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DATA NETWORKING : INTRODUCTION & PHYSICAL LAYER

Dr. Nawaporn Wisitpongphan Email: nawapornn@kmutnb.ac.th

WHAT WILL WE STUDY???

Sender/Receiver Components Transmission Media


Telephone/Cable Line Wireless link Satellite link

Data:

Compression/Protection/Transmission Technique

Coding FEC (Forward Error Correction) Modulation/Demodulation

Protocol:

MAC (Medium Access Control) Routing Protocol Transport Protocol (TCP/ UDP) NS-2 CISCO Packet Tracer
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Research in Data Networking:


TOOL

CLASS SCHEDULE
Week Wk1 Jun 13 Wk2 Jun 20

Topics
Intro + Physical Layer Data Link Layer: Error Control/ Flow Control

Note
Q: Physical L

Wk3 Jun 27
Wk4 Jul 4 Wk5 Jul 11 Wk6 Jul 18

Data Link Layer: MAC Protocols


Network Layer: IP Addressing Survey of MAC Protocols IP Addressing + Subnet

NS-2 Project
Q: Data Link L Presentation

Jul 29 29-4
Wk8 Aug 8 Wk9 Aug 15 Wk10 Aug 22

Midterm

Packet Tracer/LAB: Subnet


Network Layer: Routing Algorithm Network Layer: Routing Protocol NS-2 Progress Q: Routing Alg.

Wk11 Aug 29
Wk12 Sep 5 Wk13 Sep 12 Wk14 Sep 19 Sep 24 Oct 4

Packet Tracer/LAB: Router Configuration


Transport Layer: UDP vs. TCP Application Layer Packet Tracer: Exam Final Q: UDP vs. TCP

NS-2 Report

GRADING:

Final Exam. Mid-term Exam. Report/Homework Class Participation

30% 30% 30% 10%

REFERENCE & OFFICE HOUR


Reference

Office Hour

Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach Featuring the Internet 3rd edition, James F. Kurose & Keith W. Ross, Addison Wesley Computer Network 3rd edition, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Prentice Hall Computer Network: A System Approach 2nd edition, Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie, Morgan Kaufmann CISCO online material http://cisco.netacad.net/

Thursday: 5-6 pm By Appointment

nawapornn@kmutnb.ac.th

2-IN-1 LECTURE: ---- THE OUTLINE --

Intro
Transmission Techniques Telecommunication Data Networking

OSI Layers Physical Layer

Sampling Quantization Modulation Transmission Media


Supplemental Reading: CCNA 1 Chapter 8


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WHAT IS TELECOMMUNICATION?
Systems

used in transmitting messages over a long distance


Voice Communication AM/FM Radio WALKY TALKY Telephone/Cell phone
Transmission Direction Simplex Half-Duplex Full-Duplex
Notice any differences?

SIMPLEX TRANSMISSION

Dedicated

Sender Dedicated Receiver Example

AM/FM Radio
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HALF-DUPLEX TRANSMISSION

Each network entity can send and receive One direction at a time

Either send or receive

Example

Walky-Talky
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FULL-DUPLEX TRANSMISSION

Network entity can both send/receive simultaneously Both direction at a time Example

Telephone / Cellphone
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WHAT IS TELECOMMUNICATION?
Systems used in transmitting messages over a long distance Voice Communication

AM/FM Radio WALKY TALKY TELEPHONE CELLPHONE

Transmission Direction Simplex Half-Duplex Full-Duplex

Data Communication

PAGER FAX E-MAIL

Transmission Media/Network
Wireless/Cellular Network Twisted-Pair /Telephone Network Both/ Computer Network

Multimedia Communication (Voice/Data)

TELECONFERENCE

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COMMUNICATION COMPONENTS
Sender:

Transmitting Device transmitting data to the destinations Receiver Device receives transmitted data Voice, Messages, Image, etc. Means by which a communications signal is carried from one system to another, i.e., twisted pair wires, fiber optic, air,
Rules determining the format and transmission of data
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Receiver:

