octocrylene. Sunscreen agent that protects skin from the UVB range of sunlight (Source: Skin Therapy Letter,... Read More
Categories: Sunscreen Actives

octyl methoxycinnamate. Sunscreen agent used to protect skin primarily from the suns UVB rays (Source: Skin Therapy... Read More
Categories: Sunscreen Actives

octyl palmitate. Used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

octyl salicylate. Sunscreen agent used to protect skin primarily from the suns UVB rays (Source: Skin Therapy... Read More
Categories: Sunscreen Actives

octyl stearate. Used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

octyldodecanol. Emulsifier and opacifying agent, used primarily as a thickener in moisturizers because of its... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

octyldodecyl myristate. Mixture of octyldodecanol (thickener) and myristic acid that forms a new compound used as a... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

octyldodecyl neopentanoate. Skin-conditioning agent and emollient.


Categories: Emollients

o-cymen-5-ol. Preservative used in cosmetics.


Categories: Preservatives

Oenothera biennis oil. See evening primrose oil


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

Olea europaea fruit oil. See olive oil


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Skin-Identical Ingredients

Olea europaea oil unsaponifiables. An unsaponifiable oil is the portion of a plant oil that is not broken down when the oil's fatty... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Skin-Identical Ingredients

oleic acid. Fatty acid used as a surfactant and thickening agent.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

oleth 10. A form of fatty (non-irritating) oleyl alcohol that functions as an emulsifier and surfactant.... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

oleths. Mild surfactants.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

oleyl erucate. Skin-conditioning agent derived from oleyl alcohol, which is obtained chiefly from fish oil.
Categories: Miscellaneous

olibanum extract. See frankencense extract


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

olive oil. Emollient plant oil similar to many other non-fragrant plant oils. The concept of olive oil having... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Skin-Identical Ingredients

opium poppy seed. Potent analgesic (Source: Phytotherapy Research, September 2000, pages 401418), although... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Anti-Irritants

orange blossom. Fragrant extract that can also be a skin irritant.


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Orbignya martiana. See babassu oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Orbignya oleifera. See babassu oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

orchid. Fragrant flower that can be a skin irritant.


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

oregano. Has potent antibacterial and antifungal properties, but can also be a skin irritant (Source:... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Origanum majorana. See marjoram


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Origanum vulgare flower extract. See oregano


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

orris root. Used primarily as a fragrant component due to its violet-like scent (Source:... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Ortho Tri-Cyclen. Low-dosage birth-control pills (generic norgestimate/ethinyl estradiol) approved for use in the... Read More
Categories: Prescription Drugs

Oryza sativa oil. See rice oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

oryzanol. Component of plants and their products, such as rice bran, that has potent antioxidant properties.
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

oxidoreductase. Large group of enzymes that reduce or block oxygen in different forms from generating free-radical... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

oxybenzone. Oxybenzone (also known as benzophenone-3) is a sunscreen agent that protects primarily from the... Read More
Categories: Sunscreen Actives

oxygen. Many cosmetic products contain antioxidants, ingredients that reduce the negative effect of oxygen... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

ozokerite. Mineral that is used as a thickening agent in cosmetics, especially in lipsticks and stick... Read More
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Rating

Ingredient

P. elisabethae. The P. is short for the genus Pseudopterogorgia.


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

PABA. See para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)


Categories: Sunscreen Actives, Irritants

padimate O . Sunscreen agent that protects skin primarily from the suns UVB rays (Source: Skin Therapy... Read More
Categories: Sunscreen Actives

Padina pavonica extract. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Paeonia albiflora extract. See peony flower


Categories: Plant Extracts

Paeonia suffruticosa extract. See peony root extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

palm kernel acid. A mixture of fatty acids derived from palm oil. Used as a cleansing agent, emulsifier, or to add... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Emulsifiers

palm oil. Has emollient and antioxidant properties for skin (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 1997,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients

Palmaria palmata extract. Extract from a type of algae whose common name is dulse.
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

palmarosa oil. See geranium oil


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

palmitic acid. A fatty acid found naturally in skin and used as the basis for many palmitiate ingredients, such as... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients, Emulsifiers

palmitoyl oligopeptide. A blend of palmitic acid (a fatty acid) with several amino acids, including alanine, arginine,... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

palmitoyl pentapeptide 3. Trade name Matrixyl, a fatty acid mixed with amino acids. The only research showing this has any... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7. A synthetic peptide whose trade name is Matrixyl 3000. It is believed to work by muting the effect... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

palmitoyl tripeptide-5. See peptides, cell-communicating ingredients


Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

Panax ginseng root extract. Root extract that may have potent antioxidant properties (potentially anti-cancer) and may promote... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Panicum miliaceum. See millet seed extract


Categories: Plant Extracts

pansy extract. Extract for which there is a small amount of research showing it has anti-inflammatory and... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

pantethine. Also known as pantothenic acid.


Categories: Vitamins

panthenol. Alcohol form of vitamin B.


Categories: Vitamins

pantothenic acid. Also called vitamin B5, and often touted as being effective for acne. However, there is only one... Read More
Categories: Vitamins

papain. Enzyme extracted from papaya. Applied topically, papain can cause severe irritation, itching, and... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Leave-On Exfoliant, Plant Extracts

Papaver somniferum seed. Latin name for the opium poppy seed.
Categories: Plant Extracts

papaya extract. Extract that is the source of papain, which theoretically can have exfoliating properties on skin,... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Leave-On Exfoliant, Plant Extracts

para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). Sunscreen ingredient rarely used since the 1990s because of strong potential for allergic reactions.
Categories: Sunscreen Actives, Irritants

parabens. Group of preservatives, including butylparaben, propylparaben, methylparaben, and ethylparaben,... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

paraffin. Waxy, petroleum-based substance used as a thickener in cosmetics.


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Paraffinum liquidum. See mineral oil


Categories: Emollients

Parsol 1789. See avobenzone


Categories: Sunscreen Actives

Passiflora edulis extract. See passion fruit extract


Categories: Plant Extracts

passion fruit extract. There is no research showing this has any benefit for skin.
Categories: Plant Extracts

patchouli. Fragrant oil derived from mint. It contains eugenol and can be a skin sensitizer and irritant.
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Paullinia cupana seed extract. Also called guarana, this extract is used primarily in herbal supplements and beverages as a... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

pawpaw extract. See papaya extract


Categories: Irritants, Leave-On Exfoliant, Plant Extracts

peanut oil. Emollient plant oil similar to all nonfragrant plant oils.
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

pecan oil. Emollient plant oil similar to all nonfragrant plant oils.
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

pectin. Natural substance found in plants, especially apples, and used in cosmetics as an emulsifier and... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

PEG 90M. See PEG compound


Categories: Emollients, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG compound. PEG is the acronym for polyethylene glycol. Various forms of PEG compounds are mixed with fatty... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer. PEG stands for polyethylene glycol; PPG stands for polypropylene glycol.
Categories: Emollients, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG/PPG-18/18 dimethicone. PEG stands for polyethylene glycol; PPG stands for polypropylene glycol.
Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG/PPG-20/15 dimethicone. PEG stands for polyethylene glycol; PPG stands for polypropylene glycol.
Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG-10 dimethicone. See PEG compound, silicone


Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG-10 dimethicone/vinyl dimethicone crosspolymer. A synthetic, silicone-enhanced polymer that functions as skin protectant and helps products adhere... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG-10 rapeseed sterol. A blend of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the fatty acid component of the

rapeseed plant. Used as a... Read More


Categories: Emollients, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG-100 stearate. See PEG compound, thickening agent


Categories: Emollients, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

PEG-12 dimethicone. See silicone, PEG compound


Categories: Emollients, Silicones, Slip Agents, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG-120 methyl glucose dioleate. See surfactant


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG-150 distearate. See thickening agent


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

PEG-20 methyl glucose sesquistearate. A complex mixture of a glycol with a fatty acid and glucose that funtions multiple ways: emollient,... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG-32. Peg-32 also functions as an emulsifier, which is a type of ingredient that keeps unlike substances... Read More
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil. Emollient ingredient that is a mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with castor oil.
Categories: Emollients, Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

PEG-40 stearate. PEG-40 stearate typically functions as a cleansing agent, but also helps keep ingredients... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil. The chief function of this ingredient is cleansing agent.
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate. See PEG compound, surfactant


Categories: Emollients, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG-8. See PEG compound


Categories: Emollients, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

PEG-80 sorbitan laurate. Mild surfactant.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

Pelargonium graveolens oil. See geranium oil


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

pellitory. Plant whose root extract can cause skin irritation; its safety is unknown.
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

pentadecalactone. Synthetic fragrance used in cosmetics.


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts

pentaerythrityl tetraoctanoate. Synthetic compound as an emollient and thickening agent.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

pentasodium pentetate. Used as a chelating agent in cosmetics to prevent various mineral components from binding together... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

pentylene glycol. A synthetic skin-conditioning agent and solvent.


Categories: Slip Agents

peony flower. European flower used topically for treating a variety of skin diseases, including skin fissures... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

peony root extract. There is research showing that the root of the peony plant can have anticancer properties as well... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

peppermint. Both the oil and the extract can have antimicrobial properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural and... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

peptides. Peptides are portions of proteins, which are long (or sometimes short) chains of amino acids.... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

Perilla ocymoides. Also known as beefsteak plant. Like many plants, the leaves contain flavones which help the plant... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Persea gratissima oil. See avocado oil


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients

Persicaria hydropiper. Also known as water pepper. All parts of this plant extract have been shown in vitro to be not only... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

petitgrain mandarin. See mandarin orange oil or extract


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

petrolatum. Vaseline is pure petrolatum. For some unknown and unsubstantiated reason, petrolatum has attained a... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Emollients

PHA. See polyhydroxy acid


Categories: Leave-On Exfoliant

phenoxyethanol. Common cosmetic preservative that is considered one of the less irritating ones to use in... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

phenoxyisopropanol. Alcohol used as a solvent and preservative.


Categories: Preservatives

phenyl trimethicone. Silicone with a drier finish than dimethicone.


Categories: Silicones, Slip Agents, Emollients

phenylalanine. See amino acid


Categories: Antioxidants, Skin-Identical Ingredients

phloretin. A flavonoid substance derived from apples and the bark of apple trees. As for topical application... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

phosphatidylcholine. Active ingredient in lecithin. Every cell membrane in the body requires phosphatidylcholine (PC).... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients, Cell-Communicating Ingredients

phosphatidylethanolamine. See phospholipid


Categories: Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients

phospholipid. Type of lipid (fat) composed of glycerol, fatty acids, and phosphate. Phospholipids are essential... Read More

Categories: Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients

phosphoric acid. Used as a pH adjuster in cosmetics and skin-care products.


Categories: Miscellaneous

photosensitizer. Ingredient that can cause the skin to have an irritated or inflamed reaction when exposed to... Read More
Categories: Irritants

Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract. Extract that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Sources: Journal of... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

phytantriol. Hair- and skin-conditioning agent that also has water-binding properties.
Categories: Miscellaneous

phytic acid. Component of plants that has antioxidant properties.


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

phytonadione. One form of vitamin K.


Categories: Vitamins

phytosphingosine. Long-chain, complex fatty alcohol that functions as a water-binding agent and also has preservative... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Preservatives

phytosterol. Cholesterol-like molecules found in all plant foods; the highest concentrations are found in... Read More
Categories: Emollients

Picea excelsa extract. Latin name for hemlock spruce. The extract is used topically for its antiinflammatory properties... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

pine oil. Can have disinfectant properties (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, December 1997,... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

pineapple extract. Contains the enzyme bromelain, which can break down the connecting layers between skin cells to... Read More
Categories: Leave-On Exfoliant, Plant Extracts

pinecone extract. Components of this extract, specifically linolenic and linoleic acids, can have antioxidant... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

Pinus lambertiana wood extract. Pine extract that may have skin-sensitizing properties (Source: Botanical Dermatology Database,... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

Pinus sylvestris extract. See pinecone extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

Piper nigrum. See black pepper extract and oil


Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

pistachio seed oil. Emollient plant oil with uses similar to peanut oil in cosmetics.
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Pistacia vera seed oil. See pistachio seed oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Pisum sativum. Latin name for the garden pea. It does have antioxidant activity, but there is no research showing... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

plasticizing agents. Ingredients that place a thin layer of plastic over the skin. Typically these are used in facial... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

plum extract. Extract of Prunus americana that may have antioxidant activity when applied topically (Source:... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Pogostemon cablin. See patchouli


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

poloxamer 184. A synthetic polymer that functions as a cleansing agent.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

Poloxamer 407. Liquid polymer that functions as a surfactant. This ingredient can also keep unlike ingredients... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

poloxamers. See surfactant


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

polyacrylamide. See film-forming agent


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

polyacrylate-17. See film-forming agent, polymer


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

polyaminopropyl biguanide. Synthetic polymer that functions as a preservative.


Categories: Preservatives

polybutene. Polymer derived from mineral oil and used as a thickener and lubricant.
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

polycaprolactone. Biodegradable thermoplastic polymer derived from the chemical synthesis of crude oil. It may have... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

polyethylene. A form of plastic (synthetic polymer) that has numerous functions in cosmetic products. Rounded... Read More
Categories: Scrub Agents, Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

polyethylene glycol. Also listed as PEG on ingredient labels, polyethylene glycol is an ingredient that self-proclaimed... Read More
Categories: Scrub Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

polyglucuronic acid. See film-forming agent


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

polyglycerol monostearate. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

polyglyceryl 2 triisostearate. A mixture of the fatty acid Isostearic acid and a form of glycerin that functions as a... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

polyglyceryl methacrylate. See film-forming agent


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

polyglyceryl-3 beeswax. The ester of fatty acids from beeswax and polyglycerin-3 that functions as a surfactant and... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

polyglyceryl-3 methylglucose distearate. See glyceryl ester


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

polyglyceryl-4 isostearate. The ester of isostearic acid and polyglycerin-4 that functions as an emollient and can also be a... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

polyglyceryl-6 isostearate. The ester of isostearic acid and a form of glycerin. Functions as an emollient and an emulsifier in... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Emulsifiers

Polygonum cuspidatum root extract. Extract of the Japanese knotweed plant. When eaten it may have weak estrogenic activity (Source:... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

polyhydroxy acid. Ingredients such as gluconolactone and lactobionic acid are types of polyhydroxy acid (PHA). They... Read More
Categories: Leave-On Exfoliant

polyhydroxystearic acid. Synthetic polymer related to stearic acid. It functions as a suspending agent.
Categories: Miscellaneous

polyisobutene. A polymer of the hydrocarbon isobutylene obtained from petroleum oil. It functions as a thickening... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

polymer. A word that literally means many parts. Any of numerous compounds having a high... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

polymethyl methacrylate. See film-forming agent


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

polymethylsilsesquioxane. A polymer formed from the condensation and hydrolysis of the silicone methyltrimethoxysilane.
Categories: Silicones, Slip Agents, Emollients

polyquaternium-10. See polymer, quaternium ammonium compounds


Categories: Miscellaneous, Film-Forming/Holding Agents

polyquaterniums. Group of ingredients used primarily in hair-care products for their antistatic and film-forming... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

polysaccharide. Natural component of skin that can be a good water-binding agent and potentially have antioxidant... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Skin-Identical Ingredients

polysilicone-11. Specialized, synthetic crosslinked siloxane that functions as a film-forming agent and polymer.
Categories: Silicones

polysorbate 20. See polysorbates


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

polysorbate 80. See polysorbates


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

polysorbates. Large group of ingredients most often derived from lauric acid, which is derived from coconuts.... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

polyvinyl alcohol. An irritating form of alcohol that often serves as the main ingredient in peel-off facial masks.
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Irritants

polyvinylpyrrolidone. Usually listed on ingredient labels as PVP or PVP copolymer, it is one of the primary ingredients... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

pomegranate extract. Pomegranate and its extracts have antioxidant and anticancer properties that, while not... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Poria cocos extract. Also known as Hoelen and Fu ling. Extract derived from a mushroom, which has antioxidant and... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Porphyridium cruentum extract. Extract derived from a type of red algae. There is research showing components of red algae contain... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

Portulaca oleracea extract. Extract that may have anti-inflammatory or analgesic properties (Sources: Journal of... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

potassium. Important element in diet that is present in such fruits as bananas and citrus. It is also an earth... Read More
Categories: Absorbent, Irritants, Plant Extracts

potassium ascorbyl tocopheryl phosphate. Blend of vitamins C and E with phosphorus that functions as an antioxidant.
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

potassium cetyl phosphate. Used as a detergent cleansing agent.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

potassium hydroxide. Also known as lye, a highly alkaline ingredient used in small amounts in cosmetics to modulate the... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

potassium myristate. Detergent cleansing agent that is a constituent of soap; it can be drying and sensitizing for some... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

potassium phosphate. An inorganic (not composed of plant or animal matter) salt used as a buffering agent and pH... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

potassium sorbate. Used as a preservative due to its ability to inhibit mold and yeast growth in cosmetic products.... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

PPG-12 buteth-16. Versatile ingredient composed of several non-volatile alcohols. Functions as a skin-conditioning... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

PPG-14 butyl ether. Used as a hair- and skin-conditioning agent.


Categories: Miscellaneous

PPG-2 myristyl ether propionate. Mixture of glycols and fatty alcohols used as a skin-conditioning

agent and, in some cases, as a... Read More


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

PPG-20 methyl glucose ether. A synthetic ingredient that funtions as hair- and skin-conditioning agent. The "PPG" designation... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

pregnenolone acetate . Precursor to other hormones, it can affect levels of progesterone and estrogen in the body when... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

preservatives. Substances used in cosmetics to prevent bacterial and microbial contamination of products. While... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

progesterone USP. Female sex hormone secreted by the body but capable of being manufactured in a lab setting. Use of... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous, Prescription Drugs

proline. See amino acid


Categories: Antioxidants, Skin-Identical Ingredients

propolis. Brownish, resinous material that is collected by bees and used to construct the hive. It has... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Anti-Irritants

propylene carbonate. Liquid used as a solvent and film-forming agent.


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

propylene glycol. Along with other glycols and glycerol, this is a humectant or humidifying and delivery ingredient... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous, Slip Agents

propylene glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate. A gel-textured ingredient used in many lightweight moisturizers. It is a mix of propylene glycol... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

propylene glycol isostearate. A mixture of propylene glycol and isostearic acid. See both. This ingredient is used as an... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

propylene glycol laurate. The ester of propylene glycol and lauric acid, which is a constituent of many vegetable fats.
Categories: Emollients

propylene glycol stearate. Mixture of propylene glycol and stearic acid used as a skin-conditioning agent and emulsifier.
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

propylparaben. See parabens


Categories: Preservatives

prostaglandin analogue. Prostaglandins are a group of potent, hormone-like substances that exist or are synthesized in... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

proteases. Enzymes that are part of a process that causes the breakdown of amino acids and proteins in skin... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

protein. Proteins are the fundamental components of all living cells and include a diverse range of... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients

Prunella vulgaris. See self-heal


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Prunus americana. See plum extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Prunus amygdalus dulcis. See sweet almond


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Prunus armeniaca. See apricot kernel oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Prunus domestica seed extract. See plum extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Prunus dulcis. See almond oil


Categories: Emollients

Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae. See sea whip extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

Pueraria lobata. See kudzu root


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

pullulan. Glucan gum produced by black yeast that contains polysaccharides, which makes it a good... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

pumpkin. Plant whose seeds are a rich source of fatty acids and several antioxidant components, including... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

pumpkin seed extract. Type of squash that is a very good source of antioxidant cartenoids. Pumpkin seed oil and extract... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Skin-Identical Ingredients

Punica granatum extract. See pomegranate extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

purified water. See deionized/demineralized water


Categories: Miscellaneous

PVM/MA decadiene crosspolymer. Synthetic polymer used as a film-forming and thickening agent.
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

PVP. See polyvinylpyrrolidone


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

PVP copolymer. See polyvinylpyrrolidone


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

PVP/dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate. Polymer formed from PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) and the film-forming agent... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

pycnogenol. Antioxidant derived from the bark of the French Maritime pine tree. The term pycnogenol was... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

pyridoxine hydrochloride (HCL). Scientific name for vitamin B6; may have antibacterial and antioxidant benefits for skin when... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Antioxidants, Vitamins