Data:

Media:

Protocol:

COMMUNICATION COMPONENTS
Sender Receiver

Protocol

Media Data

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LAYERING: THE OSI MODEL


layer-to-layer communication
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Application

Application

7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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Presentation Session Transport Network Link Physical


Router

Presentation Session Peer-layer communication


Router

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4 3 2 1

Transport Network Link Physical

Network Link Physical

Network Link Physical

OSI 7- LAYER MODEL I

Physical Layer

The physical devices Media Representation of Data (Bits) Message Framing Error Control Media Access Control Flow Control Addressing and Routing decision

7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4. Transport

Data Link Layer


3. Network
2 Data Link 1. Physical

Network Layer

Transport Layer

End-to-End flow and congestion control

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OSI 7-LAYER MODEL II

Session Layer

Initiate, maintain, and terminate logical session between sender/receiver

7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4. Transport

Presentation Layer

Format data from user for transmission Format data received for user Provide data interfaces, compression, translation between different data formats Application Programming Interface (API)

3. Network
2 Data Link 1. Physical

Application Layer

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INTERNET 5-LAYER MODEL


Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer

5 Application
Same as in OSI Model 4. Transport 3. Network 2 Data Link

Application Layer

1. Physical

All functions between transport layer and the application program

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PHYSICAL LAYER : OVERVIEW

Formatting and transmission of baseband signals

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From: Digital Communicatoins Fundamental and Applications by Bernard Sklar

ANALOG TO DIGITAL

Formatting and transmission of baseband signals 19


From: Digital Communicatoins Fundamental and Applications by Bernard Sklar

TEXT TO BINARY (TEXTBITS)

ASCII Code: Seven-bit American standard code for information interchange 20


From: Digital Communicatoins Fundamental and Applications by Bernard Sklar

GROUP OF BITS SYMBOL

A group of k bits can be combined to form M symbols such that

M = 2k

The symbol set of size M is called M-ary system

Example: k = 1 2-ary system or binary system

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THINK IN A BINARY FORM

Message

bit

Symbol

Waveform 22

SAMPLING & QUANTIZING

Amplitude and time coordinates of source data. (a) Original analog waveform. (b) Natural-sampled data. (c) Quantized samples. (d) Sample and hold.

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SAMPLE

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Undersampling

SAMPLING THEOREM

More samples allow for better signal recovery

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SAMPLING THEOREM: EXAMPLE

Audio (MP3)

32 kbps AM Quality 96 kbps FM Quality 128 kbps Standard Quality 224 320 kbps Near CD quality
800 bps Recognizable speech 8 kbps Telephone quality 16 kbps videophone quality (General) 128 384 kbps vdo conferencing (Business) 1.25 Mbps VCD quality 5 Mbps DVD quality 8 15 Mbps HDTV quality 29.4 Mbps HD DVD 40 Mbps Blu-ray Disc

Audio

Video

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NYQUIST THEOREM
Sampling rate?

Nyquist Sampling Theorem: an analog signal that has been


sampled can be perfectly reconstructed from the samples if the sampling rate exceeds 2B samples per second, where B is the highest frequency in the original signal.

Nyquist Capacity: Given a channel with bandwidth B, a signal


through this channel can have max symbol Rate Dmax < 2B (symbols/sec)

Rmax = Dmax* log2M Rmax < 2B* log2M Rmax is called the channel capacity

1 symbol = log2M bits

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QUANTIZE

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SAMPLING QUANTIZING

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LETS PUT THINGS TO THE PERSPECTIVE

Voice: 4 KHz

requires 8000 sample per second

Quantization: Sample encoded by 7 bit number

8000 samples/sec of 7 bits each


56kbps data stream

Color TV channel: about 5 MHz analog data


106 samples/sec, each encoded 10 bits: 100 Mbps data stream


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ENCODE (LINE CODING)

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NON-RETURN TO ZERO (NRZ)


1 high signal; 0 low signal Or some books say 1 low signal; 0 high signal.
Does not posses any clocking component for ease of synchronization. Is not Transparent. Long string of zeros causes loss of synchronization.