Pyrus cydonia. See quince seed


Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Pyrus malus. Species of apple; the pectin derived from it is used as a thickener in cosmetics.
Categories: Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Rating

Ingredient

quaternium ammonium compounds. A wide range of ingredients, called quats for short, that share a unique molecular structure that... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

quaternium-15. Formaldehyde-releasing preservative used in cosmetics. It can be a skin sensitizer, as can all... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Preservatives

quaternium-18 hectorite. Used as a suspending agent and also has emulsifying properties.
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

quercetin. Flavonoid pigment that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercetin has... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants

quercus. See oak root extract


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Quercus infectoria extract. See oak root extract


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

quillaja extract. Extract of the Chilean soap bark tree. It contains a good amount of saponins, which have cleansing,... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

quince seed. Used as a thickening agent in cosmetics, but also has skin-constricting properties (Source:... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

quinoa oil. Derived from quinoa grain, it may have antifungal properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Rating

Ingredient

Ranunculus ficaria extract. Extract that may have antibacterial and antifungal properties and that is used in the treatment of... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

rapeseed oil. Nonfragrant oil that has emollient and potential antioxidant properties for skin (Source: British... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

raspberry seed extract. See red raspberry extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

raspberry seed oil. See red raspberry extract

Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

red 27 lake. See D&C colors


Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

red 33. See D&C colors


Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

red 6 lake. See D&C colors


Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

red algae. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

red clover. Can have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Photochemistry and Photobiology,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

red raspberry extract. Fruit extract that has potent antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

red sandalwood. Has a phytoestrogen component (Source: Phytochemistry, March 2000, pages 605606), but can... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

reducing agent. Versatile ingredient composed of several non-volatile alcohols. Functions as a skinconditioning... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Renova. See Retin-A, tretinoin


Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Prescription Drugs, Irritants, Vitamins

resorcinol. Considered an effective topical disinfectant in concentrations of 1% to 3% (Source: www.fda.gov).... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants

resveratrol. Potent polyphenolic antioxidant that is abundant in red grapes and, therefore, in red wine... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Retin-A. One of several prescription-only drugs (others include Renova, Retin-A Micro, and Avita) that... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Prescription Drugs, Irritants, Vitamins

retinoids. Large group of over 2,500 chemicals related to vitamin A. Topical, over-the-counter retinoids... Read More
Categories: Prescription Drugs, Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Vitamins

retinol. The name for the entire vitamin A molecule. Retinol has value for skin on several fronts: it is a... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Vitamins, Antioxidants

retinyl palmitate. Form of vitamin A. It is a combination of retinol (pure vitamin A) and palmitic acid. There is... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Vitamins

riboflavin.
Categories: Irritants, Vitamins

rice bran oil. Emollient oil similar to other nonfragrant plant oils. There is no research showing this has any... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

rice oil. Emollient similar to other nonfragrant plant oils. There is no research showing this has any... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

rice starch. Absorbent substance sometimes included in products rather than talc. It can cause allergic... Read More
Categories: Absorbent, Irritants, Plant Extracts

ricinoleate. Glyceryl triester used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient.


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Ricinus communis. See castor oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

RNA. Ribonucleic acid is a single strand of molecules, copied exactly from the DNA in the cell nucleus,... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

Robinia pseudacacia extract. See black locust extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Rosa canina. See rose hip oil


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

Rosa centifolia. See rose hip oil


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

Rosa centifolia flower. See rose hip


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

Rosa damascena oil. Oil of a very fragrant pink rose used as fragrance in cosmetics.
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Plant Extracts

Rosa eglanteria. See rose hip oil


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

Rosa gallica flower extract. Fragrant extract.


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Plant Extracts

Rosa mosqueta. See rose hip oil


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

Rosa roxburghii extract. Extract from the chestnut rose; can be a source of antioxidants for skin, and does not impart... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Rosa rubiginosa. See rose hip oil


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

rose flower. Highly fragrant substance that can be a skin irritant.


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

rose flower oil. Fragrant, volatile oil that can be a skin irritant and sensitizer. There is no research showing... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

rose hip. See rose hip oil, vitamin C


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

rose hip oil. Good emollient oil that has antioxidant properties (Sources: Journal of Agricultural Food... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

rose oil. Fragrant, volatile oil that can be a skin irritant and sensitizer.
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

rosemary extract. Extract that can have antioxidant benefit for skin (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

rosemary oil. See rosemary extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

rosewood oil. Fragrant plant oil with a spicy-sweet scent, also known as bois de rose. It is extracted from wood... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Rosmarinus officinalis extract. See rosemary extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

royal jelly. Milky white, thick substance secreted by worker bees that has been shown to have some... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

Rubus idaeus. See red raspberry extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Rubus occidentalis. See black raspberry


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Rubus ursinus. See marionberry


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Rubus ursinus x idaeus. See boysenberry


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Ruscus aculeatus. See butcher's broom extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

rutin. Bioflavonoid that is extracted from various plants and used in cosmetics as an antioxidant and... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients

Rating

Ingredient

saccharide isomerate. Good water-binding agent and emollient for skin.


Categories: Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients

saccharides. See mucopolysaccharide


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

Saccharomyces calcium ferment. Extract of yeast fermented in the presence of calcium ions. It has no known benefit for skin.
Categories: Miscellaneous

Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces, from the Latin, literally means sugar fungus, and is the scientific... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

Saccharomyces copper ferment. Extract of yeast fermented in the presence of copper ions. There

is no known benefit for skin,... Read More


Categories: Antioxidants

Saccharomyces iron ferment. Extract of yeast fermented in the presence of iron ions.
Categories: Antioxidants

Saccharomyces lysate. See yeast


Categories: Antioxidants

Saccharomyces magnesium ferment. Extract of yeast fermented in the presence of magnesium ions.
Categories: Antioxidants

Saccharomyces manganese ferment. Extract of yeast fermented in the presence of manganese ions.
Categories: Antioxidants

Saccharomyces officinarum ferment. Derived from the sugarcane plant. Glycolic acid is also derived from sugarcane, but sugarcane... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

Saccharomyces potassium ferment. Extract of yeast fermented in the presence of potassium ions.
Categories: Antioxidants

saccharomyces selenium ferment. An ingredient created by the fermentation of the Saccharomyces yeast with the mineral selenium.
Categories: Antioxidants

Saccharomyces silicon ferment. Extract of yeast fermented in the presence of silicon ions.
Categories: Antioxidants

Saccharomyces zinc ferment. Extract of yeast fermented in the presence of zinc ions.
Categories: Antioxidants

safflower oil. Emollient plant oil similar to all nonfragrant plant oils. Safflower oil can be an antioxidant when... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

sage extract. Aromatic plant used most often to enhance the flavor of foods. Like all plant extracts, sage... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants

salicin. See willow bark


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

salicylic acid. Referred to as beta hydroxy acid (BHA), it is a multifunctional ingredient that addresses many of... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Leave-On Exfoliant

Salix alba extract. See willow bark


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Salix nigra (willow) bark extract. See willow bark


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Salvia officinalis. See sage extract


Categories: Plant Extracts, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Sambucus canadensis. See elderberry


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Sambucus cerulea. Blue elderberry. May have antioxidant properties for skin (Source: Phytotherapy

Research, February... Read More


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Sambucus nigra. See black elderberry


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

sandalwood oil. Fragrant oil that can cause skin irritation or allergic reactions (Source: American Journal of... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Santalum album seed extract. Latin name for sandalwood extract, which is used in cosmetics as a fragrance. It can have... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Sapindus mukurossi peel extract. A plant extract that is a natural source of saponin (Source: Chinese Journal of Chromatography,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Saponaria officinalis extract. See soapwort


Categories: Plant Extracts, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

saponin. Group of natural carbohydrates, found in plants, that have considerable potential as pharmaceutical... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Sargassum filipendula extract. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

sausurrea oil. Also called costus oil. Volatile oil and fragrant component used in cosmetics; it can be a skin... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

saw palmetto extract. Plant extract that, when taken orally, has been shown in short-term trials to be efficacious in... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Saxifraga sarmentosa extract. See strawberry begonia


Categories: Plant Extracts

sclareolide. Fermented from clary sage and used as a fragrant component in cosmetics.
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Plant Extracts

sclerotium gum. Used as a thickening agent in cosmetics.


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Scutellaria baicalensis extract. See skullcap extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

SD alcohol. See alcohol


Categories: Irritants

SD alcohol 40-2. Denatured alcohol used as a solvent. It can be drying and irritating to skin when one of the main... Read More
Categories: Irritants

sea buckthorn. Berry extract that grows on a shrub-like tree. Sea buckthorn is believed to have several topical... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

sea salt. Can be effective as a topical scrub, but if left on skin it can increase skin sensitivity to UVB... Read More
Categories: Scrub Agents, Irritants

sea whip extract. Extract from a creature that inhabits coral reefs, known for its anti-inflammatory properties... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants

Seamollient. Trade name for an algae extract.


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

seaweed. Group of sea plants (scientific name: algae) of all sizes and shapes, and having a gelatinlike... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

sebacic acid. Used as a pH adjuster.


Categories: Miscellaneous

selenium. Mineral considered to be a potent antioxidant (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, June 2002,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

self-heal. Plant that has antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antioxidant properties when taken... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Serenoa serrulata extract. See saw palmetto extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

sericin. Scientific name for silk protein.


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

serine. See amino acid


Categories: Antioxidants, Skin-Identical Ingredients

sesame oil. Emollient oil similar to other nonfragrant plant oils.


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Sesamum indicum. See sesame oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

sesquioleate. Used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

Shao-yao. See peony root extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

shea butter. A plant lipid extracted from the karite tree that is used as an emollient in cosmetics. Shea butter... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

Siegesbeckia orientalis. Chinese herb (also known as St. Pauls wort) for which there is no research showing that it has any... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

silica. Mineral found abundantly in sandstone, clay, and granite, as well as in parts of plants and... Read More
Categories: Absorbent, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

silica dimethyl silylate. Used as a slip and suspending agent.


Categories: Slip Agents, Silicones

silicate. Inorganic salt that has potent absorbing and thickening properties.
Categories: Absorbent, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

silicone. Substance derived from silica (sand is a silica). The unique fluid properties of silicone give it

a... Read More


Categories: Silicones, Slip Agents, Emollients

silk. See silk protein


Categories: Antioxidants

silk powder. Synthetically derived powder used as an absorbent and slip agent.
Categories: Absorbent, Slip Agents

silk protein. Protein substance (also called sericin) formed by converting silk, which is the soft, lustrous... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

siloxane. See silicone


Categories: Silicones, Slip Agents, Emollients

silt. A sediment obtained from various bodies of water. Silts absorbent nature helps it function to... Read More
Categories: Absorbent

silver. Metallic element that in cosmetics can have disinfecting properties; however, prolonged contact can... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants

silver chloride. See silver sulfadiazine


Categories: Irritants

silver sulfadiazine. Can be effective for wound healing (Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery, August 1992, pages... Read More
Categories: Irritants

silver tip white tea leaf extract. See green tea, white tea leaf extract
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Silybum marianum extract. See lady's thistle extract


Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

simethicone. Mixture of dimethicone with silica; related to silicones, but used as an antifoaming agent.
Categories: Silicones, Slip Agents

Simmondsia chinensis. See jojoba oil


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts, Skin-Identical Ingredients

sirtuins. An acronym for Silent Information Regulator Two proteins. They are a class of proteins thought to... Read More
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

skin respiratory factor. See tissue respiratory factor (TRF)


Categories: Miscellaneous

skin-identical ingredients. The termd skin-identical ingredients or "skin-repairing ingredients" refers to... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

skullcap extract. Herbal extract from Scutellaria baicalensis that has antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

slip agent. Term used to describe a range of ingredients that help other ingredients spread over the skin and... Read More
Categories: Slip Agents

slippery elm bark. Can be an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory.


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

soap. True soaps are regulated by the Consumer Product Safety Commission and are not... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

soapberry extract. Extract from the tree Sapindus saponaria. The berries contain a good amount of Saponins.
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

soapwort. Plant from which is derived an extract with detergent cleansing properties. There is some research... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium acrylate/acryloydimethyl taurate copolymer. Synthetic polymer used as a stabilizing and suspending agent and as a thickening agent.
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

sodium ascorbate. See ascorbic acid


Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

sodium ascorbyl phosphate. A stable, lipid-soluble form of vitamin C that functions as an antioxidant (Sources: Journal of... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Vitamins

sodium benzoate. Salt of benzoic acid used as a preservative.


Categories: Preservatives

sodium bisulfite. Used in acid-type permanent waves to alter the shape of hair. It is less damaging than alkaline... Read More
Categories: Irritants

sodium borate. See borate


Categories: Irritants

sodium C14-16 olefin sulfonate. Can be derived from coconut. Used primarily as a detergent cleansing agent, but is potentially... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium carbomer. A blend of sodium (salt) and carbomer that functions as a stabilizer and filmforming agent.
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

sodium carbonate. Absorbent salt used in cosmetics; it can also be a skin irritant.
Categories: Absorbent, Irritants

sodium carboxymethyl beta-glucan. A carbohydrate ingredient with a gel-like texture, it functions as a binding agent and thickening... Read More
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

sodium cetearyl sulfate. A mixture of stearyl and cetyl sulfate that funtions as a surfactant.
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium chloride. More popularly known as common table salt. Used primarily as a binding agent in skin-care products... Read More
Categories: Scrub Agents

sodium chondroitin sulfate. Derived from natural mucopolysaccharides, it functions as a skinconditioning agent and helps... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

sodium citrate. Used primarily to control the pH level of a product, this ingredient also has antioxidant and... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Preservatives

sodium cocoamphoacetate. A gentle cleansing agent derived from coconut fatty acids. It functions as a cleansing agent and... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium cocoate. Used as a cleansing agent primarily in soaps. It can be drying and irritating for skin.
Categories: Irritants, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium cocoyl glutamate. A cleansing agent derived from coconut oil. This ingredient is also used to help soften (remove... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium cocoyl isethionate. Derived from coconut, it is a mild detergent cleansing agent.
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium dehydroacetate. Organic salt used as a preservative.


Categories: Preservatives

sodium hexametaphosphate. Salt with multiple functions in cosmetics. It can act as a detergent, an emulsifier, a texturizer,... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Preservatives

sodium hyaluronate. The salt form of skin-idenrical ingredient hyaluronic acid.


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

sodium hydroxide. Also known as lye, it is a highly alkaline ingredient used in small amounts in cosmetics to... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium hydroxymethylglycinate. Derived from amino acids and used as a skin- and hairconditioning agent, and to a lesser extent as... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

sodium lactate. Sodium salt of lactic acid. Used primarily as a water-binding and buffering agent (to adjust a... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

sodium lactobionate. White, crystalline powder used to synthesize other chemicals. May function as a preservative in... Read More
Categories: Preservatives

sodium laureth sulfate. Can be derived from coconut; it is used primarily as a detergent cleansing agent. It is considered... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium laureth-13 carboxylate. Used primarily as a detergent cleansing agent.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium lauroamphoacetate. Mild surfactant also used as a lather agent.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium lauroyl lactylate. Used as an emulsifier and mild thickening agent in cosmetics. In higher concentrations, it... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

sodium lauroyl sarcosinate. Surfactant known (and used) for its foam-boosting properties.
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium lauryl glucose carboxylate. A gentle cleansing agent that may be derived from coconut or made synthetically.

Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium lauryl sulfate. Versatile ingredient composed of several non-volatile alcohols. Functions primarily as... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

sodium metabisulfite. Reducing agent that alters the structure of hair. It can also be used as a preservative in... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Preservatives

sodium methyl cocoyl taurate. Mild surfactant.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium methyl taurate. Mild surfactant.


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium palm kernelate. See sodium palmate, soap


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium palmate. A soap ingredient created by the salts of acids derived from palm oil. May be naturally-derived or... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium PCA. PCA (pyrrolidone carboxylic acid) is a natural component of skin that is also a very good... Read More
Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

sodium PEG-7 olive oil carboxylate. A mild surfactant formed by reacting fatty acids from olive oil esters from polyethylene glycol... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

sodium phytate. The salt form of the corn-derived plant component phytic acid, used as a chelating agent in... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

sodium polyacrylate. A synthetic polymer with multiple functions, including film-forming agent, stabilizer, absorbent,... Read More
Categories: Absorbent, Emollients, Film-Forming/Holding Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

sodium salicylate. Salt form of salicylic acid (BHA). Because it is not the acid form of salicylate (i.e., salicylic... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

sodium silicate. Highly alkaline and potentially irritating antiseptic and mineral used in cosmetics (Source:... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants

sodium sulfite. Reducing agent that alters the structure of hair. It can also be used as a preservative in cosmetic... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Preservatives

sodium tallowate. Sodium salt of tallow.


Categories: Miscellaneous

sodium thioglycolate. See thioglycolate


Categories: Irritants

sodium trideceth sulfate. See surfactant


Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

Solanum lycopersicum extract. See tomato extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Solanum tuberosum extract. Extract that is potato starch. Used as a thickening agent in cosmetics.
Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

soluble fish collagen. See collagen


Categories: Miscellaneous

solvent. Describes a large group of ingredients, including water, that are used to dissolve or break down... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

Sonojell. Trade name for petrolatum.


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Emollients

sorbic acid. Preservative derived from mountain ash berries or manufactured synthetically. Sorbic acid is used... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Preservatives

sorbitan oleate. See emulsifier


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

sorbitan sesquioleate. See emulsifier


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

sorbitan stearate. Used to thicken and stabilize cosmetic formulations.


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

sorbitol. Can be created synthetically or derived from natural sources. Similar to glycerin, it is a... Read More
Categories: Slip Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

soy extract. Potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent for skin (Sources: Cancer Investigation, 1996,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

soy isoflavones. See soy extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

soy oil. Emollient oil similar to all nonfragrant plant oils.


Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

soy protein. See soy extract


Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

soya sterol. Form of phytosterol. There is no research showing soy sterols have any estrogenic or antioxidant... Read More
Categories: Emollients

spearmint oil. Fragrant, volatile oil that can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions.
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

SPF. See sun protection factor


Categories: Miscellaneous

spikenard. Plant that has antibacterial properties for skin.


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

Spiraea ulmaria. See meadowsweet extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

spirulina. See algae


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

squalane. See natural moisturizing factor (NMF), squalene


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients

squalene. Oil derived from shark liver or from plants (usually olives) and sebum. It is a natural component... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Skin-Identical Ingredients

St. John's wort. Contains several components that are toxic on skin in the presence of sunlight (Sources: Planta... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

star anise. See anise


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Antioxidants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

steapyrium chloride. Antistatic agent used in hair-care products.


Categories: Miscellaneous

stearalkonium chloride. Antistatic ingredient used in hair-care products to control flyaways and aid in helping a brush or... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

stearalkonium hectorite. Used as a suspending agent.


Categories: Miscellaneous

stearates. See stearic acid


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Skin-Identical Ingredients

steareth-20. Derived from the benign fatty ingredient stearyl alcohol, this functions primarily as a surfactant... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents

stearic acid. Fatty acid used as an emollient and as an agent to help keep other ingredients intact in a... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Skin-Identical Ingredients

stearyl alcohol. Fatty alcohol used as an emollient and to help keep other ingredients intact in a formulation.
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

stearyl glycyrrhetinate. The fatty acid form of the anti-irritant glycyrrhetinic acid, which is derived from licorice.
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

stearyl methicone. Silicone polymer used as a skin-conditioning or occlusive agent.


Categories: Silicones, Slip Agents, Emollients

stem cells. Stem cells are cells, in animals and in plants, that are capable of becoming any other type of cell... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous, Plant Extracts

strawberry begonia. There is no research showing this has any benefit for skin.
Categories: Plant Extracts

styrax benzoin. See benzoin extract


Categories: Preservatives

styrene/acrylates copolymer. Synthetic polymer.