NRZ (non-return to zero)

Clock
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NON-RETURN TO ZERO INVERTED (NRZI)

1 make transition; 0 stay at the same level Can recover from the long string of 1s but not long string of 0s
0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0

NRZI (non-return to zero inverted) Clock


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MANCHESTER

bOr some books say 1 low-to-high transition; 0 high-to-low transition


1 high-to-low transition; 0 low-to-high transition

Solve Clock skew problem Disadvantages


signal transition rate doubled Because of the greater number of transitions it occupies a significantly large bandwidth. Efficiency = 50%

Manchester

Clock

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4-BIT/5-BIT (100MB/S ETHERNET)

Goal: address inefficiency of Manchester encoding, while avoiding long periods of low signals Solution:

Use 5 bits to encode every sequence of four bits such that no 5 bit code has more than one leading 0 and two trailing 0s Use NRZI to encode the 5 bit codes Efficiency is 80%
4-bit 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 5-bit 11110 01001 10100 10101 01010 01011 01110 01111 4-bit 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 5-bit 10010 10011 10110 10111 11010 11011 11100 11101
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OTHER WAYS OF ENCODING

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HOMEWORK!!!
1.

Convert 100100011 using the following codes:


a) b) c)

NRZ NRZI Manchester

2.

Explain how each of these codes work and convert the bit stream in problem 1
a) b) c)

Bipolar or AMI Pseudoternary Differential Manchester


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HOMEWORK

3. Consider the BMC code in the figure: a) Explain how BMC code work? b) Is the BMC code given in Figure 2 a good or bad code? Why? c) Convert string 100100011 using BMC code.

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WORKSHEET PROBLEM 1
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1

Bipolar

Pseudoternary

0 0 0

NRZI

NRZ

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Clock

WORKSHEET PROBLEM 2
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1

BMC

Manchester

Differential Manchester

Clock

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MODULATING

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ANALOG ENCODING OF DIGITAL DATA: MODULATION

modulates a carrier signal A*sin(2pfct +f ) =

ASK change A FSK changes f PSK change f

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BPSK BINARY PHASE SHIFT KEYING

Constellation Diagram

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QPSK- QUADRATURE PHASE-SHIFT


KEYING

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QPSK SYSTEMS: SENDER/ RECEIVER

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8-PSK

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16 QAM

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DATA CARRYING CAPACITY: BANDWIDTH


Measure the amount of information that can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time Depend on

Properties of the physical media Technology chosen for signaling and detecting network signals

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DATA CARRYING CAPACITY THROUGHPUT VS. GOODPUT

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TRANSMISSION MEDIA

Transmission Media

Guided (wired)
Twisted Pair Cable Coaxial Cable Fiber Optic Cable

Unguided (wireless)

AIR

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ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

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GUIDED TRANSMISSION MEDIA


Twisted Pair Coaxial cable Optical fiber

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TWISTED PAIR - APPLICATIONS


Most common medium Telephone network

Between house and local exchange (subscriber loop) To private branch exchange (PBX) 10Mbps or 100Mbps

Within buildings

For local area networks (LAN)

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TWISTED PAIR - TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS

Analog

Amplifiers every 5km to 6km

Digital
Use either analog or digital signals repeater every 2km or 3km

Limited distance Limited bandwidth (250MHz) Limited data rate (1000Mbps) Susceptible to interference and noise

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NOISES & NEAR END CROSSTALK


Coupling of signal from one pair to another Coupling takes place when transmit signal entering the link couples back to receiving pair, i.e. near transmitted signal is picked up by near receiving pair

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UNSHIELDED AND SHIELDED TP

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)


Ordinary telephone wire Cheapest Easiest to install Suffers from external EM interference

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)


Metal braid or sheathing that reduces interference More expensive Harder to handle (thick, heavy)