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

subtilisin. Protease enzyme obtained from the fermentation of Bacillus subtilis.


Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

sucrose. Monosaccharide that has water-binding properties for skin.


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

sugarcane extract. Ingredients like sugarcane extract, fruit extracts, mixed fruit extracts, and milk solids may claim... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

sulfur. Antibacterial agent (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, October 2001, pages... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants

sun protection factor. Most commonly seen as SPF, it is a number that is assigned to a product that identifies its ability... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

sunflower oil. Non-volatile plant oil used as an emollient in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

sunscreens. Products considered over-the-counter drugs in the United States and as such are strictly regulated... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

superoxide dismutase. Enzyme considered to be a potent antioxidant in humans (Sources: Journal of Investigative... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

surfactant. Shortened term for surface active agent. Surfactants degrease and emulsify oils and fats and... Read More
Categories: Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Irritants

sweet almond. Most often used in its oil form, this ingredient is expressed from almonds. Also used as an... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

sweet almond oil. Emollient oil.


Categories: Emollients

Symphytum officinale extract. See comfrey extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts, Irritants

synthetic beeswax. An artificial form of beeswax composed of a mixture of alcohol esters (this isn't the type of... Read More
Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

synthetic wax. A wax derived from a mixture of various oils. It functions as a binding and stabilizing agent.
Categories: Miscellaneous

Szechuan peppercorn. From a plant native to Szechuan Province in China. It grows on trees, and so differs from black... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

Rating

Ingredient talc. Naturally occurring silicate mineral (any group of substances containing negative ions composed of... Read More Categories: Miscellaneous tallow. Substance extracted from the fatty deposits of animals, especially from suet (the fat of cattle and... Read More Categories: Miscellaneous

tamanu oil. From a tree native to Polynesia. It is reputed to have wondrous wound-healing properties, as well... Read More Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts Tanacetum parthenium. See feverfew extract Categories: Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extracts tangerine oil. Fragrant, volatile citrus oil that can be a skin irritant. Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts tannic acid. Potent antioxidant; it may have some anticarcinogenic properties (Sources: Bioorganic &... Read More Categories: Antioxidants tannin. Component of many plants. It can have an anti-tumor benefit when consumed in tea or foods (Source:... Read More Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts Taraktogenos kurzii. See chaulmoogra oil Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts Taraxacum officinale. See dandelion extract Categories: Plant Extracts, Irritants tartaric acid. See AHA Categories: Leave-On Exfoliant Tazorac. Chemically known as tazarotene, it is a synthetically derived retinoid with properties similar to... Read More Categories: Prescription Drugs, Anti-Irritants TEA. See triethanolamine Categories: Miscellaneous tea tree oil. Also known as melaleuca, from the name of its plant source, Melaleuca alternifolia. It can have... Read More Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts TEA-lauryl sulfate. While there is abundant research showing sodium lauryl sulfate is a sensitizing cleansing agent,... Read More Categories: Irritants, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers teprenone. Teprenone is the brand name for a drug known as geranylgeranylacetone, which is used to treat... Read More Categories: Miscellaneous terephthalylidine dicamphor sulfonic acid. See Mexoryl SX Categories: Sunscreen Actives Terminalia catappa. Can be a potent antioxidant (Source: Anticancer Research, January-February 2001, pages... Read More Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts Terminalia sericea. Herb that is effective against some forms of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria when used in... Read More Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts Terminalia sericea extract. Extract that has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, but there is no research showing... Read More Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

tetradibutyl pentaerithrityl hydroxyhydrocinnamate. See antioxidant Categories: Antioxidants tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate. Stable form of vitamin C that is considered an analogue of L-ascorbic acid. Unlike pure vitamin C... Read More Categories: Vitamins, Antioxidants tetrahydrobisdemethoxycurcumin. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant extract. Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts tetrahydrobisdemethoxydiferuloylmethane. A synthetic antioxidant derived from Curcumin. Categories: Antioxidants tetrahydrodemethoxycurcumin. See curcumin, turmeric Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts, Irritants tetrahydrodemethoxydiferuloylmethane. A synthetic antioxidant that provides the protective effects of potent antioxidant curcumin but... Read More Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants tetrahydrodiferuloylmethane. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant extract. Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants tetrahydromethoxycurcumin. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant extract. Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants tetrahydroxypropyl ethylenediamine. See chelating agent Categories: Miscellaneous tetrasodium EDTA. Chelating agent used to prevent minerals present in formulations from bonding to other ingredients. Categories: Miscellaneous tetrasodium etidronate. Used as a chelating agent in cosmetics to prevent varying mineral components from binding together... Read More Categories: Miscellaneous Theobroma cacao seed butter. See cocoa butter Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts thiamine HCL. Vitamin B1. There is no research showing this to be effective when applied topically on skin. Categories: Vitamins thickening agent. Substances that can have a soft to hard waxlike texture or a creamy, emollient feel, and that can... Read More Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers thioctic acid. Technical name for the antioxidant alpha lipoic acid. Unlike many antioxidants that are either... Read More Categories: Antioxidants thiodipropionic acid. Acid-based synthetic antioxidant. There is no research pertaining to its benefit for skin, but in... Read More Categories: Antioxidants thioglycolate. Compound used in permanent waves and depilatories either to alter the structure of hair or to... Read More Categories: Irritants thiotaurine. Amino acid. Potentially, it can have antioxidant properties for skin (Source: Shiseido Corporation,... Read More

Categories: Antioxidants, Skin-Identical Ingredients threonine. See amino acid Categories: Antioxidants, Skin-Identical Ingredients thyme extract. Extract derived from the leaf or flower of the thyme plant. It can have potent antioxidant... Read More Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts thyme oil. The most concentrated part of the thyme plant, and a potent source of antioxidants, some of which... Read More Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts thymus hydrolysate. Form of animal thymus derived by acid, enzyme, or other methods of hydrolysis. It can have... Read More Categories: Miscellaneous Thymus serpillum extract. Extract of wild thyme. Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts Thymus vulgaris. See thyme extract Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts Tilia cordata. See linden flower extract Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts Tinosorb M. See Tinosorb S Categories: Sunscreen Actives Tinosorb S. In Europe there are two sunscreen ingredientsTinosorb S (bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol... Read More Categories: Sunscreen Actives tissue respiratory factor (TRF). Trade name for a form of yeast suspended in alcohol. There is only one independent study, performed... Read More Categories: Miscellaneous titanium dioxide. Inert earth mineral used as a thickening, whitening, lubricating, and sunscreen ingredient in... Read More Categories: Sunscreen Actives, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Coloring Agents/Pigments tocopherol. See vitamin E Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins tocopherol acetate. See vitamin E Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins tocopheryl acetate. See vitamin E Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins tocopheryl lineolate. See vitamin E Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins tocotrienols. Potent forms of vitamins E that are considered stable and powerful antioxidants. These forms of... Read More Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins tomato extract. Extract that has weak antioxidant properties (Source: Free Radical Research, February 2002, pages... Read More Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

tormentil extract. Plant that can be irritating due to its tannin content, which causes skin constriction. Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts tourmaline. Inert, though complex, mineral. One of its unique properties is that it is piezoelectric, meaning... Read More Categories: Miscellaneous tragacanth. Natural gum used as a thickener in cosmetics. Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers transforming growth factor (TGF). Stimulates wound healing and collagen growth. Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients trehalose. Plant sugar that has water-binding properties for skin. Categories: Miscellaneous tretinoin. Topical, prescription-only medication that can improve skin cell maturation after skin has... Read More Categories: Prescription Drugs, Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne tribehenin. Also known as glyceryl tribehenate, a skin-conditioning agent that is a mixture of glycerin and... Read More Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Skin-Identical Ingredients tribehenin PEG-20 esters. A complex mixture of tribehenin and PEG-20, this ingredient has multiple functions in cosmetic... Read More Categories: Emollients, Surfactants/Detergent Cleansing Agents, Emulsifiers tricaprylin. Mixture of glycerin and caprylic acid. Has emollient properties and is used as a skinconditioning... Read More Categories: Emollients triclosan. Good antibacterial agent that has been used for over 40 years in many... Read More Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne tridecyl salicylate. Salt form of salicylic acid (BHA). When it is no longer an acid (as in this case), salicylic acid... Read More Categories: Miscellaneous tridecyl stearate. Used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient. Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers tridecyl trimellitate. Used as a skin-conditioning agent and thickening agent. Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers triethanolamine. Used in cosmetics as a pH balancer. Like all amines, it has the potential for creating... Read More Categories: Miscellaneous triethoxycaprylylsilane. Silicone that functions as a binding agent and emulsifier. Categories: Silicones, Slip Agents, Emollients triethoxycaprylylsilane crosspolymer. See silicone, polymer, film-forming agent Categories: Silicones, Film-Forming/Holding Agents triethoxysilylethyl polydimethylsiloxyethyl hexyl dimethicone. A silicone polymer that has multiple functions in cosmetic products, including skin-conditioning... Read More Categories: Emollients Trifolium pratense. See red clover Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

triglyceride. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract. Latin name for the fenugreek plant. The seeds are used most often, and their fiber content helps... Read More Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers trihydroxystearin. Mixture of glycerin and fatty acids used as an emollient and thickening agent. Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers, Skin-Identical Ingredients triisocetyl citrate. A trimester of the fatty alcohol isocetyl alcohol and citric acid. It is used as on occlusive... Read More Categories: Emollients trilaurin. Group of ingredients that are triesters of glycerin and aliphatic acids, and known generically as... Read More Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers trimethylsiloxysilicate. Used as a skin-conditioning and occlusive agent. Categories: Silicones, Slip Agents, Emollients trioclanolin. Derived from lanolin and used as a texture enhancer, most commonly in powder-based products such as... Read More Categories: Miscellaneous trioctanoin. Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers trioctyldodecyl citrate. Mixture of octyldodecanol and citric acid used as a skin-conditioning agent and emollient. Categories: Emollients trisodium EDTA. Similar to tetrasodium EDTA. Used as a water-softening and chelating agent (a compound that binds... Read More Categories: Miscellaneous Triticum vulgare oil. See wheat germ oil Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts tryptophan. See amino acid Categories: Antioxidants, Skin-Identical Ingredients turmeric. Spice made from the dried, ground root of a plant; its extract is called curcumin. A natural yellow... Read More Categories: Antioxidants, Irritants, Plant Extracts Tussilago farfara. See coltsfoot Categories: Plant Extracts tyrosine. Amino acid in skin that initiates the production of melanin (melanin is the component of skin that... Read More Categories: Miscellaneous

Rating

Ingredient

ubiquinone. See coenzyme Q10


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants

Ulmus fulva bark extract. See slippery elm bark


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

ultramarines. Inorganic pigments (of various colors) permanently listed by the FDA for external use only,... Read More
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

Ulva lactuca extract. Extract from the plant known as sea lettuce, it has some anti-inflammatory and antioxidant... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Uncaria tomentosa extract. Also known as Cats Claw, there is some research showing it to be an effective... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

Undaria pinnatifida. Form of brown algae.


Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

undecylenoyl phenylalanine. A white powder composed of amino acids and fatty acids. It appears to have a positive impact... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

urea. Component of human and animal urine thats also found in the blood and other tissues,... Read More
Categories: Irritants

Urtica dioica. See nettle extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

UVA. Ultraviolet A radiation. The sun produces a range of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, of which UVA... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

Uva ursi extract. See arbutin, bearberry extract


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Plant Extracts

UVB. Ultra-violet B radiation.


Categories: Miscellaneous

Rating

Ingredient

VA/crotonates. Film-forming agent.


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

VA/crotonates copolymer. See VA/crotonates


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

Vaccinium macrocarpon fruit extract. Latin term for cranberry.


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Vaccinium myrtillus. See bilberry extract


Categories: Plant Extracts

valine. See amino acid


Categories: Antioxidants, Skin-Identical Ingredients

Vanilla planifolia fruit extract. Extract used primarily as a fragrance and flavoring agent. The vanilla plant is a source of... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Plant

Extracts

vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Stimulates the growth of blood vessels.
Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients

verbena extract. Fragrant extract that can be a skin irritant.


Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

vetiver oil or extract. Fragrant component in skin-care products that also has some antibacterial properties (Source:... Read More
Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

vinyl dimethicone/methicone silsesquioxane crosspolymer. Blend of silicone polymers that functions as a thickening agent and texture enhancer.
Categories: Silicones, Thickeners

Viola tricolor extract. See pansy extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Visnaga vera extract. Also known as khella, when taken orally there is concern that it may cause nausea, dizziness,... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

vitamin A. Considered a good antioxidant in some of its various forms, particularly as retinol and retinyl... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

vitamin B1. See thiamine HCL


Categories: Vitamins

vitamin B12. May be effective in the treatment of psoriasis (Source: Dermatology, 2001, volume 203, number 2,... Read More
Categories: Vitamins

vitamin B2. There is no research showing this has any benefit when applied topically to skin. However, there is... Read More
Categories: Irritants, Vitamins

vitamin B3. See niacinamide


Categories: Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Vitamins

vitamin B5. Also known as pantothenic acid.


Categories: Vitamins

vitamin B6. There is no research showing it to have benefit for skin.


Categories: Vitamins

vitamin C. Water-soluble vitamin that is considered a potent antioxidant for skin. It has been shown to... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

vitamin D. A fat-soluble vitamin (actually, it's a hormone) that may have antioxidant, antiinflammatory,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

vitamin E. Considered an antioxidant superstar. It is one of the most well-known and researched antioxidants,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Vitamins

vitamin F. Name sometimes used to represent essential fatty acids of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. These... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Cell-Communicating Ingredients, Emollients, Vitamins

vitamin H. See biotin


Categories: Vitamins

vitamin K. Technically known as phytonadione, vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin manufactured in the liver.... Read More
Categories: Vitamins

Vitis vinifera. Latin name for the vines that produce wine grapes. More commonly known as grape seed oil or grape... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Emollients, Plant Extracts

Vitreoscilla ferment. Made from a bacterium that can help cells utilize oxygen better in vitro (Source:Journal of... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

volatile oil. Group of volatile fluids derived primarily from plants and used in cosmetics primarily as fragrant... Read More
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants

VP/eicosene copolymer. A film-forming agent often used in water-resistant sunscreen products. It helps the sunscreen... Read More
Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

VP/hexadecene copolymer. Synthetic polymer.


Categories: Film-Forming/Holding Agents

Rating

Ingredient

walnut extract. Extract that can have antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Nutrition, November 2001,... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

walnut oil. Emollient, nonfragrant plant oil.


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

walnut-shell powder. Abrasive used in scrub products; not preferred to polyethylene beads.
Categories: Scrub Agents

water. The most widely used cosmetic ingredient; water is almost always listed first on an ingredient... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

watercress extract. There is a small amount of research showing that dietary intake of watercress can inhibit the... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

wheat amino acids. A blend of amino acids from wheat protein after it has been broken down via hydrolysis. Most often... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

wheat germ glycerides. Used as emollient and thickening agents in cosmetics.


Categories: Emollients, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

wheat germ oil. Emollient plant oil similar to all nonfragrant plant oils.
Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

wheat protein. See natural moisturizing factor (NMF), protein


Categories: Skin-Identical Ingredients

whey. Milk contains two primary proteins, casein and whey. When cheese is produced these more liquid... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

whey protein. A form of protein derived from milk. An animal-derived ingredient, whey protein functions as a hair... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

white nettle. Contains components that can have both anti-irritant as well as inflammatory properties (Source:... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts, Irritants

white oak bark extract. See oak root extract


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants, Plant Extracts

white tea leaf extract. Extract from the minimally processed buds and leaves of green tea. There is research showing that... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

white willow. See willow bark


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

wild ginger. See ginger extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

wild yam extract. The roots of wild yams were used in the first commercial production of oral contraceptives, topical... Read More
Categories: Plant Extracts

willow bark. Contains salicin, a substance that when taken orally is converted by the digestive process to... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

willow herb. See Epilobium angustifolium extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antibacterial/Anti-Acne

wintergreen oil. Can be very irritating and sensitizing (Source: www.naturaldatabase.com).


Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

witch hazel. Commonly used plant extract that can have potent antioxidant properties (Sources: Phytotherapy... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extract

Rating

Ingredient

xanthan gum. Used as a thickening agent.


Categories: Thickeners/Emulsifiers

xanthophyll. Also known as lutein, this is a cartenoid pigment from plants that functions as an antioxidant.
Categories: Antioxidants, Plant Extracts

Xi xin. See ginger extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Ximenia americana oil. Plum oil; it can have emollient properties.


Categories: Emollients, Plant Extracts

xylitol. See sorbitol


Categories: Slip Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

xylose. Form of sugar. Similar to other sugars, xylose has water-binding properties for skin.
Categories: Miscellaneous

xymenynic acid. Synthetic fatty acid that functions as a skin-conditioning agent.


Categories: Miscellaneous

Rating

Ingredient

yarrow extract. Extract for which there is little research showing it to have any benefit for skin. What studies do... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

yeast. Group of fungi that ferment sugars. Yeast is a source of beta-glucan, which is a good antioxidant.... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants

yellow 5. See FD&C colors


Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

yellow 6 lake. See FD&C colors


Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments

yerba mate extract. Used for the preparation of the most popular tea-like beverage in South America. It has... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

ylang ylang. Fragrant, volatile oil that can also be a skin irritant.
Categories: Fragrance: Synthetic and Fragrant Plant Extracts, Irritants, Plant Extracts

yogurt. There is no research showing that yogurt is effective when applied topically on skin. Yogurt... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

yucca extract. Plant extract that can have anti-inflammatory benefits.


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

Rating

Ingredient

Zanthoxylum piperitum. See Szechuan peppercorn


Categories: Irritants, Plant Extracts

zeolite. Group of minerals used as an absorbent in cosmetics. Zeolites been shown to have anticancer... Read More
Categories: Absorbent

zinc. There is growing evidence that zinc can be a significant anti-irritant and antioxidant. It also can... Read More
Categories: Antioxidants, Anti-Irritants

zinc carbonate. See calamine


Categories: Miscellaneous, Irritants

zinc gluconate. Combination of zinc with a form of glucose (a sugar) that is commonly used in cold lozenges for its... Read More
Categories: Miscellaneous

zinc oxide. Inert earth mineral used as a thickening, whitening, lubricating, and sunscreen ingredient in... Read More
Categories: Anti-Irritants, Antioxidants, Coloring Agents/Pigments, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

zinc phenolsulfonate. Antimicrobial agent that can also be a skin irritant.


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Irritants

zinc stearate. The zinc salt of stearic acid. It has multiple functions in cosmetics, including serving as the... Read More
Categories: Coloring Agents/Pigments, Slip Agents, Thickeners/Emulsifiers

zinc sulfate. Chemical compound resulting from the interaction of zinc with sulfuric acid. There is little... Read More
Categories: Irritants

Zingiber officinale roscoe. See ginger extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Zingiber zerumbet. See ginger extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Zingiberaceae. See ginger extract


Categories: Anti-Irritants, Irritants, Plant Extracts

Zizyphus jujuba fruit extract. See jujube fruit extract


Categories: Antibacterial/Anti-Acne, Anti-Irritants, Plant Extracts

BHA Beta Hydroxy Acid


BHA este un acid solubil n lipide (ulei), aceast proprietate unic face ca el s ptrund prin sebum i s ajung n profunzimea porilor de unde exfoliaz celulele moarte acumulate n exces care pot bloca porii. BHA-ul este folosit cu succes n ameliorarea punctelor negre i pustulelor prezente n principal n cazul tenului normal/gras i mixt. n acelai timp, BHA (acid salicilic) are potenial iritant mai mic dect AHA, datorit relaiei acidului cu aspirina, aspirin (acid acetilsalicilic) care are proprieti anti-inflamatorii care se regsesc ntr-o anumit msur i n proprietile acidului salicilic. Un alt avantaj pe care l are BHA-ul este faptul c are un uor efect anti-bacterian, iar combinaia lui cu benzoyl peroxide este perfect (BHA folosit seara i benzoyl peroxide dimineaa, sau invers, sau chiar aplicate mpreun). Pentru tenul gras, o loiune cu 1% sau 2% concentraie BHA este ideal. Produsele care pretind c au n compoziie BHA n form natural conin de fapt extract de scoar de salcie (willow bark). Scoara de salcie conine salicin, o substan care, consumat oral, se transform prin procesul digestiei n acid salicilic, dar de aici i pn la a afirma c aceast substan poate provoca exfolierea pielii e cam mult. Pe fa nu exist enzimele necesare pentru a face aceast transformare posibil. Dei scoara de salcie nu exfoliaz, ea are anumite caliti anti-inflamatorii dac se gsete n cantiti suficiente ntr-un produs cosmetic. Atenie: n lista de ingrediente a unui produs, acidul salicilic nu va fi niciodat gsit ca i BHA, aceasta este o abreviere folosit n chimie. Dac ns n lista unui produs apare ingredientul BHA acesta este butylated hydroxyanisole un antioxidant sintetic, dar posibil cancerigen.