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UTP CATEGORIES

Cat 3

Cat 4 Cat 5

up to 16MHz Data Rate up to 10 Mbps Voice grade found in most offices Twist length of 7.5 cm to 10 cm up to 20 MHz Used for 10BaseT, 100BaseT networks
up to 100MHz Used for 10BaseT, 100BaseT, and 1000BaseT networks Commonly pre-installed in new office buildings Twist length 0.6 cm to 0.85 cm Bandwidth = 250MHz

Cat 6

Bandwidth = 500 MHz

Distance ~ 100 m and use in 10BaseT-1000BaseT networks


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Distance ~ 55 m and normally use for10GBaseT networks

STRAIGHT-THROUGH, CROSSOVER,
ROLLOVER

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COAXIAL CABLE

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COAXIAL CABLE APPLICATIONS


Most versatile medium Television distribution

Ariel to TV Cable TV

Long distance telephone transmission


Can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously Being replaced by fiber optic

Short distance computer systems links Local area networks

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COAXIAL CABLE - TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS

Analog
Amplifiers every few km Closer if higher frequency Up to 500MHz

Digital
Repeater every 1km Closer for higher data rates

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COAXIAL CABLE CONNECTORS:

BNC BAREL Connector : extends the cable

BNC Terminator :

BNC T-Connector : connects the cable to the LAN card

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OPTICAL FIBER

Made up of The core: carries the light pulses The cladding: reflects the light pulses back into the core) The buffer coating: protects the core and cladding from moisture, damage, etc.

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OPTICAL FIBER - TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS

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OPTICAL FIBER BENEFITS & APPLICATIONS


Benefits

Applications

Greater capacity

Data rates of hundreds of Gbps

Smaller size & weight Lower attenuation Electromagnetic isolation Greater repeater spacing

Long-haul trunks Metropolitan trunks Rural exchange trunks Subscriber loops LANs

10s of km at least

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WHAT TYPE OF CABLE IS THIS?

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Twisted

Pair Cable 10BaseT (10 Mbps) 100 BaseT (100 Mbps)

RJ45

Cannot be connect for more than 100 meters

WHICH ONE IS 10BASE2 ? WHICH ONE IS 10BASE5 ?

Thinnet

Thicknet
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Coaxial Cable used in Bus Network 10 = 10Mbps 2 = 200 meters 5 = 500 meters

WIRELESS PROPAGATION

Signal travels along three routes

Ground wave
Follows contour of earth Up to 2MHz AM radio

Sky wave
Amateur radio, BBC world service, Voice of America Signal reflected from ionosphere layer of upper atmosphere (Actually refracted)

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LINE OF SIGHT PROPAGATION

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UNGUIDED MEDIA: TERRESTRIAL MICROWAVE

Characteristics

Parabolic dish as transmitting/receiving devices Operate at low GHz band (4-6 GHz and 21-23 GHz) Focused beam (narrow and highly directional) Line of sight (Transmitter and Receivers must be adjusted carefully so that they are aligned) Susceptible to atmospheric interference Vulnerable to eavesdropping so often the signal is encrypted. Long haul telecommunications (Telephone Relay Tower)
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Usage:

SATELLITE MICROWAVE

Characteristics:
Satellite is relay station Satellite receives on one frequency, amplifies or repeats signal and transmits on another frequency Requires geo-stationary orbit

Height of 35,784km (22,300 mi)

Usage
Television Long distance telephone Private business networks

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SATELLITE POINT TO POINT LINK

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SATELLITE BROADCAST LINK

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BROADCAST RADIO

Characteristics:

Omnidirectional Line of sight Transmission Suffers from multipath interference Reflections

Usages:
AM/FM radio UHF and VHF television

UHF (300 MHz and 3 GHz ) VHF (30 MHz to 300 MHz)

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INFRARED

Characteristics:
Modulate noncoherent infrared light Line of sight (or reflection) Can be blocked by walls

Usages:

TV remote control, IRD port

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