De ce trebuie s exfoliem pielea


Cea mai bun comparaie a exfolierii tenului (la o scar mult exagerat) este comparaia cu ndeprtarea stratului cornos de pe clcie. Dac observai clciul, pielea este decolorat, uscat, liniile sunt pronunate, neplcut la pipit. Iar tot acest aspect este dat de grupurile de celule moarte acumulate n stratul superior al pielii. Cnd se ndeprteaz aceste celule (procesul poate fi agresiv, dar nu este duntor cu nimic), clciul arat mult mai bine. Mai mult dect att, acum crema hidratant aplicat chiar poate intra n piele, nemaifiind mpiedicat de celulele moarte. Rezultatul: o piele care arat mai tnr, este catifelat, liniile au disprut. De aceleai rezultate beneficiaz pielea, oriunde pe corp, difer doar metoda de exfoliere, restul corpului nu are nevoie de un tratament agresiv. Totui, cel mai important beneficiu al exfolierii este mbuntirea structurii pielii i stimularea produciei de colagen i a ceramidelor. Exfolierea este benefic pentru cei care au acnee pentru c ndeprtnd excesul de celule moarte se elibereaz porii, sebumul format ajunge la suprafaa fr probleme (acest sebum, dac ntmpin o barier de celule moarte care au blocat porul respectiv, produce inflamarea porului acneea) n acest fel se reduc punctele negre i pustulele. Iar dac porii nu sunt blocai, atunci agenii anti-bacterieni (vezi articolul despre Brevoxyl ) care lupt mpotriva acneei pot ptrunde mai repede i mai aproape de bacteria care cauzeaz acneea (Propionibacterium acnes).

Mar

Tipuri de acnee
Din motive pe care nimeni nu le nelege n totalitate, foliculii (porii) se blocheaz cateodat. Sebumul care ar trebui sa ajung la suprafaa pielii din glandele sebacee se blocheaz formnd un strat pstos ce nchide parial sau total orificiul de evacuare a secreiei de sebum favoriznd nmulirea bacteriei P.acnes. Acest proces de nceput duce la formarea microcomedonului. A. Acnee comedonian microcomedoanele devin comedoane

1.Puncte albe Cand sebumul i bacteriile blocate total n por rmn la suprafaa pielii se formeaza un punct alb. Punctele albe pot fi de dimensiuni foarte mici, cteodat doar se simt prin piele i nu se vad.

2.Puncte negre Cnd porul parial blocat cu sebum se deschide, acest sebum oxideaz i ia culoarea maro/neagr. Punctele negre persist mult timp pentru c sebumul ajunge la suprafaa pielii foarte ncet.

B. Acnee inflamatoare 1. Acnee papulo pustoloas

a.Papule se dezvolt cnd zidul folicular se rupe. Celulele albe ale sngelui (leucocitele) ajung n folicul i acesta se inflameaz devenind o leziune roie, umflat i sensibil la atingere.

b.Pustule sunt urmarea normal a papulelor, se formeaz cteva zile mai trziu atunci cnd celulele albe migreaz spre suprafaa pielii. Aceste pustule sunt denumite popular couri. O leziune inflamat poate infiltra pielea sanatoas din jurul ei ducnd la: 2.Acnee nodulo chistic

a. Noduli cnd un folicul se rupe spre baza lui, se ntampl s rezulte un nodul mare i inflamat care poate fi dureros la atingere. Nodulii duc de obicei la cicatrici, iar dac sunt netratai pot avea o perioad de dezvoltare de cteva luni. Nu incercai sa scoatei singuri acesti noduli.

b. Chisturi cteodat o inflamare sever poate duce la o pustula foarte mare cu un diametru de peste 5mm (absces chistic), dureroas la atingere. Nu ncercai sa scoatei un chist, zona se va infecta i mai ru i vei rmne cu cicatrici foarte mari. C. Acnee sever

Milia este cateodata denumit acnee cu puncte albe, nsa milia se formeaz cand celulele moarte se blocheaz n pori i este comun nou nascuilor. i adulii pot face milia ns mult mai rar. Feb

Produse destinate ngrijirii pielii i integrarea lor n rutina zilnic


nainte de a construi o rutin zilnic de ngrijire a tenului este neaprat necesar s determinm ce tip de ten avem i care sunt problemele pe care vrem s le rezolvm. O dat ce v-ai construit o rutin potrivit tenului i afeciunilor lui este necesar s o urmai zilnic pentru rezultate optime. Pielea are nevoie zilnic de curare, exfoliere, protecie solar i hidratare, dar foarte muli dintre noi avem diverse afeciuni, iar rutina fiecruia se construiete n primul rnd nelegnd cum interacioneaz diversele produse ntre ele i asupra pielii, dar mai ales experimentnd pentru a descoperi felul optim de a folosi aceste produse. Nu exist rutin zilnic general valabil i fiecare din voi i va construi o rutin bazat pe nevoile tenului, preferine spre anumite produse, buget, etc. Rutina zilnic a tenului fr afeciuni cutanate ar trebui s arate aa: Dimineaa: curare, tonifiere (opional), hidratare cu SPF. Seara: curare, tonifiere (opional), exfoliere, hidratare. Pornind de la aceast schem putem indroduce orice produs necesar afeciunii noastre (produse antibacteriene, retinoizi, etc) sau orice produs care duce la mbuntirea aspectului tenului nostru (seruri, anti aging, etc). nainte de a folosi diverse produse este necesar s inei cont de urmtoarele reguli, reguli pe care este important s le urmai deoarece ingredientele funcioneaz doar n anumite condiii. n seciunea dedicat tenului am explicat mai multe, aici a vrea s reamintesc doar cteva: - folosirea SPF-ului zilnic este necesar, nu opional, mai ales dac folosii produse tratament care foto-sensibilizeaz pielea. Dac nu folosii SPF este foarte posibil s v descuamai. - exfolianii chimici se aplic pe pielea curat i uscat. - benzoyl peroxide nu are efect asupra pielii dac aplicai un retinoid n acelai moment al zilei. Mai jos am enumerat cteva generaliti caracteristice fiecare tip de produs n parte, v rog s citii articolele dedicate acestora pentru mai multe detalii. Aceste produse se aplic oriunde pe piele, iar aciunea lor este posibil doar dac respectai ntocmai modul n care ele se folosesc i doar dac sunt formulate corect.

Protecia solar zilnic (indiferent de anotimp) i hidratarea corect (dac nu ai citit nc articolul despre hidratarea pielii v rog s l citii) sunt eseniale, fr ele pielea se poate descuama i irita. Produsele pentru curarea pielii: - trebuie s fie solubile n ap i s nu degreseze exagerat pielea; - se folosesc pentru ndeprtarea excesului de sebum i impuritilor acumulate n pori; - se pot folosi i pentru ndeprtarea produselor de make-up; - nu trateaz acneea i nici alte afeciuni; Tonerele: - sunt produse opionale, se folosesc pentru a da pielii un plus de ingrediente benefice sau chiar pentru o hidratare uoar n cazul tenului gras; - un toner este un produs care conine ingrediente benefice tenului (antioxidani, anti iritani, ingrediente skin identical sau ingrediente reparatoare); - un toner care nu conine ingrediente necesare tenului este doar un produs aplicat degeaba pe piele (n cel mai bun caz) , dar de cele mai multe ori ingredientele coninute n acest tip de produs pot fi iritante (ingrediente astringente, alcool, etc); - nu trateaz acneea i alte afeciuni ale pielii; Protecia solar: - este necesar zilnic, indiferent de anotimp, pentru a preveni mbtrnirea i distrugerea celulelor pielii datorate aciunii radicalilor liberi produi de razele ultraviolete la nivelulul pielii; - este important pentru a completa aciunea produselor destinate afeciunilor pielii (exfoliani, skin lightening, anti bacteriente, etc); Hidratarea: - asigur pielii toate ingredientele necesare pentru a o menine sntoas i anume antioxidani, ingrediente cell communicating, ingrediente skin identical, anti-iritani (cu condiia ca produsul hidratant pe care l folosii s le conin); - este foarte important s asigurai o hidratare corect pielii mai ales n cazul n care folosii produse destinate afeciunilor cutanate, acestea sunt iritante prin definiie i pot duce la descuamri. Exfolianii chimici (AHA, BHA, PHA): - se folosesc zilnic pentru a ndeprta excesul de celule moarte de la suprafaa pielii; - mbuntesc structura pielii i stimuleaz producia de colagen i a ceramidelor; - ajut la ameliorarea punctelor negre, pustulelor, petelor; - previn blocarea porilor, prevenind ntr-o anumit msur formarea punctelor negre, apariia pustulelor, dezvoltarea n exces a unor colonii de bacterii, fungi, etc; - aciunea lor duce la o mai mare eficien a altor produse destinate diverselor afeciuni; Produsele antibacteriene (benzoyl peroxide, acid azelaic, etc): - acioneaz omornd bacteriile care se acumuleaz n pori, sunt eficiente ntr-o anumit msur i asupra unor stafilococi, streptococi, etc (i acetia tot bacterii sunt); - se pot folosi zilnic pe pustule sau pe zone mai extinse dac e nevoie; - nu au nici un efect asupra punctelor negre. Produsele skin lightening (hidroquinona, vitamina C, acid kojic, acid azelaic, etc): - sunt produse destinate ameliorrii zonelor hiper pigmentate;

- nu au efect asupra petelor post acneice; - dac nu folosii SPF zilnic aceste produse nu o s aib efectul pe care l dorii, niciodat. - au nevoie de un timp mai lung pentru efecte vizibile, n general acestea apar dup 6-8 sptmni de folosire zilnic; Tretinoizii (Retin-a, Renova, Tazorac, Aveda, etc) i retinoizii (Differin): - sunt produse care pur i simplu spun celulelor pielii s se nasc sntoase; - sunt folosii pentru a trata diverse afeciuni cutanate (acnee, pete, cicatrici post acneice, etc) i chiar pentru a ameliora ridurile; Serurile: - sunt produse suplimentare care, depinznd de ce anume ingrediente conin, pot aduce un aport important de ingrediente benefice pielii; - pot conine diverse forme de retinol i antioxidani pentru a preveni mbtrnirea pielii i a ameliora ridurile; Alte produse destinate ngrijirii pielii: - produsele pentru ndeprtarea machiajului (mai multe articole aici); - de cele mai multe ori, n cazul folosirii mai multor produse cu aciune iritant (anti bacteriene, exfoliani, tretinoizi, etc) pielea are nevoie de hidratare suplimentar i pentru acest lucru putei folosi un ulei sau un mix de uleiuri vegetale; - scrubul (exfolierea mecanic) este benefic atunci cnd dorii s ndeprtai celulele moarte de la suprafaa pielii care sunt descuamate, dar nu sunt desprinse total din matricea intercelulara. Pielea descuamata excesiv trebuie ndeprtat, hidratarea nu este primul ajutor necesar zonelor descuamate; - mtile sunt benefice n multe cazuri, citii articolul dedicat si de asemenea articolul Masca cu aspirin; - compresele sterile mbibate ntr-un ceai cu aciuni antioxidante i anti iritante sunt benefice n cazul pielii iritate, roii i/sau a pustulelor de orice fel; un ceai concentrat de museel, ceai verde i dou aspirine netamponate dizolvate complet aduce un aport de ingrediente pielii. Atenie: asigurai-va c nu suntei alergici la museel i aspirina. - soluiile micelare citii v rog articolul dedicat; - alte produse. Produse suplimentare destinate afeciunilor cutanate: - orice medicament cu aplicare cutanata poate fi folosit n rutin zilnic, este nevoie s respectai instruciunile date de medicul ce v-a prescris medicamentul, ns regulile de mai sus rmn valabile; - indiferent dac un medic v spune sau nu, s nu uitai de protecia solar zilnic i de hidratare corespunztoare (hidratare nu nseamn emolieni); - Isotrexinul conine un antibiotic (eritromicin) i un isotretinoid, el este medicament; - aceste produse ar trebui introduse n rutina zilnic doar dup o analiz cutanat, nu v hazardai s ncercai produse doar pentru c afeciunea voastr seamn cu cea descris n prospect sau cu a altuia care s-a tratat cu ele; - de asemenea v ncurajez s citii prospectele medicamentelor nainte de a le folosi, oricare ar fi ele. Exist mult mai multe denumiri date produselor de ngrijire a pielii, dar n principiu acestea sunt cele mai uzuale. n cosmetic ingredientele sunt cele importante, nu denumirile pompoase sau compania productoare. De aceea indiferent de cte produse aplicai unul peste altul i de ct de

scumpe sunt ele, dac nu au ingredientele necesare pielii i afeciunii voastre le aplicai DEGEABA (n cel mai bun caz). Bineneles c nu toate produsele bine formulate sunt potrivite pielii voastre, de aceea doar experiena cu un anume produs duce la rspunsul ntrebrii: Este acest produs benefic pielii mele? n cazul n care folosii produse bine formulate i le folosii ntr-o rutin corect ansele c produsul s fie benefic pielii voastre sunt foarte mari. De asemenea este important s avei ateptri realiste de la produsele pe care le folosii i s nelegei c pielea are nevoie de timp pentru a-i ameliora aspectul. Uitai-v n oglind cu atenie la pielea de pe ten i corp. Ce vedei (i bun i ru) este ntr-o mare msur datorat rezultatului tuturor produselor i procedurilor ce le-ai folosit pn acum. n alt msur aspectul pielii voastre se datoreaz tuturor informaiilor pe care le avei pn acum despre piele i ngrijirea ei i mai ales atitudinii voastre fa de diversele probleme ale pielii. Construirea unei rutine se face cu rbdare i poate dura mai multe sptmni. Din experien am nvat c introducerea produselor noi n rutina zilnica produsele noi se face treptat pentru a da timp pielii s accepte ingredientele (exist cazuri n care pielea nu accept anumite ingrediente). Repet, produsele destinate afeciunilor cutanate sunt iritante, iar pielea le accept sau nu, de aceea este important s ncepei aplicarea unui nou produs o dat la cteva zile, depinznd de ct de iritant este acesta. Atenie: s nu confundai un toner iritant cu alcool care distruge celulele pielii cu un produs gen Retin-A care este iritant iniial, dar ajut pielea s fie mai sntoasi Doar dup ce tenul a acceptat un produs putei introduce n rutin urmatorul produs. tiu c procesul este mai lung, dar pentru mine este mai important ca pielea s sufere ct mai puin, timp avei oricum. S presupunem c dorii o schema de tratament care s amelioreze i previn punctele negre, pustulele rare, pete i cicatrici post acneice. Avei nevoie de curare, spf, hidratare, exfoliani, retinoizi i produse antibacteriene. Opional putei folosi produse suplimentare. Rutina zilnic se construiete n funcie de cum reacioneaz tenul la aceste produse i de preferinele de aplicare specifice fiecruia dintre voi. Un exemplu de rutin ar putea fi urmtoarea: Dimineaa: curarea tenului, aplicare produs antibacterian pe pustule, hidratare cu SPF; Seara: o seara curarea ten, exfoliere, hidratare, urmtoarea sear curare ten, produs ce conine tretinoizi sau retinoizi n concentraie mai mare, hidratare. Sptmna 1: se aplic produsul antibacterian o dat la dou zile, seara. Sptmna 2: se aplic produsul antibacterian dimineaa o dat la dou zile i se aplic exfoliantul seara, o dat la 2, 3 zile; Sptmna 3: se aplic produsul antibacterian n fiecare diminea, se aplic exfoliantul de 3 ori pe sptmna i tretinoidul doar o dat; Sptmna 4: se aplic produsul antibacterian n fiecare diminea; se aplic de 3 ori exfoliant i de dou ori tretinoid; Sptmna 5: se aplic produsul antibacterian n fiecare diminea; se aplic o sear exfoliant i o sear tretinoid.

O alta variant de introducere a produselor n rutina, pentru a ajunge la rutina de mai sus: Sptmna 1: se aplic produsul antibacterian o dat la dou zile, seara. Sptmna 2: se aplic produsul antibacterian seara o dat la dou zile i se aplic exfoliantul seara, n zilele n care nu se aplic produsul antibacterian; Sptmna 3: se aplic produsul antibacterian n fiecare diminea, se aplic exfoliantul de 3 ori pe sptmna i tretinoidul doar o dat; Sptmna 4: se aplic produsul antibacterian n fiecare diminea; se aplic de 3 ori exfoliant i de dou ori tretinoid; Sptmna 5: se aplic produsul antibacterian n fiecare diminea; se aplic o sear exfoliant i o sear tretinoid. n acest moment pielea cunoate ingredientele pe care i le dai i tie la ce s se atepte, iritaia este minim i aspectul pielii este vizibil mai bun. Dac oricare din produsele de mai sus nu este acceptat de piele putei rri aplicarea lui atta timp ct este totui integrat n rutin cu o aplicare de cel putin 3 ori pe sptmn. Putei da mai mult timp pielii s accepte produsele sau mai puin, depinde foarte mult de cum reacioneaz pielea voastr. Dac totui pielea nu accept un produs va trebui s renunai la el. Dac v iritai v sunt de folos compresele cu ceaiuri anti iritante sau orice ingrediente anti iritante. Dac v descuamai v este de folos scrub-ul. Descuamarea este un efect advers care v avertizeaz c avei nevoie de mai mult hidratare, protecie solar sau pur i simplu de o folosire mai rar a produselor tratament iritante (vorbesc despre descuamarea datorat doar produselor formulate corect si utilizate corect). Tenul sensibil are nevoie de un timp mai ndelungat de acceptare a acestor ingrediente, rbdarea este foarte important alturi de consecven. Tenul care nu este sensibil se poate adapta la o astfel de rutin n 2,3 sptmni. Aplicarea produselor dimineaa sau seara ine doar de preferina voastr i de indicaiile de aplicare ale fiecrui produs n parte. De exemplu putei aplica exfolianii de dou ori pe zi, benzoyl peroxide dimineaa i retinoizii seara. Treptat putei aduga orice alt produs dorii i de asemenea putei renuna la produse care nu v mai sunt de folos. Dac nu avei pustule nu trebuie s folosii produse antibacteriene (un exemplu). Atenie! Nu folosii dou ingrediente tratament din aceei categorie aplicate unul peste cellalt. Daca folosii benzoyl peroxide nu trebuie s folosii i acid azelaic n acelasi timp, dar putei alege s folositi ambele ingrediente aplicate unul seara i cellalt dimineaa (doar dac pielea nu se irit). Acelai lucru este valabil pentru aproape toate ingredientele folosite n tratamentul afeciunilor tenului. Nu folosii tretinoizi pe piele dac urmai un tratament cu Roaccutane (in articolul dedicat am scris despre alte ingrediene ce nu pot fi aplicate pe piele). AHA i BHA pot fi aplicate simultan cu condiia ca pielea s nu se irite. Sunt multe creme care le conin pe ambele, dar n cele mai multe cazuri concentraiile acizilor sunt destul de mici, produsele nu sunt iritante. Eu am ncercat AHA 8% aplicat peste BHA 2% fr iritaii.

n afar de toate aceste produse destinate ngrijirii pielii i tratrii afeciunilor cutanate singurul ingredient de care avei nevoie este ncrederea n voi i n efectele rutinei voastre. Este de altfel i cel mai important.